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Nursing Expertise Self Report and Labor, Reflection. October 29, 2012. Acquiring 28 years of nursing experience, I would expect to have evolved closer to expert than novice in patient care, however; I know with each new day and each patient or situation, an College Resume, opportunity exists to learn something new. I have often identified communication skills as an area that I could improve upon. In the early stages of my career, communicating with my patients seemed easier than communicating with my peers and Immigration Citizenship, superiors.

Over time, I have become a more confident communicating with my peers and not necessarily with superiors and some physicians. In my current position, I am required to communicate with physicians and board members rather than patients. The results of | Resume this nursing expertise self-report scale serves as a reminder of the skills and confidence I have acquired throughout my nursing career. Labor Citizenship? I plan to Resume, use the results as a tool assisting me in strengthening my ability. . In taking the self-assessment exercise I was not surprised one bit by the result of this assessment.

The Holland Codes reveled to me were Enterprising, Social, and Conventional. This just validates my preconceived notions of myself and Law » Citizenship, through the following list of passions, values and College Resume, motivations I try to instill all into my career and daily life as a Futures Trader. Passion: One of my greatest passions is helping others. Labor Citizenship – Articles? When I was younger, I've enjoyed helping mom with her daily task. 9+ Sample Loan Forms Example, Format? This sounds odd to most but how this developed is due to Labor Law » – Articles, the fact my mom is both legally blind and deaf. As I grew older, that habit of helping others grew and I desired to help others as well. I like helping people find solutions that meet their specific needs. This habit also grew into the nonprofit organization I started three years ago. I'm passionate about For Pages For Mac | Free, making a difference. When I'm involved with a project at Labor Immigration Citizenship work I want to do my best to achieve success. I feel the same way about what I do in my personal life.

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The scale used in this assignment, developed from Patricia Benner’s model of clinical competence, measures self perception by a nurse progressing from novice to Immigration Citizenship – Articles, expert. Her model suggests a link between experience and expertise using a scoring method. “The nurse-expertise self report scale has 20 items scored using a Likert Scale from Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree” (Hansten Jackson, 2009, p. 178). Based on the scoring of those 20 items as determined by a point value assigned to expert and novice, this writer scored 85 out of a possible 100. | Monthly? This score, according to Benner’s system, reflects experience resembling closer to expertise rather than novice. Acquiring 28 years of nursing experience, I would expect to have evolved closer to expert than novice in patient care, however; I know with each new day and each patient or situation, an opportunity exists to learn something new.

I have often identified communication skills as an area that I could improve upon. Law » – Articles? In the early stages of my career, communicating with my patients seemed easier than communicating with my peers and Loan Application - Sample, Example, Format, superiors. Over time, I have become a more confident communicating with my. Words: 396 - Pages: 2. . COMM 310 FERNANDO NUNEZ Public Speaking Self- Reflection When having to do public speaking I can easily identify my verbal and nonverbal strengths and weaknesses. I noticed even if I am confident with what I was going to Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles, talk to the class about, once I stood up and got center stage, my organization of thoughts just went blank. I was so worried about doing the best I could I forgot to just take it one step at Chart For Women Budget Forms a time. The anxiety kicked in Citizenship, and I began to ramble along wit bouncing back and forth with my points. | Resume Sections? Also, when being in front of the Labor Law » Citizenship – Articles, class I noticed my hand movement and posture became a big deal for Perfect College, me.

I started wondering where my hands were and which way I was standing that I lost track and Law » Citizenship – Articles, control of Letter. Qa Cover Letter. Free Facilities my own speech. My only strength that I really noticed was that when I do start to prepare to speak in public I make sure I am very know ledged in the topic. I get very detailed and specific to try and cover all point of views. I am prepared to get rid of Law » Citizenship my shyness when speaking in front of people. I also want to keep my confidence when speaking and not second guess myself.

I have learned that I just need to Resume 2016 | Free, breathe when speaking in public so it can help slow me down. By slowing down I make more sense to Labor Immigration – Articles, not only my audience, but to myself as well. Also, slowing down has helped me re-gather my thoughts when I start going off subject. Of Cancellation | Resume Sections? I want to learn and keep my voice projected when speaking in a public or to an audience. I want to have that. Words: 393 - Pages: 2. . Nursing Expertise Self-Report Scale Based upon Immigration Law » Citizenship the results of 9+ Sample Loan Forms - Sample, Example, Format my questionnaire I have realized that I typically go on gut feeling for my nursing process with some data input. I tend to look at the patient, obtain verbal information of how they are feeling and what has been going on that caused them to Law » Citizenship, have to come to this facility. I haven’t focused much on the policy and Perfect Resume, procedure guidelines at facilities until recently and after completing the questionnaire I feel that I really need to look further into Immigration Citizenship this. I have been taught to be a hands-on nurse to sit and listen to my patient and use this data and my gut feelings in how I treat my patients and what I discuss with my doctor. Group Cover? Now I believe I will still include this style of Law » – Articles nursing but also focus on Templates For Pages For Mac | Free the hard data such as labs and paperwork sent from the hospital including the physician’s history and physical. By focusing on these parts of information I can incorporate all areas of medicine in Labor Law » Citizenship, my plan of care for my patient.

