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book report typer Centre for Profile Image Gallery Academic Success. A report is Friendly Letter Example, a systematic, well organised document which defines and Gallery - Hcpr analyses a subject or problem, and Counselor Example. Counseling which may include: the record of Profile Pdf Sample Image, a sequence of Resume Sample Resume Resume, events. interpretation of the significance of these events or facts. Profile Pdf Sample! evaluation of the Outline Essay Template 05 37 Outstanding facts or results of research presented. discussion of the Pdf Sample Image Gallery outcomes of Creative Planning & Ideas, a decision or course of action. Company Pdf Sample Gallery! Reports must always be: Various courses require you to Printable To Print, write reports (as opposed to Company Profile Pdf Sample - Hcpr, essays), notably business and scientific or technical subjects. There are, however, different interpretations of what a report should look like, so it is Mining Examples, important that you check with your course tutors and Company Image - Hcpr course documentation as to Friendly Format Example, the report format and content expected. Company Profile - Hcpr! In addition, there is at times some blurring between what “essays”, “reports” and “assignments” are, so again check within your department.

Much of the Printable Agreement. Rental Forms | Free advice given in Guide 1.01, How to write an essay, also applies to Pdf Sample, reports. Examples! Always analyse your brief carefully, making sure that you fully understand the Company Profile Pdf Sample Image topic, question or case, that you know what the purpose of the report is, and who it is being written for. The clearer these things are in Market Analysis Global Network Payment Services, your mind, the Company Profile Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr easier the report will be to write and 37 Best Creative Images On Pinterest the more effective it will be. When you are researching, planning and Company Profile Gallery eventually writing, continually ask yourself what the main purpose of the report is, what your objective is in writing it: is it to inform; to argue; to Counselor Resume Counseling Resume Cv Cover, persuade; to Company - Hcpr, evaluate? What does your reader want to see in the report and what will they do with it? You first need to Mining Resume, decide your basic framework. With your main topic or question as a central focus, jot down your initial thoughts and start to group these together. You may find the Mind Mapping technique useful: see Guide 2.11. Profile - Hcpr! Start to Printable Rental Forms To Print, divide key ideas from subsidiary information, and Profile Gallery continually ask yourself if everything is relevant; if it isn’t, then delete it. 37 Best Creative Business & Ideas On Pinterest! From your prior knowledge (from reading and Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery lectures), you should be able to Resume | Printable Cv For Impact, put together a fairly basic structure.

You will now be able to Company Profile Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr, plan your research. Ask yourself what you need to Printable Free Rental To Print | Free, find out, maybe in the form of questions that need to be answered, then approach your reading from Company Image Gallery - Hcpr this starting point. Market Global Network Services Market! If you have specific information to Company Pdf Sample - Hcpr, look for, it will make your reading easier and Counselor Example. Counseling Cv Cover less time consuming. (See Guide 2.02 Reading techniques). Profile Gallery - Hcpr! Try not to gather too much information. Outline Template. Essay Outline 05 37 Outstanding Essay! Again, keeping your topic or question in mind, reject anything which is not 100% relevant. Pdf Sample! When you’re making notes, always try to summarise the | Printable Cv main points as concisely as possible. Remember to make a comprehensive record of any sources consulted in Company Gallery, order to be able to correctly reference these.

Make a record of the Template | Printable Word Impact research methods you used. Unlike essays, reports are written in sections with headings and Company Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr sub-headings, which are usually numbered. Below are the possible components of a report, in the order in which they would appear. 10 Of — Warwickshire! Check within your department which of these you should include. This should normally include the Company Profile Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr title, your name and Images the name of the Profile tutor to whom it is being submitted, date of submission, your course/department, and if applicable, the name of the person and/or organisation who has commissioned the report. Examples! Avoid “fancy” fonts and - Hcpr effects and | Printable Impact Cv don’t include any clipart. Acknowledgements (usually just in long reports) A list of Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr, people and Friendly Format organisations both within and outside Birmingham City University who have helped you. Gallery - Hcpr! Contents page (always included in reports of Counselor Resume, 4+ pages) A clear, well-formatted list of all the Pdf Sample Image Gallery sections and Friendly Letter Format Example sub-sections of the report. Don’t forget to put the Company Profile Pdf Sample - Hcpr page numbers! If applicable, there should be a separate list of tables, figures, illustrations and/or appendices after the main index.

Make sure that the headings in Market Analysis Network Payment Services, this list correspond exactly with those in your main body. It is best to do your list of contents right at Company Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr, the end. 10 Of The Best Templates For Designers! Terms of reference (sometimes included) A definition of the task; your specific objective and purpose of writing. Even if you don't include this as a heading, it is Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr, a vital process to go through in your planning. If it is group work, who exactly is responsible for what? How long have you got? What is your task timescale? Why are you writing the Counselor Example. Counseling Resume report?

What exactly are the assessment criteria? Who are you writing the report for? Are you actually playing a role? What does your reader want to see? Procedure (sometimes included) How your research was carried out; how the information was gathered. Materials and Company Pdf Sample Image Gallery methods (included if applicable) Similar to Letter Format Example, procedure, but more appropriate to scientific or engineering report writing. Profile Gallery - Hcpr! The following advice comes from 10 Of The Best Brochure — Warwickshire Robert Barrass' book Scientists Must Write (Chapman Hall,1978:135-136): Summary (usually included in longer reports; may be called Executive Summary, Abstract or Synopsis) This is Company Profile Pdf Sample Gallery, a very brief outline of the 10 Of Brochure Templates For Designers — Warwickshire report to Company Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr, give the potential reader a general idea of For Word | Printable Cv For Word | High, what it’s about. Company - Hcpr! A statement of: method/procedure used (unless included in 10 Of The Best, separate section) main conclusions and recommendations.

Introduction (always included) This should show that you have fully understood the task/brief and that you are going to Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr, cover everything required. Indicate the basic structure of the report. You should include just a little background/context and indicate the Outline Essay Outline Template 05 37 Outstanding Essay reasons for Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery writing the report. You may include your terms of reference and procedure/research methods if not covered elsewhere. Your introduction will often give an indication of the conclusion to Outline Template. Essay Outline Template 05 37 Outstanding Essay, the report. Main body/findings (always included) This is the substance of Profile Gallery - Hcpr, your report. The structure will vary according to the nature of the material being presented, with headings and sub-headings used to clearly indicate the The Best For Designers different sections (unlike an essay). A situationproblemsolutionevaluation approach may be appropriate.

It is Company Pdf Sample Image Gallery, not sufficient to Friendly, simply describe a situation. Profile Gallery - Hcpr! Your tutor will be looking for Business & Ideas Images analysis and for a critical approach, when appropriate. Charts, diagrams and Company Gallery tables can be used to Brochure For Designers, reinforce your arguments, although sometimes it may be better to include these as an appendix (particularly if they are long or complicated). Do not include opinions, conclusions or recommendations in this section. Results (possibly included in Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery, scientific/engineering reports) This section records your observations (in the Analysis Global Services Market past tense) and would normally include statistics, tables or graphs.

Your conclusion should draw out the Company Profile Image implications of Market Analysis 2017 Network Payment, your findings, with deductions based on the facts described in your main body. Don’t include any new material here. Recommendations (sometimes included) These should follow on logically from Pdf Sample - Hcpr your conclusion and be specific, measurable and Outline Essay Template 05 37 Essay achievable. They should propose how the situation/problem could be improved by Company Profile Pdf Sample - Hcpr suggesting action to be taken. A “statement of Cv Cover, cost” should be included if you are recommending changes that have financial implications. Profile Pdf Sample - Hcpr! Recommendations can be numbered if you wish. Template For Word Word Impact! Appendices (sometimes included) An appendix (plural=appendices) is Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr, detailed documentation of Brochure Templates For Designers — Warwickshire, points you outline in your findings, for example, technical data, questionnaires, letters sent, tables, sketches, charts, leaflets etc. It is supplementary information which you consider to Company Pdf Sample Image, be too long or complicated or not quite relevant enough to Printable Free Rental Forms And, include in your main body, but which still should be of Company Profile Gallery - Hcpr, interest to your reader. 37 Best Creative Business & Ideas Images On Pinterest! Each appendix should be referred to Image, in your text.

You should not include something as an Network Payment Market, appendix if it is not discussed in the main body. This is a list giving the Profile Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr full details of 37 Best Business, all the sources to which you have made reference within your text. Company Profile Image! By far the Cv For Cv most common method in use at Profile - Hcpr, Birmingham City University is the Harvard method. Bibliography (sometimes included) This is either a separate list of Market Analysis 2017 Global Network Services Market, sources which you have used during your research, but have not actually made reference to in your writing, or this list together with your list of references. Check in - Hcpr, your department what you are expected to use. Glossary (occasionally included) Include a glossary if the Letter Format report includes a lot of specialised vocabulary or acronyms which may not be familiar to Profile Image, the reader. & Ideas On Pinterest! Always use clear and concise English, avoiding jargon and colloquial language. Company Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery! Write in Friendly Letter Format, fairly short sentences. Make sure you develop each paragraph sufficiently (usually a minimum of 5/6 sentences). Most of your report should be impersonal, although it may be appropriate in your conclusion or recommendations to include more personal language.

Be extra careful with verb tenses. Grammar, spelling and punctuation. Links to further resources on writing reports. Company Image Gallery! Last updated: 4 January 2011. Market Analysis Network Services! Centre for Academic Success.

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International standard paper sizes. Standard paper sizes like ISO A4 are widely used all over the world today. This text explains the Profile Image, ISO 216 paper size system and the ideas behind its design. In the ISO paper size system, the height-to-width ratio of all pages is the square root of 10 Of Templates For Designers — Warwickshire two (1.4142 : 1). In other words, the width and the height of a page relate to Pdf Sample Image, each other like the side and the diagonal of 37 Best Planning a square. This aspect ratio is especially convenient for a paper size. Company Profile Image? If you put two such pages next to each other, or equivalently cut one parallel to its shorter side into two equal pieces, then the Market Analysis Network Payment Services, resulting page will have again the same width/height ratio. The ISO paper sizes are based on the metric system.

The square-root-of-two ratio does not permit both the height and width of the pages to be nicely rounded metric lengths. Therefore, the area of the pages has been defined to have round metric values. As paper is usually specified in g/m?, this simplifies calculation of the mass of Company Profile Gallery - Hcpr a document if the format and number of 10 Of Brochure Templates For Designers pages are known. ISO 216 defines the A series of paper sizes based on these simple principles: The height divided by the width of all formats is the square root of two (1.4142). Format A0 has an - Hcpr, area of one square meter. Format A1 is A0 cut into two equal pieces. In other words, the height of A1 is the width of A0 and the width of A1 is half the height of A0. All smaller A series formats are defined in the same way. Brochure Templates For Designers — Warwickshire? If you cut format A n parallel to its shorter side into two equal pieces of paper, these will have format A( n +1). The standardized height and width of the paper formats is Profile Image a rounded number of millimeters.

For applications where the ISO A series does not provide an adequate format, the B series has been introduced to cover a wider range of Template For Word Impact Cv paper sizes. The C series of formats has been defined for envelopes. The width and Company Image height of a B n format are the Outline 05 37, geometric mean between those of the A n and the next larger A( n ?1) format. For instance, B1 is the geometric mean between A1 and A0, that means the Pdf Sample - Hcpr, same magnification factor that scales A1 to B1 also scales B1 to A0. Similarly, the Resume Template | High, formats of the C series are the Company Pdf Sample Image, geometric mean between the A and B series formats with the same number. Planning & Ideas Images On Pinterest? For example, an (unfolded) A4 size letter fits nicely into a C4 envelope, which in turn fits as nicely into a B4 envelope. If you fold this letter once to A5 format, then it will fit nicely into a C5 envelope. B and Profile Pdf Sample Gallery C formats naturally are also square-root-of-two formats. Note: The geometric mean of 37 Best Business & Ideas Images On Pinterest two numbers x and y is the square root of their product, ( xy ) 1/2 , whereas their arithmetic mean is half their sum, ( x + y )/2. Company Pdf Sample? For example, the geometric mean of the numbers 2 and 8 is 4 (because 4/2 = 8/4), whereas their arithmetic mean is 5 (because 5?2 = 8?5). The arithmetic mean is half-way between two numbers by addition, whereas the geometric mean is Template. Essay Outline 05 37 half-way between two numbers by multiplication.

By the way: The Japanese JIS P 0138-61 standard defines the same A series as ISO 216, but a slightly different B series of paper sizes, sometimes called the JIS B or JB series. Company Profile Gallery? JIS B0 has an area of 1.5 m?, such that the area of JIS B pages is the arithmetic mean of the Analysis 2017 Global Payment Services, area of the A series pages with the same and Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr the next higher number, and 10 Of The Best For Designers not as in Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr the ISO B series the geometric mean . For example, JB3 is 364 ? 515, JB4 is 257 ? 364, and JB5 is Template. Essay 182 ? 257 mm. Using the JIS B series should be avoided. It introduces additional magnification factors and is not an international standard. The following table shows the width and Company Image height of all ISO A and B paper formats, as well as the ISO C envelope formats. Resume? The dimensions are in millimeters: The allowed tolerances are ±1.5 mm for Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr, dimensions up to 150 mm, ±2 mm for dimensions above 150 mm up to The Best Brochure — Warwickshire, 600 mm, and ±3 mm for dimensions above 600 mm. Some national equivalents of ISO 216 specify tighter tolerances, for Image, instance DIN 476 requires ±1 mm, ±1.5 mm, and ±2 mm respectively for the same ranges of dimensions. The ISO standard paper size system covers a wide range of Printable Agreement. Free Rental Forms And formats, but not all of them are widely used in practice.

Among all formats, A4 is clearly the Company Profile Gallery, most important one for daily office use. Some main applications of the most popular formats can be summarized as: The main advantage of the ISO standard paper sizes becomes obvious for users of copying machines: You are in a library and want to copy an article out of a journal that has A4 format. Analysis Global Services Market? In order to Image Gallery - Hcpr, save paper, you want copy two journal pages onto each sheet of Examples A4 paper. If you open the journal, the two A4 pages that you will now see together have A3 format.

By setting the magnification factor on the copying machine to 71% (that is sqrt(0.5)), or by pressing the Image Gallery, A3>A4 button that is Brochure Templates For Designers — Warwickshire available on most copying machines, both A4 pages of the journal article together will fill exactly the Profile Image Gallery, A4 page produced by the copying machine. 10 Of Templates For Designers — Warwickshire? One reproduced A4 page will now have A5 format. No wasted paper margins appear, no text has been cut off, and no experiments for finding the appropriate magnification factor are necessary. The same principle works for Company Profile Image Gallery - Hcpr, books in B5 or A5 format. Copying machines designed for ISO paper sizes usually provide special keys for the following frequently needed magnification factors: The magnification factors between all A sizes: Not only the 37 Best Planning Images, operation of Company Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr copying machines in Brochure Templates offices and libraries, but also repro photography, microfilming, and Company Profile Pdf Sample Gallery printing are simplified by the 1:sqrt(2) aspect ratio of ISO paper sizes. If you prepare a letter, you will have to know the weight of the content in order to 37 Best Creative Planning & Ideas, determine the postal fee.

This can be very conveniently calculated with the ISO A series paper sizes. Usual typewriter and Company Profile Image Gallery - Hcpr laser printer paper weighs 80 g/m?. An A0 page has an area of 1 m?, and the next smaller A series page has half of this area. Market Analysis? Therefore, the A4 format has an area of 1/16 m? and Profile Gallery - Hcpr weighs with the common paper quality 5 g per page. If we estimate 20 g for a C4 envelope (including some safety margin), then you will be able to put 16 A4 pages into a letter before you reach the Resume Template For Word | Printable Impact, 100 g limit for the next higher postal fee. Calculation of the mass of - Hcpr books, newspapers, or packed paper is equally trivial. You probably will not need such calculations often, but they nicely show the beauty of the concept of To Print metric paper sizes. Using standard paper sizes saves money and Profile - Hcpr makes life simpler in many applications. For example, if all scientific journals used only ISO formats, then libraries would have to buy only very few different sizes for Templates For Designers — Warwickshire, the binders. Shelves can be designed such that standard formats will fit in exactly without too much wasted shelf volume. The ISO formats are used for surprisingly many things besides office paper: the Profile Gallery, German citizen ID card has format A7, both the European Union and the U.S. (!) passport have format B7, and library microfiches have format A6.

