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KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. Life Extension and Overpopulation. The prospect of life extension raises fears of overpopulation. Extropian Max More argues we should focus on reducing births, not on raising or maintaining death, since population growth and Sales Template | Template, pollution are slowing down (from growing wealth) and in the future we can create new habitats in space. Original version published 1996 and revised 2001 can be found at maxmore.com. Revised version published on KurzweilAI.net April 9, 2001. The prospect of living longer appeals to | Download Forms, many people.
Extending lifespan more drastically beyond the current genetic limit of 120 years appeals especially to persons of independent mind. These are people used to going their own way, questioning traditional beliefs, and asserting their values independently of those around them. Yet even we independent thinkers are social beings. Many of our goals require the support of others, and achieving extended life is one of these. We can exercise, diet, and develop healthy psychologies mostly alone or with a few fellows, but scientific breakthroughs in And Marketing Plan | Template, longevity will not happen without broad support and funding. Grand Template | Eddies Grand. New treatments may be delayed or prohibited if the cultural and legal mindset moves against “interfering” with the And Marketing Plan | Template human lifespan. Recognizing these social factors, many of us frequently find ourselves persuading others that extending life is a desirable goal.
In making the Letter | Docoments case for active support of life extension or cryonics, several arguments come up over and over again. We are told that our limited lifespan is natural, or that it is God’s will, or that extreme longevity would drain life of meaning. More common than these objections, we hear fears about overpopulation. Since the Sales And Marketing Plan Design 1960s, with the advent of bestsellers like Paul Ehrlich’s The Population Bomb , writers have been getting rich by proclaiming humankind’s impending doom due to Cool Mickey Birthday, overpopulation. In this essay, I hope to provide a compact response to this concern. For more detail, I urge the reader to consult the Sales Plan | Template Design references at Sample, the end. 1. Let us assume for a moment that population growth is Sales And Marketing Design or will become a serious problem. Would this give us a strong reason for turning against the extension of human lifespan? No. Opposing extended life because it might add to existing problems would be an unethical response.
Suppose you are a doctor given a child to July Template Template, treat who is suffering from pneumonia. Would you refuse to cure the child because then she would be well enough to Sales And Marketing Plan Template, run around, fall down, and Grand Template | Eddies N Fitness Grand, skin her knees? Our first responsibility is to live long and vitally and to Sales And Marketing Plan Design, help others do the same. Once we are at work on Template | Download & Premium Templates, & Samples, this primary goal, we can focus more energy on solving other challenges. Life extension and optimal living for the individual certainly benefits from a healthy physical and social environment. The life extensionist may want to be part of the solution to any population issues, but dying is not a responsible or healthy way to solve anything. Besides, if we take seriously the And Marketing Plan Template | Template Design idea of limiting lifespan to Plan | Download Free Forms, control population, why not be more active about And Marketing Plan it? Why not encourage suicide? Why not execute anyone reaching the age of 75? 2. Limiting population growth by & Premium Forms & Samples, opposing life extension not only fails the ethical test, it also fails the Sales And Marketing | Template Design pragmatic test. Keeping the death rate up simply is not an effective way of slowing population growth.
Population growth depends far more on College - H. B. Plant High School Counseling Department, how many children families have than on how long people live. In mathematical terms, longer life has no effect on Sales And Marketing Plan Design, the exponential growth rate. It only affects the constant of the equation. This means that it matters little how long we live after we have reproduced. Compare two societies: In country A, people live on average only to Plan Template | Download Free & Premium, 40 years of Sales Plan | Template, age, each family producing 5 children.
In country B, the lifespan is 90 years but couples have 4 children. Warning Letter To Tenant Ojazlink. Despite the Sales Plan Template Design much longer livespan in Warning Letter To Tenant Ojazlink, country B, their population growth rate will be much lower than that of country A. It makes little difference over the long term how many years people live after they have had children. The population growth rate is determined by how many children we have, not how long we live. Even the apparent short term upward effect on population due to a lower death rate may be cancelled by a delay in Sales Plan Design, child-bearing. Many women in developed countries (those who will be first to have extended life) choose to bear children by their early ’30s because their chances go down as they age. Extending the fertile period of women’s lives would allow them to put off having children until later, while they concentrate on their careers. Not only couples have children later, they will be better able to care for them, financially and psychologically. Even if there is a population problem, extending the human life span will worsen the Letter Sample | Docoments Ojazlink problem no more than will improving automobile safety or worker safety, or reducing violent crime. Who would want to keep these deadly threats high in Sales And Marketing | Template Design, order to combat population growth? If we want to slow population growth, we should focus on reducing births, not on raising or maintaining deaths.
If we want to reduce births, we might voluntarily fund programs to provide contraceptives and family planning to couples in | Docoments Ojazlink, poorer countries. This will aid the natural developmental process of Sales Plan, choosing to have fewer children. Couples will be able to Applications - H. B. Plant High Department, have children by choice, not by accident. Women would also be encouraged to join the modern world by gaining the ability to pursue vocations other than child-raising. 3. We have seen that we have no reason to hesitate in prolonging life even if overpopulation really is a concern. But how much should we worry about the growing population? Is population growth accelerating out of control?
Is expanding population causing major and unavoidable problems? The fad for popular books foretelling doom started in Sales Template | Template, the 1960s, at the tail-end of the most rapid increase in population in human history. Growth has been slowing down, and we have sound reasons to expect this trend to continue. In the Western world, population has stabilized. In some countries, such as Germany, the size of the population is actually falling, as more people die than are born.
The population of the USA would be static were it not for 2018 Calendar Template Art | Template, an influx of new mind and Sales Template | Template, muscle through immigration. The poorer countries, well below us in the development cycle, have also been experiencing a drastic reduction of | Eddies N Fitness, population growth, despite extra decades of Sales Plan Template, life bestowed by medical intervention and nutrition. The peak average annual population growth rate was reached in 1970 at 2.07%. The rate for 1997 is expected to be 1.36%. Letter To Tenant | Docoments Ojazlink. Developmental trends suggest that this growth rate will drop below 1% in 2016, and Plan Template Design, fall to around 0.46% by 2049. Every year at present, the world population grows by around 80 million people. By 2050, we will be adding perhaps 40 million per year, a number that we can expect to continue dropping. This slowing of population growth results from a falling birth rate. The birth rate in Asia and College Applications Counseling Department, the Pacific, between 1950 and 1980 fell 28.8%, and in the Americas by Sales Plan Design, 24.7%. Africa, further behind on the development curve, reduced its birth rate by 2.2% in the same period, all of it being in the second half of the period. Overall, for the less developed countries, birth rates fell 24.9% from 1950 to 1980.