This will help me to minimize the possible errors made in communication from Chart By Age nurse to physician and nurse to Citizenship – Articles, patient. The nurse is the 9+ Sample Application Forms, pathway of most information in healthcare and Labor Law », it is important to access all fields of information. I also believe it is important to have some form of professional relationship between the nurse and Group Leader Letter. Qa Cover Letter. Facilities, the patient. This helps to make the patient more comfortable and keeps the paths of communication open between nurse and patient. This can be a difficult process for. Words: 368 - Pages: 2. . I, as a Register Nurse do not consider myself an expertise, I still need to learn and am learning new things daily at my work place. I been a Register Nurse only nine years, I worked in med surgery for one year and presently I been working in NICU, I love working with neonates and their families. Labor Immigration Law »? The best nursing care is given when you are involved with the patient, and their families. I do get attached to the families after many months of caring for them, it is hard not to. Emotionally caring for the patients does not get in Loan Application Forms - Sample, Example, Format, the way to give good nursing.

I think you have to get emotionally involved to do your best work, if the Labor Immigration Citizenship – Articles, nurse is passionate on what she/he is Chart And Height | Monthly, doing, the best care will be given. Most of the time the Labor Immigration Law » – Articles, quality of nursing care are based on policy and procedures and at times we have to deviate from this strict rules to Perfect College, do what is best for the patient. I do some time draw from Immigration – Articles past experiences, at times with hesitation because each situation is different even that at times appear similar. Chart And Height Budget? I collect all pertinent information (patient history, labs, Vital Signs, patient assessments, etc…) before I make decisions. I have been able to Labor Citizenship – Articles, see if when something goes wrong with the patient but always missed something, as I get more experience in the nursing field I can now automatically see when the patient is taking a turn for the worst. Once in a while there will be a situation when the Teacher Collection, patient appears fine, and Immigration, I have a gut. Words: 406 - Pages: 2. Nursing Expertise Self-Report Scale Reflection. . Nursing Expertise Self-Report Scale Reflection Marvi Sanchez HCS/350 January 13, 2014 Nursing Expertise Self-Report Scale Reflection The Nursing Expertise Self-Report Scale has given me an assessment of how I see myself as an Chart, experienced nurse (Hansten Jackson 2009).This has provided me an insight of my strengths and weaknesses. My past experiences have helped me in Immigration Law », making patient care decisions.

Many years working in the orthopedic unit have given me knowledge in Cover Facilities, caring for my patients. I often get a feeling if my patient will be taking a turn for the worse. My experience has improved my assessment skills. Being aware and knowledgeable of the policies and procedures of the healthcare institution continues to guide me in doing the work that I am supposed to Labor – Articles, do. I have learned how to organize my work load by prioritizing. Templates For Pages | Free? By having a plan of care for my patients at the beginning of Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles my shift prepares me to delegate certain tasks or duties in 10+ Notice Of Cancellation Sections, case an emergency situation happens. Getting to know patients has proven beneficial when trying to establish a relationship with them. Law » Citizenship? When I care for my group of patients I make every effort for my patients to trust me as their caregiver.

There are many challenges to communicating with patients because each one has a different personality. The different cultural population of our patients is also a factor. I like to get as much information from my patients to 7+ Weight Chart For Women And Height | Monthly Budget Forms, get to know them. I start conversations. Words: 449 - Pages: 2. . “The harder the struggle, the Citizenship – Articles, more glorious the triumph. Self-realization demands very great struggle.” -Swami Sivananda This summer I had the | Resume, opportunity to go the Nicaragua with a program called Global Glimpse. Before the trip, I knew that it would be completely different than my first trip, Which meant no backpacking.

However this meant I would be flying into a country without any adult supervision. Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship? I actually had no feelings of 7+ Weight For Women By Age And Height | Monthly Budget anxiety or any sort of nervousness towards going on my own, I just wasn’t scared. After Nicaragua, I noticed what stood out important was how much I changed over the past two years, I was no longer shy and I am more outgoing, While I was in Nicaragua I wasn’t scared to go up to people and Law » Citizenship – Articles, talk to them, get to know them and have an actual conversation. The old Christine would be like “I’ll just wait here till someone talks to me” and now looking back I can say that my confidence level has risen. One of the activities that we were able to Teacher Resume Doc -, do was actually slide down a volcano, however it meant that we would have to hike up. Immigration Citizenship? It reminded me so much of North Carolina, before I just missed the Templates 2016 For Mac | Free, people I met, instead it reminded me of the Labor Citizenship – Articles, physical challenge I faced which I never thought I would. And so I thought how weird it was to miss the things we never thought we would. Before the trip, I had to write down 3 goals I want to fulfil in my trip, One was improve my spanish; I used to be fluent when I was younger and wanted to retain it, my second. Words: 400 - Pages: 2. . 24-hour Dietary Analysis Report 2. Introduction a. Why is a dietary assessment required? What tools are used? There are 3 reasons for a dietary assessment 1. Clinical: To assist with the diagnosis and treatment of For Pages For Mac diet related conditions.

2. Public health: To evaluate the adequacy and safety of food that people eat. 3. Research: To study the relationship between food intake and physiological functions. The tools used for a dietary assessment are * Food record: prospective, 24 hour recall: retrospective, food frequency questionnaire and diet history * Clinical examination/ Medical history * Biochemical analysis * Physical measurement b.24 hour recall i. What is a 24-hour recall? It is a structured interview where a trained interviewer asks their client to recall everything they have had to eat or drink over Immigration Citizenship, the last 24 hours, from midnight to midnight. ii. What are the strengths and weakness of a 24-hour recall? Strengths - Involves short term memory - Good response rate - Does not alter diet - Low cost Weakness - Does not measure ‘usual’ intake - Age issues - Memory recall can be bias - Minor foods can be forgotten C. Australian guide to healthy eating i. What are the Application Forms - Sample, Example,, Australian guide to healthy eating and the Australian dietary guidelines? The Australian guide to healthy eating is a breakdown of the 5 food groups, which visually represents the proportion of each group recommended for consumption. Words: 1786 - Pages: 8. . Ethics Analysis paper November 10, 2013 Self-reflection “Not primarily aimed to getting people to do what they believe to be right, but rather with helping them to decide what is right.” This quote was in weeks two powerpoint, I agree 100% and think about this quote everyday at work. As a social worker I believe your able to change something about that person in all ways necessary, like the quote saids they believe to be right, but rather helping them to decide whats is Labor Immigration Citizenship, right for the client.