In some countries (e.g., Germany) even many brands of Outline Essay 05 37 Essay toilet paper have format A6. The ISO paper sizes are specified in the standard in a table that states their width and height in millimeters. Following the principles described above, the dimensions could be calculated with the following formulas: However, the actual millimeter dimensions in Image the standard have been calculated instead by using the 2017 Payment Services, above values only at n = 0, and then progressively dividing these values by two to obtain the smaller sizes, each time rounding the result to the next lower integer number of millimeters (floor function). Profile Pdf Sample Image? This rounding to the next lower integer guarantees that two A( n +1) pages together are never larger than an A n page. The following programs demonstrate this algorithm in Outline Template. Outline several programming languages: iso-paper.c – C version – Python version. Sometimes, paper formats with a different aspect ratio are required for labels, tickets, and other purposes. These should preferably be derived by cutting standard series sizes into Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery 3, 4, or 8 equal parts, parallel with the shorter side, such that the ratio between the longer and shorter side is greater than the square root of two. Some example long formats in millimeters are: The 1/3 A4 format (99 ? 210 mm) is also commonly applied for reduced letterheads for Resume Template | Printable Cv For Word Impact, short notes that contain not much more than a one sentence message and fit without folding into Company Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr a DL envelope. For postal purposes, ISO 269 and DIN 678 define the following envelope formats:

The DL format is the most widely used business letter format. For Designers? DL probably originally stood for “DIN lang”, but ISO 269 now explains this abbreviation instead more diplomatically as “Dimension Lengthwise”. Its size falls somewhat out Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr of the system and equipment manufacturers have complained that it is slightly too small for Business & Ideas Images, reliable automatic enveloping. Therefore, DIN 678 introduced the Company Image - Hcpr, C6/C5 format as an alternative for the DL envelope. Window envelopes, A4 letterheads, folding marks and 10 Of The Best Brochure Templates — Warwickshire standard layouts. There exists no international standard yet for Gallery - Hcpr, window envelopes and matching letterhead layouts. There are various incompatible national standards, for example: Germany: DIN 680 specifies that a transparent address window is 90 ? 45 mm large and its left edge should be located 20 mm from the 37 Best Planning & Ideas On Pinterest, left edge of the envelope. For C6, DL, and C6/C5 envelopes, the bottom edge of the window should be 15 mm from the bottom edge of the envelope. For C4 envelopes, the top edge of the window should be either 27 or 45 mm from the top edge of the envelope. The letterhead standard DIN 676 does not specify the actual content or form of a pre-printed letterhead, it only specifies zones for the location of certain elements.

The letterhead format specified in DIN 676 has a 85 ? 45 mm large address field visible through the window, in which the top 5 mm are reserved for printing in a small font the sender’s address and Company Profile Pdf Sample the bottom 40 mm are for writing the recipient’s address. This field starts 20 mm from the left paper edge and 37 Best Business On Pinterest either 27 mm (form A) or 45 mm (form B) from the Pdf Sample, top. The two alternatives allow a choice of either a small (form A) or large (form B) letterhead layout in the area above the address field. Standard folding marks on the letterhead assist users to insert the For Word | High Impact, letter correctly into C6, DL, or C6/C5 window envelopes. There is one folding mark (for C6) on Profile Gallery the top edge of the page, 148 mm from the left edge. There are also two folding marks on the left edge of the page, either 105 and 210 mm from the Resume, bottom edge (form A) or 105 and 210 mm from the top edge (form B). United Kingdom: BS 4264 specifies that the Company Profile Gallery, transparent window on a DL envelope should be 93 ? 39 mm large.

Its top-left corner should be located 20 mm from the left margin and 53 mm from the top margin of the envelope. BS 1808 specifies an 80 ? 30 mm large address panel on the letterhead. Its top-left corner is located 20 mm from the Outline Template. Essay, left margin and 51 mm from the top margin of the page. The address panel is embedded inside a 91 ? 48 mm large exclusion zone whose top left corner is located 20 mm from the Profile Pdf Sample, left margin and 2017 Network Payment Services 42 mm from the top margin of the page. Pdf Sample Image Gallery? In other words, the area 9 mm above and below and 11 mm right of the address panel should be kept clean of any other printing. Switzerland: The envelope window is 100 ? 45 mm large and located 12 mm either from the left or the right edge. Mining Examples? The distance to the top edge is 48 mm (for C6 and C5/C6) or 52 mm (for C5). Company - Hcpr? The SNV 010130 letterhead format places the Outline Template. Essay Template 05 37 Essay, recipient’s address into a 90 ? 40 mm large field 45 mm from the top and 8 mm from the right edge of the Company Profile Image - Hcpr, A4 page. [from: H.R. Bosshard, 1980, ISBN 3-85584-010-5] Finland: SFS 2488:1994 specifies that for Creative On Pinterest, E series envelopes the size of the window is Company Profile Pdf Sample Image 90 ? 30 mm and for Business, the C series 95 ? 35 mm. In either case, the left margin is 18 mm and the top margin 40 mm. SFS 2487:2000 (“Layout of document text area”) and Profile Image Gallery SFS 2486:1999 (“Forms Layout”) specify that the area for the recipient’s address is 76.2 ? 25.4 mm, located 20 mm from the Resume, left, and 10±1 mm plus 25.4 mm from the top (the 25.4 mm are for Company Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery, the sender’s information).

According to ISO 11180 and Universal Postal Union standards, an international postal address should be not longer than 6 lines with up to 30 characters each. This requires a maximum area of 76.2 ? 38.1 mm with the commonly used typewriter character width of 2.54 mm (1/10) and a baseline distance of 6.35 mm (1/4). The Universal Postal Union Letter Post Regulations specify a standard position of the address on the envelope, which is within 140 mm from the right edge, at least 40 mm from the top edge, and is surrounded by at least 15 mm unprinted envelope to the left, right and below of the address text. A widely used international standard A4 document format is the United Nations Layout Key for Trade Documents (ISO 6422). Folding larger pages to A4 for filing. DIN 824 describes a method of folding A0, A1, etc. Agreement. Free Forms To Print | Free And? pages to A4 format for filing.

This clever technique ensures that there remains a 20 mm single-layer margin for Company Pdf Sample Gallery, filing holes, that the 37 Best Creative On Pinterest, page can be unfolded and folded again without being removed from the Company Profile Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr, file, and that the label field at the bottom-left corner of technical drawings ends up in correct orientation on top of the folded page in Resume Template For Word | Printable | High Impact Cv the file. ISO 623 specifies the sizes of Company Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr folders and files intended to receive either A4 sheets or simple folders (without back) that are not designed for any particular filing system or cabinet. Resume Template For Word | Printable Cv For Word Cv? The sizes specified are those of the overall rectangular surface when the folders or files are folded, exclusive any margin or tabs. Simple folders without back or mechanism are 220 ? 315 mm large. Folders and files with a very small back (less than 25 mm) with or without mechanism are 240 ? 320 mm large.

Files with wide back (exceeding 25 mm) are 250 ? 320 mm (without a mechanism) or 290 ? 320 mm if they include a mechanism. All these are maximum dimensions. Profile Image Gallery - Hcpr? Standardizing folder and Resume file sizes helps to Company Image, optimize shelf designs and provides a uniform look and handling even if folders from various manufacturers are used. ISO 838 specifies that, for filing purposes, two holes of Resume Template For Word Word | High Impact 6±0.5 mm diameter can be punched into the sheets. The centers of the two holes are 80±0.5 mm apart and Company Profile Image have a distance of 12±1 mm to the nearest edge of the sheet. The holes are located symmetrically in relation to the axis of the sheet or document. Any format that is at Planning Images On Pinterest least as large as A7 can be filed using this system. Not specified in - Hcpr ISO 838, but also widely used, is an upwards compatible 4-hole system.

Its two middle holes correspond to ISO 838, plus there are two additional holes located 80 mm above and below these to provide for more stability. This way, sheets with four punched holes can also be filed in 37 Best Creative Business On Pinterest ISO 838 2-hole binders. This system is also known under the nickname 888, presumably because the three gaps between the holes are all 8 cm wide. Some hole punches have on their paper guide not only markings for A4, A5, and A6, but also for 888. The latter helps to punch either the top or bottom two holes of the 888 4-hole arrangement into an A4 sheet.

Technical drawing pens follow the same size-ratio principle. The standard sizes differ by a factor sqrt(2): 2.00 mm, 1.40 mm, 1.00 mm, 0.70 mm, 0.50 mm, 0.35 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.18 mm, 0.13 mm. So after drawing with a 0.35 mm pen on A3 paper and Image reducing it to A4, you can continue with the 0.25 mm pen. (ISO 9175-1) There seems to be no international standard yet for ruled writing paper. 37 Best & Ideas Images? The German standards organization has published DIN 16552:1977-04 (“Lines for handwriting”). Company Profile Image? That system is widely used, at 37 Best Business Planning Images least in Germany, by Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr primary school teachers to specify which school exercise books pupils should use at which stage of learning how to write. Writing paper with fine gray 5 mm grid lines seems to Creative On Pinterest, be very popular in Company Image Gallery many countries. All A and B series formats described so far are trimmed paper end sizes, i.e. these are the For Word Cv For | High Cv, dimensions of the Company Profile Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr, paper delivered to the user or reader.

Other ISO standards define the format series RA and SRA for untrimmed raw paper, where SRA stands for “supplementary raw format A” (“sekundares Rohformat A”). These formats are only slightly larger than the corresponding A series formats. Sheets in Printable Forms To Print | Free these formats will be cut to the end format after binding. The ISO RA0 format has an area of 1.05 m? and Company Image Gallery the ISO SRA0 format has an Creative Business Planning & Ideas On Pinterest, area of 1.15 m?. These formats also follow the Company Image Gallery - Hcpr, sqrt(2)-ratio and half-area rule, but the dimensions of the start format have been rounded to Market Analysis Global Market, the full centimeter. The common untrimmed paper formats that printers order from the paper manufacturers are. The RA and SRA dimensions are also used as roll widths in rotating printing presses. When you prepare overhead projector slides for a conference, you might wonder, how large the picture area of the projector that you will have available is. ISO 7943-1 specifies two standard sizes of Company Profile Gallery overhead projector picture areas: Type A is 250 ? 250 mm (corners rounded with a radius less than 60 mm) and Type B is 285 ? 285 mm (corners rounded with a radius less than 40 mm or cut off diagonally no more than 40 mm). Therefore, if you use A4 transparencies, leave at least a 30 mm top and bottom margin. Most computer displays have the same aspect ratio as (traditional) TV sets, namely 4:3 = 640:480 = 800:600 = 1024:768 = 1280:960.

If you prepare presentation slides, I recommend that you arrange your layout inside a 280 ? 210 mm field and make sure that you leave at least 20 mm margin on the left and For Designers — Warwickshire right side. This way, you plan for the aspect ratio of a TV/VGA projector and ensure at the same time that you can print on A4 transparencies such that every standard overhead projector will show all parts of your slides. ISO 7810 specifies three formats for Pdf Sample Image Gallery, identification cards: ID-1 = 85.60 ? 53.98 mm (= 3.370 ? 2.125 in) ID-2 = 105 ? 74 mm (= A7) ID-3 = 125 ? 88 mm (= B7) ID-1 is the common format for banking cards (0.76 mm thick) and is also widely used for business cards and driver’s licences. Some people prefer A8 (74 ? 52 mm) for The Best Brochure Templates — Warwickshire, business cards.

The standard passport format is B7 (= ID-3), the German ID card has A7 (= ID-2) format and the European Union driver’s licence is an ID-1 card. One of the oldest written records regarding the Company Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr, sqrt(2) aspect ratio for paper sizes is a letter that the physics professor Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (University of Outline Essay Outline Template Outstanding Essay Gottingen, Germany, 1742-1799) wrote 1786-10-25 to Johann Beckmann. In it, Lichtenberg explains the practical and aesthetic advantages of the sqrt(2) aspect ratio, and of his discovery that paper with that aspect ratio was commonly available at the time. (There are also suggestions that the task to Profile Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr, find a paper format that is Outline Template Outstanding Essay similar to itself after being cut in Company Image - Hcpr half appeared as a question in mathematics exams as early as 1755.) After introducing the meter measurement, the French government published 1798-11-03 the “Loi sur le timbre” (no. 2136), a law on the taxation of Agreement. To Print paper that defined several formats that already correspond exactly to the modern ISO paper sizes: “Grand registre” = ISO A2, “grand papier” = ISO B3, “moyen papier” = ISO A3, “petit papier” = ISO B4, “demi feuille” = ISO B5, “effets de commerce” = ISO 1/2 B5.

The French format series never became widely known and Image Gallery - Hcpr was quickly forgotten again. Printable | Free And? The A, B, and Company Profile C series paper formats, which are based on the exact same design principles, were completely independently reinvented over a hundred years after the “Loi sur le timbre” in Mining Resume Examples Germany by Dr. Company Profile Image Gallery? Walter Porstmann. They were adopted as the German standard DIN 476 in 1922 as a replacement for Printable Rental Forms And, the vast variety of other paper formats that had been used before, in order to make paper stocking and document reproduction cheaper and more efficient. (For those interested in historic details of the discussions leading to the standard, there are some DIN committee reports, 1918–1923.) Porstmann’s DIN paper-format concept was convincing, and Company - Hcpr soon introduced as a national standard in many other countries, for example, Belgium (1924), Netherlands (1925), Norway (1926), Switzerland (1929), Sweden (1930), Soviet Union (1934), Hungary (1938), Italy (1939), Uruguay (1942), Argentina (1943), Brazil (1943), Spain (1947), Austria (1948), Romania (1949), Japan (1951), Denmark (1953), Czechoslovakia (1953), Israel (1954), Portugal (1954), Yugoslavia (1956), India (1957), Poland (1957), United Kingdom (1959), Venezuela (1962), New Zealand (1963), Iceland (1964), Mexico (1965), South Africa (1966), France (1967), Peru (1967), Turkey (1967), Chile (1968), Greece (1970), Simbabwe (1970), Singapur (1970), Bangladesh (1972), Thailand (1973), Barbados (1973), Australia (1974), Ecuador (1974), Columbia (1975) and Kuwait (1975). It finally became both an international standard (ISO 216) as well as the official United Nations document format in 1975 and it is today used in 10 Of The Best Brochure Templates For Designers — Warwickshire almost all countries on Company Profile Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr this planet, with the Rental To Print, exception of Company Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr North America. In 1977, a large German car manufacturer performed a study of the paper formats found in their incoming mail and Resume Examples concluded that out of Company Profile Gallery 148 examined countries, 88 already used the A series formats then. Printable Free Rental To Print? [Source: Helbig/Hennig 1988] Note: The Lichtenberg Ratio – used by the standard paper format series – is Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr occasionally confused with the Golden Ratio (which Euclid referred to Agreement. Free Forms And, as the “extreme and mean ratio”).

The Lichtenberg Ratio is defined by the equation a/b = 2b/a = sqrt(2), whereas the Image, Golden Ratio is defined by a/b = (a+b)/a = b/(a?b) = (1 + sqrt(5))/2. While aesthetically pleasing properties have been attributed to both, the Lichtenberg Ratio has the advantage of Resume Examples preserving the aspect ratio when cutting a page into two. The Golden Ratio, on the other hand, preserves the Company Gallery - Hcpr, aspect ratio when cutting a maximal square from the paper, a property that seems not particularly useful for For Word | Printable Cv For | High Impact, office applications. The Golden Ratio was for a while a more fashionable topic in the antique and renaissance arts literature and it has a close connection to the Fibonacci sequence in mathematics. Hints for Profile Pdf Sample, North American paper users. The United States, Canada, and in Analysis Payment part Mexico, are today the Company Profile, only industrialized nations in which the ISO standard paper sizes are not yet widely used. Resume? In U.S. office applications, the paper formats “Letter” (216 ? 279 mm), “Legal” (216 ? 356 mm), “Executive” (190 ? 254 mm), and “Ledger/Tabloid” (279 ? 432 mm) are widely used today. Company Image Gallery - Hcpr? There exists also an Outline Template. Essay Essay, American National Standard ANSI/ASME Y14.1 for technical drawing paper sizes A (216 ? 279 mm), B (279 ? 432 mm), C (432 ? 559 mm), D (559 ? 864 mm), E (864 ? 1118 mm), and there are many other unsystematic formats for various applications in use. The “Letter”, “Legal”, “Tabloid”, and other formats (although not these names) are defined in Company Profile Image the American National Standard ANSI X3.151-1987.

While all ISO paper formats have consistently the same aspect ratio of sqrt(2) = 1.414, the U.S. Outline Template. Essay 05 37 Outstanding Essay? format series has two different alternating aspect ratios 17/11 = 1.545 and Company Profile Image - Hcpr 22/17 = 1.294. Therefore, you cannot reduce or magnify from one U.S. format to the next higher or lower without leaving an Printable Agreement. Free To Print | Free And, empty margin, which is rather inconvenient. American National Standard ANSI/ASME Y14.1m-1995 specifies how to use the ISO A0?A4 formats for Company Profile Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr, technical drawings in the U.S. Technical drawings usually have a fixed drawing scale (e.g., 1:100 means that one meter is drawn as one centimeter), therefore it is 37 Best Creative Business Images not easily possible to resize technical drawings between U.S. and standard paper formats. As a result, internationally operating U.S. corporations increasingly find it more convenient to abandon the Image Gallery, old ANSI Y14.1 formats and prepare technical drawings for ISO paper sizes, like the rest of the world does. The historic origins of the 216 ? 279 mm U.S.

Letter format, and in particular its rationale, seem rather obscure. The earliest documented attempts to standardize U.S. paper format used a completely different format. On 1921-03-28, the U.S. Secretary of Template. Essay Outline Template 05 37 Essay Commerce (Hoover) declared a 203 ? 267 mm format to be the Company Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr, standard for his department, which was adopted on 1921-09-14 by the Permanent Conference on Printing (established by General Dawes, first director of the Bureau of the Budget) as the general U.S. government letterhead standard. Independent of that, on 37 Best Business & Ideas On Pinterest 1921-08-30 a Committee on the Simplification of Paper Sizes consisting of printing industry representatives was appointed to work with the Bureau of Standards. Profile Image - Hcpr? It recommended standard basic sizes of 432 ? 559 mm (17 ? 22 in), 432 ? 711 mm (17 ? 28 in), 483 ? 610 mm (19 ? 24 in), 559 ? 864 mm (22 ? 34 in), 711 ? 864 mm (28 ? 34 in), and 610 ? 914 mm (24 ? 36 in). What became later known as the U.S. Letter format is 10 Of The Best Brochure Templates just the first of these basic sizes halved. One hypothesis for the origin of this format series is Company Profile Image Gallery - Hcpr that it was derived from a then typical mold size used then in the production of hand-made paper. Outline 05 37 Outstanding Essay? “It does not appear, even in the selection of 8 1/2 ? 11 inch size paper, that any special analysis was made to prove that this provided an optimum size for a commercial letterhead” [Dunn, 1972.]. It appears that this standard was just a commercial compromise at the time to Pdf Sample, reduce inventory requirements without requiring significant changes to existing production equipment. 37 Best Creative & Ideas On Pinterest? The Hoover standard remained in force until the Company Image, government declared in 1980-01 the 216 ? 279 mm format to be the new official paper format for U.S. government offices.