Here are the figures in table form: Source: Mark Perlman, “The Role of Population Projections for the Year 2000? in The Resourceful Earth, eds. Julian L. Simon Herman Kahn. Why, though, should we expect people in less developed countries, even given contraceptives, to Warning Letter | Docoments Ojazlink, choose to Sales And Marketing Plan Template Design, have smaller families? This expectation is not merely speculation based on recent trends. Sound economic reasoning explains the continuing trend, and makes sense of why Africa is only just beginning to make the transition to fewer births. Decelerating population growth appears to be an inevitable result of growing wealth. Early on in a country’s developmental curve, children can be regarded “producer goods” (as economists would say).
Parents put their children to work on the farm to generate food and revenue. Of A Report. Very little effort is put into caring for the child: no expensive health plans, special classes, trips to Disneyland, X-Men action figures, or mounting phone bills! As we become wealthier, children become “consumer goods”. That is, we look on them more and And Marketing Plan Template | Template Design, more as little people to be enjoyed and July Calendar Template Quarterly, pampered and educated, not beasts of burden to help keep the family alive. We spend thousands of Sales And Marketing Plan Template | Template Design, dollars on children to keep them healthy, entertain them, and educate them. We come to prefer fewer children to a vast mob of Template Templates, Forms, little ones. This preference seems to And Marketing Template | Template Design, be reinforced changing tastes resulting from improved education. The revenue vs. Sample Of A. expense equation for Sales And Marketing Template Design, extra children further shifts toward having fewer offspring as populations become urbanized. Letter To Tenant Sample | Docoments. Children cost more to raise in cities and can produce less income than in And Marketing Design, the country. Fertility declines for another reason: As poorer countries become wealthier, child mortality falls as a result of improved nutrition, sanitation, and health care. (Reduced child mortality in modern times can come about even without a rise in income.) People in poorer countries are not stupid: they adjust their childbearing plans to reflect changing conditions.
When child death rates are high, research has shown that families have more children to ensure achieving a given family size. They have more children to make up for deaths, and often have additional children in anticipation of later deaths. Families reduce fertility as they realize that fewer births are needed to reach a desired family size. Given the incentives to have fewer children as wealth grows and urbanization proceeds, reduced mortality leads to College - H. B. Plant High, families choosing to reduce family size. Economic policy helps shape childbearing incentives.
Many of the same people who have decried population growth have supported policies guaranteed to boost childbirths. More than that, they boost childbearing among those least able to raise and educate children well. And Marketing | Template. If we want to encourage people to have more children, we will make it cheaper for them to do so. If we want to discourage fertility, or at least refrain from Quarterly Calendar, pushing it up, we will stop subsidizing it. Subsidies include free education (free to the parents, not to the tax-payers), free child health care, and additional welfare payments to women for Sales And Marketing Plan Template | Template, each child they bear. If parents must personally bear the costs of Free & Premium Forms, having children, rather than everyone else paying, people will tend to have just the Plan Template | Template number of To Tenant, children for whom they can assume financial responsibility. 4. We can expect population growth to continue slowing until it reaches a stable size. That may be 12 billion, perhaps 15 billion. Can the Earth support such a number? We can take little comfort in Plan Template Design, stable numbers if those numbers are unsustainable. A detailed answer to this question demands far more space than I have here.
References to excellent writings on | Download Free Templates, Forms, the subject can be found in Plan | Template, the Further Reading appendix. A few brief points will have to do here. A reading of economic and social history quickly makes one thing plain: Throughout history people have thought they saw overpopulation. Even the great nineteenth century social scientist W. Stanley Jevons in 1865 claimed that England’s industrial expansion would soon cease due to the exhaustion of the country’s coal supply. However, as shortages developed, prices rose. College B. Plant School Counseling Department. The profit motive stimulated entrepreneurs to find new sources, to develop better technology for Sales Plan, finding and extracting coal, and to transport it to where it was needed. The crisis never happened. Today, the USA has proven reserves sufficient to last hundreds or thousands of Sample Crosstab, years. If one resource does begin to run low, rising prices will encourage a switch to alternatives. Certainly, even a vastly bloated population cannot hope to exhaust energy supplies. (Solar energy and power from nuclear fission and soon fusion are practically endless.) So long as we have plentiful energy we can produce substitute resources and And Marketing | Template Design, even generate more of Applications - H. B. Plant High Counseling Department, existing resources, including food. Even if population continues to grow well beyond 15 billion, we can expect human intelligence and technology to comfortably handle the numbers.
5. Neither should we expect pollution to worsen as population grows. Contrary to And Marketing, popular belief, overall pollution in the more developed countries has been decreasing for decades. Letter | Docoments Ojazlink. In the USA, levels of lead have dropped dramatically. Since the 1960s levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, and organic compounds have fallen despite a growing population. Air quality is major urban areas continues to And Marketing, improve, and the Great Lakes are returning toward earlier levels of purity. This is no accident. As we become wealthier, we have more money to Plan | Download Free Forms, spare for a cleaner environment. | Template Design. When you are hungry for food and shelter and other basics, you will not spare much thought for the environment. So long as mechanisms exist for Birthday Invites:, converting desires for cleaner air and water and space for recreation into the things themselves, we can expect it to happen.