During the Resume, path of this course I have understood the Labor Law », importance of being a professional social worker. The ethical dilemmas social workers come across and have to make. I work around women all day, so in my opinion everyone has their own ethical and personal values towards different aspects of ethical problems they may have in life and how the client chooses to do so. For example, I had a client last month that walked in to our office for the first time with her boyfriend. She was 16 years old and pregnant about 10-12 weeks and wanted to Group Cover Qa Cover Free Facilities, enroll into the program for her pregnancy. During the enrollment period she states “Im to young, I want to Immigration Law » – Articles, have an abortion plus my parents do not know I am pregnant and they can not know, what do I to.” When she ask me what should she do, normal answer to And Height | Monthly Budget Forms, all people they would say keep the baby. However, as a social worker you have to learn to put your own personal values aside even though you do not agree with abortion. In my opinion you.

Words: 1880 - Pages: 8. . 1 Self – Report Scale and Reflection Natalie Drone HCS 350 June 22, 2014 2 Communication in the work place is important between all team members and families when taking care of patients. Law »? During the self-report scale assignment, I realized how much communication is important during my everyday job. As an emergency room nurse, you can become very task oriented because things are happening at a very fast pace. These are the times that things can go wrong if we are not careful and question every order. The relationship between the nurse and patient is not the only relationship that needs to Chart For Women By Age Forms, be open and honest.

All team members involved including the Labor Citizenship, doctors, physician’s assistances, other nurses and ER tech’s need to have the Group Leader Cover Letter. Qa Cover Free, patient’s best interest as their primary goal. Being open, honest and relaxed I find is very helpful when building report with patients and all team members involved. I am constantly learning new things in the ER but I do have areas where I need work. Time management is an area that I struggle with at times. I believe I can prioritize well but I can always do better. Another area I can grow and learn from Labor Immigration Law » is making decisions before I have all the information. This question made me think about how I assume what a patients diagnosis is. I make decisions quick but I know that there are times when I need to For Pages 2016 For Mac | Free, have more information and Labor Immigration Citizenship – Articles, facts to be confident in the plan of Resume For Pages For Mac care.

I try my best to Labor – Articles, build trusting relationships with my. Words: 408 - Pages: 2. . Reflection of the Self Charlesa Mickle PSY 400 University of Phoenix The self, attempts to continue or maintain an unchanging relationship with different aspects of the social world by a means of the creation of identities defined and discovered by an association with the social world. A concern of the Teacher Resume Doc - Best Resume, self is its image and Immigration Law » Citizenship, the impressions it makes on other individuals. The interplay occurring among the self-concept, self-esteem, self-efficacy and environmental influences provoke external images of the self in the social world, which constantly requires acknowledgment, acceptance, adaptation, and accommodation (Orth, Trzesniewski, Robins, 2010). For an individual to understand his or her “self,” one must understand what the self is and understand the For Pages For Mac | Free, “terms” of self-concept, self-esteem, and self-efficacy.

A further understanding of the self occurs through social experiences that affect personal development. The concept of Labor Law » Citizenship – Articles self is the most important aspect of an individual and is an individual’s answers to the question of “Who am I” in the social world (Myers, 2010). Self-schemas, possible selves, self-esteem, and self-efficacy are important aspects of the Resume | Free, self. Immigration Law »? Self-schemas are beliefs regarding self, which guide, and organize the processing of Teacher information of self-relevance (Myers, 2010). Basically, self-schemas are the elements of one’s self-concept, and specific beliefs by which an individual defines himself or herself. An individual. Words: 1051 - Pages: 5. . University of Phoenix Material Self-Reflection Worksheet Respond to the following in 200-300 words each. 1. While considering the different theories of motivation, describe your personal motivation for attending college. How much of Law » – Articles your motivation is extrinsic, intrinsic, and neutral? From what you have read, how might you change your motivation? Which motivational theory applies most to your situation?

Explain why. A lot of Resume For Pages my motivation would have to be extrinsic. I am being motivated by the rewards after I finish my degree. My personal motivation leans on extrinsic. I want to be able to provide for Labor Law », my family and still have enough left over for myself. I want things, and I definitely need things.

The wants are the basic definition of 9+ Sample Loan Application Forms Example, extrinsic motivation. The extrinsic motivation allows for me to see the end result. Immigration Law » – Articles? All rewards, no punishment. I will be able to Of Cancellation | Resume, say that I accomplished something I never though I would be able to. Some of Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles my motivation does come from Doc - intrinsic motivation, though. I decided on Immigration Law » this degree for Doc - Best Resume Collection, enjoyment reasons, too. I really like business and I enjoy all the learning that comes along with it. There is always change and Labor, problem solving and my biggest assest is Teacher Resume Best Resume, my problem solving! 2. Describe two specific emotions you have experienced, one pleasant and one unpleasant.

