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Many economists blame the slowdown in hiring partly on the unusually warm winter. I Have Essay Friday. Companies moved up some hiring in January and February that normally would have occurred in spring. As that trend fades, job gains might recover in the coming months. Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke said last week that the warm winter might be a reason for the slowdown in Monstercom Resume And Free Resume Templates hiring. He also suggested that the burst of job gains earlier this year could have represented a catch-up in hiring' by Permission Slip Template. 35 Permission Templates employers who cut too deeply in Resume Resume And Free Resume Templates the recession. In that case, stronger economic growth would be needed to boost hiring further, Bernanke said. For now, the economy appears to be sputtering. It expanded 1.9 percent in Resume Professional Professional the first quarter, down from 3 percent in Monstercom Resume Resume Templates the October-December quarter.
Growth isn't expected to improve much in the current April-June quarter. Consumers remain cautious. Retail sales fell 0.2 percent in May, the Commerce Department said Wednesday, matching April's decline. It was the first back-to-back drop in two years. A big reason for the decline was falling prices at the gas pump, which reduced gas station sales. Consruction Resume Professional Professional Construction. The average price for Resume Samples Resume And Free Templates a gallon of gas was $3.54 Wednesday, according to AAA. That's 40 cents cheaper than the peak in early April. That drop should free up more cash for consumers to spend in the coming months, which could accelerate spending this summer, economists said. The economy is still struggling three years after the A Seven Page Due On For An English Course, Cv, recession officially ended in June 2009. Wages haven't kept up with inflation.
State and local governments have continued to shed jobs. The United States has regained less than 3.8 million, or 43 percent, of the Samples Templates, 8.8 million jobs lost during and immediately after the recession. Small business survey finds hiring costs low in N.C. The Business Journal by Matt Evans, Reporter. A survey of 6,022 small businesses across the country finds that North Carolina is Hra Rent Receipt Format perceived as one the Monstercom Resume Resume Resume, 10 least-costly states when it comes to Statement Format - Text, hiring costs, but it does not fare as well in several other areas. The survey was conducted by service firm leads generator Thumbtack.com in partnership with the Kauffman Foundation. Monstercom Samples | Sample Resume Templates. Small business owners were asked for their opinions about their state's approach to small business support and finances. North Carolina's highest grade in the report is in the area of hiring costs, where it received an A- as the tenth-least-costly place in the nation to add an employee. Its lowest grades of Assessment D were in the areas of labor regulations and training programs, and it got a D+ for the friendliness of its tax code. Within the state, the northern central region that includes Guilford, Forsyth and Alamance counties ranked second in the state overall behind metro Charlotte and ahead of metro Raleigh.
The eastern part of the state was rated worst by | Sample Resume And Free Templates survey respondents. Matt Evans covers biotech, entrepreneurship, higher education, financial services and furniture. Contact him at (336) 370-2916.
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MythTV / Install / WhatNext / ACPIWake. Status of this Document: This wiki page is somewhat out of date. It refers to /proc/acpi/alarm which only applies to Samples Templates kernel versions 2.6.21 and earlier (Feisty Fawn, 7.04, and Consruction Professional Professional Construction earlier). Kernel versions 2.6.22 and later (Gutsy Gibbon, 7.10, and later) use /sys/class/rtc/rtc0/wakealarm instead. Monstercom Resume And Free Resume Templates? If your kernel version (type uname -a in a terminal window) is 2.6.22 or later, then the instructions below referring to /proc/acpi/alarm do not apply. For kernel versions 2.6.22 and Biopsychosocial Assessment No Identifiers later, you may go to mythtv.org/wiki/ACPI_Wakeup and follow the Resume | Sample And Free Resume Templates /sys/class/rtc/rtc0/wakealarm instructions. Also, you may want to take a look at this Ubuntu Forum how-to: ACPI wakeup on mythbuntu 9.04. DISCLAIMER: Due to the idiosyncrasies of motherboards and their BIOSes, finding an 12+ Itinerary automatic wake-up/shutdown solution is not a one-size fits all process. This guide presents one possible solution and should hopefully get automatic wake-up/shutdown properly functioning on your MythTV box. Some boards are notoriously difficult to Monstercom Samples Resume Templates get waking, so you might want to google your motherboard and see what information you can find before trying this. As long as you are careful to Cash Format backup any file before changing or replacing it and note original BIOS and set-up settings before changing them, undo-ing what you do here will be painless- and poses no danger to your board or OS.
The worst case scenario is it just won't wake up by itself and you have to Monstercom Resume | Sample Resume Templates restore some backed up files and settings. This guide approaches auto wakeup/shutdown using ACPI wakeup via the Statement BIOS RTC (real time clock) alarm. This solution will work for Samples | Sample, many boards, but not all. In the event this guide does not work for you, alternative methods- including nvram-wakeup and others- are just a google away (until someone who has nvram-wakeup experience adds to this guide). The wake-up function is provided on most modern boards by 12+ Itinerary Templates - Word Pdf Formats, the ability to wake from RTC alarm- setting a date and time in BIOS will cause the Monstercom Resume Resume computer to power itself on and boot at 12+ Itinerary Templates - Word Excel Pdf Formats the set time. Check the BIOS Settings (or similar) section of your mobo user guide or look in your BIOS settings to see if your board is capable. This setting is likely found under a sub-menu of Power Management APM, or Advanced- you just need to poke around to Monstercom Resume | Sample Resume find it. It will likely be called something like Wake from RTC, Wake From Alarm, RTC Resume, etc. BIOS setup is usually entered by pressing DEL or F1 at Cash Statement Format boot. Samples Resume Resume Templates? Again, consult you manual if you do not know how.
NOTE: On many boards, when this setting is enabled, it will wake only from a time set and saved from BIOS setup, and 12+ Itinerary Excel Pdf Formats not from a time set outside of the BIOS setup environment- as we want. All of the boards the original author of Resume | Sample Templates, this document needed this setting disabled to correctly wake with ACPI. I Have A Seven Page Essay Due On Friday For An English Cv? This is the recommended starting point, but is not mandatory. If you are unable to wake your board at step 1.4, try again after setting this to the opposite in BIOS. While you are investigating your BIOS settings, you should also look for settings involving ACPI Aware OS and Samples Resume And Free Resume ACPI 2.0 functions.
You may or may not need these enabled. In my experience, ACPI Aware OS needs to be enabled and ACPI 2.0 didn't seem to Biopsychosocial make a difference. One last thing to make note of while looking in BIOS setup is whether or not your hardware clock is set to UTC or local time. The clock should be on Resume Samples | Sample Resume Templates the main setup page. Templates - Word Excel Pdf Formats? If the clock time (in 24 hour format) is the same as your local time, then it is not UTC (unless your local time zone happens to Samples | Sample Resume Resume Templates be GMT). A Seven Due On Friday For An English? If Ubuntu is the only OS on your system, chances are the Resume | Sample And Free time is stored in UTC. If you are running a dual-boot Ubuntu/windows setup, then it will likely be local time. You will need to know if it is UTC or not for step 2.1. Remember to Professional Professional make note of which settings you make changes to and what their original setting was; and don't forget to save the Monstercom Samples Resume Resume Templates changes before you exit BIOS setup.
Make sure you have ACPI functions enabled and exposed to the OS. If you have a modern board and power supply, the chances are you do: should give you long-ish list such as: Next, check for the most important part we need- access to the RTC alarm itself. then you are good to continue. If you do not have ACPI support or /proc/acpi/alarm, then you need to Resume Professional install ACPI support. Of all the Resume And Free Resume Templates changes we will make to use ACPI wake-up, this is the heart of it all. hwclock.sh is a script found in /etc/init.d/ that reads the hardware clock at boot and copies it to system time; and also copies the system time back to the hardware clock at shutdown or reboot. Permission Slip Template. 35 Permission Slip Templates? By doing this, the Samples Resume Templates hardware clock should remain accurate, as system time has likely been synchronized with an ntp server. However, this causes problems for a lot of boards, which will forget the RTC alarm time if the hardware clock is written to after having set the Hra Rent RTC alarm. To get around this, you make two small modifications to the hwclock.sh script to ensure the RTC alarm is Resume Templates, written after the final write to the hardware clock.
Doing this won't hurt anything if your board does not require it and saves a lot of troubleshooting if you aren't sure. First, back up your existing hwclock.sh- in case you need to Excel Pdf Formats restore it. (From this point forward, all terminal commands assume you are in Monstercom Resume Samples Resume Templates, your user's home directory and that the user has sudo privileges. 12+ Itinerary - Word Excel? Gedit is used in the examples, but you can use nano, vi or your preferred editor.) Now, make two small additions to the existing hwclock.sh: At the head of the file, add the following line: Make sure to use grave accents instead of single quotes in the above code. The result will look like this: Next, scroll down to the tail of the file and look for: so that section of code now looks like this:
Save the result. This added command writes the Monstercom Samples | Sample Resume Resume wake time after the final clock change (the command directly above it). It is written twice, with a one second pause between writes, to satisfy a quirk of some boards. Writing it twice won't hurt anything if your board doesn't need it, so do it just in case. To correctly set the wake time, you need to know the format of your RTC alarm.
will return the RTC format. you should see something like: In this example, the Template. 35 Permission format is Monstercom Resume Samples | Sample Resume Resume Templates, yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss- the ** may be the correct month, 00 or be blank on your system- having no settable month seems to - Word Excel be common. Before you dig too much deeper into setting this up, it's a good idea to Samples | Sample Resume Templates determine whether or not your board is going to comply. Biopsychosocial No Identifiers? At this point, everything should be ready to test a wake-up. To do this, you will set the system to wake five minutes from now. If your computer is slower, you can increase the time; if faster, you can decrease it.
Just make sure you allow for Resume Samples Resume, enough time for the system to shut down completely, with a minute or two to Statement Format spare before it needs to wake. The following command uses our example time format of yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss and adds 5 minutes to the ACPI alarm. Samples Resume And Free? If your time format is different, you will need to adjust the ordering of +00-00-00 00:05:00 to comply. It is Essay English, a good idea to check if the command did the job right. If the year part looks like 0007 instead of 2007, change +00 with +2000; this worked for Samples | Sample Templates, Acer Ferrari 3400, TravelMate 800, Asus M2NPV-VM and ABit VA-10. Now you can shut down the system to see if it wakes up. Bookmark this page if you haven't already. I'll see you when you get back. Sit back, relax and wait for your box to wake up. Hopefully, everything went as planned and your box woke itself as intended. If not, double-check each step above to be sure it was all correctly done.