Most effective at spurring the positive changes are markets–price signals creating incentives for moves in Plan Template Design, the right direction. Applications B. Plant Counseling. If polluters must pay for And Marketing Template | Template, what they produce because their activity intrudes on the property rights of Free & Premium Templates,, others, they will search for Plan | Template, ways to Birthday Invitations, make things with less pollution. Pollution problems do exist. Most of Sales And Marketing Plan Template Design, them can be traced to a failure to enforce private property rights, so that resources are treated as free goods that need not be well-managed. Fishing in unowned bodies of water is an example of Applications B. Plant High School Counseling Department, this. The desertification of Template | Template Design, collectively or government owned land in Warning Ojazlink, Africa is another. We can be reasonably confident that the trend toward less pollution with greater population will continue. Complacency is out of place however. We should press for Template | Template, responsible management of resources by privatizing collectively owned resources to create incentives for Sports N Fitness Grand, sound management and renewal. 6. Human intelligence, new technology, and a market economy will allow this planet to support many times the current population of 6 billion–it can support many more humans than we are likely to see, given trends toward lower birth rates.
Many countries, including the USA, have a rather low population density. If the USA’s population were as dense as Japan–hardly a crowded place overall–our population would be 3.5 billion rather than 265 million. If the USA had a population density equal to that of Singapore, we’d find almost 35 billion people here, or almost seven times the current world population. New technologies, from Template | Template Design, simple improvements in irrigation and management to current breakthroughs in genetic engineering should continue to improve world food output. Fewer people are starving despite higher populations. This does not mean feeling satisfied. Millions still go hungry or are vulnerable to disruptions in supply. We need to push to remove trade barriers, abolish price controls on 2018 Calendar Quarterly, agriculture (which discourage production and investment), and pressure governments engaging in warfare and Sales And Marketing | Template Design, collectivization to Cool Mickey Mouse Birthday Invitations, change their ways. So long as we continue to allow freedom to generate more wealth and better technology, we can expect pollution to continue abating.
More efficient recycling, less polluting production processes, and better monitoring and detection of polluters, along with economic incentives making each producer responsible for their output, will allow us to continue improving our environment even as population grows. Far-sighted engineers foresee a day, not far off, when we will be able to completely control matter at the molecular level, a technology known as nanotechnology. If we achieve this level of mastery, we will have the keys to production without pollution. Another product of molecular manufacturing will be the disappearance of And Marketing Plan | Template, most large-scale, clumsy machinery. Less and less land will need to Crosstab, be used for Sales Design, manufacturing equipment, making more room for people to Plan | Download Free Templates, & Samples, enjoy. Some manufacturing will be moved into space. And Marketing Template | Template Design. The result of these and other changes (some of which are already underway) will be the freeing of the Sample Of A Report Earth from And Marketing Template Design, unwanted, but previously necessary, means and by-products of manufacturing. Since we are considering the long term, here’s a final thought: If the Mickey Mouse Birthday Invitations future feels too crowded for us, we can always leave and And Marketing Template, make a fresh start. Just as malcontents left Old Europe to Sample, come to America’s New World, some of And Marketing Plan Template, us will leave this planet to found new societies in the unlimited depths of space.
New launch systems, new materials, molecular-scale manufacturing, and robotic construction will, in the coming century, open up the space frontier in an affordable manner. Adventurous folks, and those desiring experimentation and the freedom to make major changes, will blast out Warning Sample of the Earth’s gravity well. They will create new habitats in space–not cramped little capsules, but grand, freewheeling, custom space habitats with the comforts of home but fewer of the limitations. The population issue raises numerous factual, economic, and ethical concerns. Sales And Marketing Plan Template | Template. I cannot hope to deal with them adequately here.
I urge the Of A Crosstab Report interested reader to check into the sources listed in the References. I have only sketched lines of thinking showing that we would be severely misguided not to push for Plan Template | Template Design, extended life out of fear of overpopulation. Let us move full speed ahead with extending lifespan. Once we have vanquished aging, I would expect other threats to life, such as war and violent crime, will become even less acceptable. Invites: Cool Mouse Birthday. We can look forward to a long-lived society better off than previous generations not only in economic well-being but in security of Sales Template | Template, life and health. Paul R. Ehrlich Anne H. Ehrlich, The Population Explosion (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990). Plan Template | Download Free Templates, Forms & Samples. The apocalyptic view.
Jerry Pournelle, A Step Farther Out (London, W.H. Allen, 1980). Jonathan Rauch, “The New Old Economy: Oil, Computers, and the Reinvention of the Plan Template Earth.” The Atlantic Monthly, January 2001. Julian L. Simon, The Ultimate Resource (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1981). –Population Matters (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1990). –”Resources, Population, Environment: An Over-Supply of False Bad News”, Science 208, June 27, 1980, pp.1431-1437. –”Bunkrapt: The Abstractions that lead to scares about resources and population growth,” Extropy #11, Summer/Fall 1993, pp.34-41. Julian L. Simon H. Kahn, eds., The Resourceful Earth (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, Inc. 1984).
J. Peter Vajk, Doomsday Has Been Cancelled (Culver City, CA, Peace Press, 1978). Topics: Biomed/Longevity | Innovation/Entrepreneurship | Social Networking/Web. Please log in to post a comment. The Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence newsletter features science and technology breakthroughs. It also lists new blog posts, events, videos, and Invites: Mickey Birthday Mickey, books.
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Came from a small family-focused town. Sales And Marketing Template? His family members work at College Applications B. Plant High School Counseling, the local steel mill and going to colleague was not even a thought. Played football in high school and dreamt of playing football at Notre Dame, which today would be equivalent to the NFL. Left everything behind to Sales Template Design pursue his dreams; took extra courses at a nearby colleage with the hopes of transferring and worked as a janitor in the Notre Dame stadium. College School Department? Rudy applied 3 times and on And Marketing Template | Template, his fourth try he was accepted into Cool Birthday Invitations Mickey Notre Dame. He persevered and made the practice squad as a #39;walk on#39;. Lead by example- even though he was most likely not going to make the team he went to every game and practice giving his best efforts.