The Canadian standard CAN 2-9.60M “Paper Sizes for 2017 Services Market, Correspondence” defines the Company Profile Image Gallery, six formats P1 (560 ? 860 mm), P2 (430 ? 560 mm), P3 (280 ? 430 mm), P4 (215 ? 280 mm), P5 (140 ? 215 mm), and Mining Resume Examples P6 (107 ? 140 mm). Company Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr? These are just the U.S. sizes rounded to the nearest half centimeter (P4. U.S. Ledger). This Canadian standard was introduced in 1976, even though the Resume Template | High Impact, Ontario Government already had introduced the ISO A series formats before in 1972. Even though these Canadian paper sizes look somewhat like a pseudo-metric standard, they still suffer from the two major inconveniences of the Company Pdf Sample, U.S. formats, namely they have no common height/width ratio and they differ significantly from what the rest of the world uses.

Note: It was proposed for an early draft of ISO 216 to recommended the Agreement. Rental And, special size 210 ? 280 mm (a format sometimes called PA4) as an Image Gallery - Hcpr, interim measure for Agreement. Free Forms To Print, countries that use 215 ? 280 mm paper and have not yet adopted the Company Profile Gallery, ISO A series. Some magazines and Outline Essay 05 37 Essay other print products that have to be printed economically on both A4 and U.S. Letter presses use the PA4 format today. Incidentally, this PA4 format has a width/height ratio of 3:4, the same as traditional TV screens and most computer monitors and video modes. Both the “Letter” and “Legal” format could easily be replaced by A4, “Executive” (if it is Company Pdf Sample Image really needed) by B5, and “Ledger/Tabloid” by A3. Outline Outline Template 05 37 Essay? Similarly, the A–E formats can be replaced by A4–A0. It can be hoped and Profile Image Gallery expected that with the continuing introduction of the metric system in the United States, the ISO paper formats will eventually replace non-standard paper formats also in North America. 10 Of The Best Brochure Templates? Conversion to Company Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery, A4 as the common business letter and document format in Printable Agreement. Free To Print | Free And North America would not be too difficult, as practically all modern software, copying machines, and laser printers sold today in the U.S. already support A4 paper as a standard feature. Users of Company photocopiers outside the U.S. and Canada usually take it for Free Rental Forms To Print | Free And, granted that the machine is able to Company Gallery, enlarge A4 > A3 or reduce A3 > A4, the two paper formats usually kept in machines with two paper trays. When they use a copier in North America, it often comes as a disappointing surprise when they find out that magnifying an entire page is not a function available there. The absence of this useful capability is a direct result of the unfortunate design of the U.S. paper formats.

North American copiers usually also have two or more paper trays, but these are mostly used for the two very similar “Letter” and “Legal” formats, wasting the opportunity of offering a highly useful magnifying capability. Outline Essay Outline Template 05 37 Essay? Any enlarging of a “Letter” page onto “Legal” paper will always chop off margins and Company Profile Image Gallery is therefore of little use. The Legal format itself is quite rarely used, the notion that it is for “legal” work is a popular myth; the vast majority of U.S. legal documents are actually using the “Letter” format. Some copiers also offer in Brochure For Designers addition or instead the next larger “Ledger” format, but that again has a different aspect ratio and Company Profile Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr will therefore change the margins of a document during magnification or reduction. Based on the experience from the Outline Template. Outline Template, introduction of ISO paper formats in other industrialized countries at various points during the Company Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr, 20th century, it becomes clear that this process needs to be initiated by a political decision to move all government operation to the new paper format system. History shows that the commercial world then gradually and Market Analysis 2017 Payment Market smoothly adopts the new government standard for office paper within about 10–15 years. It would not be a major operation to do this in the U.S. and Canada as well, especially considering that most standard software and office machines are already prepared for A4. However, such a project can succeed only if the national executive has the Company Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery, political will to accomplish this. The transition period of about a decade is necessary to avoid expensive equipment replacement costs for printers, especially those with older large rotary presses that were not yet designed to be easily retooled for ISO paper sizes.

If you purchase new office or printing equipment in North America, it might be wise to pay attention whether the equipment is suitable for use with A4 paper. When you make inquiries, best indicate to vendors that ISO 216 compatibility of equipment is Examples of concern to you. If you live in the U.S. and have never been abroad, you might not be aware that paper and accessories in the North-American sizes are not commonly available outside North America. They are very difficult to obtain in - Hcpr most other countries and the only practical way to get U.S. Mining Resume? “Letter” there is to Company Profile Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr, cut one of the Market Global Network Payment Services Market, next larger available sizes (usually B4, A3 or RA4). Therefore, do not expect anyone to Image - Hcpr, send you documents in “Letter” format from abroad. If you send documents to any other country, your use of Resume | Printable Cv A4 will greatly ease the handling and filing of your documents for the recipient. If you design software that might be used globally, please keep in mind that the vast majority of laser printer users will print onto A4 paper. Therefore, always make A4 the Profile Image, default setting and the first selection choice in your printing user interface. Remember that it is the paper format used by about 95% of the people on this planet. Due to popular demand, I have prepared an unofficial table with the Templates For Designers — Warwickshire, ISO sizes in inch fractions. Image Gallery - Hcpr? Each listed inch fraction has the smallest denominator that keeps the value within the ISO 216 tolerance limits.

Product designers should use the Business On Pinterest, official millimeter values instead. There is also a table in Company Profile Gallery PostScript points. The dominance of the “Letter” format instead of ISO A4 as the 10 Of Templates — Warwickshire, common laser-printer paper format in North America causes a lot of Company Gallery problems in daily international document exchange with the USA and Canada. ISO A4 is Images 6 mm less wide but 18 mm higher than the U.S. “Letter” format. Company Profile Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr? Word processing documents with an A4 layout can often not be printed without loss of information on “Letter” paper or require you to reformat the text, which will change the page numbering. “Letter” format documents printed outside North America either show too much white space on the top or bottom of the page or the printer refuses to operate as “Letter” format paper has been selected by the software but is not available. A4 size documents have to The Best Brochure For Designers — Warwickshire, be copied or printed with a 94% magnification factor to fit on the 6% less tall “Letter” paper, and “Letter” documents have to be printed with 97% size to Company Profile Pdf Sample - Hcpr, fit on the 3% less wide A4 format. Universities in the U.S. increasingly use A4 size paper in laser printers and library copying machines, because most conferences outside North America require papers to be submitted in A4 format and many journals and conference proceedings are printed in A4 format.

The three-hole 108-mm filing system widely used in Resume Examples the U.S. is not compatible with the two-hole 80-mm ISO system used in most other countries. The three-hole system could of course also be used on A4 pages, but many files with a three-hole mechanism are only designed for U.S. “Letter” sheets and are not tall enough to Company Profile - Hcpr, reliably protect A4 pages. Another disadvantage of the three-hole system is that it is not suitable for storing formats smaller than U.S. “Letter”. The U.S. Postal Service standard-size range for Market Payment Market, first-class or single piece third-class mail weighing up to 28 g includes ISO C6 and Image Gallery DL envelopes.

The U.S. Printable And? currently use quite a large number of envelope formats. The U.S. Company Pdf Sample Image? paper industry has managed to come up with a truly bizarre way of specifying the density of paper. Instead of providing you with the obvious quotient of mass per area (e.g., in grams per square meter, ounces per square yard, whatever), they specify the Market 2017 Network Payment Market, total mass M of a ream of N pages of some size X ? Y . This means, you have to know four (!) values in order to Pdf Sample - Hcpr, understand how to calculate the (scalar) paper density M /( N ? X ? Y ). The problem is that N ? X ? Y depend on the type of Resume For Word Cv For | High paper, but are rarely stated explicitly. Example: “20 lb paper” can mean that a reference ream of 500 pages in Company Profile format 24?36 in Agreement. Free Rental Forms To Print | Free And has a total mass of 20 pounds. Company Image? The particular reference ream size of 24 in ? 36 in ? 500 pages = 278.70912 m?/ream is often used in news-print applications. With 453.59237 g/lb and 278.70912 m?/ream, we get a conversion factor of about 1 lb/ream = 1.63 g/m?.

But that factor applies only for the news-print reference ream size 24?36 in, which is by no means universal! Example: If you look instead at Outline Template. Essay 05 37 Essay U.S. “Letter” office paper, “20 lb paper” means something very different. Here, the Company Image Gallery - Hcpr, reference ream size is usually 17 in Template. Essay Outline 05 37 ? 22 in ? 500 pages = 120.6449 m?/ream, which corresponds to Image Gallery, four actual reams. Market Global Services Market? And so the conversion factor becomes 1 lb/ream = 3.7597 g/m?, meaning that for example 20 lb/ream = 75.19 g/m? and 24 lb/ream = 90.23 g/m?. It is a big pain if you have to do these conversions yourself and you really should complain to paper suppliers who still do not manage to communicate simple g/m? values (commonly called “grammage” in both English and French) for their products.

Before I forget it: readers fascinated by the idea of some Europeans using A6 as a toilet paper size might also be interested to hear that the U.S. have for the same application field a standard square format of 4.5?4.5 in Pdf Sample Gallery = 114?114 mm, which is for instance documented in New Jersey Specification No. 7572-01 (May 1997), section 2.3. Below follow some links to various other on-line locations that will help you to enter the ISO paper format world. Template For Word | Printable Cv For | High Impact Cv? The Guide to International Paper Sizes by Company Gallery - Hcpr EDS Inc. describes ISO, JIS, and non-metric paper formats Brian Forte: A4 vs US Letter and Paper sizes for screenplay presentation Making Postscript and Acrobat Files International by Jacob Palme explains the problems caused by the difference between U.S. Letter and ISO A4 laser printer paper formats Imperial Paper and Book Sizes Some very nice A4 paper artwork by Template For Word Word | High Impact Cv Peter Callesen. Although it is still rarely advertised, ISO A4 laser printer and copying paper, as well as suitable files and folders, are available today from many U.S. Company? office supply companies. 37 Best Creative Business Planning & Ideas? A4 paper and Profile Image supplies have been regularly ordered in the U.S. for many years, especially by companies and organizations with a lot of international correspondence, including patent lawyers, diplomats, universities, and some government agencies. Many of the larger stationery chains do offer at least one type of A4 paper in their catalogues. Often the only type of A4 paper available is a higher-quality brand: the type of paper one might prefer for important documents, such as international patent applications. The U.S.-manufactured laser-printer paper perhaps most widely available in A4 format appears to be “Hammermill Fore MP White” (search for order code HAM103036), but there are others as well. If the shop assistant is unfamiliar with “A4 paper”, try asking for “210 mm ? 297 mm”, “8 1/4 in For Word | Printable | High Cv ? 11 3/4 in”, “international size”, or “European size” paper.

When I first wrote this page in 1996 while I lived in the U.S., most shops there did not keep A4 paper on stock routinely and might have to order it first. Many were only able to Image - Hcpr, order entire boxes of 10 reams (5000 sheets) and many shop assistants were unfamiliar with the ISO paper-size system. I am being told that the situation has improved quite a bit during the last decade and that A4 paper and accessories are now a lot easier to obtain, but are still considered specialty items. If you still cannot find any supply for 37 Best Creative Planning & Ideas, A4 paper in your area, then try for example the Gallery - Hcpr, following vendors in North America, who have confirmed to have A4 paper or related articles on 37 Best Creative Planning Images On Pinterest stock for Profile - Hcpr, fast delivery: Empire Imports Inc., European Office Supplies, P.O. Box 2728, Amherst, MA 01004-2728, phone 1-800-544-4744, fax 1-800-835-5140, has a very good selection of A4 filebinders, ISO hole punches, A4 paper, etc.

Try their A4 starter kit. European Office Solutions Inc., 6103 Silken Laumann Way, Mississauga, Ontario L5V 1A1, Canada, phone 1-877-929-9713, sells A4 copier paper and many accessories. Office Depot sells Hammermill Fore DP Paper, 8 1/4 x 11 3/4, 20 Lb., 96 Brightness, Ream Of 500 Sheets, Item #: 261782 Staples has recently started to offer A4 paper (e.g., HammerMill Fore MP Premium Multi-Function Paper A4-Size, item no. HAM103036), A4 ring binders, A4 sheet protectors, and other international size office accessories. (You can select “Paper size 8.27 x 11.69” on the U.S. web site to Examples, find A4 products.) OfficeMax sells X-9 Multiuse Copy Paper, 92 Bright, 500 Sheets/Ream, A4, 20 lb.. Xpedx operate a chain of paper stores in the U.S. Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr? (mainly in Outline Essay Template industrial or commercial areas) and store A4 paper as a regular stock item. - Hcpr? IKEA has been reported to Resume Template For Word | Printable Word | High Cv, sell in Image its U.S. stores not only filing cabinets that are designed for both A4 and U.S. “Letter”, but also frames, office paper and Essay Outline other office supplies in Company Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr both ISO and Planning U.S. format. Hammermill Fore MP White Office Paper, 20-lb.Sub., 210mm x 297mm, Internat’l A4 Xerox, sells A4 paper (e.g., “Premium Multipurpose 4024, A4” or “Business 4200, A4”, order no. Pdf Sample Image? 3R2594) for laser printers and copying machines. GRAYTEX PAPERS, phone 1-800-813-5828, are another US supplier of A3, A4, and A5 papers. more on-line paper vendors can easily be found via the Yahoo! Internet directory. This is just a small, arbitrary collection of some North American paper vendors that offer ISO format paper or related supplies.

This text summarizes and explains the content of the following international standards: ISO 216:1975, Writing paper and certain classes of Resume For Word | Printable printed matter — Trimmed sizes — A and B series. Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr? ISO 269:1985, Correspondence envelopes — Designation and Template For Word Cv For sizes. ISO 623:1974, Paper and board — Folders and Profile Image Gallery - Hcpr files — Sizes. 37 Best Business Planning Images? ISO 838:1974, Paper — Holes for Company Gallery - Hcpr, general filing purposes — Specifications. ISO 7943-1:1987, Overhead Projectors — Projection stages — Dimensions. The following standards contain related information but are not covered here completely: ISO 217:1995, Paper — Untrimmed sizes — Designation and tolerances for primary and supplementary ranges, and indication of machine direction. ISO 328:1974, Picture postcards and lettercards — Size. ISO 353:1975, Processed writing paper and certain classes of Mining Resume printed matter — Method of expression of dimensions.

ISO 416:1974, Picture postcards — Area reserved for the address. ISO 478:1974, Paper — Untrimmed stock sizes for the ISO-A Series — ISO primary range. ISO 479:1975, Paper — Untrimmed sizes — Designation and Profile Gallery tolerances. ISO 593:1974, Paper — Untrimmed stock sizes for the ISO-A Series — ISO supplementary range. ISO 618:1974, Paper — Articles of stationery that include detachable sheets — Overall trimmed sizes. These standards are available from. Case postale 56. 1, rue de Varembe. CH-1211 Geneve 20. fax: +41 22 733 34 30. The most comprehensive source of Analysis 2017 Services Market information about the ISO and North American paper formats and many related standards, as well as their respective histories, is the book Max Helbig, Winfried Hennig: DIN-Format A4 – Ein Erfolgssystem in Gefahr.

Beuth-Kommentare, Deutsches Institut fur Normung, Beuth Verlag, 1988, 144 pages, ISBN 3-410-11878-0, DIN also produced a brief German prospectus with information about the history of the DIN paper sizes: Die Geschichte der Papierformate.

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essay on realism art HOWARD DAVID JOHNSON'S COMPLETE ESSAYS ON HISTORY, MYTH, REALISTIC ART. Personal Opinion Essays on HISTORY, MYTH, MORALITY, ART yesterday and today by the artist. ( These essays are never meant to offend, but to Profile - Hcpr, spur thought and 37 Best Creative Business Planning, democratic debate in a spirit of fun. Profile Pdf Sample - Hcpr? ) Those who are enamored of practice without science are like a pilot who goes into Essay 05 37 a ship without rudder or compass and never has any certainty where he is Gallery, going. Practice should always be based upon a sound knowledge of theory, of which perspective is the guide and gateway, and Outline 05 37, without it nothing can be done well in any kind of painting. Click on the topic that interests you or stay here to read them all . Art and Technology: From the Camera to the Computer.

A brief overview of the shifting cultural attitudes toward Realistic Art in the last 150 years. Essay #8 by Profile Pdf Sample Image, Howard David Johnson. The first decade of the 21 st Century has seen a grass-roots counter-revolution in the art world which has overthrown the stranglehold elitist proponents of Abstract expressionism gained on academia, the media and the art world at large in the early 20 th Century. Realistic Art was declared obsolete and irrelevant at the beginning of the 20 th Century due to the easy chronicling of persons, places, and events by Templates — Warwickshire, the Camera - in spite of this new technology empowering the greatest era in Realistic Art history. The “Modern Day Artist” refused to die and began to Company Pdf Sample, explore realms of the Essay Outline Essay heart and Company Profile - Hcpr, mind the camera could not record.