If everything is 12+ Itinerary Templates, correct, your board might need to reboot and complete a POST cycle before correctly waking, as some do. Skip ahead now to 3.0 Poweroff Kernel and try that remedy. If you tried the poweroff kernel but still failed to Monstercom Samples Resume And Free Resume Templates wake, see 4.0 Troubleshooting. If it did wake, CONGRATULATIONS! It's all downhill from here. You will likely need at Permission Slip least one of these scripts for Samples Resume And Free Templates, the wake-up/shutdown process: a script to adjust and set the 35 Permission Slip & Field wake-up time (if your mobo clock is UTC) a Pre-shutdown script (possibly) a Server Halt script (if you use poweroff kernel)
Examples of a wake script MythWakeSet , pre-shutdown script MythShutdownCheck and server halt script for poweroff kernel MythShutDown are provided here. Resume | Sample Resume And Free? If you need to do something special on your system before shutdown, such as special service shutdown scripts, etc., then you are responsible for Permission Slip Templates, integrating them into the provided script. If your hardware clock is set to UTC, you need MythWakeSet to adjust between the wake time MythTV will report (local time) with the time the RTC alarm requires (UTC). To create the wake script, open the editor of your choice and copy and paste the following. Save it as MythWakeSet : Now, make the script executable and put a copy of Monstercom Resume | Sample Resume And Free, it in /usr/bin: Yet another script, that works with old acpi and new rtc alarm: If you use your backend server for other things in addition to MythTV, such as ssh or ftp transfers etc., you want to Templates Excel make sure that MythTV doesn't shut down the system while you are in the middle of Monstercom Resume Samples And Free Templates, something. This is especially true if you have the backend set to a stingy idle timeout like 5 minutes.
One very effective way to do this is to check and see if another user is Biopsychosocial, logged in, since you likely won't be transacting much non-mythtv business as the mythtv user. Resume Samples | Sample? If you are not watching tv or a recording, but want the backend box to remain alive, all you need to Receipt Format do is log into an ssh session and leave it open. You can do other checks in addition to- or instead of- checking for Monstercom Samples, logged-in users: such as checking for specific running processes, etc. Add these checks to 12+ Itinerary Templates - Word Excel this script if needed, but first be sure to check that your changes work properly! Otherwise, your backend may shut down when it shouldn't or stay alive when it should shutdown. If you want to make sure no other users are logged in before shutdown, copy and paste the Monstercom Samples | Sample Resume And Free Templates following into an editor and save it as MythShutdownCheck ; if not, skip ahead to Hra Rent Receipt 2.3. Make the script executable and put a copy of it in /usr/bin: At this stage, you have the needed scripts and | Sample Resume And Free Resume Templates the box woke successfully on test. Permission 35 Permission & Field? Now it's time to setup Mythtv to Monstercom Resume Samples | Sample Resume Templates test MythWakeSet . Stop the server for Permission Slip, needed changes and Resume Resume And Free then run mythtv-setup: The settings you need are under 1. General, on page 5 (Shutdown/Wakeup Options).
The settings you need are: Block shutdown before client connected: you want this box unchecked , or the automatic shutdown routine will be blocked until a frontend client has connected. Idle timeout (secs): is how long the backend will wait in an idle state before wanting to shutdown. Excel Pdf Formats? Normally, you would want this set to a reasonable amount between 300-1200 (5 to 20 minutes)- but to test it out, set it to 60 so you don't have to wait long (just make sure you set it high enough to fully boot or it may shutdown again before everything is loaded). Max wait for recording (min): determines whether or not the backend will shutdown if it is idle and there is a pending recording. Monstercom Samples Resume? e.g. if this is set to 20 minutes, the backend is idle and wants to shut down and the next recording is scheduled three hours in Cash Flows Format, the future, the | Sample backend will shutdown and wake itsef up later. If the same conditions are true, but the recording is scheduled to Assessment No Identifiers start in 20 or fewer minutes, then it will wait, record it and then check this setting again after reaching an idle state . For now, set this to 1 to make sure it shuts down for Monstercom Samples | Sample Resume Templates, our tests. Startup before rec. (secs): is how much time the backend will allow for 12+ Itinerary Templates, itself to Samples | Sample Resume fully boot and Flows Format come up to speed, before being expected to Monstercom Resume record. Note that this time will be added as an offset to the wake time. Templates - Word Pdf Formats? You should likely allow at Samples | Sample Resume And Free least 200 seconds or more to be sure you do not miss beginning of your recording. Set this to a reasonable estimate of your boot time for Permission Slip 35 Permission Templates & Field, now, but time your boot from Resume | Sample Resume powerup for your final setting. Wakeup time format: is the format your board expects for the RTC alarm (you checked this earlier).
In this example, it is yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss adjust yours as necesary. Set wakeuptime command: is the command (or script) run to set the wakeup time. If you are using the UTC script above, enter: sudo /usr/bin/MythWakeSet $time This will call your script and pass it the waketime via the $time variable. Server Halt Command: is the command that is executed to bring the whole thing down. Professional Professional Construction? If you are using the poweroff kernel, you will eventually enter sudo /usr/bin/MythShutdown here. For this test, enter: sudo /etc/init.d/mythtv-backend stop , which will only stop the Monstercom | Sample And Free backend. Pre Shutdown check-command: is the shutdown checker - enter sudo /usr/bin/MythShutdownCheck to Cash Flows Format use it or enter exit 0 if not.
The last thing to do before testing is to take care of permission issues. As you probably noticed, the above commands run as sudo, which would cause problems if it prompted for a password and nobody was there to Resume Samples | Sample enter it-- nothing would ever happen. There are a number of Receipt Format, ways to Monstercom Resume Samples Resume And Free Templates handle this- the method presented here gives the mythtv user sudo privileges, without prompting for a password, for limited commands and resources. Flows Statement? There are other alternatives you can explore; each with their own advantages and And Free Templates pitfalls. To give mythtv user the permissions we need: Add the following line to the end, making sure it is the only entry for mythtv- if another entry for mythtv exists, replace it with this one: Before proceeding, go into the frontend and 12+ Itinerary Excel schedule a recording an Monstercom Resume Samples Resume Templates hour or so from now and note the time it starts. Now we can test to see if the scripts and their interfaces with MythTV are set up correctly. First, set /proc/acpi alarm to a known value (again, if your date/time format is not yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss, adjust as needed): Then, check to see it was set. You should see something simlar to:
Now, fire up the backend to test the write to /proc/acpi/alarm. In this case, we won't lauch it as a daemon so we can see what is being logged: It should immediately start warning you of impending shutdown, count it down and then stop. Hit Enter to get a command prompt and then check to see if MythWakeSet worked: As the 12+ Itinerary - Word Pdf Formats example shows, the time returned should now reflect the Samples Resume And Free waketime and Consruction Laborer Professional Professional Construction not all 12's, as we set before the test. Of course, yours will probably not match the example. If your hardware clock is in Samples | Sample Resume Templates, UTC, to see if the Biopsychosocial Assessment waketime is set correctly:
Take the Monstercom Resume | Sample Resume Templates start time of the recording you set a little while ago (24 hour format), add or subract (as appropriate) for your time zone offset, and subtract the amount of time you set for Start before recording in step 2.3. For example: Recording was for 4pm (16:00:00) Local time is I Have Friday For An, GMT-5 +(05:00:00) Start before rec was -(00:01:00) Time with offset is 20:59:00. If MythWakeSet worked correctly, cat/proc/acpi/alarm should return something reasonably close to 20:59:00 for our example. If, after checking your math, yours still varies substantially or is unchanged from 12's, go back and review each step to Resume Samples | Sample check for errors. If you have the recording options in MythTV to wake a minute or two (or more) before the scheduled recording, this will also cause a small discrepancy.
The final and most important test is to put it all together for Assessment, a full shutdown/wakeup. For best results, do this test 10 minutes or so before the half-hour- so you get an accurate in-action test without having to cheat or wait too long. Make sure the backend is shut down and go back into setup: Return to Samples And Free Resume Templates the Shutdown/Wakeup page and A Seven For An make the following changes: In the frontend, find a show- on Samples Resume Templates any tunable channel- that begins at the next half-hour and set it to record. Shut down the frontend and check to be sure there are no open ssh sessions or other users logged in. If this is a combined frontend/backend, log out of your current session. Within two or so minutes, the backend should shut itself down. Now is Hra Rent, a good time to get a sandwich or a cold drink (or both!) and Monstercom Resume Samples And Free Resume wait for it to turn itself on and boot up! Hopefully, everything went as written and your box started up as it should have. If not, but you could successfully wake in step 1.4, check every step from Cash Flows - Text 2.0 forward- it should be working properly.
There's likely a small mistake somewhere. When it wakes and records it should , all that is left for you to do is | Sample, shutdown mythtv-backend, go back into I Have A Seven Page Essay Course, Cv mythtv-setup and Monstercom Samples | Sample And Free Resume make your final settings for Idle timeout, etc. If you run frontend and backend on the same machine, you can use MythWelcome to I Have Page Essay decide if the machine has been woken up by user and the start of the frontend is needed or not. With MythWelcome the Monstercom Resume | Sample Resume Resume Frontend is Assessment No Identifiers, automatically started if you started the machine manually, but if its started automatically via acpi-wakeup the frontend won't start and lock the backend from shutting down when recording is finished. Unfortunately MythWelcome was originally build for | Sample And Free Resume, use with nvram-wakeup, but you can also use it with acpi-wakeup. First you have to Resume Professional Construction manipulate /usr/share/mythtv/startmythtv.sh to specify that mythwelcome is loaded in startup instead of Monstercom Resume Samples | Sample And Free Templates, loading the Templates - Word frontend directly. You can do this by starting an editor with. If you cannot find /usr/share/mythtv/startmythtv.sh then skip this part and Resume continue with section below I don't have startmythtv.sh.
I need the I Have Page Essay Due On Friday English sleep options because mythwelcome is faster than the backend, without this i get an error that the Resume And Free Resume backend is not running. If startmythtv.sh is missing from your installation (e.g. in Mythbuntu 8.04/8.10) then you should instead edit. /.config/autostart/mythtv.desktop like this: edit '/etc/mythtv/session-settings' like this: Now it is time to restart your computer and see if mytheelcome is being started. Depending on whether you have scheduled a recording in the near future or not, you will see one of two things: The regular mythfrontend. This will appear if you have no recording scheduled that begins soon. The screen of mythwelcome.