Head custodian- agreed to Sales Design take Rudy on even though there were no jobs. Quiet leader- watched as Rudy’s passion continued to show and was inspired by Rudy’s passion. Rudy had nowhere to live so Fortune left him a key but pretended he “knew nothing about it”. Birthday Invites: Birthday Invitations? Does not accept Rudy’s notions of failure, tries to Sales Template | Template have him look at the positives. “Hey kid, you ever dress, I’ll be there” When Rudy quits he tells Fortune he doesn’t see the 2018 Calendar Template Art | point, he wants to “prove to everyone….” Fortune cuts him off and tells him he shouldn’t have to prove anything to anyone but himself and if “he hasn’t done that by now he aint gonna never do it”. Again he makes him see the big picture and Design, the positives when Rudy was only looking at the negatives. He watched the game that Rudy played in and quietly cheered him on in the side lines. Daniel “Rudy” Ruettiger is from a big family from a small town. Plan Template Free & Premium Templates, Forms? He has difficultly academically, but has big dreams about playing football at the University of Notre Dame. Notre Dame is one of the best college football teams in Template Design the country and it is an exceptionally good school academically. Rudy moves close to Notre Dame and gets into Plan Template Free Templates, the local community college, Holy Cross, in the hopes of achieving grades good enough to And Marketing Template | Template Design transfer to Notre Dame. He gets a job working with the Notre Dame grounds crew.
His boss, Fortune, takes him on To Tenant Ojazlink, reluctantly, but ultimately takes on a protective role, even leaving him a key to the grounds crew facility room to sleep. Rudy ‘walks on’ to the football team and makes it onto the practice squad when the coaches notice his ‘heart’ and passion to play hard on every single play. And Marketing Plan Template? Rudy is an interesting case study in that it encompasses various leaders throughout the film. The film shows the dynamic nature of leadership theory and the complexity of human relationships as characters play different roles in different contexts. Although Rudy takes on the role of leader and follower at different points throughout the film, he stays true to himself by being both authentic and following values-based leadership theory as his character grows. To Tenant Sample | Docoments Ojazlink? Fortune is a unique character as his leadership style is subtle but also effective and Sales, powerful, as his authenticity brings weight to his opinions. Rudy is based on a true story. Since 1975 no other player has been carried off the field in July 2018 Calendar Calendar Notre Dame history.
Rudy was also a leader and an inspiration to his family; five of Rudy’s younger brothers went on | Template, to college and received degrees (Fried Wood, 1993). Evidence of Values-Based Leadership. (A) The Altercation at Practice – “Cool it Out There” (Fairholm Fairholm, 2009) 1. The Leader’s Role is Stakeholder Development (pp.87). 2. Values Leaders focus attention on the small cluster of followers in Plan their immediate team (pp.87). 3. Values leaders strive for And Marketing, and develop follower trust and commitment. 4. The leader’s role is to create a vision (pp.88) 5. Leaders create a culture supportive of core values (pp.88). Warning To Tenant? 6. Values-based leadership asks the leader to be a teacher (pp.89). 7. Values-Based Leadership Asks the Leader to | Template be a Teacher (pp.89). 8. The values leader has the dual goal of producing high performance and self-led followers (pp.89-90) Rudy is Warning Ojazlink committed to these values because it is the only way he is able to maintain his place on the team, and the only way he has been able to achieve his dreams. Rudy’s drive, perseverance, and love for the game inspires his teammates to work as hard as they can.
Rudy does not back down to the players on his team despite his size which ultimately earns their respect and creates a culture of determination and Sales Plan | Template, hard work. 1. The Leader’s Role is Grand Opening | Eddies N Fitness Grand Stakeholder Development (Fairholm Fairholm, pp.87). 4. The leader’s role is to create a vision (Fairholm Fairholm, pp.88): By being true to himself and not backing down, Rudy creates an environment where everyone is fully committed to Plan | Template Design their roles. - H. High Department? Antonakis, John Day, David V. Sales Plan | Template? (2011). Transformational and Charismatic Leadership. In The Nature of Leadership (pp.256-269). California, USA: SAGE publications. Report? 2. Values Leaders focus attention on And Marketing Plan | Template Design, the small cluster of followers in their immediate team (Fairholm Fairholm, pp.87).
Fortune generously leaves a key behind in the locker room so that Rudy has somewhere to stay. He listens to 2018 Quarterly Art | Template Rudy when he is being a dreamer, but always brings him back to reality. Fortune points out Rudy’s actual achievements when Rudy fails to Sales And Marketing Template see them. For example, when Rudy quit because he wouldn’t get to Mickey Mouse Birthday Mickey dress, Fortune reminds him he got to play with the team for two years and will walk out of there with a university degree. Fortune always wants Rudy to become self-sufficient and achieve his goals. By not acknowledging when he gives Rudy the key, Fortune thereby communicates his expectation that Rudy will eventually find his own way. (B) Fortune takes Rudy under his wing. (Fried Woods, 1993) Avolio, B.J., Gardner, W. L. (2005). Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of the Sales And Marketing Plan | Template Design positive forms of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly 16, 315–338. Avolio Gardner (2005) believe that leaders come in Warning Letter Sample | Docoments Ojazlink all shapes and sizes, “who have distinctive qualities that cannot be sufficiently described by lists of traits or characteristics (pp.9). “. authentic leaders [are those] who bring people together around a shared mission and values and empower them to lead, in order to serve their customers while creating value for all their stakeholders (Avolio Gardner, pp.12). “Authentic leadership is about finding your internal compass (“True North”) and then working to stay true to that guide in the face of Template, challenges and seductions that cause so many leaders to go astray (Avolio Gardner, pp.
12)”. “Authentic leadership is based on Grand Opening Template | Eddies Sports Grand, discovering your deepest values, motivations and core beliefs and then allowing these to direct your efforts (Avolio Gardner, pp.12)”. Rudy is an authentic leader as described in this article. He was shaped by a crucible in Sales And Marketing Design his life, the Warning Letter Sample | Docoments Ojazlink death of his best friend Peter. He also didn’t want to settle in his small town and work in the Steele mill, like the rest of his family. The experience enabled him to realize that life was short and Sales And Marketing Plan Template | Template, it was not about following the path already laid out for him but rather about following his internal compass, values and passion wherever that might take him. His leadership ultimately came from July Quarterly Template, bringing the team around him together with the shared vision and And Marketing Template | Template, values of heart and Sample Crosstab, passion over skill. He was the true embodiment of these values and he became a leader despite the obvious lack of power, intimidation and hierarchy - this was the ultimate show of how much authentic leadership is completely independent of one’s place within an organizational structure. Rudy As an Authentic Leader: 1. The Leader’s Role is Stakeholder Development (Fairholm Fairholm, p.87).
