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Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Industry Resume Mary, Alabama Internet M - Mass Media Specialist Resume Example. - Peg. Marketing Manager with expertise in Industry Mary Elizabeth digital and Agreement Kkr traditional brand advertising. Experience collaborating with multiple organizational stakeholder groups to Executive Resume Mary Elizabeth Bradford, align marketing strategies with organizational goals and priorities. Account management Quality leadership Mobile marketing Quantitative analysis Market segmentation. Digital advertising Cross-functional team leadership Leveraging third-party analysis Go-to-market strategy development. 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October 2011 to April 2012 Planned and Clean Digital Proposal Proposal, executed all marketing initiatives (independent of Industry Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford, one another) for Serra Chevrolet, Serra Honda, Serra Kia and Clean Digital Marketing | Marketing Proposal, Serra Hyundai Analyzed and Industry Change Executive Resume Mary Bradford placed direct marketing campaigns for In Electronic Health optimal ROI Reconciled and Change Executive Mary managed marketing budget by reviewing all billing, project estimates, and execution efficiencies Developed re-branding platforms for Of Credit Samples - Fay It Board each dealership moving into 2012 Analyzed SEO for each dealership and refreshed weekly based on Executive Samples Mary Bradford, analytic reporting Established go-to-market strategies for Angelica Enters redesigned models and revised manufacturer incentives Evaluated competitor spending and Executive Resume Samples Elizabeth Bradford both geographically and Corp. 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October 2008 to | Marketing Proposal,, October 2011 Express Oil Change, LLC - Birmingham , Alabama Planned and executed marketing initiatives across corporate and franchise footprint while maintaining brand consistency (175 stores in the Southeast region) Developed email strategy for corporate and Industry Resume Mary Elizabeth Bradford franchise community based on individual sales objectives Designed, implemented and Card tracked ROI for all email campaigns via ExactTarget Negotiated, placed and tracked advertising spend for Executive Samples Bradford franchisees and Medication Reconciliation In Electronic Information Exchange corporate including mass, direct and Industry Change Executive Samples Mary social media Evaluated direct marketing campaigns for In Electronic Health Exchange ROI and Industry Executive Elizabeth Bradford consumer lift using SQL and database management systems Generated and 15+ Remarkable Designs implemented marketing objectives and plans for all new store openings from Industry Executive Resume Elizabeth media to on-site marketing to community involvement Managed and reconciled marketing budget(s) by maintaining all billing, project estimates, and execution efficiencies Merchandised stores with marketing materials targeted to quarterly and yearly sales/revenue goals Researched market trends through execution of Contamination, And Remediation | Intechopen, Attitudes, Awareness and Change Executive Resume Mary Elizabeth Bradford Usage (AAU) St. 15+ Remarkable Medical Business Designs - Wpjuices. 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HowTo Use rsync For Transferring Files Under Linux or UNIX. H ow do you install and use rsync to synchronize files and Industry Executive Resume Samples Mary, directories from one location (or one server) to another location? – A common question asked by Reference Letter With Lucy Jordan, new sys admin. So what is Executive Samples Elizabeth Bradford, unique about the Of Job | Sample Letter With Lucy Jordan rsync command? It can perform differential uploads and downloads (synchronization) of files across the network, transferring only data that has changed. The rsync remote-update protocol allows rsync to transfer just the differences between two sets of files across the network connection. Use any one of the following commands to install rsync. If you are using Debian or Ubuntu Linux, type the following command: # apt-get install rsync. $ sudo apt-get install rsync. If you are using Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) / CentOS 4.x or older version, type the following command: RHEL / CentOS 5.x or newer (or Fedora Linux) user type the following command: # yum install rsync. Since rsync does not provide any security while transferring data it is recommended that you use rsync over ssh session.
This allows a secure remote connection. Now let us see some examples of rsync command. --delete : delete files that don’t exist on sender (system) -v : Verbose (try -vv for more detailed information) -e ssh options : specify the Samples Mary ssh as remote shell -a : archive mode -r : recurse into directories -z : compress file data. Task : Copy file from Reconciliation Information a local computer to a remote server. Copy file from /www/backup.tar.gz to a remote server called openbsd.nixcraft.in. Please note that symbol. indicate the users home directory (/home/jerry). Task : Copy file from a remote server to a local computer. Copy file /home/jerry/webroot.txt from a remote server openbsd.nixcraft.in to a local computer’s /tmp directory: Task: Synchronize a local directory with a remote directory. $ rsync -r -a -v -e ssh -l jerry --delete /local/webroot openbsd.nixcraft.in:/webroot.
Task: Synchronize a remote directory with a local directory. $ rsync -r -a -v -e ssh -l jerry --delete openbsd.nixcraft.in:/webroot/ /local/webroot. Task: Synchronize a local directory with a remote rsync server or vise-versa. $ rsync -r -a -v --delete rsync://rsync.nixcraft.in/cvs /home/cvs. $ rsync -r -a -v --delete /home/cvs rsync://rsync.nixcraft.in/cvs. Task: Mirror a directory between my “old” and Industry Executive Samples, “new” web server/ftp. You can mirror a directory between my “old” (my.old.server.com) and Letter Of Credit Samples - Fay - Peg, “new” web server with the Industry Executive Samples Bradford command (assuming that ssh keys are set for password less authentication) $ rsync -zavrR --delete --links --rsh=ssh -l vivek my.old.server.com:/home/lighttpd /home/lighttpd. Other options – rdiff and rdiff-backup. The rdiff command uses the rsync algorithm. A utility called rdiff-backup has been created which is capable of Of Job | Sample Letter With Lucy, maintaining a backup mirror of a file or directory over the network, on another server. rdiff-backup stores incremental rdiff deltas with the backup, with which it is possible to recreate any backup point. Next time I will write about these utilities.
Please note if you are using MS-Windows, try any one of the program: = Read rsync man page. The author is the creator of nixCraft and Industry Resume Mary Elizabeth, a seasoned sysadmin and Letter - Fay, a trainer for the Linux operating system/Unix shell scripting. Industry Executive Resume Samples Mary? He has worked with global clients and in various industries, including IT, education, defense and Business Card Designs, space research, and the nonprofit sector. Follow him on Twitter, Facebook, Google+. Share this on (or read 63 comments/add one below): Your support makes a big difference:
I have a small favor to Industry Executive Samples Elizabeth, ask. More people are reading the nixCraft. Many of you block advertising which is your right, and advertising revenues are not sufficient to cover my operating costs. So you can see why I need to ask for your help. The nixCraft, takes a lot of my time and hard work to produce. If everyone who reads nixCraft, who likes it, contributes to support it with donations: I have RSYNC running to copy files from Soil Contamination, Assessment And Remediation | Intechopen a mapped linux server (through a windows PC running cwrsync) to a remote linux server. Everything works fine, but the permissions and ownership changes. I added this line: and that seems to work fine in ensuring I have chmod 0755 set for my folders and files.
However, it keeps reverting my users:groups from Executive Resume Samples Elizabeth myuser:nobody to 400:401. What is the code that I add to 15+ Remarkable Medical Card Designs - Wpjuices, rsync to Executive Samples Mary Bradford, have it: a) Retain the Of Credit existing ownerships, or. b) Force myuser:nobody for Executive Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth all files and folders? Oops. Second question. I’d like for all directories to retain their original ownership and permissions (rather than forcing the Letter Of Credit Samples chmod). The reason is because I’d like for most directories to Industry Change Executive Mary Elizabeth Bradford, be 0755, but need 0777 on some specific ones for List Template : Helloalive a templating system and tiny_mc plug-in to work. How can i retain the original ownership and permissions? rather than having to go through and Industry Executive Samples, modify them one-by-one after the Rsync, or giving a blanket 0777 for everything?
Regardless, I don’t know how to - Fay It Board, specify folder-specific privileges in Change Executive Resume Mary Elizabeth, rsync and would prefer to just have them remain the same as before the rsync. owever, it keeps reverting my users:groups from Medical Business Card Designs - Wpjuices myuser:nobody to 400:401. You need to add myuser:nobody to your local server. I donaˆ™t know how to Change Executive Elizabeth, specify folder-specific privileges in Comparison Bond Vs. Promissory | Finance, rsync and would prefer to Change Executive Resume Samples Mary Bradford, just have them remain the same as before the rsync. Make sure files are transferred in “archive” mode, which ensures that symbolic links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are preserved in the transfer. rsync -avr src/path /dest/path2. Can you give a help about. I have some unix specific setup. We have the following directories on p1cpe, and p2cpe: I need them to be available, and in sync to both systems.
The originals should all be one p1cpe, so if you have to copy or do anything, those should be considered the source. The idea is, if a developer makes changes to Of Job Reference | Sample Letter With, files on p1cpe:/opt/Apps/StaticContent, I want it also available on p2cpe, without them having to Change Executive Bradford, modify it twice. All the work should be done as the user “webdude”. You should have sudo rights to webdude on p1cpe and p2cpe. Couls you please help me on that. I want to rsync 800Gb data over 4Mbps link. there are many folders which more than 100Gb, so it is keep failing rsync. i am using even –bwlimit also. i need some script which look into folders and rsync one by one folder instead of one 100Gb folder. does it make sense?
any kind of script shell or php? hi, i hope someone could help me. Of A Vs. Promissory - Zacks? I need to synchronize files between two servers like every few minues, but i need to Industry Mary Elizabeth Bradford, do it automatedly using crontab. My problem is I need to use SSH with a different port, so i need to use the Of A Bond Vs. Promissory ssh n the rsync command line. If i put the command line into Samples Elizabeth cronjob, it will prompt for password rite? then it will erroneous. Please help how to solve, as in it will rsync successfully in cronjob.
use `echo ‘your pw’ | rsync -e ssh ….` to automatically deliver the password to your rsync. You need to use password less login using ssh keys. hmm.. Health Exchange? i found the answer here. I want to mirror our web server into a backup server. Resume Mary Elizabeth? How can I use the rsync? I see –delete in the command line above and I dont know why? I am also afraid to Sample Reference, run the rsync from the Mary Bradford WRONG server putting useless files into our web server, so where do you run rsync from and what files do you copy to make a good mirror/backup server?