This will appear if the backend is soon going to record a show. In case you see the mythwelcome-screen you may continue with the 12+ Itinerary Templates - Word Pdf Formats rest of the configuration. But in case you see MythFrontend you still need to make sure that mythwelcome is working correctly. To do so, exit mythfrontend. This should immediately return you to mythwelcome. If you see a the blank desktop then you need to | Sample And Free re-check the previous step. Modify MythWakeSet (only required for older versions of MythWelcome)
You can skip this step if you run mythtv = 0.21 (Mythbuntu 8.04). If you are using an older version of MythWelcome, you need to make some adjustements, since those older versions only use a Unix timestamp to Slip Template. 35 Permission set the wakup time you need to Samples modify the /usr/bin/MythWakeSet script. If you are using a current version, you can simply use the command /usr/bin/MythWakeSet $time ; you just set the (new) option for the time format accordingly, i.e. to yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss or whatever your mainboard requires. If you have this option, simply skip this part. If you are running an older version, open the script MythWakeSet via. Exit the frontend, you will automaticaly get the mythwelcome screen. Press F11 to Cash Flows Format enter the setup and Resume Samples enter the following values: nvram-wakeup Restart Command : leave blank! If you are using a current version, you will see the option Wakeup time format , which you set to the time format that MythWakeSet expects (cf. above).
Leave the rest unchanged. A side note: MythWelcome has two setup menues. One is & Field, accessed by F11, the other by pressing i. There is also a command menu that you can access via m. Enter will start mythfrontend. Monstercom Samples Resume? You do not need this here but it is good to know. Navigate to Shutdown/Wakeup Options and change the following values: NOTE: The command mythshutdown --setwakeup $time does not write to the /proc/acpi/alarm. Biopsychosocial? It just sets the wakeup time in mythwelcome. Monstercom Resume? The command mythshutdown --shutdown actually writes the time set by the call of mythshutdown --setwakeup to the RTC in the motherboard and Consruction Laborer Resume Professional Professional Construction should be used for the Server halt Command option. If this was sudo shutdown -h -P now , MythBackend will shutdown the machine properly, but it wont wake up to record for the next scheduled recording as the wakeup time is never set to Monstercom Samples And Free the RTC of the I Have Page Essay English Cv motherboard.
Now test your configuration, but be aware that mythshutdown won't proceed if there is an recording less than 15 minutes away! These 15 minutes cannot be configured. Unfortunately, MythWelcome will not tell you about these 15 minutes, but display MythBackend's idea about shutting down. (Brief explanation: MythBackend realizes it is idle, checks if the given time Max wait for recording is smaller than the time to the next scheduled recording. Resume | Sample And Free Resume? If that is the case, it would generally be MythBackend's wish to power down for the time being. In order to do that, it waits for Receipt, the specified amount of time, the Idle Timeout; if nothign happens in this time, MythBackend will power down and wake up again at the time for the recording minus the powerup time and minus the generally configured pre-recording time. MythWelcome will report what MythBackend thinks. If you set up MythBackend to even power down for just five minutes (let the next recording be 10 minutes away), with an idle time of e.g.
120 seconds, then MythWelcome will display Shutting down in 120 seconds and Monstercom Resume Samples Resume Resume count down. Excel Pdf Formats? And when it reaches 0, MythBackend will send the shutdown commands, which mythshutdown refuses to follow, since it's less than 15 minutes to Resume Samples | Sample Resume Templates the next recording. MythBackend starts again at 120 seconds, which will be reported to MytHWelcome, so MythWelcome again shows sort of false information.) MythTV has an internal lock feature: when the lock is Hra Rent Format, set, MythBackend will not shut down the system at Monstercom Resume Templates all, no matter how idle it is. There are basically two ways to set and Biopsychosocial remove a lock: you can use mythshutdown --lock and mythshutdown --unlock , respectively, e.g. by running them in a shell. MythWelcome actually allows, when you have the menu popup by pressing M, to set and remove the lock. This is pretty useful if you want to do some desktop work and keep MythBackend running in Resume Samples And Free Resume Templates, the background wihtout having to Professional fear being logged off in the middle of work. Show and change status on the Desktop. Since using mythshutdown allows to set and unset the lock status (and since mythshutdown actually provides for a way of Monstercom And Free, checking the lock status), it is possible to set up tools that report the lock status.
Using a panel item in Slip 35 Permission Slip Templates & Field, an xfce desktop. If you use Mythbuntu in the standard variety if you use Xubuntu or if in general you have decided to use xfce as your desktop, there is a simple way to show and change the lock status on the task bar that xfce provides using the genmon (short for Generic Monitor) plugin. In order to do this, you first need to install the genmon xfce panel plugin: Next we need a script to check MythBackend's status for us and provide us with icons nice tooltips the possiblity to Resume Samples Resume Templates click to Hra Rent Receipt Format lock and Monstercom Resume Samples | Sample Resume Resume unlock. Paste the following Perl script into an editor and save it (you need Perl installed for Hra Rent Receipt, this to work, and Perl scripts need to be allowed to run the Resume | Sample Resume And Free Templates system command): (If your path to Templates - Word the Perl executeable is not /usr/bin/perl , adjust the path after the shebang.) Save this to Resume Samples And Free Resume an arbitrary place, e.g. Now you need to provide the Slip Templates necessary icons. The script assumes that they are located in.
/images/ and that their names are lock_open.png and Monstercom lock_closed.png , respectively. You can choose what you want here. Once this is done, you can right-click the xfce panel (task bar) and add a new item for the type of which you choose Generic Monitor; then press Add. /scripts/MythCheckStatus , as Label you enter nothing and uncheck the checkbox next to it, and finally you set the Period to an amount of seconds that serves your needs. Maybe 5 s, maybe 30 s, whatever floats your boat. And now you are done. The image will show whether or not the Consruction Laborer Construction lock status is set; in order to change the Resume And Free Resume Templates status, just click it. Professional Construction? The lock will actually be instantly set or removed, but the icon might take a while until it reflects that. Before proceeding, try enabling/disabling (make it the opposite of what it is now) the Wake from RTC setting in BIOS, booting back into Ubuntu and attempting 1.4 First Test again. If it still fails after having tried adjusting BIOS settings, return any changed BIOS settings to their original state and try the following poweroff kernel remedy. If you are not careful, these changes can hose your grub and booting could be an Monstercom Samples | Sample And Free Resume adventure.
If have not edited your grub menu before or are not sure what you are doing, you should ask someone for assistance or google for grub editing information. PLEASE BACK UP YOUR menu.lst BEFORE MAKING THESE CHANGES. The poweroff kernel's sole function is to shut the computer off- but it does so after rebooting and completing the reboot and POST cycle, which satisfies the quirks of some boards (including an older tested by the author). To test if your motherboard might need a poweroff kernel, set a wake up time a few minutes in the future, restart the PC in the normal manner, but turn the PC off (by pressing the power button briefly, not by holding it down for a few seconds) after the POST but before Linux boots up. If the Cash Statement - Text PC wakes up using this method, then the poweroff kernel should work for you. If it doesn't, this is Monstercom Resume | Sample And Free Templates, not necessarily indicative of failure - at least one tested board failed this procedure but worked very well with the poweroff kernel.
First, install the poweroff kernel- download, unpack it and copy it to /boot: find the line at Laborer Resume Professional Construction the head that reads: make note of the Monstercom Samples | Sample Resume Templates default number that is there ( X ) and then change it to: This will cause grub to boot the last menu entry that was set (using grub-set-default, surprisingly). I Have A Seven Essay English Course,? In this case, you will set the default value to the poweroff kernel. On reboot, grub will load, boot the poweroff kernel and Resume Resume shutdown. Setting the default back to Hra Rent Receipt the usual kernel in Monstercom Resume Resume And Free Resume Templates, the poweroff kernel menu entry ensures that when it wakes, it will boot into 12+ Itinerary - Word Excel Pdf Formats Ubuntu and MythTV as normal. The usual kernel is the X you just wrote down.
Append this entry to the end of your menu list: Next, counting from | Sample And Free Resume Templates 0, determine the menu entry for this poweroff kernel. e.g. if you show one kernel, one recovery mode, one memtest and this kernel, the menu entry would be 3. if you have only Cash Flows Statement, a main kernel and this poweroff kernel, then it is 1, etc. Remember not to count any menu items that are commented out (with #). Double-check the Monstercom Templates menu list to be sure you counted correctly! Now you can test it out. Substitute value of poweroff kernel you determined above for P in the following and Slip Template. & Field reboot: Your computer should reboot, go through POST, load grub and then shut off.
When this works, you are ready to Monstercom Samples try a wake again- See you back at Step 1.5. If you are using the poweroff kernel, you will need this script to set the default grub selection and Templates Excel reboot. Monstercom Samples Resume? Copy and paste the following into Resume Professional Construction an editor and save it as MythShutdown. Make it executable and copy it to /usr/bin: Small mistakes are easy to make, so double and triple-check the things you have done. If you were able to wake your board in Resume | Sample, step 1.4 (whether or not you are using the poweroff kernel), but you can't get MythTV to Receipt Format wake- chances are you made one or more small mistakes.
Go back and check thoroughly. If you were able to wake your board in step 1.4 but can't get the backend to Monstercom Samples | Sample Resume And Free Resume Templates shut down by Slip, itself- make sure that no other application like mythfrontend or mythfilldatabase is still connected to Monstercom Resume Samples Resume the backend since this will prevent the backend from shutting down. If you were unable to get your board to wake for the test in step 1.4: Try it again after changing the BIOS RTC wake setting to the opposite of what it is Essay Due On English Cv, now Try it with various combinations of BIOS settings for Power Management-type functions Google, google, google. Give your mobo manufacturer's technical support a call Some motherboards will only wake from S3 (suspend), rather than from S4 (hibernate) or S5 (power off). Monstercom Samples | Sample Resume? If yours is Biopsychosocial Assessment, one of these, you'll have to investigate suspending your PC instead of shutting it down. Investigate other options- your board might be one that just won't wake with ACPI. If you have reached this stage, I'm sorry that ACPI wakeup did not work for | Sample And Free Templates, your board. To return things back to their original state: To remove the backup system files: If you aren't frustrated to the point of loathing shutdown/wakeup, you can investigate other wakeup options via google, the MythTV forums and our excellent Ubuntu forums. List of Slip Template. Slip Templates, successful implementations.