When the team stands up to their coach on behalf of Rudy – they are pushing the coach to recognize heart and drive as a core value that is to be rewarded. 5. Sales Template | Template Design? Leaders create a culture supportive of core values (Fairholm Fairholm, pp.88). This display is evidence of the impact Rudy has had on the team, where they all collectively support Rudy’s goal of Cool Birthday Invitations, dressing and playing in the final game. 7. Plan Design? The values leader has the dual goal of producing high performance and self-led followers (Fairholm Fairholm, pp.89). Rudy’s impact has helped the team into winners with the ability to stand up for what they believe in. Cool Mickey Mouse? (C) The Players Want Rudy to Dress in their Place. What is Sales And Marketing Design Leadership? What is Values-Based Leadership? Values Leadership: “Leadership is the integration of group behavior and shared values through setting values and teaching them to Invites: Cool Birthday Invitations Mickey followers through an articulated vision that leads to excellent products and service, mutual growth, and enhanced self-determination” (Fairholm Fairholm, pp.24). What is Authentic Leadership? “Authentic leadership is about finding your internal compass (“True North”) and then working to stay true to that guide in the face of challenges and seductions that cause so many leaders to go astray (Avolio Gardner, pp. 12)”. What is Leadership?
What is Authentic Leadership? What is Values-Based Leadership? “Leadership is the art of influencing people to accomplish organizational goals” (Fairholm Fairholm, pp.27). And Marketing Design? (Fried Woods, 1993. Retrieved from Sample Report, www.imbd.com) The Notre Dame Fighting Irish was one of the top college football teams in America. To play on the team meant you were one of the best college football players in the country. We get to know a few of the team members throughout the film. The ‘Captain’, who takes notice of Rudy from the start and And Marketing Plan Design, supports his values and defends his presence on the team.
The ‘big lineman’ who battles with Rudy at practice and comes to respect Rudy over the course of his two seasons, and finally, the ‘tailback’ a talented player who lacks heart and dislikes Rudy’s way of practicing. Through these players eyes we see the different reactions Rudy creates amongst the team with his style. (Fried Woods, 1993) (Fried Woods, 1993. Retrieved from www.imbd.com) (Fried Woods, 1993. Birthday Cool Mouse Birthday? Retrieved from www.imbd.com) (Fried Woods, 1993.
Retrieved from www.imbd.com) (Fried Woods, 1993) (Fried and Sales Template Design, Woods, 1993) This is the last scene in the movie, where Rudy#39;s dreams come true! (Fried Woods, 1993) An analysis of the major motion picture, “Rudy” using Values Based leadership and trait based theory.
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Cleft Lip and Palate and its Effect on Speech Essay. Introduction on Speech and Phonetics. Phonetics and phonology are concerned with speech – with the ways in which human produce and hear speech. Talking and listening to each other are so much part of normal life that they often seem unremarkable. Yet, as in any scientific field, the curious investigator finds rich complexity beneath the surface. Even the simplest of conversations – an exchange of short greetings, for Sales Plan, example – presupposes that the speaker and hearer make sense to each other and understand each other. Their ability to communicate in this way depends in turn on College - H. High School, proper bodily functioning (of brain, lungs, larynx, ears and so on), on recognizing each other’s pronunciation a bewildering jumble of unpronounceable and unintelligible noise only underlines the extent of our organization and control of talking and listening within particular social and linguistic conventions. Once we make a decision to Sales Template | Template start with an examination of speech, we can come up to it on a range of steps. At one step, speech is an issue of anatomy and physiology where we can examine the organs of Birthday Cool Mickey Birthday Invitations speech such as tongue and larynx and And Marketing | Template their role in the creation of speech. Taking another perspective, we can focus on the speech sounds produced by these organs – the units that we commonly try to identify by letters such as a ‘b-sound’ or an ‘m-sound’.
But speech is transmitted as sound waves themselves. Taking yet another approach, the term ‘sounds’ is a prompt that speech is proposed to Sample Of A be heard or supposed that it is then probable to concentrate on the manner in which a listener understands and process a sound wave (Clark, Yallop, Fletcher, 2006). Phonetics is the study of the sounds of natural language. The use of sounds in speech involves three distinct phases: 1) the production of sounds by the speaker, 2) the transmission of sounds between the speaker and the hearer, and 3) the reception of the sounds by the hearer. Each of these phases especially 1) and 3), which clearly involve the human brain, is an extremely complicated process, each needs to be understood if we wish to have full understanding of the workings of human speech, and | Template Design each requires its own methods of study. Flyer Sports N Fitness Grand. The science of Sales And Marketing Plan Template phonetics thus consists of three main branches, each devoted to the study of one of the phases of speech. Articulatory phonetics is the study of the way in Plan Template Templates, Forms & Samples, which speech sounds are produced or ‘articulated’ by the speaker. It includes a description of the organs of speech, such as the vocal cords, the tongue and Plan Design the palate, and how they are used to produce sounds. The description of speech in articulatory terms has a long history, going back to ancient times, and is still considered the most useful type of description for language teaching purposes.
Acoustic phonetics is the study of the transmission of speech sounds through the air in the form of air waves. Precise studies of the transmission stage of speech rely heavily on Plan & Premium Templates,, electronic equipment which has only been available since the 1930s and 1940s, but in the relatively short space of time since then great strides have been made in our understanding of the transmission of speech sounds. Acoustic phonetics is not as important in pronunciation teaching as articulatory phonetics, but it can be of valuable assistance in certain areas such as the description of vowel sounds or intonations, which are not easily described in articulatory terms. Auditory phonetics , finally, studies the processes in the ear, auditory nerve and brain which lead to the perception of sounds by the hearer (Hall, 2003). The first essential for the student of Phonetics is to Sales Plan | Template have a clear idea of the structure and functions of the various parts of the organs of speech. The term organs of speech is used to refer to parts of the body in the larynx and the vocal tract that are involved in the production of speech. It is a misleading term in that it suggests that we have special physical organs for Warning Sample, speaking.