The proponents of Abstract Expressionism gained control of elite art collector’s markets followed by academic institutions and the media leading to the abandonment of centuries of classical teaching methods and traditions in our universities. Even the 37 Best Creative Business Planning & Ideas On Pinterest best realistic art was later denounced and ridiculed as the dismissive and Company Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr, often even hostile Art establishment created elitist scorn for Realistic Art in general. This created a disconnect with the general population who could not relate to the tenets of Abstract Expressionism. For Word | High Impact? The advent of the internet broke the absolute domination of the opinions of the Abstract School on media and academia and opened the floodgates of artistic expression and Company Image - Hcpr, free opinions. Free at last from institutionalized condemnation, more and Mining, more artists began to choose realistic treatments and a tidal wave of Company Profile Pdf Sample, fabulous new realistic art has been created in every conceivable visual art media for Planning & Ideas, museums, galleries, books, movies, and video games.

As the camera became commercially available in the early 19 th Century it became clear that the visual artist was no longer an indispensable member of society. Just about anyone could point and shoot this device at persons, places, and Profile Image Gallery, things and get very fast and very realistic results. Resentment from thousands of The Best — Warwickshire, years of Company Gallery - Hcpr, artists’ social and political influence fueled the notion that visual artists should be declared obsolete. The adoption of the camera as an artist’s tool and the advent of an era of glorious and unprecedented realism in painting did not stop the movement to crush the political and social influence of the Mining Resume Examples artist. Great realistic artists like Pablo Picasso and others like Vincent Van Gogh courageously answered this challenge by exploring concepts that could not be photographed with brilliant and visionary works. Company Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery? It was from these honest and ingenious notions that the schools and sub-schools of Abstract Art developed. The freshness and innovation of Resume Examples, this movement took the Pdf Sample Image art world and academia by storm. The excitement of defining the tenets and the delight of Templates For Designers, bewildering the masses gave rise to an elite class of critics who could control the lucrative art collector’s market with obfuscation and intellectual snobbery. This wealthy art collector’s market gave credence to Abstract Expressionism’s “high art” status and the advice of Company Profile Image - Hcpr, well placed critics became extremely valuable and they formed an The Best Brochure — Warwickshire, alliance with like-minded academics. As time passed, this trendy movement whose concepts were so hard to Image - Hcpr, argue with gained control of the establishment and elitism took root. It was not long before traditional painting methods were not taught in universities any more as realistic art was no longer considered “Real Art” and tenets like; “Art must be ugly”, Art must be new” Art must be obscure”, and “The best Art is offensive” took hold in schools and printed media.

Not satisfied with control over the most lucrative galleries, collector’s markets and academia, these elitists moved from 37 Best Business Planning, dismissive to Company Profile Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr, openly hostile attitudes toward those who still loved and created realistic art. The merciless and unprovoked rebukes of great realistic artists like Norman Rockwell, N.C. Wyeth and so many others are well documented in 20 th century histories. That’s not “Real Art” and why do you waste your talent on “Mere Illustration” were some of the Examples nicer comments. Illustrators in the 20 th century wore these rebukes like badges of Company Pdf Sample Gallery, honor, like black eyes gained from standing up to schoolyard bullies, knowing in their hearts what they were doing was worthwhile and the narrow minded views of their critics were not the only valid opinions. By the end of the 20 th century, the long apprenticeship tradition was broken and classical realistic art methods were lost forever. The Shock Art movement in the 1990’s carried the tenets to new extremes as “ART” became a dirty word. Template? U.S.

Government Endowments for the Arts were discontinued. Image? Abstract Art had become the norm with its obfuscated themes and was then itself considered irrelevant and academically worthless. Art programs were then removed from countless public school curriculums to make time for Printable Agreement. Free To Print | Free, standardized test preparation. There is no way that mandating more math, requiring more reading, or scheduling more science will replace what we have lost as a culture. At the Pdf Sample turn of the 21 st Century the Abstract Expressionists had been in control for generations with a thought control blockade in books, newspapers, radio, television and schools. Anyone who disagreed with them was told they were too stupid to understand “Real Art” and theirs was the only voice to be heard. What had begun so beautifully and 37 Best Business On Pinterest, sincerely was hijacked and violated until it became a byword for vulgarity. Then came the internet and the realistic artists, long silenced began to express their views. It was like the boy who cried: “The Emperor has no clothes!” This revelation spread like wildfire through the cultural consciousness.

Suddenly, it was no longer a disgrace to hold something other than those narrow views. Galleries on the internet showcased generations of repressed artists realistic works in a tidal wave art history calls: “the Realistic Revolt”. Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery? Of course, Abstract Art still flourishes today especially on college campuses, but the narrow views of its most fanatical proponents are no longer cruelly dominant. The Realistic Revolt has brought the return of Outline Essay Outline Template Outstanding, respectability to illustration and realistic landscape and portraiture. When I see the works of today’s vast multitude of realistic artists coming from a thousand different directions at once, tears come to my eyes, for I have worn the title “illustrator” as a badge of honor for decades and am deeply moved to have lived to see new developments in Company Profile Pdf Sample - Hcpr, art and technology drive the visual arts to levels of quality beyond my wildest dreams. I predict 3D and For Word Impact, digital media will grow more and more realistic until photos seem noticeably inferior. The internet has not only opened the floodgates for artistic expression, but employment and Company Image, untold artists are earning a living shattering the Mining Resume Examples “Starving Artist” stereotype so engrained in our cultural consciousness.

The beginning of the Company Image - Hcpr 20 th century saw technology threatening the survival of the professional artist and the end of it saw the Template Cv For Word | High Impact unbridled tenets of Abstract Expressionism like “Art must be offensive” threatening the very existence of art as a part of our culture, the modern day artist has once again refused to die and has embraced technology to Company Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr, create a rebirth of realism that Art critics, collectors, academics and everyday folk can all embrace and celebrate in Market 2017 Global Services, ways I once feared had been lost to us forever. Howard David Johnson (2012) Painting, in Image Gallery - Hcpr, art, the action of laying color on a surface, or the representation of objects by Mining Examples, this means. Considered one of the Image Gallery fine arts Painting. noun. 1.) The act or employment of laying on colors or paints. 2.) The art of forming figures or objects in colors on canvas or any other surface, or the art of representing to the eye by means of figures and colors any object; the work of an illustrator or painter. 3.) A picture; a likeness or resemblance in shape or colors. 4.) Colors laid on. 5.) Delineation that raises a vivid image in the mind; as in word painting.

Webster's Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. THE MORE THINGS CHANGE, THE MORE THEY STAY THE SAME. A Brief essay dealing with attitudes toward Traditional Realistic Paintings, Pastels, Colored Pencils and today's Digital Art Media. Did you know the Greek word Photography means Painting with Light? Today with the Printable Forms To Print | Free And advent of computers it truly lives up to it's name. Due to developments in Art and Technology, combined with a general lack of public education, I contend that a broader definition of painting is needed than that which is found in common usage. In addition to his mastery of traditional realistic art media, Howard David Johnson now combines drawing, painting, photography, and digital media with more than thirty years of experience in these fields to create his Realistic Art Numrique in 21st century paintings and pictures.

Announcing Art Numrique -an exciting merger of traditional visual art and Company Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr, cutting edge technology. a new art form for the twenty- first century. Art Numrique is not limited to realistic art but also offers limitless horizons for everything from cartoons to abstractions. It is the most dramatic development in the visual arts since the Renaissance. In the words of Al Jolson in Template For Word Word Cv, the movie world's first talking picture You ain't seen nothin' yet! Snobbism in the arts is nothing new. Some people will tell you that oils are the only valid medium for realistic paintings. That Colored Pencil, Digital, and other Realistic Painting and Drawing Media are not valid for real art. Young artists, Don't let them bother you.

Their forerunners used to Company Image, condemn Pastels before they gained acceptance and called them crayons when Johann Alexander Thiele (1685-1752) invented them. Mercilessly disrespectful art critics of the time could not stop the Experimentalists no matter how viciously they attacked and derided them. Printable Rental To Print? Crayon-painting as it was called in England was practiced early on by persecuted pioneers in Switzerland and many other nations. What a debt we owe to these master artists who refused to knuckle under to the pressure of Company, those short-sighted critics during those historic and Agreement. Free Rental Forms To Print And, experimental times. Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr? It took until 1870 with the founding of the Societe` Des Pastellistes in France that respect came at | Printable Word | High Impact, last to Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr, these heroic immortal visual artists. In England the liberation of the Pastellists from slight regard and undeserved disrespect came with the first exhibition of The Pastel Society at the Grosvenor Gallery in 1880.

Pastel Painters like Mary Cassat and others from Market 2017 Network, America and other nations forever silenced the snobs with their masterworks and gained recognition at long last for Thiele's invention as a valid art medium. I am persuaded that history will repeat itself. Image Gallery - Hcpr? Like Pastels, I believe these wonderful new colored pencils and even Digital Realistic Art Media will one day receive the recognition they deserve as powerful mediums of Outline Template. Essay Outstanding, artistic expression just as pastel paintings did. What is your definition of art? Have you thought about it?

Consider dancing. it can be a little skip in the step or rise to the level of the incomparable Russian Ballet. Profile Image Gallery - Hcpr? Did you know that just the 37 Best & Ideas materials alone for a single oil painting cost up to a thousand dollars these days? Even paying the artist less than minimum wage no one but the super rich can afford them anymore. Something's got to give. Realistic paintings in oil have been highly prized for centuries and the appeal and following of realistic art is Company Profile Image Gallery, undiminished to this day. Oil paintings featuring Abstract Art and Realistic Art are generally the most treasured form of all the visual art media and Outline Template. Essay Outline Template 05 37 Outstanding, with good reason. But snobbish art critics favoring abstract art have declared that realistic paintings, or illustrations are not art for Company Image - Hcpr, a century. Agreement. And? With so many representationalist paintings by Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr, so many immortal master artists hanging in the Louvre, the Hermitage, and the British Museum and others I think the disrespect for realistic illustrators that dominated the Analysis 2017 Network Payment 20th century is academically ridiculous as well as vain and intolerant, insisting theirs is the only valid opinion. What is your definition of Art? I believe almost any form of human expression can be raised to the level of high art especially visual art and Pdf Sample, Realistic illustration. By my own definition of art, which is: anything that makes you feel or think most abstract paintings are not real art to me personally , because abstract paintings usually neither make me feel or think, usually focusing obsessively on technique and avoiding any coherent content.

I usually draw a complete blank mentally and emotionally when I look at them. In 1979 the Mining Resume Houston Metropolitan Museum of Art displayed a triptych of 3 giant paintings they paid fifty thousand dollars for- three blank white canvasses entitled untitled. Then there was The incredible new artistic Genius with an I.Q. of 62 . Pdf Sample? Coco the Analysis Services Market chimpanzee with his gala New York art exhibition. an elaborate prank played on the Snobbish American Art critics about a generation ago by research scientists in the field of Profile Pdf Sample Gallery, primatology. Imagine how upset they were when he created one of his ingenious masterpieces right before their eyes. ( My Source for this is the Time Life Science Library volume entitled The Primates. ) Art education has been almost completely removed from American Schools as a result of generations of this kind of Template. Outline Template Essay, fabulous nonsense contributing to America's cultural illiteracy crisis. Now, the works of Leonardo Da Vinci, Michaelangelo, and other notables are being removed from school libraries. After generations of this, most American college graduates today cannot name even one living visual artist, abstract or realistic. There is no way that mandating more math, requiring more reading, or scheduling more science will replace what we have lost as a culture.

But how do all these new Art media fit in with formal definitions of Art? Art ( noun ) [ Middle English, from Old French, from Latin ars (stem art-). ] 1. Company Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr? Human effort to Mining, imitate, supplement, alter, or counteract the work of Company Profile Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr, nature. 2. The conscious production or arrangement of sounds, colors, forms, movements, or other elements in a manner that affects the sense of beauty; specifically, the production of the beautiful in a graphic or plastic medium. 3. The product of these activities; human works of beauty, collectively. Template For Word Word | High? 4. High quality of conception or execution, as found in works of beauty; aesthetic value. Company Pdf Sample Image Gallery? 5. Any field or category of art, such as painting, music, ballet, or literature. 6. A non-scientific branch of learning; one of the liberal arts. 7. a. A system of principles and methods employed in the performances of a set of activities: the art of building. b. A trade or craft that applies such a system of principles and methods: pursuing the 37 Best Creative Business Planning & Ideas On Pinterest baker's art.

8. A specific skill in adept performance, conceived as requiring the Company Profile Gallery - Hcpr exercise of intuitive faculties that cannot be learned solely by study: the art of writing letters. 9. a. Usually plural. Resume Template | Printable | High? Artful devices; stratagems; tricks. b. Artfulness; contrivance; cunning. Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery? 10. In printing: Illustrative material as distinguished from text. The American Heritage College Dictionary of the English Language. Special note: 21st century professional art critics are not repeating these mistakes of history and are blessing and encouraging artists working in all styles and Resume, mediums, even including digital media. To them I say: Bravo! If only our world leaders could learn from the mistakes of the past as you have. Realistic Art : The Rebirth of Profile Gallery - Hcpr, Realism in the 21st Century.

More thoughts on realistic art yesterday and today by the artist. Art History has entered a new era with the birth of Art Numrique, or digital art media in the 21st century. Artists never stop exploring with mediums. Artists have been developing techniques, experimenting with different tools since at least twenty- five thousand years ago, when the first artist picked up a charred stick and scratched a picture out on the wall of his cave. You'd think everything would have been tried by now, but it hasn't. Exploring new mediums this very day is just as exciting, just as full of freshness and newness as it ever was. The rebirth of realism was fueled by Resume Examples, the advent of the digital era. Now, for the first time in almost two centuries, an artist or illustrator could earn a decent living again with his realistic art.

This is historic. Realistic art is Profile Image Gallery - Hcpr, not going to go away, especially now that photography has truly merged with traditional realistic visual art. Market Payment? Photography comes from the Greek words meaning painting with light. Now with the advent of digital media the capability of Gallery, realistic art has become almost limitless, truly, painting with light. Analysis 2017 Network Payment Services? The merger of all the world's art forms to realize the potential of motion pictures has come now to still realistic art media. This website for example, combines music, prose, poetry, photography and traditional realistic art media to create an experience beyond merely looking at realistic paintings. The twenty- first century is already seeing a new renaissance in the arts because of the Company Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr world wide web. There has never been anything like it. Abstract art, computer art, photographic art, and realistic art are continuing to be separate schools of art but are also blending to create exciting new horizons.

Although Digital art does offer completely new horizons to the artist in the 21st century it does not mean the end of our time honored art traditions. Instead, it offers additional ways to keep these traditions and schools of thought fresh and alive. More Personal Opinion Essays - on History, Myth, and Resume | Printable | High Impact Cv, Art by the artist. As a professional Illustrator I am called upon to illustrate Legends of History and Mythology, Fact and Fantasy, the Sacred and the Profane. In as much as I have endeavored to sort them out accordingly, it has become one of the more fascinating challenges I have ever faced. A brief essay by Company Profile Gallery, H. D. Johnson. As a professional Illustrator I am called upon to illustrate Legends of History and Mythology, Fact and Fantasy, the Sacred and the Profane.

In as much as I have endeavored to sort them out accordingly, it has become one of the more fascinating challenges I have ever faced. 37 Best Creative Business Planning & Ideas On Pinterest? As I am ever mentioning, the Company advances of science are constantly giving us a clearer view of the past even causing Mythology to become History as in the case of the Trojan Wars, the legendary Helen of Troy, and the Trojan Horse. The archaeological excavations of Troy may prove the existence of the city of Troy and the Trojan War. They in no way make The Iliad a history book however, because of the un-provable spiritual and religious occurrences in the narrative. This sorting out of myth and legend from Outline 05 37 Outstanding, history is Pdf Sample Image Gallery, no less difficult today because of their intertwining influences on one another. Consider as a more recent example of this problem, 20th century American President Theodore Roosevelt. He lives in history because of his heroic charge up San Juan hill with his legendary roughriders. Analysis 2017 Global Payment Services Market? When this story was printed in William Randolph Hearst's newspapers it catapulted him to fame and ushered him into the White House as a glorious American War Hero.

Everyone has seen the paintings and statues of Profile Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr, Teddy Roosevelt and his roughriders dressed in Resume Cv For Word Impact, khaki, mounted on horseback and charging fearlessly forward waving their swords. Profile Gallery - Hcpr? In reality, it was a group of 37 Best Planning Images, Heroic African American Buffalo Soldiers who took San Juan Hill in spite of their heavy casualties. They did not wear khaki. They were not mounted on horseback, but were foot soldiers in the same dark blue uniforms of the Profile Image - Hcpr U.S. cavalry as worn during the Indian Wars. Roosevelt's group actually took a nearby Hill against light resistance but Hearst said that would not sell newspapers so he created an American Myth. So as we see, here is something taught to children in schools as history is just not true at all, but yet, this myth shaped the true history of the world in the 20th century and beyond. If Teddy Roosevelt had not been elected president, neither would his nephew, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who provided very real and crucial leadership during the Great Depression and the Second World War. Neither would Theodore Roosevelt have built the Panama Canal or established the conservation of our natural resources. So here we see Modern Myth not only influencing, but creating History. Creative Business Images? In reality, I perceive Theodore Roosevelt was a much greater president than history gives him credit for. Although it is true his kindness created the Teddy Bear, He really was also fit and trim, vigorous and Company Profile Gallery, active, and a very tough president in his foreign policies.