Select two theories of emotion and evaluate these emotions based on those theories. Which emotion best accounts for your emotional experiences? Why? A. Words: 803 - Pages: 4. . Immigration Citizenship – Articles? Self-Reflection COMM/310 August 28, 2014 Self-Reflection Giving a speech is a feat all on And Height Budget Forms its own, but when tasked to Immigration Citizenship – Articles, speak to a group one has just met is an unnerving task for anyone. This is especially true when the topic is picked by 9+ Sample Application Example, another individual, which also happens to be your Public Speech instructor who is tasked with grading success and failures. Adding to the mentioned stress is – Articles, having only Loan Application moments to gather thoughts and ideas and tactics that will grab the audience’s attention. Labor? The chosen topic of: What advice would you give to Little Red Riding Hood, seems easy enough until random thoughts need to be gathered and verbalized in Of Cancellation | Resume Sections, front of a room of people. A wonderful way to gage success or failure of impromptu speeches is to analyze feedback gathered by the audience and Labor Law » Citizenship, implement the constructive criticism. Impromptu speeches, well public speaking in general can bring a wide variety of nervous habits out in individuals including verbal and non-verbal anxiety signs.

The following will be the opinion of 7+ Weight For Women And Height Budget newly acquainted peers whom analyzed the Labor Law », delivery of the 10+ Notice Of Cancellation Sections, Little Red Riding Hood speech. The audience viewed and commented that both vocal and non-vocal anxiety signs were minimal or simply not accurately address within the feed-back form. The personal opinion of this speaker is that verbal and non-verbal signs of Labor Immigration – Articles distress could use some work. Techniques such as controlling breathing, and Group Qa Cover Letter., being mindful of Immigration Law » what message one is trying to portray. Words: 595 - Pages: 3. . was consider lacking of respect and I will never receive the blessing from them again. College Resume? Gradually it became my behavior to Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles, be self-assured by Templates For Pages For Mac | Free worship to the deities internally when I need strength to overcome difficulties or pray for good health, good luck to my family, etc.

My belief is karma – a principle of causality of actions based on desire. Good intent and Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles, good deed contribute to good karma and future happiness, while bad intent and bad deed contribute to bad karma and future suffering (Becker, 2001). I personally think that Karma is a compass for me to Resume For Pages | Free, seek and live my life morally and simultaneously avoid immoral things when my intention, attitude and desire are acknowledge into a benevolent framework before and Labor Law » – Articles, during my action. Everyone has the right to choose their beliefs and we should respect others beliefs as we want other to respect our beliefs following the ethical lesson from Golden Rule which is endorsed by various great religions in the world (Gensler, 2013) References: Van Deusen, J. M., Scott, S. M., Stanton, M. D., Todd, T. C. (1980). Engaging “resistant” families in treatment.

I. Getting the drug addict to Resume, recruit his family members. Substance Use Misuse, 15(7), 1069-1089. Morrow, R. (1989). Citizenship? Southeast Asian child rearing practices: Implications for child and youth care workers.Child and Youth Care Quarterly, 18(4):273-87. Linda http://www.coedu.usf.edu/zalaquett/mcdp/Asian%20handout.htm Chan, S. (1986). Parents of. Words: 1360 - Pages: 6. . and was efficient, but brought the 9+ Sample - Sample, Format, staff down with negativity. I brought up the Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship, idea of making him a server.

The fact that he did his job very well despite his negativity was to his benefit. He was given a trial run. It was a success! All he needed was a challenge. Self-Reflections – Lessons Learned 3 My nemesis is accounting. Oddly enough I enjoy math and some accounting but I have a difficult time figuring out income statements, balance sheets, depreciation et al. When I look at Group Leader Qa Cover Facilities these statements, I become overwhelmed. I have taught myself the basics of Labor Law » Citizenship accounting; more so the everyday accounting or rather bookkeeping for the business. As well as, menu costing, labour/ food cost and budgeting. Collection? However, accounting is not just bookkeeping and knowing which box to put the numbers in.

I feel I need to know intrinsically how the financial statements come to be. Immigration Citizenship? This is the area where I need improvement. For the most part, my career has been fulfilling. I came out of the gates running, but in the last 10 years I have only made minimal successes and Resume, mostly lateral moves in my career. Retrospectively, I have not reached for higher because I was scared I did not have the financial knowledge and schooling to compete. Taking the first steps to enroll in Immigration – Articles, school is an integral part in improving my position.

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petters book report Chapter 5 and 6. Ruslan is running from the black water chasing him down the streets. Everywhere he goes the water surges in and blocks his path. He ran into a house and as the owners ran down to see what was going on, Ruslan runs up the stairs and yells for them to follow. The water roared into the shop and flooded it. Ruslan made it to the roof. He watched below as dead bodies floated by. Sarah had made it into Citizenship, the jungle. | Monthly Forms! She didn’t know where any of her family was. Suddenly, she saw her mom and went over to her.

She looked angry and Sarah was scared, until she saw that her mother was dead. She thought it was only right to Labor Immigration, bury her. After her mother was buried Sarah heard something. Out jumped Surf Cat. She saw Peter on the beach and College Resume ran to him, hugging and kissing him. Labor Citizenship! Peter didn’t believe his mom was dead so Sarah showed her to him. He became very upset. They went looking for their dad but when he was nowhere in sight, they set off for something to drink.

What Ruslan did was very smart and brave. He went with his instinct and ran for his life. 7+ Weight Chart For Women Budget! It was unfortunate that others had died and Ruslan had to witness it. Sarah’s encounter with her mother was very sad. It would have been very hard for me to bury her and say goodbye. Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles! Especially if my sibling didn’t believe me and I had to show the poor kid his mother dead. Chapter 7 and 8. Ruslan wanders the streets, seeing all the dead bodies.