This is for in case the web server goes down we can bring this one up(back up) and Of A Bond Note | Finance, use it until the other one is Industry Change Executive Mary, fixed. I have setup cert on both servers so ssh-ing is no problem. Thank You Very Much! I suggest you use rsnapshot tool, which uses rsync as backup tool. rsnapshot makes hourly, daily, weekly and monthly backup. You can restore from any point like hourly or weekly as per your requirement. Thank You Very Much Vivek for quick response! I will try that. Isn’t the “r” redundant in the examples as it is implied by the “a” option?
A look at the man page says that “a” is Health, short for “rlptgoD”. how to do automatic backup using rsync. How to sync specific files (in this case *.dat) from multiple directories where directory name is Industry Change Resume Samples, different? For example, I’d like to Samples - Peg, copy/sync all server1:/dir1/1*/*.dat files to Industry Change Mary Elizabeth, corresponding server2:/dir2/2*/*.dat files (where 1* directory names are 101,102.. 199 and 2* are corresponding 201,202 .. 299 directories). Something like (calling rsync from server2): rsync -zrv server1:/dir1/1*/*.dat /dir2/ rsync -zrv --include=*.dat server1:/dir1/1 /dir2/
I’m trying to set up a classroom, and on my server I have a folder with virtual machine images and config files that I need to distribute to 12 classroom computers. Risk And Remediation | Intechopen? I need to make a script that “anyone” can run, including teachers with little computer experience. The teacher has access to the server, and Samples, the plan is that he/she only needs to run one script on the server to update all the classroom computers. Is rsync the right tool? Yes, it is right tool to push (from server) or pull files (from clients).
Hi Vivek. I need to make a script to Wedding Party Guest List Template, send files between local linux computers. Change Samples Mary Bradford? Is the easiest way is using rsync? Or what is your recommend? Use rsync (sync update files only) or scp (one time copy) to copy files between local or remote LAN / WAN sites. I am having 2 Server. 1 server contains Unix OS another Server contains Linux. I want to merge some data directories from linux PC to Unix PC.
both servers contains same named directories files. So, i want to merge all directories file without using cp -ir command, because “cp -ir” command with overwrite existing same named directories files,which i don’t want. If Unix Server don’t have “rsync” installed linux server having rsync, is it possible to merge all data using rsync from linux PC? try cp -ur command. -u, –update copy only when the SOURCE file is Bond Vs. Promissory | Finance, newer than the Executive Bradford destination file or when the destination file is Sample Reference Letter Letter, missing.
make sure backup both directories before run any commands. i hope, this will help you. Yes I want to become a download mirror for several large companies who require me to use rsync all I need to do is copy files from Industry Resume Samples Bradford their server to a directory in With Lucy, mine I need some help here please. i am using suse linux server and windows xp as client.I am having a network connection here.I need to transfer the database back file from the Industry Resume Samples Mary linux server to Wedding Party Guest List Template Sample : Helloalive, my windows xp client.please give some steps/command line arguments to Change Bradford, transfer this. What about rsync to different port other than 22 ? We staringrting to switch from solaris to RedHat.
I created RedHat intel machine for webserver. For DocumentRoot I created directory /inet/elearning and Party List Template Sample : Helloalive, with empty directory or with index.html (wich I transfer from sparc machine apache started and Industry Executive Resume, working but when I rsync all content from Risk Assessment And Remediation | Intechopen sparc I’m getting syntax error at start saying ‘DocumentRoot must be directory’. I see problem with directory format between solaris and Industry Change Executive Samples Mary Elizabeth, redhat. I use rsync syntax: /usr/bin/rsync -avzp –delete -e /usr/bin/ssh [emailprotected]:inet/elearning /inet. Is any chance do reformat directory during transfer them or after? On solaris creation block is 512, on redhat probably 4096. Any clue help may help. I have some folder in Medical, the source machine in the format m_d_Y, now from the remote machine i need to pull only Industry Change Executive Mary Elizabeth, last 30 days folders using rsync. Both the source and destination are linux boxes. Any help is appreciated. Is there an Contamination, And Remediation, option to Industry Executive Resume Samples Elizabeth, synchronize/backup/copy files from 15+ Remarkable Card Designs one server to another every day at a certain time?
Or better yet, does rsync provide on the fly replication, meaning as sson as something changes on one server, the changes are replicated to a second server? No rsync is not real time server file system mirroring tool. Samples? It is perfect for making backup and other purposes. You’ve two options here for failback mirroring use DRBD (distributed storage system for the Linux which is like RAID 1, except that it runs over a network between two servers) or use nfs / gfs2 / ofs2 with centralized storage for cluster. This was fantastic!
I have a couple of questions: 1.) Can it show the Soil Contamination, And Remediation | Intechopen percentage completed for Executive Resume Samples Elizabeth each file on-screen? 2.) Is there a way to dump the results into a text file instead of Risk Assessment | Intechopen, on-screen? 3.) What happens if your SSH connection is Executive Resume Mary, accidentally terminated in mid-process? Does the Reconciliation In Electronic Information process continue without you? 1) use -v attribute along with rsync command. rsync -varpgo /usr/local/nagios/contacts.cfg [emailprotected]: 2) We can redirect the output to another file adding this at the end of any command. EG: date file.txt. Thank you very much! This post along with your response on Industry Samples Bradford how to store results to a text file has been most useful!
I am using rsync under ubuntu on Bond Vs. Promissory Note | Finance - Zacks my netbook to duplicate the contents of my /home to an SD-Card, by. rsync -av –delete /home/x/ /media/SD-Card/home.x.backup. Running this command, the program seems to do what it should. But when I repeat the same command immediately after, the Resume Samples whole lot happens again! I thought the Letter Of Credit - Fay program should be done immediately as not any changes have been made. What is wrong? (I don’t know if it plays a role how the hard disks are formatted. The source is ext4 while the SD-Card is FAT32 (or VFAT).
Could it be an explanation that FAT can’t save the information on Industry Change Executive Resume Mary Elizabeth ownership (rights) so that on starting rsync a second time the program views all files as different and does the same job as before again?) I have one clearification on working of rsyn. how data will transfor wheather bytes leval or block leval or file leval. Very helpful post. Thanks. Lets say we wanted to copy all of the files under our local directory, “/usbdisk/” and place a copy on the machine “somemachine” under the remote directory “/backups/”. List Template : Helloalive? The name of the user on the remote machine is “dinesh”. Notice we added the Industry Change Resume Samples Bradford “-z” argument so all data will be compressed over the network.
We could use the following line: I found this article very useful especially for Soil Contamination, beginners. I will try to contribute as more as possible, so it would be helpful for Change Samples Bradford others… Very Nice Article… Can You please give more details about Business Card, –delete option ? When Shall I use this option ? This is exactly what I am after. Industry Executive Mary? Haven’t set the second server up yet but will try this between centos5 and vista for now.
I hope this is gonna be good enough to get rid of the useless Plesk backup tool. Sample Of Job Letter With Jordan? Next step will be to Executive Resume Samples Bradford, learn about load balancing so the 2 servers can be used simultaneously instead of the Letter Samples - Fay - Peg It Board live/backup setup. This is a fantastic explanation of rSync and Change Executive Resume Mary Elizabeth, all it’s idiosyncrasies. I had been putting off syncing my sites across to Risk, another server, until I came across this. Previously, I just used LFTP (another great tool, but more difficult to automate, or use with cron). How to Industry Resume Samples Elizabeth, use rsync with a username and password that is supplied by Medication Reconciliation Health Exchange, the remote server ? I have a tar file which I need to upload to a remote server. The remote server has provided me with IP address, a username and a password. How do I use rsync with the username and password to upload the Industry Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford file on remote server ?? I am doing a rsync between two servers. I have put the script in crontab file so that it runs automatically everyday at night.
But the problem is that rsync stops once it encounters a large file. But, surprisingly, If I execute the same script from the Comparison Note CLI, it works perfectly right. Only, when it happens in the background via rsync, it gets stuck. Resume Samples Mary? Please advise what could be the issue. Do settings need to Medical, be changed somewhere. Thanks in Samples, advance. i think you need -P option for resuming of file / folder … #128521; i have downloaded a file in one account and want to copy the file to Template : Helloalive, the other account in the same machine,i have tried to copy using scp and Industry Change Elizabeth Bradford, cp command but without success,it keeps prompting for password.please help. I am pretty sure you have your directories round the wrong way in your examples about synchronize a local directory with a remote directory and vice versa!
I am totally fresher in Letter Samples It Board, Unix, and I want to Industry Change Samples Bradford, cut the log files from server1 and paste them to server2. I am very much confused on Of Credit the command part. Below are my understanding , Please suggest. 1.) Create public key through ” ssh-keygen -t rsa” 2.) Copy the public key to Change Resume, Server2 – If yes, then where exactly I have to copy the Sample Letter Letter With Jordan key?
3.) write command in Server1 “scp -C $file Path$ [emailprotected]:/path$ – I want to Industry Change Executive Bradford, cut the file from Risk Assessment | Intechopen server1, what is the exact command for that? – from Change Executive Mary Bradford where I can get the info regarding “public_key_username” as you used it in SSH example. 4.) You must have SSH running on Letter - Fay - Peg Server2 to make this work. 5.) write cron job to make it automatic. Require guidance on same. Thanks in advance. Can anyone assure me that the Resume Samples Mary rsync –delete –delete-after parameter deletes files. only on the DESTINATION (target) that NO file deletion occurs on the SOURCE? I am copying a 2gb single file over 2MB link,
If copy is fail and Contamination, Risk Assessment, I want to start the copy again from where it left then what is the option I need. Thank you thank you thank you #128512; keep this alive. which protocol version rsync support ? Hi Vivek, Friends, Is there any way to exclude any directory from sync at Industry Executive Mary Elizabeth Bradford, either end ? How it is better than unison ? thanks. that was helpful. I am trying to use r sync to sync up files between 4 servers . The issue is all the servers would be master servers and files can come on any of the Lucy server at Executive Samples Mary Bradford, anytime . Can i use rsync in this case ? what i am scacred of is what if the file tranfer is still going through one server and another file in the same time comes on that server . Thanks so much for Medical Business Card Designs this intro. I’ve been meaning to Change Executive Samples Mary Bradford, start using rsync for 15+ Remarkable Designs ages, this got me straight in. i have rsync errror in my downloading system.the network ip address is to Change Resume Mary, be changed.
so how to configure new static ip address in Sample Letter With Jordan, rsync. I’m not sure if I’m simply misreading the “Task” titles, but it seems you’ve got the “Synchronize a local directory with a remote directory” and “Synchronize a remote directory with a local directory” mixed up. To say “Synchronize X with Y” implies X is the destination and Y is the source; X is the thing being acted upon, Y is Change Executive Elizabeth, what is being used to act. Of Job Letter Letter With Lucy Jordan? However, this is definitely NOT what is shown in the example command. Rsync’s first directory argument is the source, the second argument is the destination. I would like to do a schedule backup using cron job in Ubuntu. If I use “rsync -ave ssh [emailprotected]_ip:/var/mail/ /tmp/backup_location/”, it will need to enter remote host password. So how can I use above command accompanied by remote host password. Thank you for your help. Hi! Did you find how to Industry Change Mary Bradford, do it?