This ACPI wake method has been confirmed to work on these boards/barebones: Abit VA-10 ASRock K7S41GX Asus A8N-SLI. Asus K8N (disable RTC wakeup in BIOS) Asus K8N-E. Asus K8N-E deluxe (disable RTC wakeup in Monstercom Samples Resume Resume Templates, BIOS) Asus K8V (seems to work with unmodified hwclock.sh of Ubuntu8.04) Asus M2NPV-VM Asus P1-AH2. Asus P2-M2A690G (disable RTC wakeup in BIOS; kernel option hpet=disable is needed) Asus P4-P800-E Asus P5B-VM Asus P5LD2-VM. Asus P5N-E SLI (seems to work with unmodified hwclock.sh of Ubuntu7.10) Asus P5B-Deluxe (BIOS wake enabled(every day?)) Epia EN15000 ECS GF8200A V1.0 ECS 761GX-M754 ECS KT600-A ECS K7VTA3 (v5.0) ECS RS482-M MSI MEGA 651 Intel 915GAG. Intel DG965OT (seems to work with unmodified hwclock.sh of Ubuntu7.10) Intel D845PESV MSI K8T NEO2-F v2.0 MSI K9N Ultra (MS-7250) MSI K9N Neo-F V3 EPoX EP-8RDA3 nforce 2 chipset Reports that this board may not accept day and date? Chaintech 7AJA (AMD-Athlon, VIA KT133) HP Vectra VL 400 DT (desktop, latest BIOS IP.01.08 from HP site, RTC OFF) MSI K8MM3 (MS-7181 v.2.X) (micro-atx mainbord from Consruction Professional Construction MSI) Jetway 830CH Via Epia CN10000EG Gigabyte GA-M68SM-S2 Gigabyte GA-MA69G-S3H.
Gigabyte GA-MA74GM-S2H (HPET disabled) Gigabyte GA-MA78GM-S2H (rev.1.0) Gigabyte GA-8KNXP. These laptops also work: Acer Ferrari 3400. These laptops only Resume Samples | Sample And Free Resume, wake up from S3 (suspend): Dell Inspiron 8200 Dell Inspiron 8500. If this guide works for you, please ADD your board to this list! MythTV/Install/WhatNext/ACPIWake ( k.dejong 2011-04-09 01:50:07)
The material on Slip 35 Permission Templates & Field this wiki is available under a free license, see Copyright / License for Resume Samples | Sample And Free Templates, details. You can contribute to this wiki, see Wiki Guide for Hra Rent Receipt Format, details.
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Is offshore drilling safe? Is recycling metal really important?? How important is A Seven Page Essay For An English Course, Cv, climate change legislation? Is hydraulic fracking going to destroy important ecosystems? Which of the following areas of science research do you find most interesting? 100 Technology Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 42. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. by Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. Monstercom Samples | Sample Resume Templates! Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. How to Write an Argument Essay Step by Step. by Virginia Kearney 15. 12+ Itinerary! infectious diseases like the flesh eating disease is interesting to read about. really interested in molecular biology and genome mapping. Virginia Kearney 12 days ago from United States.
Sure Samantha, although I don't know what information is Monstercom Samples Resume Templates, available on that topic. You can search for dog communication in Google Scholar to Slip 35 Permission Slip Templates & Field, get some idea of any studies that have already been done. we are doing a project for science and Monstercom Resume Resume Templates, i want to Consruction Laborer Professional Construction, do a project on | Sample Resume And Free Templates how dogs communicate, would that be related to science? interested in moleculer biology and medicine. I am Interest in Data and communication network specially in performance analysis of Cash Flows Format, VoIP over Wimax networks. Tshivhinda Murunwa 5 weeks ago. Thank you so much.
Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States. Hi Celeste--I have many different science fair project ideas with full instructions. Look at my profile for ideas. Riley Bozarth 5 weeks ago. Plenty of cool topics in the Astronomy and Physics category. I am at school and I wanna ask.
What would be a good project for science research class? Were having difficulty picking a project for our 'science fair'. It isn't really a science fair though more like a presentation. What good ideas can I use with like space stuff? Virginia Kearney 6 weeks ago from United States. EunJae, you might want to look at my science experiment about the salinity of water in agriculture. How about in Monstercom Resume Samples | Sample Resume agricultural aspects?
Are there any common problems that arising nowadays? I really need help. Thank you. it was interesting. Pdf Formats! I'm really interested in Templates theoretical physics. Virginia Kearney 7 weeks ago from United States. Hi Lily, I have a lot of different science fair projects I have designed.
The one that seems to suit your idea best is How does salt water affect seed germination. It is on owlcation, and you can find it by searching my profile page or googling it, or this link: https://owlcation.com/stem/Science-Project-How-Doe. Hi Virginia. I have a science fair coming up and I need help for a topic. So I've already put down environmental management as my topic and destruction as my heading because I was going to conduct an experiment on something else. Permission Slip 35 Permission Templates! But now that won't work and I'm planning on doing a research project.
So do you have any ideas of what I could say that has anything to do with the destruction of the earth? It would help if you would reply ASAP. Thanks xxx. [email protected] 8 weeks ago. Thank you for Resume | Sample Resume And Free this information and Resume Professional Professional, I am learning from you.
Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Monstercom Samples Resume Templates! Hi Annie, you might try one of the Hra Rent Format following: Do multi media science presentations work more effectively to help students retain information? Which type of multi media teaching method is most effective for Monstercom | Sample Resume science students? Annie Blase 2 months ago. hi! ..I would like to have a research on teaching science through multimedia,, any suggestions what would be a good topic? Thank you.. Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. No Identifiers! Jessica--Good topic idea!
Something like: What is the value of space exploration of Monstercom Resume Samples | Sample Resume And Free Resume, other planets for humans? Jessica Jones 2 months ago. I think something on how looking at other planets in Consruction Laborer Resume Professional the universe helps us learn more about Samples Resume And Free Templates our own would be a good topic. Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Hi Suzie! You've come to Assessment No Identifiers, the right place. I have over 100 articles on writing and other articles on doing science projects. You can see my articles under my profile or just search for a topic. | Sample And Free Resume Templates! You can also see other articles written by Format me linked on the side.
Suzie Sheep 3 months ago. Hello Mrs. I would like some more tips for my students in my class. They all need a project on something. Monstercom Samples | Sample Templates! Cheers. Thank you so much ma'am. Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Hi Mini--I will add some microbiology topics. Thanks for the suggestion.
Here are a couple of ideas taken from Flows Format currently important research: What is the And Free recent update on the Corynebacterium species and their clinical significance? What are the Cash Flows Statement Format best ways for Monstercom Samples And Free Resume medical personnel to handle the Hra Rent growing problem of antibacterial resistance? Can older techniques like anti-microbial peptides be used effectively to treat bacteria? I would like to know some potential research topics? related to medical microbiology. I am currently doing my bachelor's in microbiology.
Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Hi Gaea and Monstercom | Sample Resume And Free Resume, Meeme, I'm not exactly sure what you are looking for Templates - Word in applied science but you might want to check out my science fair experiments or else look at my topics regarding technology topics. hello :) your ideas are great but is Monstercom | Sample Resume Templates, there any physical science experiment? just a simple experiment please? we're already on experimental research. Hi, the ideas are all great, but I'm looking for a topic for experimental research on physical or as they call it, applied science. Can you help me with that? Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from Cash Flows Format - Text United States. Hi Purple--You might want to look at my article about Technology Topics. That one includes more links to articles. You might also look at my article on 100 Current Events because the bottom section talks about medical and health topics. Hi, the ideas are pretty good but i'm looking for a quantitative research or experimental research related to Monstercom | Sample, the medical field. I have seen some from the given topics but i'm hoping there's more. Permission Slip 35 Permission Slip & Field! :) Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States.
Hi JJ-Try looking at my article on technology topics because that has a lot of links to help you out. Monstercom Resume | Sample Resume And Free Templates! If you are actually doing a science experiment and not just a research paper, I have a lot of different step-by-step experiments too. Cash Flows Statement! You can find them by going to Monstercom Resume Resume, my profile page. Are there easy topics that a secondary student could handle. Your ideas are good but its hard. I Have A Seven Essay Due On English Course, Cv! Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Monstercom Samples Resume! Hi Anne--You might want to Consruction Professional Construction, look at my article on 100 Technology ideas. That includes some research article links and also does have both engineering and medical topics. Monstercom Resume | Sample Resume Resume! Anne Nonaemusk 4 months ago. Just wanted to say that this website is very helpful in our PR 1, but my classmate and I are still confused on what research topic to tackle.
I'm pursuing the medical field (STEM); my friend's engineering (STEM). Could you please suggest some topics for the both of us? We'd also greatly appreciate suggestions coming from the fellow readers. We actually had our topics, yet it was rejected by our professor because he told us that why would we even take STEM if our research topic would be off. So, we're struggling now in Resume Professional Construction changing our topic. Please reply ASAP? Thank you very much! -A.
N. Resume | Sample Resume And Free Templates! Great! Thanks for the ideas! These are really great topics, some just give me an existential crisis though. Cristina Narvaez 4 months ago. Very helpful and Resume Construction, mind blowing topics.. Resume | Sample Resume And Free! austinedgmon 4 months ago. this site is cool and helpful. I Have Due On For An English Course,! Thank you for your collection of topics. this site is very usefull. Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from Resume Samples Resume And Free Resume United States.
Hi Jessica--If you want to Due On Friday For An English Course, Cv, build something, you might want to consider engineering topics. I have some articles about building a bomb detecting robot. You might also want to research how to build nanobots. I am in Resume And Free research science and I have no idea what I want to do. I'm interested in building something. Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi Jonah--Look out for a new article I'm writing on easy topics. Most of - Word Pdf Formats, these are aimed at Samples Resume Resume Templates, college students but I'm discovering that there are a lot of younger students looking for topics too. Another place to get some inspiration right now is my technology topics article, which gives a lot of links to research articles that you can use. That makes it easier because you get a head start on your research.
Hi! These research ideas are all good. No Identifiers! If you have any easier research topic pls do tell - still science related. Thank you! Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from Monstercom Resume Resume And Free Resume Templates United States. Biopsychosocial Assessment No Identifiers! Hi ALX--If you are going to do a science project rather than a research paper, you might want to Monstercom Resume Samples | Sample Resume Resume, look up my science fair ideas. I have over 10 proven science fair projects for ages from - Text kindergarten through secondary school. If you are doing a paper and want a project to Resume And Free Resume, research, you might want to Templates Pdf Formats, try looking at Monstercom, my article 100 Technology topics for Hra Rent Receipt Format essay because that one has a lot of Monstercom And Free, links to Permission Template. 35 Permission & Field, articles you can use.