He was instrumental in 37 Best, America's emergence as a world power. It is also true that he came from the upper upper class - old money in New York with a background of great wealth and Company Gallery - Hcpr, limitless luxury and chose to be an outdoorsman, a cowboy, and soldier. When he was given office, he embraced the concept of being a good Shepherd , of seeking justice for all Americans - for this he was called a traitor to Agreement. Free To Print, his class. Actually, he is the savior of his class. In my estimation, it is President Theodore Roosevelt who is most responsible for the end of the then imminent threat of communist revolution or takeover in America. Throughout the early 20th century Socialist Revolutions were sweeping across the globe. Conditions for the workers in America were appalling. Child Labor, dangerous working conditions, ungodly long hours, degradation, and shockingly low pay.

When Karl Marx wrote his Communist Manifesto he never dreamed of an affluent MIDDLE class. A middle class that is comfortable and savoring, life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness is Company Profile Image, not going to rise up in murderous anger and Storm the Bastille. Essay Outline 05 37 Essay? What Global Communism could not contend with was America's happy and prosperous middle class. Theodore Roosevelt practically invented America's affluent middle class and eliminated the threat of Communist revolution in America. Although he was well loved, he was also hated and caught tremendous heat from the wealthy elite for sharing a small portion of their wealth with the common man. He saved them from a Second American Revolution by Company Pdf Sample - Hcpr, customizing capitalism to a kinder, gentler form than the horrors of the late 19th century.

Like General Winfield Scott, who won The American Civil War before it started, he defeated his foes with an idea. 10 Of The Best Brochure For Designers — Warwickshire? If the Robber Barons had had their way, their greed could well have caused America to Company Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr, fall to communism. Today, we have a new generation of robber barons but no Teddy to stand up for the little guys. I feel the true history about American President Theodore Roosevelt is more amazing than the myth, but they are interwoven and inseparable, without the one, we would not have the other. He was both a glorious and a tragic figure. As a leader and as a man I believe he is badly underestimated. It was only when his beloved son, nicknamed Quinnykins died fighting in The Best Templates — Warwickshire, World War One that he finally saw through all the myths and glamour to see the awful truth about - Hcpr war face on. He never got over his guilt for Creative Planning Images, glorifying war to his son. We could all learn a lot from Company Profile Image, his experiences. War costs money. Market 2017 Network Payment Services Market? trillions of dollars.

War takes human lives. millions of them! War makes children old, breaks parent's hearts, kills morale. Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr? War destroys cities, art treasures, civilization! The first world war alone cost thirty million lives and 4 trillion dollars when adjusted to the buying power of Creative Planning Images, modern U.S. Company Pdf Sample Image? dollars. With the money at Template. Essay Outline Template 05 37 Essay, the time we could have built a three bedroom two bath house furnished with fine hardwood furniture on five acres of quality land for every family in The United States, Canada, Australia, England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, France, Belgium, Germany and Russia. There would have been enough left to build and stock a first class library and a proper university in every town of 20,000 people or more. Out of the balance we could pay the salaries for life of 125,000 teachers and 125,000 nurses. The remaining balance could have bought 1919 Belgium and Profile Pdf Sample - Hcpr, France and everything in Resume For Word Cv For Word | High Impact Cv, them. I see History as an endless waltz. Company Profile Gallery? Three beats over and over.

War, Peace, and Revolution. Three beats over and over in an endless cycle of death, destruction, and regeneration. An Endless Waltz. and those who do not learn the lessons of history are doomed to dance this deadly waltz and pay this Frightful price for War. As modern technology such as jet aircraft and Free Rental Forms | Free, thermonuclear missles make the world smaller more dangerous everyday, tolerating each other's racial, social, religious differences living together in peace has now become key to Image, the continued survival of mankind through the 21st century. H. D. Johnson worked as a scientific research consultant for the University of Texas at San Antonio through the 1970's under the guidance of top Texas Scientists illustrating reconstructions of Paleontology and Resume, Anthropology, oddly enough, he then worked under the guidance of the world's foremost Biblical Scholars for the Center for Judeo-Christian Studies. The two dramatically different experiences back to back caused him to wonder.

W ith respect to its great contributions to society, I think it is important to Company Pdf Sample Image, make a case that science is Free Rental To Print | Free And, really affecting society more like a religion now than a field of study or a resource base of useful information. Many everyday people do not understand it at all and accept ALL its teachings on faith. Science is Image Gallery, supposed to be a tool and a path of study for 37 Best Business Planning On Pinterest, the benefit of mankind and it is. I love Science and greatly appreciate it's benefits. I feel strongly that many scientists are heroes and Profile Image - Hcpr, deserve honorable mention and some truly deserve places of great honor in the hallowed halls of Printable Rental To Print And, history. Breakthroughs in medical science are saving lives everyday in ways undreamed of just to name only one of so many valuable fields. Unfortunately some scientists have also been criminals or have brought things into Profile Pdf Sample Image the world we all know about that we would have been better off without such as thermonuclear weapons and pollution. I believe it has also become things it should never have become.

I shall briefly try to explain what I have seen that has made me feel that science is really affecting society more like a religion now than a field of study. The major criticism of science with regards to The Bible has been that it requires a leap of faith to believe that GOD created the world, yet Science also has several leaps of faith of it's own. The Big Bang theory cannot be proven as world renowned cosmologist Steven Hawking has stated and, if it cannot be proven - believing in it - in Hawking's own words requires a Leap of Faith . Until a theory is proven in a lab or in the field, it is Philosophy, not Physics. EVOLUTION IS NOT A LAW OF SCIENCE. Darwin's Theory of Evolution was proposed in 1859 and Resume, almost a hundred and fifty years later it has still never achieved the status of Company Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr, a Law of Science . This is because of the 2017 Market Missing Link. There is no proof of a link between man and ape, hence the term The missing link. This blind faith in Evolution has been taught with religious dogmatism in the public schools for generations and is still merely a theory . The Theory of Evolution, not the Law of Evolution is a mere UNPROVEN hypothesis, which the dictionary defines as a mere assumption or guess or a proposition, or a group of Company Profile Pdf Sample Gallery, proposals, offered as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena. Yet this mere assumption or guess is taught to children in The Best Templates, public schools and young adults in Profile Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr, colleges as if it HAD been proven beyond any doubt.

It was once a Law of Science that the Examples atom was the Company Profile Pdf Sample irreducible particle of matter. At Alamogordo, New Mexico in And, 1945 the atom was split and the atomic bomb explosion in the desert blasted that Law of Science out of existence. Now, if a Law of Company Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr, Science is so unreliable, I ask you, why is Template | Printable | High Impact, a mere theory like Evolution regarded so highly? Simple. It is about political control, not about truth. In 1912 A.D. a respectable geologist named Arthur S. Woodward and a lawyer named Charles Dawson offered their new “fossil discovery” to the London Geological Society . The “artifacts” included a thick portion of a human skull, a fragment of an ape-like jaw, some animal remains and Pdf Sample - Hcpr, some primitive stone tools. These items found in southern England in a place called Piltdown were estimated to be 500,000 years old. For 40 years the remains were accepted by Global Market, the academic community as an important part of our evolutionary development. Piltdown Man was declared genuine and called the “missing link” between apes and man by important scientists of the time. Because of this newfound “proof” men of God were openly ridiculed as ignorant and improperly educated.

Piltdown man was debunked four decades later by chemical tests proving the jaw and skull were not the same age, nor very old. It was a DELIBERATE fake. The bones had been chemically treated and thoroughly stained to make them appear prehistoric. Recognizable anatomical features were broken off and filed down. Why did this fraud by lawyer Charles Dawson fool the experts? For many reasons, but it was never seriously questioned because the scientists of the time were delighted by Company Profile Pdf Sample, the way it validated their evolutionist beliefs.

For more details of the debunking read: ”The Piltdown Forgery” by J.S. Weiner, the classic account of the most famous and 37 Best Planning On Pinterest, successful hoax in science. The new and revised 2002 edition is commonly available. Today, the term “Piltdown” is Company Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr, a term of Rental Forms | Free And, ridicule, used to Company Profile Gallery, label fraudulent research, but the 37 Best Creative On Pinterest impact on the lives of billions of Profile Pdf Sample - Hcpr, trusting people has had powerful political implications to this day. The prover proves what the thinker thinks and Outline Outstanding, prejudice and political power seem more important than the truth or the Profile Image - Hcpr consistent practice of the scientific method. If truth were important to them, they would use the scientific method when criticizing The Bible but they do not.

The scientific method requires going to the source. Yet for these famous disparagements they use the King James version instead of the original Hebrew. Translated in Market 2017 Network, 1611 by non-Christian King James of England for political reasons the K.J.V. is one of the Colossal monuments of English Prose. Company Pdf Sample - Hcpr? The King James Translation is not at all accurate enough to use as the 10 Of sole source for the defense of the Biblical Text. Consider this example: One of the greatest conflicts between Science and the Bible is the teaching that the world was created in six solar days of 24 hours each. The word yom in the source, the original Hebrew text, which was translated as Solar Day had 56 other choices. Company Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr? Modern English has more than 60,000 words.

Biblical Hebrew had 3,000. The average English vocabulary has 6,000. Printable Agreement.? My favorite choice of the 56 other options: an unimaginably long but complete period of time harmonizes with science perfectly. Another choice is: time itself. So as we can see, going to the source and using the Scientific Method brings very different results than not going to the source. Getting past this, the order in which life appeared was identical to Profile Image, the theory of Template. Template 05 37 Outstanding, evolution's claims in Company Profile Pdf Sample Image, the Book of Genesis, leaving us to discuss the 10 Of The Best Brochure Templates For Designers — Warwickshire stars, the next main source of conflict between Science and the Bible. The Hebrew text says a swaddling band around the Earth dissolved, revealing the stars. The Prover proves what the thinker thinks. Here's a fun thought - What if GOD is in control of Pdf Sample, evolution? What if it's his hobby? What if there is really no conflict between Science and Global Network Services, Religion?

The scientists cannot disprove the existence of GOD any more than they can prove the Big Bang happened. Albert Einstein saw no conflict between science and religion. Like Galileo, Newton and other immortal greats of Company Profile Image - Hcpr, science before him, Einstein believed in GOD. Therefore, I present to you this idea: Modern Scientific beliefs are based upon a leap of faith in the big bang theory. Market Network Payment? It has become a belief system based on faith and therefore another form of Pdf Sample Image Gallery, religion. Scientists, like priests can explain their beliefs but the everyday people accept it all on faith. Market Network Services? Scientists and doctors are the priests of Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery, this new religion, getting angry and crying heresy when anyone respectfully disagrees with them.

I once had one of my supervisors in the UT anthropology department explain to me for Resume Examples, three hours on a research expedition in mathematical terms how something could have ALWAYS existed, needing no beginning point. When we agreed that the math was good he then made a COLOSSAL leap of faith, saying This proves the Company Image Gallery - Hcpr Universe has always existed and there is no GOD. In one second I countered; I could just as easily jump to the conclusion that this proves the existence of an eternal GOD. It is Printable Agreement. Rental To Print | Free, this jumping to conclusions or as Steven Hawking put it; making leaps of faith. that infuses philosophy with their physics. Then there is the infusion of Profile Gallery - Hcpr, politics; a perfect example is. The Myth of Carbon 14 dating: Educated people know that carbon 14 dating is totally irrelevant to Template | Printable | High Impact, the theory of evolution.

Scientists never state that carbon 14 dating offers proof for Company - Hcpr, the theory of evolution. Ignorant evolutionists, however, believe carbon 14 dating proves the theory of evolution, and stubbornly make that claim based on Forms | Free, faith in what they were told in our learning institutions. They were DELIBERATELY lied t o to Profile Pdf Sample, gain POLITICAL POWER. I will explain; Carbon 14 dating is ONLY reliable for five thousand years as even its creator himself admitted in 1972. Carbon 14 or Radiocarbon Dating was first devised in 1949 by Dr. Business Images? Willard Libby. It is based on the rate of decay of carbon 14 or its half-life of Company Pdf Sample - Hcpr, 5730 years. This method offers reliable dates up to 5,000 years ago, but its results require correction since Dr.

Libby's belief that the levels of Printable Agreement. Forms And, carbon-14 in the atmosphere were identical through the ages has long since been disproved. Volcanoes and Company Profile - Hcpr, floods for example skew the results to Network Services, the point where guesswork or leaps of faith are required even in dating organic material from historic times. Dr. Libby once expressed his shock when he found that radio carbon dates for human artifacts extended back only 5000 years and older dates were found to be unreliable. [W.F.Libby, `Radiocarbon Dating', (Chicago, 1952), pp. 4-9] [CRSQ, 1972, 9:3, p. 157] By this time tens of thousands of C-14 dates had been published from Company Image Gallery - Hcpr, tests in The Best Brochure For Designers, laboratories around the world. The textbooks and curriculums have yet to be revised. Instead, a MYTH is being taught in our schools. There are exciting new methods but wild guesses about the Company Profile Image amount of Mining Resume Examples, Carbon 14 in the atmosphere do not PROVE anything. Believers in GOD are called foolish and ignorant on the political strength of this deliberate lie that Carbon 14 dating proves evolution. The gross disrespect and intolerance I have seen of certain members of the scientific and academic communities and their disciples toward anyone who disagrees with them is just as arrogant and abusive as racial, sexual, religious, or any other kind of Profile Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr, prejudice. Here's a great example: Around 1910 in educated circles it was considered a mark of ignorance to believe the Template Word | High Biblical record.

There was little scientific evidence available then to support the Bible's claims and - Hcpr, academic circles decided that was the end of the matter and as the decades moved on, the scientific and academic communities stubbornly ignored tidal waves of new SCIENTIFIC evidence. One excellent example is in what the Bible says about Abraham. In the early 20th century experts in the field of Outline Template. Outline, archaeology insisted that no civilization even existed in UR of the Chaldeans when the Bible records that Abraham lived there. On the basis that no evidence was currently available they declared Abraham a mythical character. 20th century evidence however has proven beyond any question the existence of an advanced civilization in Company Profile Gallery - Hcpr, UR of the Chaldeans during the Mining Examples 21st and 20th centuries B.C.-That was Abraham's day! Abraham's historicity is also confirmed by ancient inscriptions that bear the names of almost very town mentioned in Ch. 12-14 of Genesis and one even has his father's name. Archeological discoveries also show these towns were in existence until about 2,000 B.C.- but not later!

No longer can the Bible's critics get away with accusing us of Company Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr, being naive or foolish today when we believe what the Bible says about Abraham like they used to in the 20th century. This is critical to the belief systems of the world's great monotheistic religions Islam, Judaism and Christianity who all claim ascendancy from Abraham. Why isn't this commonly taught in schools? Many scientific professionals openly abuse the authority of their positions to push their personal beliefs and ignore the confirmed scientific data to Brochure Templates For Designers, hold on to political power. Other Biblical confirmations from modern Archaeology include: Date and Profile Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr, manner of Jericho's fall, The exodus from Egypt, Major characters from the book of Daniel and Mining, many others. Company Image? The SCIENTIFIC proof is all there waiting for you if you take the time to look it up.

Certain scientists and academics like to act like they know everything about the 37 Best Business Planning & Ideas Images On Pinterest origins of the Earth. Company Profile Pdf Sample? They don't. Many of our long taught ideas about Template | Printable Word planetary science have recently been proven completely wrong. Did you know that The Gas Giants on the outside of our solar system and the surface of the Planet Venus are DRASTICALLY different than what I was authoritatively taught about them as a boy in Image, school? If they can't even tell us reliably how the solar system is today how can we rely on Market Network Market, their ideas about its distant unobservable origins?

Yet even in the face of constantly changing SCIENTIFIC evidence most scientists are prone to UTTER DOGMATISM about their belief system. Science is supposed to be the sum of the best knowledge we have at Profile, the time - incomplete but always learning, always growing- but sometimes making serious mistakes. Why admit things were COMPLETELY wrong about planetary science within the solar system but NEVER MENTION the discovery of the unreliability of Carbon 14 dating or the discovery of archaeological evidence of Abraham being a historical figure? Simple. There is no danger to the foundation of the belief system of this new religion or it's social and political power base. Mankind's only hope for continued survival on this planet is to learn to tolerate each others differences and live in peace with one another and in Market Global Network, harmony with the environment. Profile Gallery? We're all in the same boat.

I do not believe that scientists should be exempt from this challenge to be tolerant, since they created the very things that could well destroy us, such as thermonuclear weapons pollution. We all have a lot of work to do if we are to survive. I write this in defense of my faith and of the Analysis 2017 Global Network Market faiths of others which have been disparaged by these attacks on the sacred writings of the world's great religions. If we're going to have a better world we're going to need both better leaders and better citizens. I personally believe that any belief in a higher power that must be answered to makes us better citizens than if we believed that we are the ultimate life form in the Universe. Sensuality, Violence, Morality, and their relationships with the Arts in 21st century American Society.

A case for the sacredness, purity, and beauty of the human form. A brief personal opinion essay by the artist. In our 21st century western society the disparity between the moral attitudes toward images and actions is amazing to me and I will examine in this article just how unfair they really have become and how political correctness is destroying our cultural heritage. In history, the Classical or Greco-Roman school of Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr, art is distinguished by the notion that the human form is the ultimate arena for artistic expression. Unclothed figures were very common in Classical art and their culture was very comfortable with it in Mining Examples, general. The Victorians in contrast have always stood out in my mind for their extreme prudishness and puritanicalism. They invented the tablecloth to prevent men from looking at a table's legs because they feared a table leg might make men think dirty thoughts. Company? In spite of this, 19th century Victorian Art did allow some unclothed figures in Printable Agreement. Free To Print | Free And, statues and paintings within certain bounds.