This is not so: all our so-called ‘organs of And Marketing speech’ have primary biological functions relating to our respiratory system and the processing of Sample | Docoments food (Gussenhoven Jacobs, 1998). The organs of speech are all bodily structure composed of a variety of tissue types (such as bone, cartilage and skin) which are specific to their biological (rather than linguistic) function. Bodily organs are generally grouped into systems which have particular functions in Sales And Marketing Plan Template, the life of the organism. These include the respiratory system, the digestive system, and the reproductive system and so on. While it can be argued that the organs of Template speech form a system, they do not contribute to life support in the same way as other systems, and they are generally not thought of as performing their primary biological function when they are used in speech production (Clark et al., 2006). Nature of Speech Defects. Speech is a motor act that requires little concentration once it is learned. The energy source for Sales And Marketing Template | Template Design, speech is air. The diaphragm is the primary muscle of respiration and air is inhaled and exhaled through the vocal tract, the diaphragm contracts and flattens; this enlarges the thoracic cavity by displacing the abdominal contents downward and expanding the thoracic volume. The external intercostals assist the diaphragm in increasing the size of the thoracic capacity. If these movements are not coordinated, the Grand Opening Flyer Template | Eddies N Fitness supply and control of air may be reduced.
Lack of Sales | Template Design coordination occurs during inhalation when the abdominal muscles contract simultaneously with the diaphragm and push the abdominal contents upward. Crosstab. This upward movement decreases the size of the thoracic cavity, which reduced the amount of air available for the production of speech. Restriction of the Template | Template air supply may lead to reduced loudness, illogical breath groups, limited pitch range, decreased intelligibility and increased expiratory effort. Respiration for speech should be effortless and coordinated with phonation and resonation. Adduction of the vocal folds in - H. High, a stream of air produces phonation.
During quiet respiration, the vocal folds are abducted to an intermediate position by the poster cricoarytenoid muscles. Sales Plan Design. Changes in the vibration pattern may result in altered voice quality, pitch, and loudness and decreased speech intelligibility. Communication is a closed loop system. When individuals speak, others hear them and respond to their speech. In addition, individuals hear themselves speak and monitor their speech production. If speech production does not match the specific intention, then speech os modified.
When speakers have a speech disorder, they may compensate for Sample | Docoments Ojazlink, the impaired speech production by changing their respiration, phonation, and articulation. If this compensation is carried out in an effortful way, the Sales And Marketing Plan compensation may be counterproductive and may worsen the Grand | Eddies N Fitness symptoms (Brin, Comella, Jankovic, 2004). Speech assessments proper are established from the age of 4 years and allow objective evaluation to And Marketing Template | Template take place over a long period. The articulation of phonemes is routinely evaluated during sessions of repetition as well as free speech. The speech-language pathologist (SLP) will also evaluate the child’s speech production and some of the High School Counseling Department aspects of phonology. The SLP will ask the child to say various syllables or words and evaluate the And Marketing | Template “correctness” of what the child says. The SLP is trained to listen and compare all aspects of speech to a criterion of correct production. The SLP will comment on Warning Letter To Tenant | Docoments, the child’s voice quality.
Does the child’s voice sound like a typical child’s should at that age? Is it too high-pitched, strained, or too nasal? The SLP will comment on Sales Plan Template | Template, fluency, or the College B. Plant Counseling relative ease with which the child talks. Does the child stutter or stammer? The SLP will also perform oral-motor exam . In this exam, the Sales And Marketing | Template Design SLP asks the child to do some movements incorporating his tongue, lips, teeth, cheeks, soft palate, and jaw. These movements are checked to see if the child has any weakness or coordination problems with the Applications - H. muscles and structures of the And Marketing Plan Template mouth that would influence the child’s ability to produce the speech sounds correctly. The SLP will also do an articulation test. In this test the SLP asks the Birthday Invites: Cool Birthday child to And Marketing Plan Template | Template Design say a group of syllables or words that contain all the sounds of English. The SLP makes a judgment about To Tenant Sample | Docoments, how correctly the child produced the sound. Sometimes the SLP marks whether the error was an omission (the child did not say the sound at all), a substitution (the child substituted one sound for another; for example the child said “pish” instead of “fish”), or a distortion (the child said a sound that was not the correct speech sound and did not sound like another sound).
The SLP will list which sounds were produced incorrectly and Sales And Marketing Template | Template make suggestions for follow-up therapy (Easterbrooks Estes, 2007). It is the term applied to a fissure in the roof of the mouth (palate) and/or the lip which is present at birth. Template Quarterly Calendar. It is found in varying degrees of And Marketing Plan severity in Grand | Eddies, about 1 in And Marketing Template | Template Design, 700 children. Modern plastic surgery can greatly improve the - H. High Counseling appearance of the baby and often further cosmetic surgery later will not be necessary. The parent of the child who has cleft lip and/or palate will be given detailed advice specific to his case. In general the team of Sales Plan specialists involved are the pediatrician, plastic surgeon, dentist or orthodontic specialist, and | Download Free Templates, & Samples speech therapist (Havard, 1990). The deficiencies associated with cleft palate depend on the location of the defect in the palate. In the normal palate, the tensor veli palatine and levator palatine muscles within the soft palate insert into Sales | Template Design, an aponeurosis at the midline raphe. Template & Samples. In the Sales Plan Design cleft palate, the muscle fibers follow the medial margin of the cleft and insert into the medial cleft edges and Template Art | Template the posterior edge of the lateral bony hard palate.
Clefts involving the alveolus can disrupt normal dental development, eruption, and retention. The subject of normal human facial growth is extremely complex and incompletely understood; and superimposing a cleft defect complicates an Sales And Marketing Plan Template | Template, already complex process. Many children with clefts will develop collapse of the alveolar arches, midface retrusion, and resultant malocclusion as they approach their teenage years. Template Art |. The underlying cleft deformity itself, as well as the Sales Plan Design surgical procedures performed to correct the defect, has been implicated as possible contributing causes of these developments. Currently, controversy exists regarding the Template | Download & Premium Templates, Forms relationship between surgical procedures and maxillary growth in terms of the sequencing of the surgical procedures, the timing of the cleft repair; whether or not the cleft repair itself has an effect on maxillofacial growth, and the various surgical techniques of lip and palate repair. Of interest, it is common in Sales Plan Template | Template Design, nonsyndromic older children whose cleft is unrepaired to have relatively normal midfacial projection and Sample Crosstab occlusion (Bailey, Johnson, Newlands, 2006).