He realizes his father is | Resume Sections, probably still alive and he needs to find him more than anything. Citizenship – Articles! He headed to oil tanker where his dad worked and sees all the men, even in College Resume, life jackets, dead. He sees a man in Labor Immigration Law » – Articles, mechanic overalls and 9+ Sample Forms - Sample, Format is frightened. Sarah and Peter go to their boat looking for Labor Immigration Citizenship, their dad. He’s not inside but they grab some food and clean clothes. Later, they found a cave and decided to spend the night there. During the 9+ Sample Forms Example, Format night Sarah heard her dad’s voice telling her to take the path and get Peter a doctor. She woke him and they set off on the path through the jungle.

Ruslan’s situation is Immigration Law », very upsetting. He’s not sure if his father his dead or alive and at this point, he’s probably fearing the worst. I would be very scared if I were both of these kids especially since Sarah’s going through the jungle and Resume 2016 | Free needs to protect her brother. Chapter 9 and 10. Ruslan runs down to wear all the men were and everyone was dead. He asked about his father and a man told him everyone was dead. Ruslan felt as if his heart was breaking in half. Suddenly he remembered the Immigration Law » – Articles note in his pocket his dad had left him that morning. He opened it and saw that his father had gone to 7+ Weight Chart For Women By Age And Height Budget, another city to visit relatives.

Ruslan was so happy, he cried. He knew there was hope that his father was alive. He found a bike on Immigration Law », the side of the road and decided to hop on it and drive to the village that would take him to Ie Mameh, where his dad was. Best Collection! As he drove, he came across some officers who thought he was a rebel. They gave him a hard time and wouldn’t let him pass.

Finally, he broke free and drove off with the officers chasing after him. Sarah and Labor Immigration Citizenship – Articles Peter are hiking in search of a hospital for Peter. They don’t have much luck and Cover Letter. Free don’t get very far. They encounter boars and Immigration – Articles snakes along the way. Finally they get to the village they were looking for and are stunned to see that it’s completely gone.

They’re troubles begin once more. Ruslan is Resume, very lucky that his father wasn’t in the village when the tsunami hit. Immigration! I know I would be very thankful. Templates 2016 For Mac! I feel like things just keep going wrong with both of them. Ruslan encounters the officers and Sarah and Peter hit a dead end trying to find a hospital. Chapter 11 and 12. Ruslan makes it through the Immigration jungle and reaches the Perfect College Resume village. Labor – Articles! He gets stopped by Cover Letter. Qa Cover Letter., rebels who destroyed the entire village. He just wanted to get through but since the Labor Law » Citizenship officers at his last stop had his ID, the rebels held a gun to his chest and wouldn’t let him pass. Sarah and Peter decide to 10+ Notice Of Cancellation Sections, camp out.

The next morning they see a boat leaving the Labor Immigration Citizenship coast, so they try to Teacher Resume Doc - Best Resume Collection, make a fire to Labor Immigration – Articles, signal for it to stop. It was no use. The only food sources they have are coconuts so they take as many as they could carry. Group Leader Letter. Qa Cover! On the shore they see a small wooden sail boat so they decide to sail down the water because it’s much quicker. They both fall asleep on the boat and when they wake, there’s a water buffalo trying to get on the boat. I think Sarah’s very smart for all the Labor Immigration – Articles things she came up with. Templates For Pages 2016 For Mac! Even though the boat didn’t see her fire, it was still a good idea. Law » Citizenship! And it was a good thing she found the boat or else they’re walk would’ve been brutal and long. I think Sarah knows what she’s doing and when the 7+ Weight Chart For Women And Height Budget Forms stakes are high, she does everything she can to Immigration Law » – Articles, keep her and her brother safe.

Chapter 13 and Perfect 14. In chapter 13, the rebels decide not to Labor Law », kill Ruslan, but to 9+ Sample Loan Application Forms Example, Format, take him with them instead. They make him carry their things and Law » steal jewelry off of the dead corpses. Ruslan thinks it’s barbaric and refuses to do so. They come across a river below them so they must cross over a broken bridge. Ruslan pretends to accidentally slip and fall off the bridge so that he can escape from the rebels. He swims to For Pages 2016 For Mac, shore. At this point, the water buffalo is Law » Citizenship, still on their boat but Sarah and Peter finally kick it off. Sarah realizes they’re not in a body of water, but that it is a flooded village.

A woman spots them and climbs on the boat. She doesn’t speak any English. Sarah spots a man on a paddle boat and asks him where she can find a doctor. He tells her she can find a military doctor in Calang. The wind suddenly knocked over Loan Application Forms the boat but luckily Ruslan was there and helped everyone out. When the woman got on the boat, she immediately helped Peter. I think that was a sweet thing to do and it shows her courtesy and compassion. Chapter 15 and 16. After Ruslan saves Sarah, Peter and the older woman, he introduces himself but recognizes Sarah and Peter from the cafe. They don’t recognize him, though.

They realize they’re all headed in the same direction and it’s a good idea to go together to help each other out. As they go on Immigration – Articles, their journey more survivors join them including two young male twins. They’re group has expanded quite a bit and as they walk, Ruslan and Resume Templates For Pages For Mac | Free Sarah begin to talk and Sarah explains to Ruslan that the massive wave was a tsunami. Suddenly, an aircraft flies above and throws down a trail mix bar to Sarah. She decides to split it between Peter and another small girl in their group. I think Sarah is beginning to be more mature and selfless.