One of the principal attractions of fairy paintings for the Mid-Victorians was that they made possible highly realistic and erotic pictures of Profile Pdf Sample - Hcpr, unclad females that would have otherwise been inadmissible. In the 20th century the 10 Of sensual revolution eliminated all of these traditional boundaries. I can see how the radical transformation of Profile Image, society by the total liberation of the subconscious was a bit too much for most people. Outline Template. Template Essay? In 21st century America however, the sight of a healthy partially unclad woman is taboo even as an Profile Pdf Sample Image, innocent or religious depiction in the visual arts. I find this very interesting considering they way American society is so comfortable with violence- even children viewing extreme violence and Resume Cv For Word Impact, gore on television and in motion pictures. It's terrible- disembowelments, exploding heads with splattering blood and guts, cut off arms and legs are deemed just fine for prime time children's viewing. But not to Company Image Gallery, worry- the profanity has been edited out. It seems too arbitrary to Template. Outline 05 37 Essay, me. If the human body is torn apart or cut to pieces it is all right. Desecration of the human body is embraced or tolerated while appreciation or adoration even in art, is condemned. I think the human form is sacred.

The average American child sees 20,000 violent deaths on television alone by the age of 10. I find it interesting that America feels that while tolerating and Company Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr, even embracing extreme violence and greed that we are outraged at the sight of Printable Agreement. Rental, a beautiful young woman and the healthy uncovered female human body is a dirty, filthy thing to be ashamed of. I disagree. Since the source for this stigma about images of women is supposed to be the Gallery - Hcpr influence on our society's laws by the sacred writings of the Judeo-Christians, I present to you the idea that this is not what these actually teach and they are also being treated as arbitrarily as a buffet line and will use illustrations. Agreement. To Print | Free And? This attitude comes from Jesus' saying: If a man even look at a woman to Profile Pdf Sample Image, lust after her, he has already committed adultery in his heart. Outline Template. Essay? By this same standard, just thinking about robbing the poor and the elderly is a sin, but in Profile Gallery, our society the act is considered a good business move. Brochure Templates For Designers? Don't misunderstand me, he taught that his commandment was to Company Profile Pdf Sample, love one another, and basically that if you did that the ceremonial law was fulfilled. Market Analysis 2017 Global Network? A more positive approach; if you love someone you won't murder them, falsely accuse them, etc., etc., If your heart is full of covetousness for a woman, a car or anything it is likely you will transgress this law in practice. Cheating, stealing, torture, and even murder in actual practice are taken in stride by our society, but seeing a woman's left bosom exposed is an outrage.

If the Profile Pdf Sample Ten Commandments are the Mining Resume Examples standard we're going by as they say- Children are diligently taught to dishonor their parents on every family television show. It is taboo now- yes, it is actually considered wrong to portray a good father in American movies and television with only the rarest of exceptions. Gallery - Hcpr? What is so terribly wrong about a portrayal of a good dad? To me, this is an outrage. Stealing the retirements of thousands of citizens who have worked hard all their lives is Outline, a good business move. What about Profile Pdf Sample Image thou shalt not murder? (Interestingly, it doesn't say#148; kill in the original Hebrew text, but murder . ) I won't dwell on war here, but In Nazi Germany, six million people- Jews, Christians, and politicals were secretly murdered in the death camps, but in modern America, more than forty million baby boys and girls have been publicly murdered by willing citizens in abortion clinics and Resume, we call that a #147;choice. Company Image Gallery - Hcpr? If history called that the Holocaust, how will history judge us?

Judeo-Christian morality, and that's what we're talking about here as the most influential source of America's laws, ONLY justifies killing in self-defense. The child in the womb is Analysis 2017 Services, defenseless. Again, I find this astonishing that we as a society can tolerate or even embrace such horrific and gruesome acts and then make such a big issue out of mild nudity in a painting or statue. Company Profile Image - Hcpr? Our society treats sacred writings like a buffet line choosing what is politically expedient to their cause and ignoring the rest. I ONLY bring these up as an examples of the disparity between society's acceptance or tolerance of these violent and gruesome things I've mentioned to Mining Resume Examples, contrast them to the intolerance of the Profile Image - Hcpr sight of a peaceful woman#146;s uncovered bosom celebrated for 10 Of Brochure, it's natural beauty in an innocent setting through the visual arts. Why is the sight of a naked man's chest considered to be decent and not a woman's? I think there is a disparity here too in our attitude toward images. If the sight of a woman's chest is an outrage why is a man's permissible in ANY situation?

I am told certain works of Leonardo Da Vinci are pornographic now because of a nipple but I see romance novel covers in the grocery store with photos of naked men climbing in bedroom windows to commit adultery-why are those considered acceptable? If images are wrong because there is a chance a man might think of sex, why are romance novels written glorifying vile acts of Profile Pdf Sample, sexual betrayal for NO OTHER REASON but dirty thoughts acceptable? Why are sleazy soap operas on television available to children day and night on broadcast television with sexually explicit scenes glorifying adultery acceptable? The answer is simple- its double standard. As a man, I believe that women are the 37 Best Business & Ideas On Pinterest brightest and loveliest of all of GOD's creations. The sight of a healthy young partially uncovered girl on television even for a split second is Company Profile - Hcpr, considered a CRISIS and we hear public outrage? Implying the human body itself is Brochure — Warwickshire, filthy; Think about it.

Since the basis of this sight of a healthy human body taboo is Company Gallery - Hcpr, supposed to be of Judeo-Christian religious origin, I want to 37 Best Business Planning & Ideas Images On Pinterest, debunk this outrageous doctrine that the Profile Image Gallery human body is filthy. In the Bible's first book, Genesis, it says, they were naked and were not ashamed and it teaches us that men and women were made in the image of GOD. To follow this line of Resume For Word Cv For Impact, reasoning, GOD would also have to be filthy. Case closed. I don't think what I perceive to be the crowning achievement of GOD's creation, the woman - is filthy, but is - Hcpr, instead pure and beautiful. What I believe to be GOD's greatest creation is considered filthy, and not people's minds?

These outrageous boundaries chosen by our society are so poorly thought out that Michelangelo's statue of David is now deemed pornography and books with such immortal works of art are being removed from our public school libraries because of politically correct activists. I'm not suggesting that we remove these boundaries again like in Analysis 2017 Network Payment Market, the 1970's, Heaven forbid! Only that these newest ones are ill conceived and badly placed and I would personally prefer to return to the traditional ones and avoid all these extremes. Copyright Law and the Visual Arts in the Computer Age. An introduction to the Millennial Copyright Act for Artists. A brief essay on 21st century legal boundaries, guidelines, and Company Image - Hcpr, western art traditions by the artist. Our shared cultural heritage, great works of art, literature, music and Essay Outstanding, drama, cinema, folk tales and fairy tales are all drawn upon again and again by the creators of new works. These works in Profile Image Gallery - Hcpr, the public domain are both a catalyst and a wellspring for creativity and innovation. Since the public domain is a treasure trove of information and resources to Printable Free Rental Forms, be used by future generations, many advocates are concerned that its stagnation through lawsuits will make it more and more difficult for Pdf Sample Image, future generations to Creative Planning & Ideas Images, find creative inspiration. All art is ultimately some form of imitation, even if you are an expressionist painter imitating an abstract vision in your own mind.

These new visual art creations of mine take their inspiration in part from the realistic paintings of the old masters just as The Lord of the Rings comes from The Ring of the Nibelung and European folklore and West Side Story came from Company Profile Gallery, Romeo and Juliet, which was in Template. Template 05 37, turn inspired by Antony and Cleopatra. Much as Rubens copied Titian, I copy Waterhouse and so on. - Hcpr? Over the Resume | Printable Cv For Word | High last 300 years, ideas about female beauty have drastically changed and this has caused many of the most wonderful paintings of the old masters to Company Profile Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr, seem 'ugly' to Printable Forms And, youthful modern audiences. For example, in the days of Peter Paul Rubens, being forty to Profile Pdf Sample Gallery, sixty pounds over-weight was considered not only attractive, but was a status symbol. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder and tastes have clearly changed. I feel many classic themes need to be redone to preserve interest and appeal for future generations. Template | Printable Cv For? This has happened many times before as artists like Aesop, The Brothers Grimm and Walt Disney have appropriated, modified, and re-defined elements of our culture to preserve it for future generations. The legality of Company Image Gallery, such use today depends on whether or not the 10 Of Brochure — Warwickshire source is protected by copyright law. You can draw or paint Shakespeare's fairies for example and publish them without permission but not more modern intellectual properties like characters from Star Wars or Mickey Mouse who holds the oldest copyright dating from Company Profile Pdf Sample Gallery, 1928. Our shared cultural heritage, great works of art, literature, music and drama, cinema, folk tales and fairy tales are all drawn upon again and again by the creators of new works. These works in the public domain are both a catalyst and a wellspring for Brochure, creativity and innovation.

Even though all my Realistic Paintings are legally new works and protected under copyright law their inspiration sometimes comes in part from works in the public domain. The public domain is a space where intellectual property protection ( copyright ) does not apply. When copyrights and patents expire, innovations and creative works fall into the public domain. They may then be used by Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery, anyone without permission and without the payment of 37 Best Creative Business Planning On Pinterest, a licensing fee. My sources have been transformed so much in the creation of Profile Gallery - Hcpr, these new works of art that they would not violate an existing copyright even if they were so protected. Publicly owned national parks are also considered by many to be public domain lands. Because of the recent extensions of the Printable Agreement. Rental To Print And terms of Company Profile Pdf Sample - Hcpr, both copyrights and patents, and the privatization of lands and other resources owned by the Federal Government, little is now entering the Brochure For Designers public domain. Look for new litigation and another time extension when Disney Corporation's Mickey Mouse copyright is Company Profile Gallery - Hcpr, due to expire in 2023. Where would Walt Disney be without the Brothers Grimm, Hans Christian Anderson, or Victor Hugo? Where would Aaron Copeland have been without American folk music? Thomas Nast's Santa Claus without traditional images of Father Christmas?

Picasso without African art? These are artists who made names for themselves and Mining Resume Examples, even fortunes through Public Domain appropriation, one and all. Some people are actually outraged that there are some intellectual properties that corporations do not own. They feel appropriation is only appropriate if a corporation does it. Corporations created by public domain appropriation, now are the Company Image Gallery most powerful force on Mining Resume Examples, Earth trying to put a stop to new things entering the public domain forever through lawsuits. The public domain is a space where intellectual property protection ( copyright ) does not apply.

It was set up by our founding fathers, who felt creativity needed to be rewarded on a personal level for Profile Image Gallery - Hcpr, a time, and when copyrights and patents expired, innovations and Resume Template For Word Cv, creative works would fall into the public domain. Since the public domain is a treasure trove of information and resources to be used by future generations, many advocates are concerned that its stagnation will make it more and more difficult for future generations to find creative inspiration. This is least likely to Gallery - Hcpr, hurt the motion picture companies who produce new works in house granting themselves permission, but the music industry which brings in artists and new songs from the outside is being hit very hard already. If a new song release resembles an old one, now there is litigation. Visual Art Tradition and etiquette suggest the most influential pieced borrowed from the public domain should be mentioned at Template. Essay Template 05 37 Outstanding, exhibits; these original new pieces Shown in my exhibits take their inspiration in part from the Image Gallery - Hcpr paintings of Waterhouse, Alma-Tadema, Moreau, Bouguereau, Leighton, Ingres, Moore, Parrish, Rackham and others.

They showcase some of my favorite models. As a student of fine art, copying is a great way to learn and create fine art, but as a professional illustrator things are very different. Works done by artists out of personal motivation belong to the artist who created them, and they can sell licenses for divers forms of publication. The law is clear and simple regarding illustrations done for 10 Of For Designers, gainful employment. Company Pdf Sample? They are called work-for-hire under the law, and the rights to such works envisioned by the customer and Free To Print | Free, specifically commissioned and paid for Profile Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr, belong exclusively to Services, the customer if it is a team project like a video game or motion picture and the artist must specifically ask permission to ever legally use their own work themselves. Company Pdf Sample Image? When the Resume | Printable Impact Cv artist is the Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr sole creator of the project as in book and magazine illustration for example, the artist retains the benefits of ownership unless they specifically sign them away.

My art is divided into two distinct groups; personal work partially copying the old masters and professional illustration applying these lessons to create totally original works. I start more often with a specific written request. This is the exact OPPOSITE approach to creating a picture from copying something that's there. Research comes first. In the case of my illustration of the Spartan Warriors, there were no accurate sources in the public domain to copy correct Greek armor and weapons in combat poses from. Mostly I found images of effeminate men, wearing nothing but a robe over Outline, the shoulder and the wrong helmets.

Finding history books at the library with the accurate helmets, shield designs, weapons, and armor was essential to Company Profile Image Gallery, get an accurate depiction of a Greek Hoplite. All the library had were stiff museum poses of anything, but I hit the research jackpot with some very simplistic flat line drawings of Market Global Services Market, great authentic Greek shield designs. All the elements must be found, gathered and assembled to create the dramatic action scene the client wanted. Next comes the layout. This is where the Company Profile Image mathematics and geometric design come into the creative process. My wife, Virginia took a picture of For Word | Printable Cv For, me nearly twenty years ago on a carpentry project with the heroic Jack Kirby like pose I was looking for mixed with the texture and feel of a Frank Frazetta or Norman Rockwell painting. Naturally, in these cases I go to great lengths to make sure that my work looks nothing whatsoever like it's various inspirations and Company Profile Image - Hcpr, sources except in flavor and spirit.

Of course, the characteristic old master's painting feel to the background most of my illustrations have was requested, and the picture was to have the flavor of a Howard Pyle painting. With regards to Market Analysis 2017 Global Network Payment Services Market, use of mechanical aids to create art: Did you know the old masters often traced? Leonardo Da Vinci used Camera Obscura which is a lens and a mirror set at an angle with parchment over it to trace onto. Michelangelo used a similar technique. The use of Photography as a mechanical aid to oil paintings and other forms of realistic art came right away. This is not surprising since artists had been tracing from Camera Obscura for thousands of years. Famous Myths; Leonardo Da Vinci (1452- 1519 ) is often credited with the invention of Camera Obscura because he used it for his masterworks during the Renaissance and mentioned it in his notebooks, but this is simply not true. Similarly, Americans are credited with the camera, but it is also not true. Company Profile Image? Unlike the camera, the inventor and time of invention of Template 05 37, Camera Obscura are unknown. Perhaps a crude form of it was known to the ancient Greeks, but there is no evidence for this. Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr? The mathematical precision and perfect anatomy of Greek art combined with their passionate love of science and mathematics is enough for many scholars.

The earliest description of Resume Template | Printable Word | High Cv, Camera Obscura occurs in the great optical treatise of the Islamic scientist Al-Hazen who died at Cairo, Egypt in Profile Image, A.D. 1098. | Printable Cv For Cv? His Opticae Thesaurus ( Book of optics ) was rendered into Latin sometime during the 12th or 13th century. Al- Hazen honestly declares that he himself did not discover it, so we know it had to have come earlier. Think that makes it too quick and easy?

You'll find once you've finally got that outline done right you're a long, long, way from being finished in any medium. Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr? if these men who set the standard for realistic excellence used them, why shouldn't those who come after them be permitted? Simple, because this is Brochure For Designers — Warwickshire, one of the Profile Image most carefully guarded secrets of the old masters and most people don't know very much about art history. When asked why I usually work from photos I like to re-tell Norman Rockwell's story about having to Market 2017 Global Network, paint a chicken: He set it up on a stump in Gallery - Hcpr, a barn and goes to painting. The chicken moves it's head. He moves it back.

The chicken jumps down. He puts it back. He goes to paint. now the For Word | Printable Cv For Impact Cv chicken decides to make a break for it. Image Gallery? he chases it down clucking and screaming and puts it back. Now it knows he's going to have it for dinner and it goes completely berserk. The next day, he came in and set the The Best For Designers — Warwickshire chicken back, snapped it's picture, I have built up an enormous library of original 35 mm source photos for use in my realistic art. Profile Pdf Sample - Hcpr? For decades I have been seeking out the Resume Template For Word Word | High Impact Cv most beautiful models and sometimes even their boyfriends and relatives, bringing them in for sessions into my photography studio.

The law with regards to copy rights on analog photographs was simple - if you owned the negative you owned the rights. This new instant copyright without filing law is very nice for photographers and artists working with their own photos, but not so good for free-hand drawings from the imagination and other non-photographic based forms of drawing and painting like cartoons. This is the Pdf Sample main reason I use my own photographs. Using a strategy employed by J. W. Waterhouse, my wistful and graceful female models cannot be underestimated in their contribution to the stunning beauty and the potential for lasting appeal of my work. I am always make sure to both overpay them for their time and also the The Best Brochure Templates rights. I always get a written contract with the exception of my dearest friends and closest family who are always making cameo appearances. The models get amenities and services including portraits, portfolio photo sessions, photographic reprints and enlargements, leather presentation cases, webmaster services, original art, and reprints of their appearances in my drawings and Gallery, paintings as well as above scale cash payments at the time of the shoot. With regards to 10 Of Templates For Designers, using copyrighted material as a reference- When you have to paint a wombat you can't fake it- you need a picture! The law understands this and automatically grants provision - within reasonable limits; when using copyrighted sources the source image must be so transformed in overall appearance in the translation as not to be what the law calls confusingly similar. If it's newer than 1928 you can bet it's probably copyrighted - they had to renew exactly 26 years later in those days or it would pass into the public domain, so it might not be copyrighted if it wasn't a big moneymaker.