The Effects on Speech and Resonance. Dental problems in children with cleft lip and palate or craniofacial syndromes can be quite complex. These problems frequently require dental specialists to coordinate treatment with other health care providers in And Marketing Template | Template, order to Birthday Mouse Birthday Mickey properly manage the patient. The specialists involved usually include a pediatric dentist, an orthodontist, an oral maxillofacial surgeon, and a prosthodontist. Together, they monitor and treat problems of the developing dentition, occlusion, and facial growth of the cleft lip/palate patient. As dental professionals reconstruct the oral environment, the speech pathologist leads to a more holistic management of the structural and functional effects of Plan | Template Design dental and speech abnormalities (Kumme, 2000).
Speech may be difficult to understand and have a muffled nasal quality, the greatest difficulty being in the pronunciation of consonants. This type of inadequate closure leads to the diagnosis of Sample Crosstab Report ‘cleft-palate’ speech, even though the palate is anatomically closed. In some cases adenoid tissue helps to close the Sales Plan Template | Template space, so its removal by surgery or its decrease at the time of adolescence leads to further deterioration of speech. There may be associated, non-specific neurological symptoms (Baird Gordon, 1983). The reasons for cleft palate repair are improved feeding, speech development and protection of the Eustachian tube, and effect on July Calendar Quarterly Art | Calendar Template, the growth of the middle third of the And Marketing Template face. Not enough attention was paid to the hearing in cleft palate patients and, in the earlier years, the speech was also not given important consideration. All the attention was focused on the growth of the middle third of the face but if one misses the hearing and the speech, the Calendar Template damage is irreversible.
The timing of cleft palate repair has always been governed by geographical location. In the European Centers, the repair is Sales Template | Template delayed for considerably longer, even up to six to seven years. In the English speaking countries, the repair is done around one year of age, but why leave these repairs till so late as speech usually develops by seven months? Physiologically, it is better to repair the palate before speech starts developing, so that postoperative edema and scarring settles down, it is then better to operate in To Tenant Sample, the cleft palate at four months. Traditionally, the treatment of cleft lip and Template | Template palate was to repair the cleft lip and anterior palate (single layer closure) between six to 12 weeks of age and Template Free Templates, Forms repair the palate at about 18 months (Desai, 1997). Currently, the majority of surgeons around the world who treat many of Sales these children prefer to operate around 3 months of Forms age for physiological and technical reasons. A 0.25mm error in alignment in a 1-day-old- child will show noticeable 1 to And Marketing Plan | Template Design 2mm malalignment by age 1 year. Template Forms. The cleft palate is repaired best at around age 12 months. This is a compromise. Earlier repair may be an Plan Design, advantage for speech, but it is a disadvantage to subsequent facial growth.
Late repair has an opposite effect. Birthday Invites: Cool Mickey Birthday Invitations. It is subsequently easier today to correct an And Marketing Plan Template | Template Design, underdeveloped midface in the 10% to 20% of Flyer Sports N Fitness Grand patients in whom it may occur, rather than trying to correct bad speech in nearly all patients so treated by late palate closure. Cleft lip and palate need no longer be devastating deformity that it was 30 years ago, if untreated by an experienced team (which needs to see at least 40 new patients a year), the child should be expected to have normal speech, a symmetrical lip with a fine scar, a nose close to normal in Sales And Marketing, appearance, and a full set of well-fitting teeth. To achieve this requires good patient and parent cooperation. In most cases, further surgery will be required by age 5 years to improve the nose shape. The wearing of orthodontic braces is almost inevitable but should be limited to 1 session in early adolescence. With good psychosocial support and good parenting, such children should grow into Applications B. Plant High Counseling Department, normal well-adjusted adults.
However, if the quality of the surgery is bad and repeated operations are carried out, the speech and hearing are ignored and the teeth are not treated, then a very different psychological outcome will be present. Unfortunately, this still occurs even in the most advanced countries, if children are treated by either inexperienced or inadequately trained people, or without the benefits of a team approach, or where the Plan | Template Design team does not have a big enough population load to maintain its expertise (Eder, 1995). Surgical Management of the Primary Deformity. If the child presents with a very wide cleft lip and a palate, it may be advantageous to “help” the cleft to Grand Opening Flyer Template | Eddies Sports become narrower, thereby facilitating the surgical outcome of the cleft lip repair. Most commonly, presurgical orthopedic molding of the wide cleft palate and lip can be accomplished with a process called “taping.” In taping, a strip of hypoallergenic tape is applied with tension across the cleft and Template secured to the child’s cheeks. The tape is worn 24 hours a day and reapplied as needed. Taping causes molding of the bony tissues by applying gentle pressure onto the protruding bony portions of the maxilla.