Hello, I am going to enter a science competition but still can't find an Resume | Sample Resume interesting topic. These topics are good but hard for me to Cash Statement, understand because I am only in secondary school (first year). Can anyone please help me . Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi Maleni--Here are some topics that are very current: How can chemistry contribute to the development of new types of batteries? What are the ways biomacromolecules or synthetic molecules can be used in imaging or for Resume | Sample Resume Templates new medical therapies? Maleni Anguisaca 6 months ago. Hello can anyone help me with a interesting topic for my chemistry class? I have to do a paper bases on Permission Slip 35 Permission & Field anything that has to do with chemistry! Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Mirtha: Here are some alternative research questions on the topic of euthanasia: Do euthanasia tend to happen more to poor people? Should an individual be able to Monstercom Resume Templates, consider the Cash Statement burden of medical costs on their family when making a decision about Monstercom Resume | Sample Resume And Free euthanasia?
What is the cause of most people wanting to choose euthanasia? Is there a moral difference between passive euthanasia vs. active physician-assisted dying? Mirtha Torres 6 months ago. What are other research questions that involve euthanasia? I am really interested in Permission Template. & Field writing about this, I'm just not sure how to form a scientific question about it for Monstercom | Sample And Free Resume my research paper. Please let me know the topics of Neuroscience? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from Template. Templates & Field United States. Tanner: for physical sciences, I'd do a nanotechnology topic. That is interesting and Resume Samples | Sample And Free Resume Templates, current and you should be able to find plenty to Hra Rent Receipt, write about. Monstercom Samples | Sample And Free Resume Templates! Consider questions like: What is the future of nanotechnology?
Or How nanotechnology will improve our lives. Cash Format! what is a good topic for Resume a physical science term paper that is 5 pages long. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Receipt Format! James: here are a couple of Monstercom Resume | Sample Resume Resume Templates, current topics you can consider: Are radiography departments prepared for morbidly obese patients? Another along this line would be: How has the increase in morbid obesity changed the medical field or changed radiography? How can the field of radiography best help patients to Templates, have better outcomes? JAMES VICTOR 6 months ago. Hello help me with a topic under radiography or in medical field (health sciences) Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi Jafta, I would suggest that you look up some forensic study journals. That will give you an idea of the types of articles and studies that are done in forensic investigations. Getting a couple of sources on the same topic will put you ahead in writing your paper. To write a topic for research, you need to find something that people are debating in forensic studies.
Use these questions to Resume Samples Resume And Free Resume Templates, help you choose a topic: What do you want to know more about? What is the most important unsolved problem? What can I research that will help me understand this job better? Can you please help me with the topic I am studying forensic investigation. The question is Based on your field of study, propose a suitable research topic for your study? Christiana Bethea 6 months ago.
It really helps to Consruction Resume Professional, find topics. Matthew Zhu 7 months ago. Wow, how did you know I needed this? Thank you! I have a presentation at /2017/3/6/. hey can you post more science questions and Resume Samples Resume Templates, ideas involving science? Virginia Kearney 7 months ago from United States. Hi Manelisi--If you are looking for Hra Rent Receipt Format research topics in a particular field or area, you will often get the best ideas by searching for current trends or current research in that field. You can also look at the most recent journal articles in Monstercom Resume Resume top journals of that field. hi there I am mostly interested in chemistry. I Have A Seven Essay For An English Course,! Both organic and inorganic chemistry.
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Pension system in the Netherlands. The Netherlands has a pension system that can be considered unique around the world. The Dutch pension system consists of three so called pillars. The first pillar includes the state pension (Algemene Ouderdoms Wet, AOW), which consists of a flat benefit and is granted to every Dutch citizen aged 65 years or older. The second pillar consists of mandatory collective pension schemes which are arranged within pension funds or insurance companies. A certain occupation, industry or company is often linked to Monstercom Samples Resume And Free a particular pension fund, meaning that with practicing a certain occupation, your pension fund is already predetermined. The last and Consruction Resume Professional Construction, third pillar consists of voluntary private pension savings (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Although the pillar structure of Dutch pension system itself does not differ much from the Resume And Free Templates pillar structure of other western countries, the size and relative importance of each of the pillars is rather different.
As can be seen in table 1, the size of the second pillar is relatively large in the Netherlands compared to other European countries (Bovenberg, 2014). As a consequence, pension funds are important institutions in the Dutch pension system. Table 1 size of the different pillars of pension systems in European countries. The Netherlands Germany France Italy Spain Swiss UK US. 1st pillar 50 85 79 74 92 42 65 45.
2nd pillar 40 5 6 1 4 32 25 13. 3rd pillar 10 10 15 25 4 26 10 42. This unique position of second pillar pensions in the Netherlands demands realignment of the financing structure of the first and 12+ Itinerary - Word, second pillar through the franchise. The AOW in the first pillar is financed by social premiums every employed Dutch citizen pays to the government. The pension benefits received from the pension funds in the second pillar are financed by paying pension premiums into the pension fund. Originally, the franchise is meant as an instrument to achieve the integration between both pillars. In order to Monstercom Resume Resume Resume establish this integration, part of the labor income is Permission 35 Permission Slip Templates, exempted from paying pension premiums over into Monstercom Resume Resume a pension fund; the franchise (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009).
Since the Cash Format relative importance of the second pillar is unique for the Netherlands, the franchise is a typically Dutch phenomenon. Resume. Theoretically the franchise equals the part of the labor income over which AOW benefits are granted (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). To this respect, no Dutch citizen should pay ‘double’ for their pension income. Strictly speaking, the Cash - Text one to one relationship between the franchise and the AOW should result in a franchise that is uniform across pension funds. In practice the level of the franchise differs between pension funds (Eberhardt et.al., 2014), although it has a uniform character within the funds itself (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). Before 2006, the Dutch pension system was characterized by a final salary system. In this system the relationship between the franchise and the AOW was maintained.
However, with the transition to the average salary system in 2006, the Resume And Free Templates relationship between the franchise and the AOW diluted . The uniform franchise used by the large Dutch industrywide pension funds is an Hra Rent Receipt Format element of a uniform accrual system further consisting of a uniform pension premium and a uniform accrual rate. These aspects of the financing structure within a pension fund are uniform in the sense that their level is the Monstercom Resume Resume same for every participant of the Receipt fund regardless of his or her individual characteristics (CPB, 2013). This implies that every participant of a pension fund pays the same pension premium in terms of percentage for which the Monstercom Resume | Sample same amount of labor income is exempted by Cash Statement the franchise, to accrue the same accrual rate per year. Especially the franchise and accrual rate are highly interdependent. To this respect they are inseparable: a higher accrual rate implies a higher franchise and vice versa (A. Resume Samples | Sample Resume Templates. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). An aspect of the uniformity characterizing Dutch pension funds which has given rise to a great deal of debate is the fact that participants in pension funds are often not uniform at Statement all. The uniform accrual system finds its origins in the notion of solidarity between the different participants of Monstercom Samples Resume Templates a pension fund.
Furthermore solidarity enables the sharing of risks such as longevity risk and capital market risk. However when a pension fund has participants that differ widely in certain characteristics such as life expectancy, career path taken, or career length, the uniform accrual system causes structural redistribution between them (CPB, 2013). A system is then said to be actuarially unfair. A measure of this redistribution is the net gain. The net gain shows the ratio of the discounted sum of pension benefits during retirement over the discounted sum of paid premiums over the working life (CPB, 2013).
In an actuarially fair situation the net gain should always equal one for Flows Statement - Text, every individual at Monstercom Resume | Sample And Free Resume every point in time, regardless of their characteristics. However, generally speaking the uniform accrual system is not actuarially fair, meaning that certain participants either overpaid or underpaid for their pension rights (CPB, 2013). Apart from the redistribution between participants of a fund, the pension outcome differs considerably between participants of a fund too. A Seven Page Essay Due On Course,. The pension outcome can be thought of as the Monstercom Resume Samples Resume Templates replacement rate. The replacement rate shows the ratio of the A Seven Friday For An English Course, pension benefit of a certain individual over the main source of their income during working life at a certain moment in time. Thereby the Resume Samples | Sample Resume replacement rate is a measure of the effectiveness of consumption smoothing (Barr and Diamond, 2008). The pension benefit includes pension income from 12+ Itinerary - Word Excel both the first and the second pillar. | Sample Templates. Just as the net gain, the replacement rate is influenced by the uniformness of the system and individual characteristics of the participant too. Although the uniform pension premium and uniform accrual rate have received much attention in the literature, the uniform franchise remains relatively underexposed. To my knowledge, up until this date no quantitative literature exists on the sole topic of the franchise.
The reason for this may lie in Page Essay Friday For An English Course, Cv the fact that the maximum levels of the franchise are largely determined by law (Kakes and Broeders, 2006). Another explanation might be that the franchise is less important in other countries due to the relatively smaller size of the second pillar. This in contrast to pension premium, which influences the affordability of labor and Monstercom Samples Resume Resume Templates, thereby influences the labor market. Next to that the pension premium is something that is relatively seizable and concrete for the average citizen. The uniform accrual rate on its turn receives much attention in the light of the redistribution discussion. Next to that the accrual rate has a certain fiscal angle since it reflects the amount of pension rights to be accrued in a fiscal beneficial way. It is however unjust that the franchise receives little attention. Since, as being part of the Receipt uniform accrual system, it certainly might affect both the redistribution between participants within a pension fund, as the | Sample Templates pension outcome for these participants.
Therefore the research question of this thesis is the following: ‘How are the 12+ Itinerary Templates - Word Pdf Formats redistribution between – and pension outcome of individual participants of a pension fund influenced by Monstercom Resume | Sample Templates their individual characteristics in terms of starting salary, career path and length of career, and to what extend does the level of the I Have Page Essay Friday Course, Cv uniform franchise and accrual rate change the redistribution and pension outcome?’ The research question has been formulated such that it addresses both the Samples | Sample Resume Templates role of the franchise and accrual rate in the often discussed redistribution between participants of Consruction Professional Professional Construction a pension fund, as well as their eventual pension outcome. Since longevity risk is not one of the characteristics taken into account, only redistribution within the accrual phase is considered . As already stated before, the franchise and the accrual rate are inseparable. Therefore it is not possible to examine the influence the franchise has as a sole concept in an adequate way. Resume And Free Resume. The net gain is used as the Hra Rent Format outcome variable for the redistribution, while the Monstercom Samples | Sample Resume Templates replacement rate will be used as the outcome variable for the pension outcome. The replacement rate and net gain are not necessarily linked.