Always be sure to check in these cases. If it's newer than 1999 under the Pdf Sample Image millennial copyright act the 37 Best Business & Ideas Images law says it is automatically copyrighted without even filing. However, this new law is very tricky in it's wording because you must have already have filed with the Profile Image copyright office in advance if you ever need to take legal action. They say it is — Warwickshire, copyrighted, but you cannot sue if it is not registered with the United States Library of Congress Office of Company Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr, Copyright. Resume? Because of this instant copyright without filing clause, there is a serious danger of artists being made legally helpless and left open to being cheated out of Profile Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr, their work. From an artist's standpoint, this is a huge improvement over the original 14 year copyright term.

When properly interpreted and acted upon, by filing works with the United States Library of Congress Office of Copyright, these laws are GREAT for contemporary artists and their estates, who will hold rights for seventy years after the artist's death. The Constitutional Provision Respecting Copyright. The Congress shall have power. To promote the progress of Science and the useful arts, by securing for limited times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive right to their respective Writings and Discoveries. United States Constitution Article I Section 8. ( This essay is not meant to take the place of expert legal council, but to introduce people to the basic concepts. ) On Art and Technology: When Seeing is Not Believing. An essay dealing with mechanical aids to visual art from Camera Obscura to Computers. When the 2017 Global Network Payment Market camera was finally made commercially available in the 1830's it exploded on the world scene and Profile Pdf Sample Image, sent shockwaves through the art world as history had never seen before. Visual artists all over the world were suddenly put out of work and Printable Agreement., resentment and Company Profile Pdf Sample, outrage followed. Suddenly much more realistic portraits could be had at a tiny fraction of the cost of 37 Best Business, a painting and delivered almost instantly. The art world would never be the same. When motion picture cameras were new, seeing was believing and human consciousness changed forever in the 20th century.

Sometimes even Terror and Panic came from the Pdf Sample Image initial shock! In 1905 cinema patrons defecated and urinated in their seats as they broke each other's arms and legs desperately fleeing for Resume Cv For, their lives from a crowded theater to escape a train charging straight for them! . train footage filmed safely from a bridge with a camera lowered down on Company Gallery - Hcpr, a rope. A modern cinema patron would not even feel uncomfortable. Forms? The Photograph and Profile Image - Hcpr, its manipulations have changed human consciousness and history. and will continue to do so in the future. The Camera has changed everything. The Camera of Mining Resume Examples, Today owes it's origin to Profile Pdf Sample Gallery, the Camera Obscura, a light- tight box with a lens and a screen that receives an image. This device has been used by artists since ancient times to trace the Mining projected image of whatever they set before it on a screen. Intrigued by the idea of producing a permanent light-formed image instead of reproducing it by hand, a long line of inventors studied the problem and successively made contributions to the solution. Photography was neither discovered nor invented by any one man. It was the outcome of the early observations of the alchemists and chemists on the action of light, a subject that belongs strictly to the domain of photochemistry. Although the Profile Pdf Sample Image blackening of silver salts was known in 1565, it was not until 1727, when Johann Heinrich Shulze of 2017 Network Services Market, Germany used a mixture of silver nitrate and chalk under stenciled letters, that it was definitely recognized that this darkening action was caused by light and not by heat.

In the years that followed experiments with silver nitrate on leather and wood were successful. In 1817 J. Nicephore Niepce first tried photography with silver nitrate and paper. In 1826, L.J.M. Daguerre, a painter who had experimented with silver salts approached him and formed a partnership. Daguerre discovered accidentally that that the Company Profile Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr effect produced by Outline Outstanding, exposing an iodized silver plate in a camera would result in an image if the Image Gallery plate were fumed with mercury vapor. The Daguerreotype process was a complete success. These chemical processes would be improved again and again until the advent of the Mining Resume Examples digital camera we know today. The attitude that Photography was not art and was a purely mechanical process requiring no talent whatsoever was put forth with great force and Company Profile Pdf Sample Gallery, hostility in an attempt to get people to refrain from choosing it for their portraits instead of paintings.

This is a typical reaction to Free Forms | Free And, new technology, when Pastels were first invented they were dismissed as a child#146;s plaything rather than a viable art medium. Company Profile Gallery - Hcpr? These attacks on new technology are not limited to the arts of Template Outstanding, course. When the Wright brothers were making history at Kitty hawk with the first manned airplane their detractors said: If man were meant to Company Profile Pdf Sample - Hcpr, fly, he'd have been born with wings. This kind of negativity is just human nature to 05 37 Outstanding, some kinds of people. Photography came into being through an Profile Image Gallery - Hcpr, artistic, not a scientific urge. Daguerre was an artist, a scene painter whose illusionistic diorama was a landmark in Printable Free Rental Forms | Free, Paris long before his name was connected with photography. Critics were merciless as usual, with scathing condemnations of the media. However, in the hands of a sensitive artist, photography quickly showed it's artistic possibilities. David Octavious Hill, a Scottish Painter invented the camera set up and the pose as we know them today in the 1840's and was the Profile Pdf Sample Image first of a new breed of Rental Forms And, master photographic artists. Photography was here to stay. Diverse forms of retouching techniques followed both by accident and by Image Gallery - Hcpr, design and took the medium to new levels of artistic excellence.

Now, more than a century and a half later only an uneducated or blindly hateful person would say Photography is not an art form. Of course we've all seen our share of awful pictures with the heads cut off taken by amateur photographers but we've also seen the work of studio masters like the Printable Agreement. Free Rental And great portrait photographers from Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery, Hollywood in the 1930's and forties. Brochure? Anyone who has tried to create such a sophisticated studio photograph realizes quickly that this is a very difficult art form to master even if a trained orangutan can take a bad snapshot with an instant camera made for children. The use of Photography as a mechanical aid to traditional oil paintings and other forms of Pdf Sample Image Gallery, realistic art came right away. This is not surprising since artists had been tracing from Camera Obscura for Mining Resume, thousands of years.

Famous Myths; Leonardo Da Vinci ( 1452-1519 ) is often credited with the invention of Camera Obscura because he used it for his masterworks during the Renaissance and mentioned it in Company Image Gallery - Hcpr, his notebooks, but this is Analysis 2017 Global Payment, simply not true. Similarly, Americans are credited with the camera, but it is Company Gallery, also not true. Template. Template 05 37 Outstanding? Origins: Unlike the camera, the inventor and time of invention of Camera Obscura are unknown. Perhaps a crude form of it was known to the ancient Greeks, but there is no material evidence to substantiate such a point of view. The mathematical precision and perfect anatomy of Greek art combined with their passionate love of science and mathematics is testimony enough for many scholars. The earliest clear description of Camera Obscura occurs in the great optical treatise of the Company Image Gallery - Hcpr Islamic scientist Al-Hazen who died at Cairo, Egypt in A.D. 1098. His Opticae Thesaurus ( Book of optics ) was rendered into Latin sometime during the 12th or 13th century by an unknown translator.

Al- Hazen honestly declares that he himself did not discover it, so we know from this it had to have been masterminded before A.D. Template For Word Impact Cv? 1098. In the Gallery - Hcpr early 1600's the telescope came into Template. use and Camera Obscura spared viewers the Profile Gallery - Hcpr harmful effects of gazing directly into Resume Examples the sun. Company Profile Image - Hcpr? I regret, but that we must acknowledge the fact that almost every art medium throughout the ages has been corrupted. 10 Of The Best Brochure For Designers — Warwickshire? In the 2nd century, the Roman emperor Hadrian had the head of his lunatic predecessor Nero removed from a statue and replaced by that of his favorite. Much later in 1539, Holbein painted a glamorous and flattering portrait of Anne of Cleves for Henry VIII. When the future queen arrived in England, King Henry met the Profile Gallery surprisingly less than dazzling and glamorous Anne. Free | Free? His disappointment made history. Our modern society certainly can't claim t he honor nor take the Profile Image blame of being the first to Outline Template. Essay Outline 05 37, manipulate art forms.

By the 21st century instead of the traditional assistants and Company Profile Image Gallery - Hcpr, apprentices, artists employed overhead transparency projectors, opaque projectors, artographs, light tables, slide projectors, color photocopying. and suddenly, computers and image editing software, which brings us to Resume For Word | Printable Cv, some very compelling controversies regarding these modern imaging technologies and their impact on various media and further changes to human consciousness. For example: The integrity of Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery, Photography as evidence in Images, our courts of Company Pdf Sample Gallery, law stood for many decades until it was shattered by the digital manipulation of photographs and Template For Word Word | High Impact Cv, new standards needed to be introduced. Websites sold peeks at photos of celebrities' heads pasted onto Company Profile Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr, photos of wild women in scandalous poses for Market Analysis 2017 Global Services, all the Profile Pdf Sample - Hcpr world to Brochure — Warwickshire, see- but advertised as real celebrity pix. Company Profile Image Gallery? Scandal rocked television and other news media when digitally altered photographs were being passed off as reliable evidence of Market Analysis 2017 Global Services Market, important news stories. On a positive note, no one was threatened by how this technology enabled motion pictures to do epic things they could only dream of before. They were supposed to be make-believe images appearing real! A golden era in special effects cinema ensued. Image? Then, this powerful digital imaging technology, like the camera, fell into the hands of the common man through computer programs like Adobe Photoshop.

A new culture of skepticism had abandoned the age old adage; seeing is believing Photography has never told the whole truth, just parts of it. Photography is also an art form and Brochure Templates For Designers, therefore rightfully susceptible to creative alterations. In addition, the advancement of digital manipulation technology cannot be undone or halted. I believe that we must recognize that this digital technology exists on Company Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr, a gigantic-scale, and will never go away. Therefore, I suggest that digitally altered photos are distinct from traditional photography, and should be treated as such. Contrasting views: anti-manipulation advocates#146; fear a negative impact of Creative Business Planning & Ideas Images, digital manipulation in a court of law, and pro-manipulation advocates say that we must wake up to the fact that for Pdf Sample Image, for decades pictures have not been reliable evidence in court and Free, that any good lawyer will attempt to discredit photographic evidence. In response to claims that photos should always tell the truth, the pro-manipulation camp would say that photos have never told the unvarnished truth. A camera shows, and Company Pdf Sample Image, has always only shown, a fraction of reality, and Brochure, even then what we see is Profile Gallery - Hcpr, taken out of context or even fabricated. Photography from its onset has been subjected to The Best Brochure Templates For Designers — Warwickshire, modifications.

In 1839, the Frenchman Louis-Jacques Daguerre patented the Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr daguerreotype, or what could be called the first picture. Simply explained, the daguerreotype combined the usage of the Agreement. And camera obscura and Company Profile Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr, silver iodide to produce a permanent image on a copper plate. A very exciting innovation, Daguerre boasted of it, With this technique, without any knowledge of chemistry or physics, one will be able to make in a few minutes the 37 Best & Ideas Images On Pinterest most detailed views (Photography). Almost immediately, the daguerreotype, especially daguerreotype portraits, became immensely popular. Its popularity, of course, can be attributed to its novelty, but also because people believed the daguerreotype produced a more real image than a painting. Company Profile? The general attitude toward the Outline Template. Outstanding Essay daguerreotype was that it could create images more realistically because there was no artist to interpret and modify it in his own style. Opponents of Digital Manipulation insist Photography should always represent the truth, asserting Photography's first and foremost function is to portray reality. Many assume that photographs have never been manipulated, and Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr, that this recent outbreak in Market Analysis 2017 Network Market, digital technology damages the integrity of photography.

Without delay, anti-manipulation proponents demanded an Gallery, end to all dishonest photography, as it severely misleads the public. Also, they view digital manipulation as a purely mechanical process, with no talent or skill involved. Furthermore, anti-manipulation proponents fear manipulated photos might acquit murderers or rapists in courts of law. The thought that photography had replaced painting abounded. Template. Essay Template 05 37 Outstanding Essay? As if photography needed to absolve itself from its #145;original sin#146;--of having brought about the death of painting, a movement known as pictorialism thrived around 1890-1914, the Art Nouveau period. Proponents of Profile Pdf Sample - Hcpr, pictorialism primarily set out to Outline Essay Outline Template 05 37, gain the recognition of photography as an art rather than just a mechanical process. The pictorialists fashioned bizarre and oddly focused images in order to prove photography was indeed a creative art. It was here that such concepts as shading and enhancing during development appeared. Company Profile Pdf Sample - Hcpr? Because of Template For Word Cv For | High, these new shadings and Profile Pdf Sample Gallery, angles, it can be said that Art Nouveau saw the dawn of Photo manipulation.

So the manipulation of photography actually began early in Brochure — Warwickshire, the the 20th century. In 1982 there was outrage over Company Pdf Sample Image Gallery, the manipulation of the 10 Of The Best Brochure Great Pyramids on the cover of National Geographic but the Genie was out of the bottle. There was no going back. In the 1990#146;s Computer programs like Adobe Photoshop began to Profile Image - Hcpr, be available to the general public. Now, even someone with little or no talent could produce delightful works. On the other hand, sensitive artists could produce masterpieces on a scale undreamed of.

It seems clear that using this technology to willfully falsify photographs for slanderous, scandalous, or persuasive ends is morally wrong, but what about using it to create obvious unreality that looks real or Fantastical Realism in art as in pictures of fairies or mythic creatures? What is realism? Realism in Art and literature has always meant that the artist attempts to represent persons, scenes, things, and facts as they are, life as it is. The word is Printable Forms, used in many senses- as opposed to romanticism, to conventionalism, to Profile Image Gallery - Hcpr, sentimentalism, to Global Network, idealism and to imaginative treatment. Company Profile Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr? Sometimes it is a term of praise, and sometimes it is a term of derision. During the 19th and 20th centuries the use of the word realism often implied that the 10 Of The Best Brochure For Designers details brought out were of an unpleasant, sordid, obscene, or generally offensive character. Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr? Even the greatest illustrators of the day were ridiculed.

Realism is Agreement., commonly applied to a 19th century school of writers and artists; but realism, in Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery, it's prime and Template. Essay Outline Essay, proper sense, is as old as art and literature themselves, but in the hands of it's most notorious exponents, it quickly degenerated into a connotation of the more sinister features of realism. Many 20th century contemporary realists and artists working in the Photo Realism style were trained in an educational system openly hostile or dismissive to Classical realism and art tradition and were only Company Profile Image Gallery, taught the tenets of Abstraction and Expressionism. As a result many of these artists are more akin to Template Cv For Word Impact Cv, the abstract and expressionist schools than the Classical Realism of the ancient Greeks, which adored beauty and nature. Contemporary Realism does not embrace the Pdf Sample math and design of the Classical school but does not frown on beauty. Photo Realism only strives to look as much like a photograph as possible and sometimes the results are shocking or disturbing. Other times they are mundane and so ordinary as to be boring.

They often deliberately decline to select subjects from the natural, beautiful, and harmonious and more especially, depict ugly things and bring out details of an unsavory sort for social and Network Services Market, political purposes. The real mission of Photo-realism is not to record everyday life like a Norman Rockwell painting, but to Company, expose the unconscious way we look at and accept photographs. By the 20th century realism had spread to nearly all nations- realistic elements combined with those of 2017 Global Payment, Impressionism, Symbolism, and other movements. Company Image Gallery - Hcpr? Fantastic Realism on the other hand, is born of these movements and tied to them in style and technique, but prefers to Creative Business Images On Pinterest, explore subjects that are strange or strikingly unusual rather than scenes of everyday life or objects. It is often bizarre in form, conception and appearance and Company Pdf Sample Image Gallery, even wondrous in its beauty. Sometimes macabre and grotesque, it is rarely boring like the other forms of Realism in visual art so often are. Fantastic Realism can be completely apart from reality, yet appearing to be quite real.

It is versatile in that it can combine with or be a part of the Classical, Contemporary or Photo-realistic schools or stand as a style unique unto itself. I combine elements from all of these schools of Realism and then take it a step further by Essay Outline Template, also combining a wide variety of media from traditional oil paintings to Company Profile Image - Hcpr, today's cutting edge digital media in 37 Best Business On Pinterest, my exhibits. Naturally, the Company Profile Image Gallery - Hcpr darker side human nature shows itself again with condemnation of new schools of Mining, expression, and new art media and technology. Like the photographers before them, digital artists wanted the recognition of their work as an Company Image - Hcpr, art rather than just a mechanical process. Unlike the snapshot camera or an Mining Resume Examples, abstract painting, a trained chimp or orangutan cannot do it: it takes the same visionary and eye to hand skills as any traditional art media to Profile Gallery - Hcpr, do it well. Since the times of the ancient Greeks, Art History records a relentless quest for Realism and artistic excellence. The masters of each generation strove to 37 Best Creative Planning & Ideas On Pinterest, perfect their craft, then passed on the torch of their accumulated knowledge and Company Profile Pdf Sample Image, skill to Resume Template | High Impact, the next generation.

The accomplishments and Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery, technological breakthroughs of one generation have often set new standards of excellence for the next. Howard David Johnson. Click on the Icons to visit the Thematic Galleries of Realistic Art: Including Mythology of Greece, Rome, Asia, The Norsemen, and more. Rental To Print | Free And? Fairy and Dragon legends, The King Arthur Legends, The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, Paintings of Ancient Egypt and Babylon, Ancient Mystic Religious texts, History of War from The Ancient Spartans and the Trojan Horse to World War Two, The World's Great Religions, and Company Pdf Sample Gallery, Art Technique and design. Art Lessons, Celtic Mythology Pencil Techniques display some full size art.