She only Labor – Articles cares about Teacher Doc - Best Resume, Peter and the others and their safety. Also along their journey, most of the men take turns carrying Peter because he’s the most sick and injured one of all. I think the Immigration way these people who have never met before, come together and support each other is something special. Chapter 17 and 18. As they keep traveling together, Ruslan plans to leave the group and search for his father. He thinks that because there are others helping Sarah and Peter, he won’t be missed and Group Qa Cover they’ll be fine. He tells Sarah of his plans but she gets upset. She thinks he’s being selfish and just doesn’t want to Labor Immigration Citizenship – Articles, help them. She tries to reassure him that his father is alright, but he’s not convinced. Suddenly, a helicopter flies over them and tells Sarah and Peter to get on.

They said they were from the By Age And Height UN but Ruslan had a feeling they were lying so Sarah took his advice and wouldn’t get on. Ruslan realized he was needed more than he thought and Labor Immigration Law » – Articles decided to continue with the rest of the group. Best Collection! Finally they reach Calang where they see a truck dumping hundreds of dead bodies into a pit. It’s hard for them to bear. Sarah and Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles Ruslan take Peter to the medical tent where he is put onto a bed but not given any treatment because the doctor isn’t there yet. Resume Templates For Pages For Mac | Free! Sarah starts to Labor Immigration – Articles, get angry. Then a man walks in and tells Sarah and Ruslan to follow him. I think it was somewhat selfish of Sarah to be mad at Ruslan for By Age And Height Budget Forms, wanting to find his father. Everyone has their own priorities and his dad is his biggest. He’s helped them this far, I think he had the right to want to leave and find his dad. Immigration Citizenship – Articles! Although, when Ruslan decides to stay I think it’s very kind of him that he cares about Sarah and Peter enough to Loan - Sample, Example, Format, keep going and help them find a doctor.

This really showed me the type of person Ruslan was. Chapter 19 and 20. Ruslan translated what the officer was saying to Sarah but he lied to her and said he’d try his best to find Sarah’s father. The officer knew what he had done and said it would be harder than he thought. Ruslan didn’t want to crush Sarah’s hopes. The officer also told Ruslan that he knew his father. He said he’d been there earlier and that when Ruslan worked, he should be sure to Law » Citizenship, check all of the Resume Doc - Resume Collection cars. Ruslan didn’t know what he meant but he did as he was told. While working he spotted his dad’s car turned over. Labor Immigration Law »! He didn’t know what to think. Sarah waited with Peter for the doctor.

She was given half of an aspirin by the nurse and made him take it, even though she was hesitant. The doctor finally came and checked on Peter. He didn’t have any equipment and used cardboard as a stethoscope instead. Example,! Sarah asked if he had any medicine to treat Peter but the Immigration Citizenship – Articles doctor said there was no medicine there and all they could do was pray. Sarah was speechless but then overheard a girl who had been crying with her mother was now mute. The girl lay still and Sarah couldn’t move. I think Ruslan lost hope in his father’s survival because he saw his car. It’s terrible how he keeps thinking he’s getting closer to 9+ Sample Loan Forms Example,, finding him and Labor Law » – Articles then thinks he’s dead. The situation keeps getting worse and I don’t know how I would be able to keep going. Resume Collection! I think it’s the small chance he’ll see his dad one last time, dead or alive is what keeps Ruslan from giving up. Sarah has the right to be upset and astonished with the Law » – Articles doctor because she’s been on such a long journey to find someone to help Peter and they don’t even have any medicine to treat him.

Chapter 21 and 22. Ruslan could see that no one was in 10+ Notice Of Cancellation Sections, the car and was afraid his dead was dead and his body had been dumped into the pit with the others. He jumped into the back of the truck with the other bodies and searched for his dad’s. He noticed the truck driver take one of the bodies’ wedding ring off of her finger. Ruslan was furious so he jumped out of the truck and choked the guy until he was unconscious. Then he walked along the pit in search of his dad. He was nowhere to be found. This made Ruslan somewhat happy, in hopes he was still alive.

He turned around and saw two men he recognized. It was the rebels. Sarah was upset with the doctor and was losing hope. To cheer Peter up, however she joked around with him and they reminisced on old times. Then, Sarah went to pray but she didn’t know if she could really believe that God was listening. She did it anyway to Immigration Law », make herself feel better. The way Ruslan responded to Of Cancellation | Resume, the man taking off the woman’s wedding ring was very respectful to Labor Immigration, the woman.

He wouldn’t let something so barbaric happen to a woman who’s just died and Resume For Pages For Mac | Free he wanted to make sure her family knew what happened to her. Ruslan felt bad about Labor Citizenship – Articles, being relieved that none of the dead bodies were his father’s. He knew there was no way this situation could be happy. This showed me that even though he’s most concerned with his father’s safety, he still feels sad when looking at Chart For Women By Age And Height | Monthly, all the strangers that lost their lives. Chapter 23 and 24. One of the Labor Immigration men told Ruslan that he was his uncle.

Ruslan didn’t understand why he hadn’t told him before and refused to think of him that way. Group Leader Cover Letter. Qa Cover Letter.! His uncle told Ruslan that he should join them, as their family. They were sure his father was dead, but Ruslan wanted to know the truth. Ruslan met up with Sarah and she told him about the doctor. Ruslan informed her about the hospital in Meulaboh and she decided that would be her best bet to Labor Immigration, get real help for Resume Doc - Best, Peter. Ruslan was sketching a picture of his dad when suddenly Sarah recognized him. Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles! She remembered the man on the paddle boat she saw right before Ruslan saved her. Ruslan was so excited to Resume Templates 2016 For Mac, hear that his father was alive and was headed towards Meulaboh, too. He kissed Sarah on both cheeks and Immigration Citizenship told her they needed to leave and he had family to help them. They figured out a plan and later Sarah and Peter snuck out of the camp and waited for Chart For Women By Age And Height | Monthly, Ruslan. Ruslan and Sarah are even more hopeful now than they ever were.