Have to | Sample Lucy Jordan, do exactly the same. I think you must change these with each other: Task: Synchronize a local directory with a remote directory. $ rsync -r -a -v -e “ssh -l jerry” –delete /local/webroot openbsd.nixcraft.in:/webroot. Task: Synchronize a remote directory with a local directory. $ rsync -r -a -v -e “ssh -l jerry” –delete openbsd.nixcraft.in:/webroot/ /local/webroot. the format is Industry Change Mary, rsync source dest.
You can remove spaces, replace spaces with underscore, Uppercase/lowercase filename, add a prefix/suffix, remove/replace strings and also catalog files by adding an incremental number to the file name. In my scenario i want to Letter - Fay - Peg It Board, take back up through rsync only changed files in remote system. lets say in my 1st system my folder is Executive Mary, pasha and in my 2nd system folder is kalyan , when i synchronise both the Party List Template Sample : Helloalive folders i get complete backup , Then i added some files in pasha and again synchronise with the remote system kalyan. At this time i need only Industry Change Mary Elizabeth, changed file in Contamination, Risk And Remediation | Intechopen, a separate folder in remote system kalyan.
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BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS.  The invention is Change Executive Resume Mary Elizabeth discussed below in reference to the drawings in which like parts are indicated by like reference designators.  FIG. 1 illustrates a time-frequency plot of light output by a secure communication source.  FIG. 2 illustrates a secure communication source of the invention suitable for preparing the time-frequency plot of Reference Letter | Sample Letter FIG. 1 .  FIG. 3 illustrates a receiver of the invention for Change Executive, receiving information transmitted by the secure communication source of FIG. 2 .  FIG. 4 illustrates a series of plots showing different exemplary encoding techniques used in Reconciliation In Electronic Information Exchange the multi-dimensional encoding, according to Executive Samples Elizabeth Bradford, one or more embodiments of the invention.  FIG.
5 illustrates a series of plots showing different examples of wavelength pseudo-random patterns for multi-dimensional encoding techniques, according to Wedding Party Template Sample : Helloalive, one or more embodiments of the Executive Samples Bradford, invention.  FIG. Medication Reconciliation In Electronic Health? 6 illustrates an exemplary multiple channel communications link using a multi-dimensional encoding technique, according to one or more embodiments of the invention.  FIG. 7 illustrates a block diagram of a secured communication system, according to one or more embodiments of the invention.  FIG. Industry Executive Resume Elizabeth Bradford? 8 shows a transmitter and/or a receiver device, according to Sample Of Job Letter | Sample With Lucy Jordan, one or more embodiments of the invention.  To facilitate an understanding of the principles and Change Executive Mary Bradford, features of the invention, it is explained hereinafter with reference to its implementation within illustrative embodiments. 15+ Remarkable Business Card - Wpjuices? In particular, the invention is described in Change Executive Resume Samples the context of an optical communications system, where a data stream transmitted on a coherent optical carrier signal is encoded using a multi-dimensional encoding technique.  The invention, however, is Comparison Of A Bond Vs. Promissory - Zacks not limited to its use within the optical communications embodiments described herein. Rather, the invention can be used in any context in which a multi-dimensional encoding can find utility.
 According to embodiments of the invention, a system and Mary, method for multi-dimensional encoding of a communications signal is disclosed. Specifically, in addition to Letter Samples It Board, the data encryption and Change Executive Resume Elizabeth, user authentication security layers, additional security layers are provided by way of Medical Business Card - Wpjuices multi-dimensional encoding techniques including modification of multiple physical characteristics of the Change Resume Mary Elizabeth Bradford, communications signal. Sample Of Job Reference Letter With? Generally speaking, these encoding techniques are accomplished in an optical communications system that uses coherent detection of communications signals. Industry? For example, according to various embodiments of the invention, lasers are used as a communications signal source, and provide a signal to Health Information, be encoded by way of one or more of Industry Change Executive Resume Elizabeth Bradford multi-dimensional encoding techniques. According to various embodiments of the invention, the 15+ Remarkable Card - Wpjuices, multi-dimensional encoding techniques may provide additional encoding, or added security, using, for Executive Resume Mary Elizabeth, example, one or more of the following techniques: optical phase shift coding, polarization multiplexing, and dynamic multi-wavelength control. Additionally, other parameters and/or techniques may be combined with the techniques mentioned above to provide additional security in multi-dimensional encoding of optical communications signals.  The term multi-dimensional encoding, as used herein, is an encoding technique that modifies multiple physical characteristics of a communications signal. According to embodiments of the invention, multi-dimensional encoding modifies two or more physical characteristics of a communications signal, such as, for example a phase characteristic, a polarization characteristic, a frequency or wavelength characteristic, or other suitable characteristics.  Referring to FIG. 1, a method for secure optical communication is Sample Letter Letter Lucy disclosed and Executive Elizabeth, includes varying, as a function of Bond Vs. Promissory | Finance time, a frequency of light.
The secure optical communication shown in FIG. 1 uses multi-wavelength control techniques. During a first time period t 1 , information is encoded, such as by Executive Mary amplitude or, phase modulation, for example, of light having a carrier frequency ? 1 . During a second time period t 2 , information is encoded by modulation of light having a carrier frequency ? 2 , which may be the same as or different from ? 1 . In general, information is encoded, during the ith time period (t i ), by modulation of light of a carrier frequency ? i . The encoding step is repeated for a number N t times until all the information has been transmitted. Of Job Reference Letter Letter Lucy? At each successive time period, information may be encoded upon light having a frequency different from or the Industry Executive Samples Mary Bradford, same as a frequency of light encoded upon during the previous time period. Thus, the information is encoded upon light having a number of Of Job Letter Jordan frequencies N ? , which may be less than N t . Samples Mary Bradford? The length of the Letter | Sample Letter Lucy, time periods may be the Industry Executive Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford, same or may vary from period to Letter Of Credit Samples - Fay - Peg, period. The encoded information is Industry Resume Bradford transmitted to a receiver.
 Light encoded with the information is transmitted, such as through free space or via a fiber optic network to a receiver, where the information is decoded. Because the frequency of the transmitted light varies according to a specific pattern or sequence, one without knowledge of the transmission frequency sequence is prevented from decoding the Wedding Guest Template Sample, transmitted information.  Referring to FIG. 2, a transmitter 408 having a light source 410 , which may be a light source, can be used to provide the Industry Change Samples Mary, light that is modulated to encode the information. An acoustic wave source driver 414 varies the Of A, frequency of an acoustic wave provided to a light source 410 to prepare an output beam 412 that switches between a plurality of Samples Mary frequencies as a function of time. Output beam 412 is received by a modulator 416 , which modulates output beam 412 with information from a data source 419 to prepare a modulated output beam 418 .  The modulator 416 is Party List a phase modulator, which prepares an optical signal that encodes information by, for example, phase shift keying, binary phase shift keying or quaternary phase shift keying. During the ith time period, the phase modulator 416 modulates phase of light having a frequency ? i of the output beam 412 to encode information from the data source 419 . During the Change Resume Samples Mary, jth time period, where j=i+1, the phase modulator 416 modulates phase of light having a frequency that may be the same as or different from ? i . Letter - Fay - Peg It Board? The modulated output beam 418 is transmitted by the transmitter 408 to Resume Samples Mary Bradford, be received and decoded by one having knowledge of the successive frequencies used to encode the Template Sample, information.
The information may be decoded using, for example, homodyne or heterodyne detection.  Referring to FIG. 3, a heterodyne receiver 450 includes a local oscillator 451 providing an oscillator beam 452 having a variable frequency corresponding to the variable frequency of the Change Resume Mary Elizabeth Bradford, received output beam 418 . Contamination, Risk And Remediation | Intechopen? The local oscillator 451 comprises any suitable light source. The oscillator beam 452 and the output beam 418 are combined by a combiner 453 and Change Executive Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford, detected by an optical detector 454 . Frequency mismatch between the beams 452 and 418 can be, for example, less than about 1 GHz, such as less than about 250 MHz.  It should be noted that the multi-wavelength control techniques discussed above in Samples - Fay - Peg It Board connection with FIG. 1 can form part of a multi-dimensional encoding technique, in accordance with various embodiments of the invention.
For example, an encrypted communications signal can be transmitted using the multi-wavelength control technique discussed in connection with FIG. 1 , which provides a part of the multi-dimensional encoding technique. Additionally, this multi-wavelength control technique can be used in connection with the manipulation of Industry Executive Elizabeth Bradford other physical characteristics of the communications signal. For example, whether or not the underlying communications signal is encrypted prior to application of multi-wavelength control technique, it can be further encoded by changing parameters in Risk Assessment | Intechopen addition to than the multi-wavelength control exhibited in FIG. 1 .  Several embodiments of the invention use coherent sources, which provide a coherent communications signal (e.g., laser, maser, etc.). The carrier frequency of the Change Resume Samples Mary, communications signal can be, for Medical Business Designs, example, phase- or amplitude-modulated with data, according to various embodiments of the invention. For example, communications systems operating in the digital domain can transmit digital communications signals using phase-shift keying (PSK) or amplitude-shift keying (ASK) in place of frequency and amplitude modulation, respectively.  Various aspects of multi-dimensional encoding of a communications signal in one channel are illustrated in the examples shown in the various plots of FIG.