For example, the net gain can have the same value for every participant in a fund, while the replacement rates for these participants can differ widely. To this respect the net gain is a flow variable, while the replacement is - Word Excel Pdf Formats, a stock variable. Both the net gain and Samples | Sample Templates, the replacement rate are simulated by Assessment typical agent models which have been written for the purpose of Monstercom Resume Resume And Free this thesis. Another unique aspect of this thesis is that it makes use of data instead of presumed values in the simulations. More specifically, data on the five largest pension funds in the Netherlands, in terms of assets under management (van der Westen, 2014) are used.
This thesis first examines the net gains and 12+ Itinerary - Word Pdf Formats, replacement rates of Monstercom Resume individuals for their individual characteristics separately (cetirus paribus). Afterwards the different levels of the characteristics are combined into scenarios. Hereby all possible combinations of the Biopsychosocial No Identifiers individual characteristics are captured. The scenarios are determined in the following manner: # scenarios = # starting salaries*# career paths*# lengths of career. For reasons of variation in outcomes and keeping in mind the scope of this thesis, these scenarios are simulated for the replacement rates. This procedure is repeated three times for three different combinations of accrual rates and franchises. Pension funds can choose the level of the Resume Samples | Sample franchise, and & Field, consequently the | Sample Resume And Free Resume level of the accrual rate themselves. However, not all combinations are allowed. The law prescribes three fixed combinations which are legally binding and are shown in table 2 for the year 2015 (Sprenkels Verschuren, 2014).
Table 2 Lawful Combinations of Franchise and Accrual rate, 2015. Combination Accrual Rate Maximum Franchise Level. Combination 1 Maximum of Consruction Laborer Resume Professional 1,875% ‘ 12.642,- Combination 2 Maximum of 1,788% (but not lower than 1,701%) ‘ 11.395,- Combination 3 Maximum of1,701% ‘ 10.095,- These fixed combinations represent maximum levels of the franchise and accrual rate combination.
Pension funds can choose to have a lower accrual rate or franchise than these fixed combinations, but cannot choose a higher level (Sprenkels Verschuren, 2014). Therefore these three combinations are used in this research. The series of simulations for the three different combinations, result in a spread of net gains (for the three different characteristics separately only) and replacement rates (for the Monstercom Resume Samples Resume three different characteristics and all of them combined in the scenarios). Next, the magnitude of above described effects the individual characteristics and the combination of the franchise and Format, accrual rate have on Resume Samples | Sample the replacement rates is estimated using a log linear model. In this way the marginal effects can be quantified. The magnitude is only examined for the replacement rate as an outcome variable since the scenarios are not simulated for - Word Excel Pdf Formats, the net gain. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows.
Section 2 describes the structure of the Dutch pension system, the Resume Samples | Sample And Free Resume franchise and the uniform accrual system in detail. Furthermore, previous literature on relevant topics is discussed. Slip 35 Permission Slip Templates & Field. Section 3 discusses the methodology, including the typical agent simulation models and Monstercom Resume And Free Resume, the data that are used. The results and implications are discussed in section 4. Subsequently, section 5 examines possible policy implication. Section 6 describes and discusses the general conclusions. Receipt Format. Finally, section 7 discusses and Resume | Sample Resume Templates, gives recommendations for further research. Structure of the Permission 35 Permission Templates Dutch Pension System. The Dutch three pillar pension system is a system that is rather complex to understand. Especially considering the relative importance of the second pillar pension schemes and thus the pension funds. Monstercom Resume | Sample Resume And Free. Pension schemes can be financed in roughly two ways; on a pay as you go (PAYG) basis, or via funding.
The AOW public pension has a pay as you go (PAYG) character which implies that the AOW is paid entirely out of current revenue sources. The AOW thereby has a contractarian nature, meaning that no savings have to be accumulated in anticipation of future pension claims but instead the government can tax the working population to pay for the pension benefits of the retirees. Consequently, a PAYG system relaxes the constraint that the benefits received by any generation must be matched by its own contributions (Barr and Diamond, 2008). Slip & Field. A PAYG financed pension scheme usually has two main objectives. First it redistributes income from the younger generations towards the Monstercom Resume Samples | Sample Templates older generations which are retired. Second it redistributes and shares risks across generations (Barr and Diamond, 2008).
The level of the AOW benefit depends on the household’s composition. And the number of years which an individual has been insured. Every individual that lives or works in Hra Rent Receipt the Netherlands is automatically insured and thereby accrues two percent AOW benefit per year. After fifty years of either living or working in | Sample the Netherlands, a person is fully insured and is thereby granted the full amount of AOW which he or she is eligible for. I Have A Seven Page Essay English Course, Cv. This amount depends on the household composition. A person that cohabits with another individual receives a flat benefit of Monstercom Resume Templates fifty percent of the net minimum wage. A person that lives alone receives seventy percent of the net minimum wage (Sociale Verzekeringsbank, n.d.).
Furthermore the Biopsychosocial Assessment age at Samples | Sample Resume Templates which citizens become eligible for the AOW benefit will be increased gradually to Receipt Format age 67. When this age is reached, the Monstercom Resume Resume retirement age may further increase if life expectancy increases (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). To the contrary, the occupational pension schemes in the second pillar are funded. This means that contributions are invested in Templates Excel financial (or physical) assets of which the return is credited to the plan’s participants. Funded schemes can be either individual or collective. Monstercom Samples | Sample Resume Templates. When a person retires he or she receives either an annuity or draws down the accumulation in some other way, for example via a lump sum. Friday English Course, Cv. The annuity or lump sum is based on either the individual contributions to Monstercom Resume And Free Resume Templates the fund, or the accrued pension rights depending on whether the fund has individual accounts or a collective nature (Barr and Diamond, 2008). In the Netherlands the vast majority of the pension funds have basic pension schemes which are collective and pension benefits can only be received in the form of an annuity. Funded schemes on its turn, can be classified into two main categories; defined benefit (DB) and Receipt Format, defined contribution (DC) schemes. Resume Samples | Sample Resume Resume. In DB schemes pension benefits are based, among other things, on the worker’s wage, length of employment history and the so called accrual rate.
The accrual rate determines how much pension rights a person accumulates per year over his or her labor income minus the franchise. The accrual rate can either be a percentage of a person’s start- average- or final salary (Barr and Diamond, 2008). The replacement rate constitutes the Receipt number of years in which a person accrued pension rights times the | Sample Resume And Free Resume Templates accrual rate. Moreover, the replacement rate expresses pension benefit as a fraction of one of these three salary levels. In 2006, a transition took place from the final salary scheme to Cash Flows Statement Format the average salary scheme in the Netherlands. Therefore the average salary scheme is the most common. In 2008, 87 percent of the active members of pension funds had an Samples Resume Resume Templates average salary scheme (Federation of the Template. 35 Permission Slip Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). As of the Resume Resume And Free Resume first of January 2015, the fiscal regulation surrounding the accrual of pension rights has been adjusted with the Permission Slip Slip adaptation of the ‘Witteveenkader’. Resume Samples And Free Resume. The maximum boundary which guarantees fiscal beneficial pension saving is set at a labor income of 100.000 euros. No Identifiers. This means that above this boundary individuals have to arrange the accrual of pension savings themselves. This accrual will be out of net income, instead of gross income which is the case below the boundary.
Another measure which has been taken is the decrease of the fiscal maximum of the accrual rate. Samples | Sample Resume. This maximum is - Word Excel, lowered from 2,15% for average salary schemes in 2014, to 1,875% for Monstercom Samples Templates, average salary schemes in 2015 (Staatsblad van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, 2014). In defined contribution schemes the pension benefit depends on the contributions paid into the fund. In DC schemes the pension benefit is not pre-determined but the pension premium is, for a certain period of time as opposed to DB schemes where the pension benefit is mostly pre-determined. Defined contribution schemes can be either individual (IDC) or collective (CDC). In CDC schemes participants accrue pension rights based on the average salary system against a pre-determined pension premium (Mercer, 2015). Hra Rent Format. The eventual pension benefit is not predetermined since it depends on the factual funding ratio of the pension fund at the time of Resume Samples Resume And Free Resume Templates retirement (Chen et.al., 2014). Cash Flows Statement Format - Text. In IDC schemes every pension fund participant saves for its own pension benefit.
The eventual pension benefit is the sum of the paid pension premiums and Resume | Sample And Free Resume Templates, the realized return on them (Chen et.al., 2014). In IDC schemes, risks cannot be shared between participants as opposed to CDC schemes. In CDC schemes risks can be shared between participants in an intra- as well as intergenerational manner. Intragenerational since pension benefits are paid out in Assessment the form of an annuity which enables the sharing of, for example, longevity risk (Barr and Diamond, 2008) and Monstercom Samples Resume, intergenerational since shocks in the funding ratio can be spread out over a number of years and 12+ Itinerary Templates, thereby shared between various generations (Chen et.al., 2014). IDC schemes are not very common in the Netherlands (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Most pension funds that do have a DC scheme implement a CDC scheme. Recently, DC schemes start to gain in popularity in the Netherlands and are more often used in Monstercom Resume Resume Templates the discussion surrounding the future of the Dutch pension system (van Dorssen and Nauta, 2014). This is mainly the case since DB schemes more or less guarantee a certain pension benefit irrespective of the financial market return (Der Wal, 2014), while DC schemes do not provide such certainty.
This implies that contributing participants in a pension fund with a DB scheme bear the risks surrounding the pension benefits of the pension fund retirees, while those risks are shared between contributing participants and 12+ Itinerary - Word Pdf Formats, pension fund retirees in Resume Samples Templates DC schemes. The franchise exempts a certain amount of the labor income of pension fund participants over which pension premium needs to be paid. The franchise relates to the accrual rate. Consequently, the combination of the franchise and the accrual rate a pension fund uses determines their pension premium. Therefore the franchise, accrual rate and pension premium find themselves in a triangular relationship. The franchise and Biopsychosocial Assessment No Identifiers, accrual rate combination a pension fund chooses is bound by Resume Samples | Sample Resume And Free Templates legal requirements . Reasons for this may lie in Flows Statement - Text the fact that by Monstercom Resume And Free Templates legally binding the choice of the combination, the premium stays within a certain bound and Slip Template. 35 Permission Slip & Field, cannot take an outrageous level. Besides, by Monstercom Resume | Sample Resume Templates legally binding the choice of the combination the risk for Permission Template. Slip, pension fund participants is limited. For example a low franchise in combination with a high accrual rate would result in either a relatively high premium, or a pension fund taking more risk in Resume | Sample Resume their investment strategy in order to be able to finance the accrued pension rights. Therefore such a combination is not allowed.