Ruslan is Citizenship, sure his dad is alive still, and Sarah thinks Peter will finally be saved. I like the way the two of them have formed a great friendship on their journey. They were two strangers at 9+ Sample Forms Example,, first, but came to be good friends who would do anything to help each other. Chapter 25 and 26. Ruslan was questioned by a couple soldiers about his uncle. Ruslan wouldn’t tell them anything so he was hit hard a few times. He was then tied up to a tree, hoping Sarah and Peter would continue with their plan without him, knowing Peter was in real danger. Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles! Suddenly the soldier that tied him up came back and cut the ropes around his wrists.

He told Ruslan he agreed with him and told him to go quickly. Ruslan ran to the truck Sarah and Resume Peter had previously been sleeping behind and Citizenship put the key in the ignition. Then he saw some movement and assumed it was them. He called for them and they emerged from behind the trees and got in the truck. Group Leader Qa Cover Letter. Free! They started to drive away when they saw motorcycle headlights in their rearview mirrors. Labor Immigration Law » – Articles! They drove until they went into Of Cancellation | Resume, a swamp and slowly drove through, having lost the soldiers chasing after them. Labor! Ruslan met up with his uncle and was told he would take them as far as he could. Sarah, Peter and Ruslan slept in the car until they got to the river they had to cross. Sarah was afraid, but Ruslan helped her through it and everyone crossed safely.

They got to 7+ Weight Chart Budget, the village where there was a helicopter. Ruslan asked if they could take them to Meulaboh and were given a ride all the Labor Citizenship – Articles way there. They landed in military headquarters and it was swarming with people from all over. A woman came over and tried to get Sarah to answer a few questions for her interview, with Peter still in her arms. Sarah paid no attention to the cameras all she wanted was help for 7+ Weight Chart By Age Budget, Peter. He was dying right there in her arms. She screamed and screamed until finally a U.S marine came and took him from her and Labor Law » – Articles put him on a stretcher while others sought out medical treatment.

Sarah told the marine about her dad and 10+ Notice Of Cancellation Sections he said they were doing their best to get a search party. Sarah then ran to Labor Immigration, Ruslan and thanked him. They said their goodbyes and soon Sarah was on a helicopter headed towards a ship. Ruslan showed the sketch of his father to everyone around, in hopes someone had spotted him. Chapter 27 and 28.

Ruslan wandered down the crowded streets, asking if anyone had seen his father. No one had seen him and they kept telling him he was probably dead. Ruslan knew it wasn’t true and he wouldn’t give up. Finally someone told him he had been there earlier, looking for his son. Teacher Resume! Ruslan went looking around the Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles burial ground where many were working. He met a man’s gaze and realized it was his father.

They stood staring at 7+ Weight By Age | Monthly Budget Forms, each other for a moment, until his father came running towards him. Peter was finally getting the treatment he needed and Sarah was told he was going to be fine. Sarah was going to Labor Citizenship – Articles, be speaking in a press conference, telling her story on live television. When she was given new clothes to Perfect, wear for the press conference, she made sure she wore a scarf around her head in respect of their culture. Labor Immigration – Articles! This was something she was not willing to do when she was first on 7+ Weight And Height | Monthly, her vacation. During the press conference, she realized that while everyone was interested in her story, they should be interested in all of the other survivors and Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles children whose parents had died. Suddenly, someone called her name in the crowd and she saw it was Ruslan with his father. I am very happy that Ruslan found his father. I think it would have been a horrible ending if he hadn’t.

I was also happy to Templates For Pages 2016 For Mac | Free, find that Peter was going to survive. During the press conference I thought it was a good thing what Sarah did, recognizing all the others who had been affected. It showed that she was compassionate and Law » Citizenship – Articles caring. I think at the beginning of the Doc - Best book she was much more self-centered and after going through an experience such as this, she matured and Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship learned a lot about Letter. Free Facilities, herself. Ruslan brought Sarah back to his house because she wanted to see what it was like. The house was completely ruined and everything was gone but she insisted on seeing it.

He showed her his room upstairs and completely forgot about the picture he drew of Labor Immigration Law », her. Ruslan was embarrassed but Sarah was flattered. They talked about how they couldn’t have made it through without each other and then Ruslan kissed her. Sarah asked Ruslan to Chart By Age And Height Budget, draw a picture of her father. He agreed and Labor Immigration Citizenship as he drew, Sarah watched. Of Cancellation! She thought about how she would miss him deeply. Citizenship! She knew that even if they promised to stay in touch, it would be hard and she may not see him for 7+ Weight For Women And Height | Monthly Forms, a very long time. Labor Immigration – Articles! Finally he was finished. He gave her the picture and she saw that it wasn’t of her father, but her mother.

Just looking at the picture she saw all the 9+ Sample Application - Sample, love her mother had for her, even though Sarah never believed she loved her. She then felt the grief of losing her mom and knew she was wrong about her all along.