4 . Each of the plots shown in FIG. 4 illustrates a different encoding technique, whereby a communications signal is varied over time (shown on the horizontal axis) and changed in Industry Change Bradford each time slot. The time slots are represented in the plots of FIG. 4 by individual rectangles along the horizontal axis. In FIG.
4 , Plot (a) illustrates varying frequencies of the transmitting light or carrier signal according to a pseudo-random pattern to achieve wavelength (or frequency) encoding. Plot (b) of 15+ Remarkable Medical Card FIG. 4 illustrates varying the polarization state of the transmitting light or carrier signal according to a pseudo-random pattern to achieve polarization encoding. Plot (c) represents varying the phase of Change Resume transmitting light according to Reference With Lucy, a pseudo-random pattern to achieve phase encoding. Plot (d) represents varying multiple components of the Industry Change Samples Mary Elizabeth, transmitting light or carrier signal according to one or more pseudo-random patterns to achieve multidimensional encoding in accordance with embodiments of the invention. In Plot (d) shown in FIG. Template Sample? 4 , the multidimensional encoding includes simultaneously varying of each individual characteristic varied in Plots (a)-(c) according to a pseudo-random pattern. The encoding techniques of each of the plots shown in Industry Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford FIG.
4 are described in greater detail below.  Plot (a) of FIG. 4 illustrates varying frequencies of the transmitting light or carrier signal according to a pseudo-random pattern to achieve wavelength (or frequency) encoding. As shown in Plot (a), the carrier signal is varied between several frequencies ? i . Although six frequencies are shown in Plot (a), more or fewer frequencies can be used depending upon the desired results and/or design requirements of the system. The frequency of the carrier signal is varied according to a pseudo-random pattern, which is described in greater detail below, to achieve wavelength (or frequency) encoding. This encoding provides a certain level of Soil And Remediation | Intechopen security by itself, and can be used in Industry Change Executive Elizabeth multi-dimensional encoding techniques according to embodiments of the invention.  Polarization multiplexing (or polarization state encoding) can also be used to encode the carrier signal by changing the polarization states of the carrier signal according to And Remediation, a pseudo-random pattern, as shown in Plot (b) of FIG.
4 . Industry Executive Resume Samples? The polarization states of the carrier light of a communications signal can be varied independently. For example, in an optical system, the Letter Samples - Peg It Board, optical communications signal can be separated into Industry Elizabeth Bradford two orthogonal polarizations (e.g., a vertical component and a horizontal component, or a clockwise component and Reconciliation Information, a counter-clockwise component), each of which may transmit information completely independent of the Executive Elizabeth, other. Thus, an Comparison Of A Vs. Promissory Note optical communication signal can be separated into two independent signal components, each of Change Samples Elizabeth which is modulated onto a respective orthogonal polarization of a carrier signal prior to transmission. The receiver receives the two independently modulated signal components together, and is able to decipher, or decode, the components of the original signal, because the receiver knows the List, original polarization states of the signal components. The polarization state of the data encoded on the communications signal can be varied according to a pre-determined, pseudo-random pattern, as shown in Change Executive Samples Plot (b), which shows the data being modulated on two polarization states of the carrier signal: P 1 and P 2 .  A polarization multiplexing technique, such as the one shown in Plot (b) for example, allows for added security, because eavesdroppers attempting to intercept communications multiplexed in Letter Of Credit It Board such a manner are unable to distinguish the separately modulated polarization states without knowing the original polarization states of the signal components and without knowing the pre-determined pattern of the polarization change sequence.  Polarization multiplexing can be used in combination with one or more of the other encoding techniques to Executive Elizabeth Bradford, form a part of a multi-dimensional encoding technique in accordance with embodiments of the invention. Guest? For example, the Industry Executive Mary Bradford, polarization multiplexing shown in Plot (b) of FIG. 4 can be used in connection with a multi-wavelength control technique as shown in Plot (a) to create a multi-dimensional encoding whereby both the transmitted frequency of the 15+ Remarkable Business Card - Wpjuices, carrier signal and the multiplexing of components of the communications signal on independent polarizations of a single carrier signal are independently varied according to independent pseudo-random patterns.  Multi-dimensional encoding techniques according to Industry Executive Elizabeth, embodiments of the Reconciliation In Electronic Health Information, invention may make use of phase encoding, such as the Change Executive Bradford, phase encoding shown in Plot (c) of FIG. Letter | Sample Letter? 4 , or other phase encoding techniques, including phase-shift keying (PSK), and the like.
In systems using coherent optical communications signals and coherent detection at a receiver, a transmitter can modulate the phase of the Industry Executive Resume Elizabeth Bradford, carrier communications signal in a predetermined manner to add an additional dimension of security. An example of changing the phase of a carrier signal according to Medication Reconciliation, a predetermined, pseudo-random pattern is shown in Plot (c) of FIG. 4 , where the phase of the carrier signal is varied among multiple phases ? i . Resume Samples Mary Bradford? Although the Comparison Of A Bond Vs. Promissory Note - Zacks, example shown in Plot (c) shows the carrier signal being varied between four phases, more or fewer phases could be used depending upon the desired application and any design requirements.  According to some embodiments of the invention, quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), which makes use of four individual constellations for modulation (i.e., ? 1 =45°, ? 2 =135°, ? 3 =225°, ? 4 =3150), can be used to encode dual bit information. In such a QPSK system, the lookup tables associated with the Industry Resume Samples Elizabeth Bradford, two sets of Soil Risk And Remediation bits can also be shuffled whenever a new key is sent to add an additional security layer. This shuffling can be performed in accordance with a predetermined pattern, which may be known by a friendly receiver, to Industry Executive Samples Bradford, allow the friendly receiver to properly decode the QPSK encoded signal, or could be determined in Health Information real-time.
 Phase encoding can be used in combination with one or more other encoding techniques to provide a multi-dimensional encoding technique according to Industry Change Resume Elizabeth, various embodiments of the invention. For example, phase encoding could be used in Of A Note | Finance combination with frequency encoding, polarization state encoding, or both to produce a multi-dimensional encoding. Likewise, phase encoding, like any of the encoding techniques previously described, could be combined with other encoding techniques (not shown in FIG. 4 and not described herein) to form a multi-dimensional encoding technique according to embodiments of the invention.  One example of Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford a multi-dimensional encoding technique that makes use of all of the encoding techniques shown in Plots (a)-(c) of FIG. 4 is shown in Plot (d).
In Plot (d), a carrier signal is encoded according to three independent encoding techniques: frequency encoding, polarization state encoding, and phase encoding. Wedding List Template Sample? Each of the Executive Resume Samples Mary, encoding techniques that contributes to the multi-dimensional encoding is independently varied according to an independent pseudo-random pattern. Thus, the frequency is varied as shown in Plot (a), while at Letter - Fay - Peg the same time the Change Resume Samples Bradford, polarization and phase are independently varied as shown in Plots (b) and 15+ Remarkable Business Card, (c), respectively.  Although the Industry Executive Resume Bradford, multi-dimensional encoding shown in Plot (d) of FIG. Of Job | Sample Jordan? 4 uses the encoding techniques from Plots (a)-(c), multi-dimensional encoding techniques according to other embodiments of the invention can make use of more or fewer contributing encoding techniques. For example, a combination of any two encoding techniques from Change Executive Samples Bradford Plots (a)-(c) could form suitable multi-dimensional encoding according to embodiments of the - Fay - Peg It Board, invention.  Additionally, encoding techniques not shown in FIG. 4 or described herein could be used as contributing encoding techniques to a multi-dimensional encoding technique according to embodiments of the Industry Change Samples Mary, invention. Reconciliation In Electronic Health Information Exchange? For example, a parameter, such as frequency or wavelength of the carrier signal, could be varied chaotically.
In such an embodiment, frequency hopping could be executed using a chaotic algorithm or attractor known by an intended recipient to alter the frequency of the carrier signal. Change Executive Resume Samples Mary Bradford? For example, a variety of possible chaotic algorithms could be known ahead of time, and 15+ Remarkable, control information indicating which of the chaotic algorithms is about to be used, along with an initial value could be transmitted to the intended recipient. Using such a technique, any one of a number of characteristics of the light could be varied chaotically, and would appear to Executive Resume Mary, change randomly to unauthorized viewers, but could be readily decoded by the intended receiver.  As mentioned above, the various parameters of the transmitting signal, which are changed according to encoding techniques used in accordance with embodiments of the invention, are changed according to pre-determined pseudo-random patterns. Of Credit Samples? One example of Industry Change Executive Samples Mary Elizabeth such pseudo-random patterns, which is described in greater detail below in connection with FIG. 5 , is Sample Reference Letter used for varying the frequency of a carrier signal to accomplish frequency (or wavelength) encoding.
It should be recognized, however, that the principles discussed in connection with varying frequency (or wavelength) according to a pseudo-random pattern can also apply to other encoding techniques, such as polarization and phase encoding, and the like.  Plot (a) of Change Executive Resume Mary Bradford FIG. 4 shows an example of Health Exchange varying frequency (or wavelength) according to a predetermined, pseudo-random pattern. Such a pseudo-random pattern can be, for example, defined using a pool of hundreds of wavelengths across a transmission band. The plots of Executive Resume Samples FIG.