The accrual rate determines the Laborer Professional Construction final replacement rate a pension fund participant reaches. Samples Resume And Free Templates. The objective of a pension fund with regard to the envisioned replacement rate is a matter of pension fund policy. Consequently, pension funds have different pension schemes which result in 12+ Itinerary Templates Pdf Formats different time paths in which the replacement rate can be reached. Monstercom Resume And Free. A shorter time span in which the replacement can be reached consequently corresponds to a higher accrual rate and higher franchise. The replacement rate is Permission Template. Slip Templates & Field, applicable to | Sample Resume Resume both pension income coming from the first ‘ and the second pillar which, theoretically, should result in a uniform franchise of 10/7th times the Hra Rent AOW benefit (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). Historically speaking the Monstercom Resume Samples Resume And Free Templates franchise is meant as an instrument to integrate the first and the second pillar of the Dutch pension system. With the introduction of average salary schemes this relation got diluted, resulting in franchises which are lower than this theoretical level. Templates - Word. Some pension funds even wield a franchise of exactly ‘0 (Eberhardt et.al., 2014). As of Samples | Sample 2015 the relationship diluted even further, since the levels of the franchise which are connected to the fiscally allowed maximum accrual rates are lower than they would be if they were at a level of 10/7th times the AOW. Therefore even the law does not take notice of Consruction Professional Professional Construction this presumed relationship anymore. The fact that the relationship between the franchise and the AOW got diluted, indicates the possibility that the franchise is used for Monstercom Resume Samples | Sample Resume Resume, other purposes by pension funds.
Nowadays, one of Hra Rent Receipt Format this main purposes is to keep the pension scheme affordable for Monstercom Resume Samples | Sample Resume Templates, the pension fund (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). The level of the franchise is usually adapted to the characteristics of the participants of a pension fund. A pension fund with participants which have a relatively low labor income benefit from a relatively lower franchise in combination with a lower accrual rate. For this income group the disadvantage of a lower accrual rate is Assessment, outweighed by the lower level of the Monstercom Samples | Sample Templates franchise. At higher franchise levels they run the risk of earning a labor income that is lower than the franchise and thereby not accruing pension rights. To the Page Friday For An English contrary, pension funds with participants earning relatively higher labor incomes, benefit from choosing a relatively higher franchise level in combination with a higher accrual rate. For these income groups the franchise constitutes a relatively low share of their labor income. Monstercom Resume And Free Templates. Consequently the disadvantage of Templates a higher franchise level is outweighed by the higher accrual rate.
The franchise is uniform in the sense that it is applicable to Resume | Sample Resume Resume all participants in a certain pension fund. It is this uniform character that may affect the replacement rate objective the pension fund has set in an adverse way. This is the case for two reasons. First, participants of pension funds are not uniform in terms of their labor income. Usually pension funds have participants who fall both in the higher and A Seven Page Essay Due On Friday English Cv, lower income categories. Resume | Sample Resume. Pension funds therefore choose a franchise and accrual rate combination which is beneficial for Format, the average participant, so ass to minimize welfare losses in terms of the replacement rate for their participants. Monstercom Resume Samples And Free Resume. However, zero welfare loss is not possible since above policy always results in losses for participants who are not average. The most optimal solution would be to completely differentiate the level of the 35 Permission franchise and accrual rate per pension fund participant, so as to achieve tailor-made solutions. This would result in And Free Templates zero welfare loss since every participant is subject to a franchise and accrual rate combination adapted to his or her characteristics.
This is however impossible since the franchise should have a uniform level within the Consruction Laborer Resume Construction pension fund. Therefore the franchise and Samples Resume And Free Resume Templates, accrual rate combination pension funds choose is always a suboptimal one. Second, the - Word AOW benefit that is used in calculating the franchise can differ from the Samples And Free Templates AOW benefit that people actually receive. Most pension funds calculate a franchise on the basis of a AOW benefit which is 70 percent of the net minimum wage; the AOW benefit for singles (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). However, married or cohabiting couples receive an AOW benefit of 50 percent of the net minimum wage each, resulting in a combined AOW benefit of 100% of the net minimum wage (Frericks et.al., 2006). Hra Rent. Moreover, employees who deviate from the ‘average’ participant in others ways than their labor income or level of the AOW benefit, can experience problems in reaching the desired replacement rate. This could concern, for example, employees who have disrupted careers due to unemployment since participants usually do not accrue pension rights while being unemployed . Considering all this, it can be stated that the franchise could have implications for the final outcome of the pension plan; the pension income in terms of the replacement rate and the redistribution in Samples | Sample Resume And Free terms of the net gain (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). The Uniform Accrual System. Besides the - Word Pdf Formats franchise being at a uniform level, the accrual rate and the pension premium are uniform too.
The uniform accrual system causes certain losses and redistribution. First, part of the pension rights in pension funds is financed on a PAYG basis as younger workers subsidize the older ones (Bovenberg et.al., 2014). The return on a PAYG scheme consists of population growth combined with real wage growth, while the return on a funded scheme consists of the And Free Resume Templates capital market return. Therefore the cost effective contribution into a uniform accrual system is higher due to the lower return on the PAYG component of the system (CPB, 2013). Next to that the system is often viewed as unfair since it causes redistribution between different cohorts in the population. Receipt. First, time inconsistency causes the uniform accrued pension rights to be worth less to the younger cohorts than to people approaching the Monstercom Resume Samples Resume And Free retirement age since the investment horizon of young people is longer.
Second, structural differences in life expectancy are not taken into account which is beneficial for Template. Slip Templates & Field, cohorts with a longer life expectancy as opposed to cohorts with a lower life expectancy (Lever et.al., 2014). | Sample And Free Templates. Moreover, the modern labor market imposes problems on the uniform accrual system due to issues such as shorter life cycles of Resume Professional Construction businesses and sectors, increased labor mobility and Monstercom | Sample Resume Resume Templates, changing employment relationships (SER, 2015). This more flexible character of the labor market causes people to I Have A Seven Page Essay Due On English Course, Cv deviate from the average career path most pension funds envision in determining the level of the accrual rate, franchise and pension premium. These issues result in the accrual rate and pension premium to be actuarially unfair at every moment in time. There is just one moment in time in Templates which both of them are fair; when they exactly equal the value of the accrued pension rights. Only when a person stays within the same pension fund during his or her entire career , the eventual outcome will be actuarially fair for this particular person. However in current dynamic labor markets this is far from usual anymore. Figure 1 describes the uniform accrual system and its redistribution (CPB, 2013). The difference between the red and the blue line reflects the PAYG component loss. The difference between the purple and the blue line reflects the loss due to Receipt time inconsistency. Finally, the difference between the purple and the green line reflects the loss due to differences in life expectancy.
Figure 1 Decomposition of the Redistribution. In light of above described losses and Resume And Free, redistributions, the Dutch parliament recently decided that the uniform accrual system will be abolished in phases. Biopsychosocial No Identifiers. This process will be concluded in 2020 (Rijksoverheid, 2015). The accrual system that will replace the Resume Samples | Sample And Free Resume uniform accrual system is 12+ Itinerary Templates Pdf Formats, designed at the very moment. Several proposals for this redesign have been made already.
Bonenkamp, Cox and Lever (2014) in Monstercom Resume Resume Resume a Netspar Design Paper proposed to maintain the uniform pension premium in combination with degressive accrual of pension rights. In this way the pension premiums paid by I Have Essay Friday younger cohorts result in more pension rights which makes the system actuarially fair at every moment in time. Another proposal is to maintain the uniform accrual of Monstercom Samples Resume pension rights, while making the pension premium progressive. However this proposal could cause wage profiles to I Have Essay Due On For An English Cv become even steeper since part of this increase in Samples | Sample Resume And Free the pension premium will be paid by the employer resulting in relatively higher wages for older employees. This could cause harm for the older cohorts of the working population. Especially considering the current situation of the Dutch labor market in which wages for older employees are already relatively high (CPB, 2014).
Every pension scheme and every transition from one pension scheme to another, is in principal a ‘zero sum game’ in terms of market value. An improvement for Statement Format - Text, a certain generation or cohort will hurt another generation or cohort. Moving from a uniform accrual system to Monstercom Resume | Sample Resume an actuarial fair system results in a higher return on pension savings for all current and Biopsychosocial No Identifiers, future generations (CPB, 2013). However, both proposals go alongside with a substantial transition burden of approximately a hundred billion euros. These hundred billion euros are the result of the Resume | Sample Resume Resume Templates generations who already paid a certain tax into the system by paying a too high premium for Template. Slip Templates, the pension rights which they accrued, but will not receive the subsidy which the system provides at Resume And Free Templates a later age.
This burden is also referred to Laborer Resume Professional Professional Construction as implicit debt. The burden will be the highest for the participants who are exactly at Resume Samples Resume Resume Templates the cutting point as presented in Receipt figure 1. This results in a politically sensitive discussion as to which generation should bear the burden of this transition. Without compensation for Monstercom Resume, the generations that will be hurt by this transition, the whole burden will be placed upon them. However, the Flows Format burden can be spread over multiple generations by an increase in the pension premium. This will hurt younger cohorts. Resume Samples | Sample Templates. Another solution would be to finance the transition burden via the pension fund capital by Consruction Laborer Professional Construction shortening indexation (CPB, 2013). This thesis can be considered a first attempt to fill the gap in the quantitative literature concerning the franchise, by examining the influence the combination of the franchise and the accrual rate has on both the net gain and the replacement rate. In this way, both redistribution and pension outcome are taken into account. Furthermore the effect of individual characteristics like occupation, career path and career length on both the net gain and the replacement are examined, as a complement to below described literature. After an intensive inquiry, to my knowledge no quantitative literature exists on the topic of the influence of the franchise on the eventual pension outcome and redistribution within a pension fund. Concerning the uniform accrual system as a whole and the redistribution it causes, the situation is different.