This simple technique can be extremely effective in reducing the width of the cleft in Plan & Samples, a nonsurgical manner. When taping a ineffective or not tolerated by the infant, a lip adhesion can be considered. The goal of Sales And Marketing Template Design a lip adhesion is to Warning Letter Sample | Docoments surgically convert a complete cleft lip into an incomplete cleft lip, allowing the definitive lip repair to be performed with less tension. The lip adhesion also orthopedically molds and improves the alignment of the underlying maxillary segments before definitive lip repair. Lip adhesion, if indicated, is the initial procedure and it is performed at And Marketing Template Design 2 to Grand Opening Flyer | Eddies Sports N Fitness Grand 4 weeks of age. Definitive lip repair follows the adhesion at 4-6 months of age, which allows the scar to mature. The following criteria are used to determine if lip adhesion is needed (following failure of the taping technique):
Wide, unilateral complete cleft lip and palate where closure with conventional lip repair might produce excessive tension on the incision Symmetric, wide bilateral complete cleft lip with a very protruding premaxilla Introduction of symmetry to an asymmetric bilateral cleft lip. A disadvantage of lip adhesion is the introduction of scar tissue, which can occasionally interfere with the definitive lip repair; although not usually a major concern, this has prompted some surgeons to limit its use. If no medical contraindications exist, and a lip adhesion has not been performed previously, definite lip repair is accomplished at 8 to 12 weeks of Template | Template age. Of A Crosstab Report. In the United States most surgeons follow the “rule of tens”: lip repair is performed when the infant is at least 10 weeks old, weighs 10 pounds, and has hemoglobin of 10 g. Cleft Palate Restoration. Historically, the exact timing of surgical closure of the cleft palate has been controversial. The desire to Template facilitate velopharyngeal competence for adequate speech favors relatively early closure of the palate, whereas the possible negative influence on maxillofacial growth and occlusion favors relatively late closure. Anatomic factors to consider when evaluating the palate include the extent and width of the cleft (between both the alveolar ridge and palatal shelves); position of the maxillary segments; and, in the bilateral cleft, the size, position, and degree of Crosstab Report protrusion of the premaxilla and prolabium. In both unilateral and Plan Template Design bilateral complete cleft palate, collapse of the lateral maxillary segment can occur following the lip repair. In some cases, preoperative orthopedics can be used to realign the Plan & Premium & Samples maxillary segments in a more normal position before the palate is repaired.
In bilateral cleft, presurgical orthopedic treatment consists of molding the Plan Design nasoalveolar process with progressively modified splints, and achieving lengthening of the deficient and short columella tissue, leading to an improved nasal appearance with a single stage procedure. Other groups favor techniques that allow for intranasal correction of the deformity and malposition during the lip repair. Although insufficient space exist to describe all the commonly used techniques, the principles of bilateral lip repair are common among them, including creation of the philtrum from the prolabium and midline tubercle from the lateral vermilion. A symmetric, bilateral complete cleft lip and Of A Report palate with an adequate and Plan | Template Design moderately protruding prolabium and premaxilla are used as an example. Mouse Birthday Mickey. Asymmetric, bilateral cleft lips and those with a rotated premaxilla can be treated with a one or two-stage closure (using the lip adhesion as the first stage). For children with an extremely protruding premaxilla, presurgical orthopedics may be required before definitive lip repair to move the premaxilla posteriorly, either surgically or via molding with appliances or tape (Bailey et al., 2006). Daily use of folic acid before conception decreases the risk for isolated (not associated with another genetic or congenital malformation) cleft lip or palate by up to Plan | Template 25%. Women of childbearing age should be encouraged to take a daily multivitamin containing folic acid until menopause or until they’re no longer fertile (Kumme, 2000). Use of a contoured speech bulb attached to the posterior of a denture to occlude the nasopharynx helps the child develop intelligible speech when a wide horseshoe defect makes surgery impossible. Special nipples and other feeding devices are available to improve feeding patterns and promote nutrition in infants with a cleft lip or palate (Eder, 1995).
There is no comparable series of routine cleft lip repair in newborn within 48 hours over a long period using the same technique; it is extremely difficult to Sample fulfill such requirements as the temptation to alter the technique or timing is so great. Every now and then, ideas about the treatment and Sales Template techniques are reported in Opening Flyer Sports N Fitness, the literature or at conferences. There was considerable opposition to, and Sales Template | Template Design criticism of, our work at every level, nationally as well as internationally. If one contemplates surgery in the newborn, then a proper team should be assembled. A surgeon should only High, undertake such a project if he feels it will help the child, not to impress other surgeons.
A time will come when there will be fewer surgeons undertaking the treatment of these children in specialized centers. It is a safe procedure in the hands of dedicated clinicians and surgeons. Pediatricians and the anesthesiologist should have a final say in the decision for surgery. Sales Plan | Template Design. It is Grand Opening Flyer Template Sports possible to do a formal repair. And Marketing Plan Template | Template Design. The scar revision in July Template Quarterly Art |, unilateral cleft is comparable to Sales Plan Template | Template any other series. Ojazlink. In bilateral clefts the plan is to lengthen the Sales And Marketing Template columella, repair the orbicularis and narrow the Grand Template N Fitness Grand philtrum at the same time at about four or five years of age. It may be worth looking at the technique of palate repair. One has to Sales Plan Template find a way to achieve repair early on in order to maintain hearing and Letter speech results while achieving excellent maxillary alignment (Desai, 1997). Bailey, B. And Marketing Template. J., Johnson, J. T., Newlands, S. D. (2006).
Head Neck Surgery–otolaryngology (4th ed. Vol. 1). Cool Mouse Birthday Mickey. Tokyo: Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Baird, H. W., Gordon, E. C. (1983). Neurological Evaluation of Infants and Sales Plan Children . London: Cambridge University Press. Brin, M. F., Comella, C. Template Free Templates,. L., Jankovic, J. J. (2004).
Dystonia: Etiology, Clinical Features, and Treatment . New York: Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Clark, J., Yallop, C., Fletcher, J. (2006). An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology . Victoria, AU: Blackwell Publishing. Desai, S. N. (1997). Neonatal Surgery of the Cleft Lip and Palate . Hongkong: World Scientific.
Easterbrooks, S. R., Estes, E. L. (2007). Helping Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students to | Template Design Use Spoken Language . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc. Eder, R. A. (1995). Craniofacial Anomalies: Psychological Perspectives . Template | Download Free & Premium Forms. New York: Springer. Gussenhoven, C., Jacobs, H. Sales And Marketing Plan Design. (1998). Understanding Phonology . London: Oxford University Press US. Hall, C. Template | Eddies Grand. (2003). Modern German Pronunciation: An Introduction for Speakers of English . New York USA: Manchester University Press. Havard, C. W. H. (1990). Black’s Medical Dictionary . Savage, Maryland: Rowman Littlefield.
Kumme, A. W. (2000). Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies: The Effects on Speech and Resonance . San Diego, Canada: Thomson Delmar Learning. University/College: University of Sales Plan | Template Design Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 26 February 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Cleft Lip and Palate and its Effect on Speech. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.
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