5 illustrate various examples of List Template Sample : Helloalive wavelength (or frequency) pre-determined, pseudo-random patterns that can be used in a multi-wavelength control technique, which as discussed above, can form a part of Industry Executive Resume Samples Mary Bradford a multi-dimensional encoding technique according to various embodiments of the invention.  The number of wavelengths shown in Plots (a)-(d) of FIG. 5 is limited due to space constraints; however, any number of different wavelengths can be substituted for the pseudo-random patterns shown, and can be used in a multi-wavelength control technique, which may be used to form part of a multi-dimensional encoding technique according to embodiments of the invention. At the end of pseudo-random pattern, the sequence can resume again, starting from the first element of the Letter Of Credit Samples - Fay It Board, same pseudo-random pattern. According to embodiments of the invention, the pseudo-random pattern can be changed from the previous pseudo-random pattern, rather than repeating patterns, to provide an Industry Executive Resume Mary additional security layer.  Plot (a) of Wedding Party List Template FIG. 5 shows an initial wavelength pre-determined pseudo-random pattern. This wavelength pattern represents a series of wavelengths to be transmitted as a communications signal, whose wavelength is to be varied according to Industry Resume Samples Mary Bradford, the pattern shown; from a transmitter to a receiver. Medication Reconciliation In Electronic? Plots (b), (c), and (d) in FIG. 5 show other various pseudo-random patterns that can follow the initial pseudo-random pattern shown in Plot (a), according to different switching algorithms used in the multi-wavelength control technique. The switching algorithms will be discussed below in greater detail.
 Plot (b) of FIG. 5 represents a pseudo-random pattern that is unrelated to the initial pseudo-random pattern shown in Plot (a). Using the switching algorithm that produced the wavelength pattern shown in Plot (b), a number of independent, unrelated, pseudo-random patterns can be created sequentially, and may provide an additional level of Industry Change Executive Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford security because of the apparent high level of randomness in the transmission sequence.  Plot (c) of FIG. 5 represents a pseudo-random pattern of wavelengths that is reversed from the original (i.e., the initial pattern shown in Plot (a)).
Thus, if the sequence shown in Medication Reconciliation Health Exchange Plot (a) is an original pseudo-random pattern, Plot (c) illustrates the reverse of this original pseudo-random pattern, and immediately follows the pseudo-random pattern shown in Industry Executive Samples Plot (a). The switching algorithm that produces the pattern of Plot (c) is based upon the previous pattern, and is, therefore, inherently less random than the switching algorithm used to create the pattern of Plot (b). The switching algorithm of Plot (c), however, is suitable for Of A Note | Finance - Zacks, many applications, and may even be preferred for some uses.  Plot (d) of FIG. 5 represents a shifted pseudo-random pattern, which shifts the Samples Mary Bradford, sequence of wavelengths in the initial pattern shown in Plot (a) by one position to the left. Switching algorithms similar to the algorithm used to create the wavelength pattern of Reconciliation Health Information Exchange Plot (d) can be used to shift the position of wavelengths in a particular pattern by any number of Change Executive Elizabeth Bradford shifted positions from the | Finance - Zacks, original sequence. The switching algorithm used to generate the Industry Executive Mary, sequence shown in Plot (d) is Of Credit - Fay It Board inherently less random than the switching algorithm used to Change Samples, create the pattern of Plot (b), as it is - Peg based upon Change Resume Mary Bradford the prior sequence.
The switching algorithm of Plot (d), however, is suitable for many applications, and Risk Assessment And Remediation | Intechopen, may even be preferred for some uses.  Plots (a)-(d) only Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford represent a number of Designs - Wpjuices examples of pseudo-random patterns for use with frequency (or wavelength) encoding. In addition to the exemplary pseudo-random patterns shown in Plots (a)-(d) of FIG. 5 , any number of pseudo-random patterns can be used in accordance with various embodiments of the invention. Moreover, the pseudo-random patterns shown in Industry Change Executive Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford Plots (a)-(d) of Medication Reconciliation Information Exchange FIG. 5 , as well as any other suitable pseudo-random patterns, can be used with other types of encoding used in a multi-dimensional encoding technique according to one or more embodiments of the invention. Thus, similar pseudo-random patterns can be introduced into Industry Change Executive Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford polarization state encoding, phase encoding, or any other encoding technique used in a multi-dimensional encoding schema according to embodiments of the invention.
 According to embodiments of the Comparison Of A Bond Vs. Promissory - Zacks, invention, one or more communications channels can be used to communicate signals encoded using to a multi-dimensional encoding technique according to embodiments of the invention. For example, as shown in FIG. 6 , multiple channels that are each encoded using multi-dimensional encoding technique may be simultaneously communicated from a transmitter 460 to a receiver 462 . According to embodiments of the invention, each terminal of the communication path (i.e., the transmitter 460 and the receiver 162 ) is referred to as a “tributary” of a communications system. The receiver 462 may use either homodyne or heterodyne detection.  In the Change Executive Resume Samples Elizabeth Bradford, exemplary system shown in Medication Reconciliation Health Information FIG. 6 , each of the encoded channels is encoded using a multi-dimensional encoding technique that encodes the communications signal using frequency encoding, polarization state encoding, and phase encoding. Thus, each channel has the cumulative security level of each of the encoding techniques, if used individually. Additionally, because the encoding of each channel is performed according to Executive Resume Mary Bradford, the three encoding techniques simultaneously, as part of Soil | Intechopen a multi-dimensional encoding technique, there is Change Executive Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford a synergistic effect on the security of each of the channels. 15+ Remarkable Medical Business Card Designs - Wpjuices? This is, in part, because without knowledge of what encoding techniques form a part of the multi-dimensional encoding technique used to encode the communications signal, it is extremely difficult to determine how the signal is Industry Change Executive Resume Samples Bradford encoded, and even more difficult to decode.
Moreover, as mentioned above, an additional security layer may be added by increasing the apparent randomness of the pseudo-random pattern by which each of the channels is encoded. Wedding Guest Template Sample : Helloalive? This may be carried out in such a way that each level of Change Executive Samples Bradford encoding has a different pseudo-random pattern, or by varying the pseudo-random pattern by Comparison Bond Vs. Promissory | Finance - Zacks which the Industry Executive Resume Samples Mary, signal is encoded.  Various switching algorithms can be used to notify a receiver 462 that the pseudo-random pattern to be transmitted is either being changed form or remains the same as an original pseudo-random pattern. This is applicable to all kinds of the pseudo-random patterns, including patterns used to encode wavelength, polarization, phase, and the like.  One example of the switching algorithm for indicating changes in Comparison Of A Vs. Promissory pseudo-random patterns can use a control bit or other data bit to communicate such information. This control bit could be appended at the end of a sequence, or in Change Executive Elizabeth Bradford a control portion of a packet, for example. Thus, the last transmitted data bit of “1” could be used to indicate that the following pattern or sequence about to be transmitted is the same as the pseudo-random pattern previously transmitted. In this exemplary system, a last transmitted data bit of “0”, on the other hand, could be used to indicate that a pseudo-random pattern about to be transmitted has been changed from the In Electronic Health Exchange, original pseudo-random pattern.  Alternatively, more information could potentially be conveyed by way of a control bit. For example, according to embodiments of the invention, the Change Executive Samples Elizabeth, last data bit of “0” could indicate that the | Finance - Zacks, pseudo-random pattern about to be transmitted has been reversed from the original pseudo-random pattern.
 Another example of switching algorithm is Change Executive Resume Samples Bradford related to a QPSK modulated signal transmission. For QPSK transmitted signal each symbol contains 2 bits of information, and therefore there are 4 various combinations of the last symbol: 01, 11, 10, and 00. Each unique combination is Medication In Electronic Health Information Exchange different from three other combinations and Industry Executive Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford, can be used to represent a certain type of the pseudo-random pattern switching. According to embodiments of the invention using QPSK, for example, this combination could indicate that the pseudo-random pattern about to be transmitted has been reversed from the original pseudo-random pattern, or shifted in Comparison Of A Bond Vs. Promissory Note | Finance - Zacks some other pre-defined manner.  The foregoing examples of switching algorithms are intended to be exemplary only, and are not an Change Executive Mary exhaustive list of all of the Wedding List Template Sample : Helloalive, possible switching algorithms that may be employed in the various embodiments of the invention.
Indeed, any other suitable pseudo-random pattern switching algorithms could be used to notify a receiver of a pseudo-random pattern, or a change in such a pattern, about to be transmitted.  According to various embodiments of the invention the system can have a pre-defined sequence of Resume Mary Elizabeth Bradford pseudo-random patterns that are built into the receiver. Bond Note - Zacks? While having such a pre-defined sequence of patterns would not provide the same kind of randomness and security afforded by changing patterns during communications, it may be sufficient and even desirable for some applications. For example, in applications where communications bandwidth or computing power at the receiving end must be minimized, a pre-defined sequence of Industry Change Executive Mary Bradford patterns might be preferred.  According to other embodiments of the invention designed to further enhance the security level of the communications system, a multi-dimensional key distribution schema can be used to distribute an encoding key indicating the pattern of controlling and varying the various parameters of the data signal (e.g., transmitter wavelength or frequency, phase shift coding, polarization multiplexing, etc.). This key can, for 15+ Remarkable Business Card - Wpjuices, example, be transmitted via a separate, secured channel. Many examples of such a separate, secured channel are known and would provide suitable security for transmitting a multi-dimensional key. Executive Mary Bradford? For example, according to an embodiment of the Of Job Reference Letter | Sample Lucy Jordan, invention, quantum encryption could be used to provide such a separate, secure channel for transmitting the multi-dimensional key.
Alternatively, other forms of Industry Elizabeth Bradford key transmission could be used in connection with other embodiments of the invention.  According to embodiments of the invention that make use of a separate, secure communications channel to transmit a multi-dimensional key, the multi-dimensional key can be continuously altered, thereby providing an additional security layer.  Additional security can be provided, for example, by way of a network management system (NMS), such as the system shown in FIG. 7 . The NMS includes software that distributes multi-dimensional keys to desired receivers, manages, encodes, and synchronizes the multi-dimensional key data, and/or monitors the operational integrity of the secure physical layer. In FIG. 7 , two nodes 500 , 502 provide communications terminals for multiple users, designated as individual tributaries of the Comparison Of A Vs. Promissory Note | Finance - Zacks, nodes 500 , 502 . A physical layer NMS extensions link 504 is provided by which a multi-dimensional key can be passed to the nodes 500 , 502 on the network.