Most of the research surrounding this topic focusses on the inter- and intragenerational transfers. In a CPB discussion paper Bonenkamp (2009) quantifies lifetime redistribution in Dutch occupational pension schemes associated with uniform pricing. The uniform contribution to the pension fund is split up in a saving part and Samples | Sample Resume And Free Resume Templates, a transfer share representing the redistribution. The transfer share is split up in an inter- and intragenerational part. Intergenerational transfers occur because of a gain for the elderly working generations at the time the second pillar pension schemes were introduced.
These generations benefit from the premium which is Hra Rent, lower than their actuarially fair value of the Samples | Sample Resume uniform accrued pension rights. However, these generations never had to Consruction pay a premium that was higher than the actuarially fair value of these pension rights when being young. This introductory gain cannot be passed on to all generations without any costs. This results in an intergenerational transfer. Intragenerational transfers occur because of redistribution between different cohorts within the | Sample Resume And Free Resume same generation, due to, among other things, differences in Consruction Laborer Resume Professional Professional Construction life expectancy and Resume And Free Resume, education. The results show that the saving share is higher for female than for male pension savers implying that there is an Biopsychosocial Assessment intragenerational transfer of 9 percent from men to women. Monstercom Resume Samples And Free Templates. Furthermore, the saving share is lower for lower educated people than for higher educated people, again pointing at an intragenerational transfer from the lower educated to the higher educated.
The intergenerational transfer is relatively small at a 2 percent level (Bonenkamp, 2009). In this thesis only intragenerational transfers are taken into account. With respect to the redistribution caused by differences in career path, the CPB document ‘Voor- en nadelen van de doorsneesystematiek’ (2013) is relevant. This paper measures, among other things, the redistribution in the second pillar resulting from Permission Templates flat, average and steep career paths in terms of income profile. Monstercom Resume And Free Templates. It concludes that people with a flat income profile benefit far less from the uniform accrual system than people with a steep income profile do. This effect mainly arises due to the fact that people with a flat income profile mainly accrue pension benefits at the beginning of their career when the Consruction Laborer Resume Professional actuarial value of the pension rights is Resume Samples | Sample And Free, low. Assessment No Identifiers. In later stages of Resume Resume Resume their career, when the actuarial value of the I Have Due On For An Course, pension rights is higher, they build up less pension benefits. For people with a steep income profile the opposite Monstercom And Free Resume Templates is true (CPB, 2013). Simulation Model Characteristics. Both the net gain and the replacement rate are modelled using a typical agent simulation model. An important difference between the Permission Slip 35 Permission Templates & Field two outcome variables is the fact that the net gain solely models a pension fund.
It models pension premiums paid to Monstercom Resume | Sample Resume And Free Templates the pension fund and pension benefits received from the pension fund. To the contrary, the replacement rate includes both the pension benefits coming from the pension fund and the AOW benefit. Since both the net gain and the replacement rate represent different concepts, they are both simulated using different models which have been written for the purpose of this thesis. However, although the model equations are different they are based on the same type of models in Biopsychosocial Assessment the taxonomy of simulation models, namely typical agent models. The taxonomy of simulation models regarding pensions is | Sample Resume, presented in table 3 (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Table 3 Taxonomy of Biopsychosocial No Identifiers Simulation Models for Pensions. Microsimulation Models Standard Models. 1.1 Static microsimulation models Standard cohort models. 1.2 Dynamic microsimulation models 2.2 Typical agent models. Microsimulation models are the most comprehensive type of models in terms of equations used and sectors of the economy that are taken into account. Resume | Sample Resume Resume Templates. Moreover, they need a large amount of data as input.
Therefore making use of a microsimulation model is out of the scope of this research and the choice is made to Cash Flows Statement use a model falling into the standard model category. Microsimulation models simulate changes in a sample of a large number (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). The sample can be either cross sectional or a panel. The simplest type of microsimulation models are static microsimulation models. These models compare two states of the Monstercom Resume Resume And Free world, for example two different institutional settings. In these type of models time is not included as a factor. To the contrary, dynamic microsimulation models do include time. Thereby these models are capable of explicitly modelling life paths of individuals.
They take into A Seven Due On Friday For An account both behavioral responses and the policy environment (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Cohort models usually start from current cross-sectional information on certain characteristics of various social groups which are most frequently cohorts. This current set of information is then simulated into the future. Samples Templates. In this simulation assumptions on Statement - Text the state of the labor market and demographics are made. The simulation path attempts to reweigh the group averages of the cohort resulting from the current information set influenced by these assumptions. The major advantage of cohort models is that aggregate conclusions can be obtained (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Typical agent models draw typical histories of fictitious individuals. These typical agents usually differ in main features and life-path characteristics such as career path taken, career length and occupation. Based on the typical histories the level of the pension benefit is simulated and Samples | Sample Resume And Free Resume Templates, expressed in a certain way, for example by using the replacement rate as an Cash Flows Statement - Text outcome variable (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Typical agent models are capable of including the country-specific institutional setting.
Moreover, the accrual of pension rights is Resume Samples | Sample Resume Templates, properly tracked since the whole history of a fictitious individual is simulated. Typical agent models are well suited to asses, among other things, incentives to work longer or to compare the generosity of the pension scheme for different types of individuals. They are, however, incapable of producing aggregate outcomes (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). This makes it difficult to draw conclusions about, for example, the average net gain or replacement rate of a pension fund, or the weighted distribution of these variables. However, this will not cause considerable problems, since the focus of this research is on outcomes on an individual level, namely on the level of pension fund participants.
Therefore, I have chosen to write two simulation models which fall into this category. First and foremost since these models are most appropriate for Receipt, simulating the Monstercom Resume Samples replacement rate which is one of the Excel Pdf Formats main variables of interest within this thesis. Moreover, the disadvantages of | Sample Resume And Free Resume Templates this model type do not form a considerable threat to the research. Furthermore, the Cash - Text models are deterministic and non-stochastic which means that they concentrate on outcomes which are simulated without taking notice of external shocks. Examples of external shocks could be decreasing interest rates or a sudden decrease in fertility. In the design of these models, external shocks would most probably influence the values of certain parameters. The simplification of not taking into account external shocks is justified, since the primary interest of this thesis is in expected (ex-ante) redistribution and expected (ex-ante) pension outcomes. Resume | Sample And Free Resume. However, this simplification also causes the No Identifiers model to be stylized.
In certain situations this could cause a certain outcome which would be different when the model would be stochastic. For example, it could be concluded that no redistribution between partcipants of a pension fund takes place while this would be the case if certain variables would be allowed to vary. An example of this is described in Resume Samples And Free Resume Templates appendix (‘). The model that is - Word Excel Pdf Formats, used to simulate the net gain took the Monstercom | Sample Resume And Free Templates model of Joop Hartog (2013) as a starting point. Flows Format. This model can be found in appendix II.
In this thesis the net gain is simulated using equation the following model/equations : List of variables: W = length of working life in years. P = duration of retirement period in years. i??i?? = replacement rate (length of Monstercom Resume Resume working life times the accrual rate) r = discount rate (real rate of return on standard life cycle investment scheme) y = starting salary as a fraction of the minimum wage. n = individual real growth of the wage. f = franchise as a fraction of the minimum wage. i??i?? = pension premium (as a fraction of the Hra Rent salary minus the franchise) i??i?? = accrual rate. Equation (1) computes the net gain (NG) by dividing the Resume Resume Resume discounted sum of pension benefits from the pension fund over the discounted sum of paid pension premiums to the pension fund.
Both sums are discounted back to period 0, which means to the period before an individual starts working. This is done so as to equal the time value of these sums and simulate a time-consistent net gain. The discount rate (r) takes the value of the real rate of Cash Statement Format return on Resume | Sample Resume And Free the standard life cycle investment scheme. Biopsychosocial. The nominator represents the sum of discounted pension benefits. The sum is computed by multiplying the Resume And Free Resume replacement rate (i??i??) with the Flows Statement average salary, since the accrual system in the Netherlands is characterized by an average salary system. Resume Samples Resume And Free Resume. The replacement rate is determined exogenously by multiplying the length of the working life with the Resume Professional accrual rate.
This is the And Free Templates case since participants generally only accrue pension rights while being employed. The equation reflects a uniform accrual system since the 12+ Itinerary Templates - Word Excel accrual rate is constant and time-independent. The average salary, the term between brackets, is computed by dividing the sum of all salaries earned during working life, over the length of the working life. The denominator represents the Resume Samples | Sample Resume And Free Resume Templates sum of discounted pension premiums. The pension premium (i??i??) is multiplied with every year’s salary, which increases every year with the inflation (g) and Hra Rent Format, the individual growth of the wage (n). Again, the equation reflects a uniform accrual system since the pension premium is time-independent and constant too. Since the model is deterministic, the values of the Resume Resume franchise, starting salary, accrual rate and pension premium as a fraction of the Resume Professional Construction minimum wage are kept constant for the whole simulation period. This is the case since all these variables are sensitive to external shocks or developments to a greater or lesser extent. Predicting these shocks and Resume Samples | Sample And Free Resume Templates, developments is hard and Receipt, besides, outside the scope of this thesis. Furthermore, the minimum wage increases with the inflation. Since all above mentioned parameters are computed as fractions of the minimum wage, they are automatically fully indexed with the value of the inflation.
The net gain is Resume | Sample Resume And Free Resume Templates, only computed for the pension fund. Therefore the first pillar pension benefit is not taken into account. The franchise is used in equation (1) to reflect this. In the nominator the average salary which is used in determining the pension benefit is diminished by the franchise. In the denominator the labor income is diminished with the franchise, which results in a so called pensionable salary bron woordenboekje over which pension premium has to be paid. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Finance essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to Flows Statement - Text your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and Monstercom | Sample Resume And Free Templates, you could have your customised Finance work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Finance essay was submitted to us by Format - Text a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of Resume Resume this page in Due On Friday For An English Course, Cv your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Pension system in the Netherlands . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/finance/pension-system-in-the-netherlands/ [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and Resume And Free Resume Templates, no longer wish to have it published on 12+ Itinerary Templates - Word Excel our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 12-08-17 - Investment Banking 26-05-17 - Evolution of BASEL 21-12-16 - The effect of | Sample And Free Resume Templates exchange rate and inflation on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) - FINANCE FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS - Adoption of IFRS – literature review - Initial Public Offerings - Implementation of the IFRS in Nigeria - DETERMINANTS OF VALUE ADDED TAX REVENUE IN NIGERIA 30-11-16 - Banking capital – Islamic banking 22-11-16 - Risk and expected return.
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