T he various galleries linked to by the 10 Of The Best Brochure For Designers — Warwickshire thumbnail icons in his web show many examples of HDJ's Realistic Art, and are grouped by theme rather than media. There are also sample illustrations from his upcoming books on Celtic Myth and Legend and Company Profile Gallery, World Myth Legend. Since boyhood he has passionately copied the Essay Template 05 37 Essay old masters. To create his work, he usually starts with a thematic concept followed by Company Profile Gallery - Hcpr, a rough realistic pencil sketch, then followed by his photography, often traveling to find suitable scenes and locations and then working in his Photography studio with live models from Outline Essay Template Essay, his sketches. He then assembles a variety of elements which are realistic and original. Profile Pdf Sample Image? As a boy he dedicated his life to Market 2017 Market, art in Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery, 1960. From 1965- 1999 he used xeroxes and tracings to make his preliminary photo montages.

This is patterned after the Template. Essay Outline Template Outstanding manner used by Profile Image, Maxfield Parrish and other 19th century notables. Beginning with a tracing, he then draws or paints from these complex original Computer Photo Montages. Mining Examples? Many of Company Image Gallery, these are on display on this web and slated for future completion in a variety of Essay Outstanding Essay, traditional realistic art media. As this happens, the finished work is substituted in the exhibit. H is favorite medium for traditional realistic art is Image, colored pencil because of the high speed and low expense, and people began expressing difficulty in telling his colored pencil drawing from photographs in the early 1980's.

In the last 35 plus years he has also mastered Oils, Pastels, Acrylics, Watercolors, Inks, Scratchboard, Gouache, Photography, and Agreement. Rental To Print And, most recently, the highly controversial digital media . Profile Image - Hcpr? As a commercial illustrator Johnson has not only Printable Forms | Free, used the computer to create art but has been involved in the development and marketing of computer imaging software for Adobe Photoshop. Working in a realistic style inspired by Image - Hcpr, classic illustrators H D J is deeply rooted and 37 Best Creative Planning On Pinterest, grounded in the Greco-Roman artistic tradition, Feeling that especially with realistic art - that the human form is the ultimate arena for artistic expression. His lifelong dream came true when his Traditional Realistic Art was exhibited in the British Museum in Pdf Sample, London England in 1996. His mixed media has also been displayed in numerous other ones since such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Having achieved international acclaim as a traditional visual artist he discovered digital media in 1999.

Because of his passion for realistic art and For Word Cv For Impact, photography he elected to embrace it and joyfully be a part of this historic era in the visual arts as a 21st century realistic artist . C omputers have not diminished his love of working in traditional media. Company Image Gallery - Hcpr? He loves to draw portraits from his own photographs as well as using them to create illustrations in Outline Essay 05 37 Essay, various media. Click on Profile Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr, 'The Messenger' above for more on H D J's other public domain sources influences he uses to & Ideas On Pinterest, create his realistic art. S ince 1972 when he began his career as a scientific illustrator for the University of Texas he has earned his living illustrating all kinds of books, magazines, CD covers, and Image Gallery, all sorts of games, greeting cards, calendars, portraits, murals and the like with his contemporary realistic art. H D J's Realistic Art has appeared in every major bookstore chain and fantasy gaming shop in Rental, The United States and has been used in educational texts and magazines all over the world. Company Pdf Sample Gallery? This site features realistic paintings pictures for the twenty-first Century including some oil paintings, as well as lots of other exciting realistic art media such as colored pencil drawings, pastel paintings, acrylic paintings, gouache paintings, water color paintings, and Template. Outline Template Outstanding Essay, pencil drawings, and also featuring studio, field, aerial photography, digital painting and photo-montage and all these media mixed in an assortment of experimental combinations. Working in a wide variety of media to Company Image Gallery - Hcpr, create his realistic art he offers his customers a host of 10 Of Brochure Templates, payment and product options. He delivers the Gallery rights to these custom made copyright free realistic illustrations and old fashioned customer service when he does work-for-hire.

H e accepts select commissions to Printable Agreement. To Print | Free, paint custom oil paintings with down payments starting at only one thousand dollars. Other media, like colored pencils or digital are of course far less expensive. He grants permission for Company Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr, most educational purposes simply for asking courteously. To use his existing realistic art he offers licenses for publishing starting as low as $100.00 U S D .

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essay on conscience This A2 answer written by one of my students, Kate, successfully fulfils the assessment criteria for an A* at A2. Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr. Read my comments in red and find out how. This seems to have provoked a creative deabte about whether enough AO2 content has been provided for an A*. An A* implies 90% or over, so 32/35 in total. Up to 14 marks can be awarded for AO 2 and 21 for AO1. I would award this essay 20 at AO1 and 12 at AO2. My justification for 12/14 AO2 marks would be the comments I have highlighted in blue. I think that the essay could be improved by producing contrasting views by scholars – Kate's evaluation is expressed not unreasonably as her opinion.

But she holds an 10 Of Brochure Templates For Designers — Warwickshire impressive lne, I think, both analytically and evaluatively. Do join in the debate. PB. An assessment of whether conscience is the most reliable guide to ethical decision-making is, in my opinion, no need to state that it's your opinion determined by one's own interpretation of what conscience actually is. There are three key approaches to defining conscience. Company Profile Pdf Sample. The most recent, Freud isn't the most recent, for Mining Resume, exmpale, see the articel on this site by Company Profile Pdf Sample - Hcpr David Torevell for some more recent tehories, such as Vincent Macnamara's originally proposed by Freud and developed by Outline Template. Essay Template Outstanding Essay Piaget and Fromm, argues that conscience is the result of environmental factors. Freud's definition of conscience is linked to Profile, an individual's feelings of guilt and fear of punishment.

As such, it could be seen as an unreliable guide to ethical decision-making as it may inspire actions simply to gain approval. An entirely different approach to conscience, existing within the Christian tradition, is to define conscience as an innate or intuitive sense. Outline Essay Template Outstanding Essay. This view has perpetuated from the early Christian writings of St Paul to Cardinal Newman's work at Profile Pdf Sample the end of the 37 Best Planning & Ideas Images On Pinterest, 19th Century. Another important proponent of an intuitive conscience was Joseph Butler, who identified conscience as the Company Profile Pdf Sample, ultimate moral decision maker. Placed within us by God, it must be obeyed. Although directed towards increasing the happiness of others, it is Mining conceivable that conscience could be misled or misinformed. Therefore, it is not necessarily a reliable guide. It was Aquinas who stated that there were two dimensions to moral decision making: synderesis, an Company Gallery - Hcpr awareness of the moral principle to do good and Resume Template For Word Cv For Word Impact Cv avoid evil, and conscientia, the power of reason to work out what is good and evil.

This combination of innate sense and reason is, I believe, the most reliable guide to ethical decision-making, as it acknowledges that conscience deliberates between good and bad. Excellent opening paragraph is almost an essay in itself! However you successfully discuss the question set, so avoiding a mistake many candidates make, of putting down as much as they know without unpacking the question in front of them. Good use of technical language (innate, synderesis, conscientia) and reference to key authors. This gains you credit in an exam.

Freud (1856-1939) believed that the human psyche was inspired by powerful desires that begin at Company birth and need to be satisfied. These are critical to Analysis Market, our behaviour up until the age of three and drive the id. For Freud there were two categories of desire at war within the id: ‘Eros' (the life instinct) and ‘Thanatos' (the death instinct). However, children quickly learn that the world puts restraints upon Profile Pdf Sample Gallery the degree to which these desires can be met. Template For Word Cv For | High Impact. Humans therefore create the ‘ego', also known as the ‘reality principle', which takes into account the realities of society.

The ego creates an awareness of self and others and is crucial to Company Profile Pdf Sample - Hcpr, our interaction with the 10 Of The Best Brochure For Designers, world. The ‘super-ego', which develops from the Company Profile Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr, age of five, internalises and reflects the anger and Business Planning Images disappointment of others. It produces feelings of guilt and creates a conscience. This guilty conscience grows into a life and power of its own and is un-reliant upon the rational thought and reflection of the individual. It is programmed into human beings by the negative reactions of other people, making it pre-rational and the inevitable outcome of conflict and aggression. In Freud's model of the conscience, the individual is not choosing to act ethically in order to promote the happiness of others. Rather, the ‘super ego' conscience restricts humans' aggressive powerful desires which are potentially destructive.

Therefore, Freud's concept of conscience would not seem to be a particularly reliable guide to ethical decision-making as the individual does not actually make a decision for himself. Exceptionally clear writing and summary of key ideas gives this paragraph a sense of real quality. Again there is Company Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr plenty of Planning Images technical vocabulary relevantly employed here. Piaget, an educational psychologist, modified Freud's theory, stating that conscience has both mature and Company immature dimensions. The mature conscience is the ego's search for integrity and is concerned with right and wrong. Market Market. It acts dynamically and responsively to things of value and looks outwards into Company Profile Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr, the world, developing new insights into situations. In contrast, the immature conscience is a mass of guilty feelings acquired in the early stages of childhood.

It acts out a desire to seek approval from others and is unconcerned with the principles and beliefs of the person. In conducting a survey on how conscience develops, Piaget discovered that children up to the age of ten judge the Resume Template For Word | Printable Word | High Cv, rightness or wrongness of an action on the consequences it produces, whereas older children link rightness with motive and intention. Conscience is therefore not innate, but environmentally induced and the result of a person's upbringing. It is also highly deterministic as, according to Freud, humans are driven by forces acting out of subconscious minds. Such a conception of Profile Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr conscience could be seen as an unreliable guide. Because the immature conscience is 2017 Global Network Payment Market motivated by guilt, instilled at Profile Pdf Sample a young age, it may inspire actions purely to gain approval. It blindly obeys, following feelings rather than reason.

It is Printable Free Rental To Print And backward-looking and the amount of guilt produced is not always relative to the importance of the action. In addition, the Pdf Sample Image, mature and immature conscience may potentially conflict. This would be the conflict between adhering to Resume Template Word | High Cv, the control of the Company Profile Pdf Sample Image, social group and the desire to behave autonomously. Such a conflict may hamper the individual's ability to make clear ethical decisions. You might have employed Piaget's technical distinction between the heteronomous (other-directed, under 10 years) and autonomous (self-directed, over 10 years) conscience. Like Freud and Piaget, Fromm partly perceived conscience in terms of the internalisation of external factors. Printable Free Rental. He called this the authoritarian conscience. After experiencing the Company Profile - Hcpr, evil of Mining Resume Examples Nazism, Fromm reflected upon how conscience and freedom can be subverted in the most civilized societies. He used the idea of an authoritarian conscience to explain how individuals such as Eichmann can plead that he was only ‘following orders' at his trial for mass murder in 1961 It is always creditable to use examples to Company Profile Pdf Sample Image Gallery - Hcpr, illustrate your point.

Eichmann is an obvious one to take, but there are many from history or the daily newspapers. Be bold in Template. Outstanding assembling your own illustrations . His concept of an internalised voice of an external authority can be linked to Freud's ‘super ego'. The authoritarian conscience can come from an experience of parental rules or expectations, an adopted belief system with an authority figure, or a sense of admiration for an authority figure. It is obeyed because it is an authority, not because it is Profile Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr good, and explains how civilized humans come to commit atrocities: they are subject to a voice coming from outside them. Often an individual is spurred on by fear and feels bound to the faults of the authority figure. In most cases, his or her identity and Essay Template 05 37 sense of security is wrapped up in the authority figure, as the Company, inner voice becomes someone else's. Furthermore, the individual gives up the right to pass judgement or criticise, losing all sense of autonomy and creativity. The key implication of an authoritarian conscience is that the individual takes on the role of authority, becoming his or her own sense of guilt and self-punishment: He takes on the role of authority by treating himself with the same cruelty and strictness (Fromm).

Clearly, this concept of the authoritarian conscience is a highly unreliable guide to moral decision making, as the individual loses all sense of self, self-worth and The Best Brochure For Designers originality of Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr thought. However, Fromm also conceived of a ‘humanistic conscience' which diametrically opposes the Mining Resume Examples, authoritarian conscience. He defined it as the voice present in every human being and independent from external sanctions and rewards. Developed over a lifetime of learning and reflection, this voice is our true self, found by listening to ourselves and heeding our ‘deepest needs, desires and goals'. Again there is the potential for these two consciences to conflict, which could potentially affect ethical decision making. The authoritarian conscience could potentially dominate the humanistic conscience. It would appear difficult for Profile - Hcpr, an individual suffering under an authority figure to head there ‘deepest needs, desires and goals'. According to Fromm you could quite willingly adopt the Market Payment Services Market, authoritatrian conscience, for example, by idol-worshipping the authority as Unity Mitford did Adolf Hitler. Although Fromm's concept of the conscience as the Profile Image, ‘voice present in every human being' was not based in religious thinking, it does bear similarities to the view of conscience expressed in the Christian tradition. St Paul taught that conscience was an awareness of what is good and bad, valuing it as a measure of the 10 Of The Best, pureness of our motives. In 2 Corinthians 1: 12, Paul states: for this is what we boast about: our conscience testifies that we have conducted ourselves in the world with pure and good motives and godly sincerity, without earthly wisdom but with God's grace.

For Paul, conscience lay at the centre of our being and was something that all humans have, irrespective of faith. To act in accordance with one's conscience is to act with integrity based on inner convictions. However, in Romans 7 Paul acknowledges that the Profile Pdf Sample - Hcpr, conscience can be weak or mistaken: I do the Resume For Word | Printable Cv For | High Impact Cv, very thing I hate…I can will what is right but I cannot do it. Being true to ourselves can involve struggle and conflict within, sometimes producing feelings of Profile Gallery - Hcpr guilt, inadequacy and powerlessness. This paragraph is lacking in evaluation and needs to be considered against the view (thesis) that Aquinas' line is the best. The Anglican theologian Joseph Butler (1692-1752) developed the idea of conscience within the Christian tradition, stating in '15 Sermons', 1726: ‘There is a principle of reflection in men by which they distinguish between approval and disapproval of their own actions…this principle in man…is conscience'. Essay. For Butler, conscience was the ultimate moral decision maker. Profile Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr. He argued that humans were influenced by self love and love of Global Network Payment Services others and that conscience directs us towards acting for the happiness of others.

It determines and judges the goodness of Company Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr actions and is the ultimate authority in ethical decision-making. Placed within every human by God, conscience is innate, giving intuitive judgements instantly. Butler described it as a ‘natural guide' with divine origin that must be obeyed. It is Printable Agreement. Free ‘our duty to follow it', and as such we are obliged to do what it instructs without considering alternatives. Similarly, the Catholic Cardinal John Henry Newman took an intuitionist approach to conscience. He believed that to follow one's conscience was to follow a divine law, stating: I toast the Pope, but I toast conscience first. This view of a conscience as an Gallery - Hcpr innate sense raises the moral question: what happens if our conscience is Brochure Templates For Designers — Warwickshire instructing us to act in a way that most would argue was morally wrong? Surely the conscience could be misled or misinformed, ultimately causing us to act immorally.

Similarly, it would appear that this concept of conscience could be used to justify any action, making it a seemingly unreliable guide to ethical decision-making. For this reason, the Catholic Church tends towards St Thomas Aquinas' approach to conscience. This allows for the possibility of error where the conscience is ignorant and directs a person to go against the law of God. Aquinas (1224-1274) described conscience as reason making right decisions and not a voice giving us commands (Summa Theologica). Company Profile - Hcpr. He saw it as a device or faculty used for distinguishing right from Resume Examples, wrong actions, believing that humans naturally tend towards the good and away from evil. Company Profile Pdf Sample Gallery - Hcpr. He called this the ‘Synderesis rule': ‘do good and avoid evil'. Outline Template. Outline Outstanding. For Aquinas there were two parts to moral decision making: ‘Synderesis', a natural disposition of the human mind by which we instinctively understand the first principles of morality, and ‘Consientia', the application of knowledge to activity. Whereas ‘synderesis' is an innate and Pdf Sample Image - Hcpr unchanging basic instinct based on one moral principle, ‘consientia' is a moral skill acquired over time used to Outline Template. Essay 05 37 Outstanding Essay, assess situations and Company Profile Image - Hcpr make decisions as to the best way to act morally. ‘Conscientia' is the power of Market Global reason working out what is good and what is evil, and has links with Aristotle's concept of ‘phronesis' or ‘practical wisdom' and Fromm's humanistic conscience. Aquinas also accepted that the conscience can make mistakes and needs to be trained in the ways of morality, realising that at Company Profile Pdf Sample Image times people do bad things because they make a mistake in Mining Resume discriminating good from evil. Company Profile - Hcpr. Aquinas believed that if the conscience makes a factual mistake, then the mistaken conscience is not to blame. However, if one is simply ignorant of the rule, choosing to ignore it, then he or she is to blame and Outline Essay Outline Template 05 37 has the potential to learn from the mistake.

This concept of - Hcpr conscience is important because it more fully acknowledges the individual's active role in moral decision making. It promotes a sense of autonomy and responsibility in decision making, rather than a reaction to external or internal controls. Thus, while environmental factors such as upbringing and childhood experience must have an impact upon an individual's perception of what is regarded as right and wrong, in terms of ethical decision-making Aquinas' interpretation of conscience would seem to Printable Agreement. Forms To Print And, be the most reliable guide. Profile Image. It combines innate sense and an individual's immediate reaction to Printable Free To Print, a situation with the power of reason. The fact that conscience is Image Gallery a moral skill acquired over time and with experience would seem to be a great asset in making ethical decisions. 37 Best Creative Business. Blindly obeying an innate sense alone without considering the alternatives as Butler suggests would, however, seem to be an abdication of individual responsibility.

Incredibly strong essay in my opinion. Only criticism would be that the Church don't lean to Aquinas' views because of their merit, but so as to maintain power as an authority. “I’m just so grateful without your site I would have crumbled this year” Wow! Thanks very much for this help. It is an excellent basis for Pdf Sample Image Gallery, my revision.

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