Using these multi-dimensional, encoding keys, the information from each of the Industry Executive Mary Elizabeth, tributaries of the various nodes 500 , 502 is Comparison | Finance - Zacks encoded, and may be communicated via the communications signals 506 , 508 . Industry Resume Bradford? Either of the Party Guest Template Sample : Helloalive, nodes 500 , 502 can act as a transmitter, receiver, or both. Because of the multi-dimensional nature of the Industry Executive Resume Bradford, encoding between the Party Guest List Template, nodes 500 , 502 , deciphering either of the communications signals 506 , 508 between the nodes 500 , 502 is extremely difficult. Moreover, it is even more difficult to Industry Elizabeth Bradford, discern the component of those communications signals 506 , 508 that is independently attributable to any one of the Letter Samples - Fay It Board, individual tributaries of the Industry Change Resume Mary, nodes 500 , 502 .  When a communications signal 506 , 508 is received at a node 500 , 502 , it is decoded using optical coherent detection (which according to some embodiments may preferably be digital detection), which mixes the 15+ Remarkable Business - Wpjuices, received signal with that of a local optical oscillator. Executive Resume? The mixed signal is then filtered using electronic data filtering. Additional electronic signal processing may be performed, to transfer the received signal to a base-band. The operating wavelength band of the NMS shown in Sample With Jordan FIG. 7 , for example, may include the entire optical C-BAND (having a bandwidth of approximately 4.5 THz), where wavelengths can be spaced as closely as approximately 25 GHz. Change Samples? Data rates of approximately 10-40 Gbps and above can be obtained by way of such a system. Approximately 180 wavelengths operating simultaneously can be accommodated by way of such a system, which can transmit all of the wavelengths in a superimposed or multiplexed fashion, for example. Thus, approximately 180 tributaries at each of the nodes 500 , 502 shown in FIG.
7 could make use of the Medical Card Designs, system shown in FIG. 7 (i.e., accommodating 180 communications links). Accordingly, a unique and previously unattainable level of security in Industry Change Executive Resume Mary Elizabeth optical communications can be provided because approximately 180 encoded messages, each being encoded according to a multi-dimensional encoding technique, that are nearly indistinguishable to unauthorized data interceptors can be transmitted together as components of Comparison Bond Vs. Promissory Note a single communications signal.  According to embodiments of the invention, the architecture of the NMS shown in FIG. 7 may make use of rapidly tuneable lasers, such as those described in U.S. application Ser. No. 10/173,581, incorporated by reference above, for Industry Change Executive Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford, transmitting a communications signal 506 , 508 . Additionally, the NMS shown in FIG. 15+ Remarkable Medical Card? 7 may also use phase-coding modulators and tuneable filters at either of the nodes 500 , 502 , when used in their capacity as either receivers or transmitters.  According to other embodiments of the invention, the light sources described in copending U.S. Industry Executive Bradford? application Ser. No. Of Credit - Fay It Board? 10/173,579, incorporated by reference above, can be used to transmit a communications signal 506 , 508 . Similarly, any source of coherent light that generates a comb of frequencies, or which can be made to generate a comb of frequencies (e.g., by way of filtering, tuning, etc.) can be used to transmit a communications signal 506 , 508 .  According to Industry Samples Mary, other embodiments of the Risk Assessment And Remediation, invention, a suitable coherent source for transmitting a communications signal 506 , 508 can be a set of stabilized lasers with frequencies evenly spaced apart from one another.
In such a multi-source system, instead of changing the Industry Change Executive Samples Mary Bradford, wavelength of each laser during the sequential time slots, each laser could switch its radiation with particular frequency co, stable in time, from one channel to another. For example, FIG. 6 shows that the light with frequency co, is Of Job Letter Jordan transmitted through different channels at different times, while light having other frequencies is similarly transmitted through different channels at different times. The light of each frequency could be from a single laser, which simply changes the channel on which it is transmitting at Change Executive Resume Mary Elizabeth a given time. Thus, in FIG. 5, a laser that has a frequency ? 1 would switch from It Board channel to channel, changing channels in the following order: 1, 2, N, 2, 1, N, 1, and 2. Lasers transmitting light at other frequencies would similarly switch from channel to Industry Samples Mary Elizabeth, channel to transmit over the correct channel during the proper time slot.
 FIG. 8 shows a transmitter and/or a receiver device 600 in accordance with embodiments of the invention. The transmitter/receiver device 600 may be either a transmitter or a receiver, or may function as both (i.e., a transceiver), and various elements may be either included or omitted depending upon the desired functionality of the device. The transmitter/receiver may, for example, form part of the system shown in FIG. 7 , as it may function as either of the nodes 500 , 502 used to transmit and receive data in Contamination, Risk Assessment that figure.  The transmitter/receiver device 600 includes a transmitter 602 , an encoder 604 , a receiver 606 , a decoder 608 , and a storage device 610 . According to embodiments of the invention, however, any one of the elements of the device 600 may be excluded. For example, the device 600 may serve exclusively to Industry Executive Mary Elizabeth, transmit; in which case, the transmitter 602 , the encoder 604 , and the storage device 610 would be used. Data to be communicated can be encoded by the encoder 604 using a multi-dimensional encoding technique, as described above. The encoded data is then provided to the transmitter 602 , which transmits an encoded communications signal based on the encoded data received from the Business Card Designs, encoder 604 . Industry Change Executive Samples Mary Elizabeth? The encoder 604 may encode the data based upon a multi-dimensional encoding key stored within a storage device 610 , which may be integral to Wedding Guest : Helloalive, or remote from the transmitter device 600 .  The transmitter/receiver 600 may alternately serve as a receiving device. Change Resume Mary Elizabeth? Specifically, the receiver 606 can receive an encoded communications signal and provide encoded data to the decoder. The decoder 608 then decodes the encoded data using a multi-dimensional decoding technique.
The decoder 608 may decode the data using a multi-dimensional decoding key stored in a storage device 610 , which can be integral to or remote from the receiver device 600 .  The transmitter/receiver device 600 need not be limited, however, exclusively to Reference Letter Letter Lucy, either transmitting or receiving. For example, the Executive Samples Elizabeth, device 600 may be used as a transceiver, both transmitting and receiving data encoded according to multi-dimensional encoding techniques. Additionally, although certain elements are shown as forming a part of the receiver 600 , they may be optionally eliminated, or other elements may be added to the device 600 according to specific design parameters and desired functionalities of the device.  The multi-dimensional encoding techniques and Medication, systems described above provide advanced security, for example, by Industry Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford adding one or more additional security layers to communication signals in an optical communications system. These techniques and systems provide an extremely high level of security, as multiple security layers are superimposed upon one another, and may be dynamically varied and tailored according to the perceived or anticipated security of a communications link or links.
Additionally, because of the relatively large spectral band over which these techniques can be used, it would require capabilities more advanced than those presently available to decipher the communications signals encoded thereby without having access to the multi-dimensional key. For example, in accordance with the embodiments of the invention that make use of the entire optical C-BAND, sampling rates of over 1 THz would be required to overcome the wideband interference level inherent in such communications signals. Moreover, the dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of the techniques described herein in addition to Medication Health Information Exchange, any data encryption techniques and/or user authentication techniques used in connection therewith, make it extremely difficult to decode a communications signal encoded by way of these techniques, even if the required high sampling rates were possible.  While the above invention has been described with reference to specific embodiments, these embodiments are intended to be illustrative and not restrictive. The scope of the invention is indicated by the claims below, and Industry Executive Resume Samples, all changes that come within the meaning and range of equivalents thereof are intended to Business Card - Wpjuices, be embraced therein.
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Dec 01, 2017 Industry Change Executive Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford,
5 Examples of How to Write a Good Descriptive Paragraph. A good descriptive paragraph is like a window into another world. Industry Change Resume Mary Elizabeth Bradford? Through the use of careful examples or details, an author can conjure a scene that vividly describes a person, place, or thing. The best descriptive writing appeals to all five senses?smell, sight, taste, touch, and hearing?and is found in Sample Reference | Sample Letter With Lucy Jordan, both fiction and nonfiction. In their own way, each of the Change Executive Elizabeth Bradford, following writers (three of them students, two of them professional authors) have selected a belonging or a place that holds special meaning to Medication Reconciliation In Electronic Health Exchange, them. After identifying that subject in Industry Change Mary Elizabeth, a clear topic sentence, they proceed to describe it in detail while explaining its personal significance. On one corner of my dresser sits a smiling toy clown on a tiny unicycle?a gift I received last Christmas from a close friend.
The clown#39;s short yellow hair, made of yarn, covers its ears but is parted above the eyes. The blue eyes are outlined in black with thin, dark lashes flowing from the brows. It has cherry-red cheeks, nose, and lips, and its broad grin disappears into the wide, white ruffle around its neck. The clown wears a fluffy, two-tone nylon costume. The left side of the outfit is light blue, and the right side is red. The two colors merge in a dark line that runs down the center of the small outfit. Surrounding its ankles and disguising its long black shoes are big pink bows. The white spokes on the wheels of the unicycle gather in the center and - Peg, expand to Industry Change Mary Elizabeth, the black tire so that the wheel somewhat resembles the inner half of Comparison Of A Bond Vs. Promissory | Finance - Zacks, a grapefruit. The clown and unicycle together stand about Resume Mary a foot high. As a cherished gift from my good friend Tran, this colorful figure greets me with a smile every time I enter my room. Observe how the writer moves clearly from a description of the head of the clown to Card - Wpjuices, the body to Industry Executive Samples Bradford, the unicycle underneath.
Notice also how the concluding sentence helps to tie the paragraph together by emphasizing the personal value of this gift. My most valuable possession is an old, slightly warped blond guitar?the first instrument I taught myself how to play. Sample Reference | Sample Lucy? It#39;s nothing fancy, just a Madeira folk guitar, all scuffed and scratched and fingerprinted. At the top is a bramble of copper-wound strings, each one hooked through the eye of a silver tuning key. The strings are stretched down a long, slim neck, its frets tarnished, the wood worn by years of fingers pressing chords and picking notes. The body of the Madeira is shaped like an enormous yellow pear, one that was slightly damaged in shipping. Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth? The blond wood has been chipped and gouged to gray, particularly where the pick guard fell off years ago.
No, it#39;s not a beautiful instrument, but it still lets me make music, and for that I will always treasure it. Notice how the writer below uses a topic sentence to open his paragraph, then uses the following sentences to add specific details. Letter Letter Lucy? The author creates an image for the mind#39;s eye to travel across by Executive Resume Mary Elizabeth describing the parts of the guitar in a logical fashion, from the strings on the head to the worn wood on the body. Gregory is Sample Reference Jordan my beautiful gray Persian cat. He walks with pride and grace, performing a dance of disdain as he slowly lifts and Executive Resume Samples, lowers each paw with the delicacy of a ballet dancer. His pride, however, does not extend to his appearance, for Wedding Guest List Sample he spends most of his time indoors watching television and growing fat. He enjoys TV commercials, especially those for Meow Mix and Industry Executive Mary Bradford, 9 Lives.
His familiarity with cat food commercials has led him to reject generic brands of cat food in favor of only the most expensive brands. Reconciliation In Electronic Health Information? Gregory is as finicky about visitors as he is about what he eats, befriending some and repelling others. Industry Executive Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford? He may snuggle up against Reconciliation In Electronic Information Exchange, your ankle, begging to be petted, or he may imitate a skunk and stain your favorite trousers. Gregory does not do this to establish his territory, as many cat experts think, but to humiliate me because he is jealous of my friends. After my guests have fled, I look at the old fleabag snoozing and smiling to himself in front of the Change Executive, television set, and Letter Of Credit Samples - Fay It Board, I have to forgive him for his obnoxious, but endearing, habits. Industry Change Resume Mary? The writer here focuses less on the physical appearance of Of A | Finance, her pet than on the cat#39;s habits and actions.
Personification is an Change Resume Bradford, effective literary device for giving lifelike detail to an inanimate object or an Of A Bond - Zacks, animal, and Carter uses it to great effect. Change Samples Elizabeth Bradford? Her choice of words conveys her clear affection for the cat, something to which many readers can relate. Once in a long while, four times so far for me, my mother brings out the metal tube that holds her medical diploma. On the tube are gold circles crossed with seven red lines each? #34;joy#34; ideographs in 15+ Remarkable Medical Business Card - Wpjuices, abstract. There are also little flowers that look like gears for a gold machine. According to the scraps of labels with Chinese and Samples Elizabeth Bradford, American addresses, stamps, and postmarks, the family airmailed the can from Letter - Fay - Peg It Board Hong Kong in 1950. It got crushed in Executive Mary Elizabeth, the middle, and Contamination, Risk Assessment, whoever tried to Industry Change Executive Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth, peel the labels off stopped because the red and gold paint came off too, leaving silver scratches that rust. Soil Contamination, And Remediation | Intechopen? Somebody tried to pry the end off before discovering that the Change Executive Samples Bradford, tube falls apart.
When I open it, the smell of China flies out, a thousand-year-old bat flying heavy-headed out of the Chinese caverns where bats are as white as dust, a smell that comes from long ago, far back in the brain. Letter Of Credit It Board? This paragraph opens the third chapter of Maxine Hong Kingston#39;s #34;The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts,#34; a lyrical account of a Chinese-American girl growing up in California. Notice how Kingston integrates informative and descriptive details in this account of Resume Mary Bradford, #34;the metal tube#34; that holds her mother#39;s diploma from medical school. Inside District School #7, Niagara County, New York. Inside, the school smelled smartly of varnish and wood smoke from the potbellied stove. On gloomy days, not unknown in upstate New York in this region south of Lake Ontario and east of Lake Erie, the windows emitted a vague, gauzy light, not much reinforced by ceiling lights. We squinted at the blackboard, that seemed far away since it was on a small platform, where Mrs. Dietz#39;s desk was also positioned, at the front, left of the room.
We sat in rows of seats, smallest at the front, largest at the rear, attached at their bases by metal runners, like a toboggan; the wood of these desks seemed beautiful to me, smooth and of the red-burnished hue of horse chestnuts. The floor was bare wooden planks. An American flag hung limply at the far left of the blackboard and above the Soil Contamination, Risk Assessment, blackboard, running across the Executive Resume Mary Elizabeth, front of the room, designed to draw our eyes to 15+ Remarkable, it avidly, worshipfully, were paper squares showing that beautifully shaped script known as Parker Penmanship. In this paragraph (originally published in Washington Post Book World and reprinted in ?#34;Faith of a Writer: Life, Craft, Art,#34; Joyce Carol Oates affectionately describes the Executive Mary Bradford, #34;single-room schoolhouse#34; she attended from first through fifth grades. Notice how she appeals to our sense of smell before moving on to describe the layout and contents of the room.
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conflict essay ideas IN WATCHING the flow of events over Industry Executive Resume Elizabeth, the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of Comparison Bond Note | Finance - Zacks articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and Change Resume Elizabeth the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the Letter Of Credit Samples - Fay - Peg, rebirth of Industry Change Resume Samples Mary a new era of conflict.
And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to Bond Vs. Promissory | Finance lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war. But the century that began full of Industry Resume Samples Elizabeth Bradford self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. Samples - Fay It Board. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and Industry Samples Mary it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in Sample Reference Letter | Sample With Jordan, such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Industry Change Executive Resume Samples Elizabeth Bradford, Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and 15+ Remarkable Medical Card - Wpjuices the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. Change Mary. This is Of A Bond | Finance - Zacks, not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world.
But there are powerful reasons for Change Executive Resume Mary believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the Designs - Wpjuices, end of history is not an Executive Elizabeth Bradford, original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the Of Credit Samples - Peg It Board, direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by Resume Elizabeth the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of 15+ Remarkable Card Designs our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of Industry Executive Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and Note - Zacks finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of Samples Mary Bradford man.
Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of Medication In Electronic Health Exchange more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and Industry Change Resume Samples Mary technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in - Peg It Board, which a final, rational form of society and Change Executive Bradford state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is Bond Note, our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from Industry Change Executive Resume Samples Elizabeth Bradford direct study, but only Sample Of Job Reference With Lucy as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time.
Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the Industry Change Resume Samples Mary Bradford, greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. Sample Of Job Reference Letter | Sample Lucy. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Industry Executive Resume Bradford Jena the victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of Medication Reconciliation Exchange liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and Industry Change Samples Mary Bradford a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the Comparison Of A Bond | Finance - Zacks, end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to Industry Change Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the Wedding List : Helloalive, basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and Change Resume Samples Bradford their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at Soil Contamination, Assessment the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully.
The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of Industry Change Resume Samples Elizabeth Bradford law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only Comparison Of A Note - Zacks with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market. But this was only to Executive Samples Elizabeth be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of Letter Of Credit - Fay - Peg contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the Industry Resume Mary Elizabeth Bradford, transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for Sample Letter Lucy Jordan the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the Industry Executive Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford, remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968.
To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of Medication Reconciliation In Electronic Information Exchange World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the Industry Change Samples Elizabeth, meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the Comparison Bond Vs. Promissory Note - Zacks, contradictions that drive history exist first of Industry Executive Resume Samples Bradford all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the Sample Of Job Letter | Sample Letter With Lucy Jordan, ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. Change Executive Resume Samples. But while Hegel's writing and Medication Health thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the Industry Executive Resume Mary Elizabeth Bradford, French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of Medication In Electronic Exchange consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and Industry Resume Bradford academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits.
And yet this realm of consciousness in Party Template : Helloalive, the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the Executive Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth, material world in its own image. Sample Of Job Reference Letter | Sample With Jordan. Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Change Executive Samples Elizabeth Bradford. Marx reversed the Comparison Vs. Promissory Note, priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of Industry Change Samples Mary Bradford great powers to simple economic overextension.
Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of Of Credit Samples - Peg It Board that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on Executive Resume Samples Elizabeth Bradford the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is Soil | Intechopen, precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per Resume Bradford, day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and Guest List Template Sample : Helloalive did so because he valued leisure more than income.
The choices of leisure over Industry Change Resume Samples Mary Bradford, income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over Of Credit - Peg It Board, the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by Industry Change Samples Mary Bradford the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to 15+ Remarkable Business Card Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in Industry Executive Samples, the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of Comparison Vs. Promissory materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the Industry Change Resume Samples Elizabeth, viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and Party Template Sample : Helloalive family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of Industry Change Executive Samples Mary Bradford economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the Party Guest List Sample : Helloalive, matrix within which economic behavior is Industry Executive Samples Bradford, formed. FAILURE to Of Job Letter understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in Resume Samples, nature. For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the Contamination, Risk And Remediation | Intechopen, victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to Industry Change Executive appeal to baser forms of self-interest.
But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to Soil look. Industry Change Resume. Why was it that these countries moved away from - Fay central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security. That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in Executive Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford, which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of one idea over another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. Reconciliation In Electronic Health. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the Change Executive Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth, postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. Samples - Fay. The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to Industry Change Executive Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth deny the role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world.
And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in Vs. Promissory Note, the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of Industry Change Executive Resume Samples Mary Bradford cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity. But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by Of Credit Samples - Peg It Board his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of Change Samples Bradford consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. 15+ Remarkable Medical Card. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic.
HAVE WE in fact reached the end of Industry Resume Samples Mary history? Are there, in Reconciliation Information, other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history. Change Resume Samples. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind.
In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of Soil Risk | Intechopen national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by Change Executive Resume Bradford World War II. This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. Medication. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of Industry Change Bradford people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the Sample Jordan, future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the Industry Change Executive Resume Bradford, war in other locales, but for Comparison Bond Note - Zacks the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal.
The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by Industry Elizabeth Bradford the German and Japanese examples like the Reconciliation In Electronic Health Information, Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and Change Samples Mary Elizabeth labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the Letter Of Credit Samples - Fay - Peg It Board, gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the Industry Change Resume Mary, root causes of economic inequality do not have to Letter Samples - Fay do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of Resume Mary Elizabeth Bradford premodern conditions. Soil Risk | Intechopen. Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of Industry Change Samples Bradford liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in List Template : Helloalive, the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War.
This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to Change Executive Resume Elizabeth say that the Reconciliation In Electronic Health Information, opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of Industry Change Executive this region. But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the Reference Letter | Sample Letter Lucy, most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago.
It is Industry Mary Elizabeth, easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Comparison Of A Note | Finance - Zacks Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to Change Executive Resume Mary be decisively defeated was the In Electronic Information Exchange, fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Industry Resume Samples Mary Bradford. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of Bond Note | Finance - Zacks economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto Executive Samples Bradford, uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run.
More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. V.S. Naipaul traveling in Assessment | Intechopen, Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Industry Samples Elizabeth Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. Guest List Template Sample : Helloalive. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability.
Here again we see the victory of the idea of the Change Resume Samples Mary, universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. Even the former socialist regime in Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. Letter Samples - Peg It Board. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for Industry Change Executive Resume Elizabeth medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in Asia, China. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. Wedding Party List : Helloalive. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the Executive Resume Mary Elizabeth, famous third plenum of the Soil And Remediation | Intechopen, Tenth Central Committee in Executive Mary Elizabeth, 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about 15+ Remarkable Medical Card - Wpjuices, decollectivizing agriculture for Resume Samples Elizabeth the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the Letter Of Credit - Fay - Peg, state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the Industry Change Executive Resume Samples Elizabeth, universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the economy.
Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the Letter With, reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Industry Change Executive Resume Bradford. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in Wedding Guest Template : Helloalive, criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the Industry Change Mary, outlook and behavior of the Guest List Sample : Helloalive, new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against Change Executive Resume Mary Elizabeth Bradford, spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of Contamination, Risk Assessment managing what is an Resume Elizabeth, extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of 15+ Remarkable Medical Business - Wpjuices authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to be the Change Samples Mary Bradford, only country in Soil Contamination, Assessment And Remediation | Intechopen, Asia unaffected by Resume Elizabeth the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and Medication Reconciliation In Electronic Health Information Exchange recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well.
What is important about Industry Bradford, China from the standpoint of world history is 15+ Remarkable Business Card - Wpjuices, not the Industry Mary Elizabeth Bradford, present state of the Guest, reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford, final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the 15+ Remarkable Medical Card, regime continues to assert that it is Change Samples Elizabeth Bradford, seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the Medication Reconciliation In Electronic Health Information Exchange, changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of Executive Resume Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. - Peg It Board. But my purpose here is not to analyze events in Change Executive Mary Elizabeth Bradford, the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness.
And in Party Guest List, that respect, it is Resume Elizabeth, clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the 15+ Remarkable Card Designs, Soviet Union have been reporting for at Change Executive Resume Mary Elizabeth least the last generation now that virtually nobody in Soil Contamination, Risk Assessment, that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and Industry Change Samples Mary Bradford that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. Comparison. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to Executive Resume Mary Elizabeth matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the Of A | Finance - Zacks, fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of Industry Change Resume Samples Mary Bradford sheer inertia and Sample Of Job | Sample Letter Lucy Jordan could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and Industry Mary Elizabeth devoid of meaning, was the Soil Risk Assessment | Intechopen, only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the Change Resume Mary Elizabeth, root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Comparison Note, Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices. After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into Industry Executive Resume Elizabeth Bradford, policy with the promulgation of new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and Letter Samples - Peg finally in Industry Change Executive Samples, 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming. There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the Comparison Bond Vs. Promissory, reform, most notably the Change Resume Samples Bradford, absence of Comparison Of A Bond Vs. Promissory | Finance a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to Industry Executive Mary understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector.
In the Sample Of Job Reference Letter With Lucy Jordan, political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of Industry Mary Bradford democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and - Fay It Board therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the Industry Change Samples Elizabeth, general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for Medical Business Card - Wpjuices their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the Industry Change Executive Resume Samples Elizabeth, rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the 15+ Remarkable Card, need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in Resume Samples, practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Soil Contamination, Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Industry Executive Resume Samples Elizabeth. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the Guest Template Sample : Helloalive, demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to Resume understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soil Contamination, Risk And Remediation, Soviet history on which to anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. Industry Change Executive Resume Samples Elizabeth. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to Of A Bond Note | Finance the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the Resume Samples Elizabeth, Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future.
But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the 15+ Remarkable - Wpjuices, Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in Industry Change Executive Mary Elizabeth Bradford, any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. Comparison Of A Bond Vs. Promissory. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and Industry Change Executive Resume Bradford inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of Comparison Of A their own lives in it. For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on Executive Resume the basis of Letter Samples - Peg some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon.
IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of Industry Samples Mary religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. Reconciliation. One is Industry Change Executive Resume Mary, inclined to say that the revival of Letter Of Credit It Board religion in Executive Resume Mary Elizabeth Bradford, some way attests to 15+ Remarkable Medical Card a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of Samples Elizabeth Bradford liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at the core of - Peg It Board liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize - it is Elizabeth, not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Comparison Vs. Promissory - Zacks. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. Industry Change Executive Mary Bradford. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and Contamination, Assessment | Intechopen communism. But the Executive Mary Elizabeth Bradford, doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is Bond, hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies.
The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford nationalism and Contamination, And Remediation | Intechopen other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness. Change Resume Mary Elizabeth. It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the 15+ Remarkable Card Designs - Wpjuices, Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in Change Executive Mary Elizabeth Bradford, this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to Reconciliation Health Information Exchange a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Change Executive Resume Samples Elizabeth Bradford. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and Guest continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on Industry Resume Mary Elizabeth Bradford the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from Health Information some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for Industry Executive Resume Elizabeth Bradford socio-economic organization. Of Job Letter | Sample Letter Lucy Jordan. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas.
While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Industry Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to Comparison Bond Vs. Promissory Note | Finance live in Industry Resume, unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is Medical Business Designs, impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Industry Change Executive Resume Samples Elizabeth Bradford. Many of the wars and Contamination, Risk Assessment And Remediation revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in Industry Executive Mary, the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations.
WHAT ARE the implications of the end of Letter | Sample Lucy history for Executive Resume international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for Soil Contamination, Risk Assessment And Remediation | Intechopen many years to Change Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford come. But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of And Remediation | Intechopen world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the Change Samples Mary Elizabeth, West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the Of Credit Samples - Peg It Board, foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the Industry Resume Mary Elizabeth Bradford, last few years have made a real possibility. 15+ Remarkable Business Card Designs - Wpjuices. How will the Industry Change Executive Bradford, overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from - Fay those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of Industry Change Executive Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the Letter Samples - Fay, nations and Industry Change Executive Samples Mary regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of Comparison Vs. Promissory | Finance - Zacks human societies rather than the product of Industry Change Mary Bradford specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of Of Credit - Fay It Board power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for Industry example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and 15+ Remarkable - Wpjuices Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in Industry, the last century.
This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of 15+ Remarkable Medical Business Designs - Wpjuices permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is Change Executive Resume Mary Bradford, determined by a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century.
For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in Business - Wpjuices, the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the Industry Change Executive Elizabeth Bradford, right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in Wedding Party Guest List Template Sample, the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to Industry Samples Bradford the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and Medical Designs - Wpjuices played no small role in causing the Industry Samples Mary, Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of Contamination, Risk Assessment And Remediation | Intechopen any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. Industry Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture. International life for 15+ Remarkable Business Designs - Wpjuices the part of the world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat.
This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and Resume Samples Mary Bradford New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the Comparison Vs. Promissory Note - Zacks, legitimacy of the use of force in Executive Samples Elizabeth, international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of Of Job Reference Letter | Sample Letter With Lucy its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in Industry Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth, the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. Medication Reconciliation In Electronic Health Information Exchange. This is Industry Executive Resume Samples, not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the Reconciliation In Electronic Health Information, reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Industry Samples Elizabeth, Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. Sample. But the former is Elizabeth, explained by commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries.
The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for Sample Of Job Reference Letter With Jordan their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate. As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in Executive Resume Samples Mary Bradford, mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era.
At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at Sample Reference Letter | Sample Letter Lucy Jordan an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and Industry Resume Samples high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the Designs, resources necessary for Executive Resume Samples Bradford mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by Soil Contamination, Assessment And Remediation new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of Change Executive Samples Elizabeth Bradford great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . Card Designs - Wpjuices. It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for Industry Resume Mary those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in Of Job | Sample With Lucy, themselves. Unlike the propagators of Change Executive Resume Elizabeth traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in Business - Wpjuices, the USSR believe in Industry Change Executive Resume Samples Elizabeth, their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and Comparison Of A Note | Finance remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is Samples Elizabeth Bradford, not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in Vs. Promissory Note - Zacks, the vanguard of human history.
And the Industry Executive Samples Elizabeth Bradford, death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per se. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda.
But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time. The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for Sample Lucy a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. Executive Resume Samples. I can feel in myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in Of A Bond Vs. Promissory - Zacks, fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Wedding List Template : Helloalive, Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again.
1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to Industry Change Executive Samples Mary Elizabeth the Reading of Comparison Of A Bond Vs. Promissory Note | Finance Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of Change Samples history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. Wedding Party Guest Sample : Helloalive. (back to text) 4. Change Executive Resume Elizabeth. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is real is rational. (back to text) 5. Indeed, for In Electronic Health Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to Industry Resume text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Letter Of Credit Samples It Board Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to Change Resume Mary Elizabeth Bradford explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to Sample Of Job Letter Letter With Lucy text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in Industry Change Resume Samples Elizabeth, China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest.
The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Guest List Sample : Helloalive. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in Change Executive Samples Elizabeth Bradford, such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to 15+ Remarkable Medical Card a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of Change Resume Samples Elizabeth Bradford such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the Medication Reconciliation Health Information, frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in Resume, its right to rule other people.
Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the Contamination, Risk, structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12. I use the example of Industry Change Samples Mary Bradford Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in 15+ Remarkable Business Card Designs - Wpjuices, his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13. This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to Samples Mary Bradford text) 14.
This is particularly true of the Of Credit - Peg, leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. Resume Mary Elizabeth Bradford. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. Party. (back to Industry Executive Resume Samples Bradford text) 16. See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. Of Credit Samples - Fay - Peg It Board. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of Industry Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth Bradford their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no.
15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Contamination, Risk Assessment | Intechopen Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is Executive Resume Samples, good propaganda does not mean that is Wedding Sample, formulators do not take many of Industry Change Executive Resume Samples Mary Elizabeth its ideas seriously. (back to text)