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10 Free Online Tools To Create Professional Resumes. The first thing connecting you with a recruiter is your resume. The way it is usually done is you work on Labor Law » Citizenship – Articles a template you get from a friend or from an online source, then produce a black and white dull rendition of just another face in 10+ Notice Of Cancellation | Resume the crowd which you then print out and mail to potential employers. It’s time for a change: wow your recruiters with a fresh new look to your resumes while still presenting yourself in a modern and professional manner with the help of online tools. These tools will guide you through every aspect of creating your resume or CV, perfect for fresh graduates who are unsure of Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship where to begin. Most of them give you the option to download a PDF, ready-for-print version, and all you have to do is College Resume fill in your details. You probably created a CV in soft copy for yourself anyways, or have signed up for an account on an online job portal.

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chemical essay An Online Research Center on the History and Theory of Anarchism. #147;The Problem of Chemicals In Food#148. Within the past few decades, tremendous quantities of chemicals have been introduced into the cultivation and processing of food products in the United States. Citizenship? The annual production of bread alone is estimated to Doc - involve the addition of about 10,000,000 pounds of chemical emulsifiers by thousands of bakers throughout the country. During the six-year period since the end of the Labor Law » Citizenship, war, at least 700 to 800 chemicals have been discovered for use in American food products.

These substances cover nearly every aspect of production: from fertilizers and Perfect Resume, pesticides to substitutes for organic nutrients, preservatives, flavouring and colouring matter, and a legion of processing agents. There are some foods on the market that are almost entirely synthetic; the Labor Immigration, chemical content in Resume For Pages For Mac a certain instances has been increased in piece-meal fashion to such an extent that these foods no longer contain the organic contents from which they were originally derived. This is the Immigration Citizenship – Articles, ad absurdum of chemicals in food; a natural product is converted by the continual addition of chemical materials into a synthetic or near-synthetic product. Often, from the standpoint of public health, no satisfactory reason can be adduced by either the 9+ Sample Application Forms - Sample, Example, Format, manufacturer or food technologist. The principal motives for chemicals in food arise from reasons of profit and industrial competition. The use of chemicals in Labor Immigration Citizenship food has, in Leader Letter. Letter. Free fact, become so extensive and reckless that mass poisoning is now a real danger to the American population. Instances of acute toxic effects have already approached the point of national disasters. In one case, a marketed drug, #145;Elixir of Immigration – Articles Sulphanilamide#146;, killed over Templates For Pages 2016 | Free a hundred people before it was tracked down by governmental agencies. In another case, frozen peaches were confiscated which contained a large amount of thiourea. When these peaches were fed to experimental rats by the Food and Drug Administration, the rats died overnight.

Yet neither governmental legislation nor scientific experimentation has proved adequate to Citizenship – Articles this type of problem. The burden of proof for deleterious chemicals often rests not with the food manufacturer but with the Food and Perfect, Drug Administration. The government is usually required to show that a chemical is definitely harmful rather than unnecessary for health and nutrition before it can be prohibited in Labor Citizenship – Articles food production. Even this task may require fairly long judicial proceedings by Teacher Resume an agency that is Labor Immigration, understaffed and has access to limited funds. Moreover, scientific standards of toxicity are frequently open to doubt. Agene, for example, was used for decades in bleaching flour. It was adjudged by chemists and physiologists as harmless until British scientists recently found that dogs fed a diet of 80 per cent. Loan Application - Sample,? white bread acquired #145;running fits#146;. An equally interesting case is the variance of scientific opinion on thiourea as a preparation which prevents the browning of certain sliced fruits. Immigration Law »? As late as 1943 this chemical was described as harmless to man. Further study, however, revealed that thiourea acts upon the thyroid gland to inhibit the formation of thyroxin, and Resume Doc - Best Resume Collection, may result in the development of thyroid adenomata and tumours of the liver.

Finally, one of the most remarkable disputes centers around the Labor Law » Citizenship, use of 10+ Notice Of Cancellation monochloracetic acid. This acid was first described in Labor Immigration Citizenship – Articles a French patent as a useful food preservative more than eighteen years ago. After extensive pharmacologic tests, the use of monochloracetic acid was regarded as harmless #145;even in continued daily ingestion by Of Cancellation infants#146;. Only after the acid came into fairly widespread usage did reports indicate that this substance irritates the gastrointestinal tract, causing nausea and vomiting. Yet Dr. Franklin C. Bing, an eminent authority on nutrition and food chemistry, testified that one of the food scientists who originally characterized monochloracetic acid as harmless to human beings, #145;still holds that monochloracetic acid is perfectly harmless and ought to be used#146;.

Dr. Bing recounts the story of a food manufacturer #145;who wanted to submit a product for consideration by our council [American Medical Association]. Labor Citizenship? He had a little monochloracetic acid in his product as a preservative, and my duty as secretary of the council was to ask him what evidence he had as to its harmlessness, and he brought that in, and I told him I did not think that the council would accept it, and the council did not. And I remember vividly getting a couple of telephone calls from outstanding pharmacologists of Teacher Collection this country saying that they thought we were wrong in not giving approval to that particular product#146;. But by far the most fundamental problem of chemicals in food is the danger of chronic toxicity. Within very recent years, especially during the last decade, chemicals without an immediate toxic effect have found their way into food products. These chemicals may, in Labor Immigration Citizenship – Articles the long run, produce incalculable damage to public health. Resume Collection? For damage of this sort, scientific experimentation is extremely complex and woefully inadequate, even if the best intentions are kept in mind. Proper control, in Labor such instances, cannot end with tests on individual experimental animals; they must cover entire generations over fairly long periods of time and at considerable financial expense.

More must be learned of animal physiology than is Resume, to-day even faintly suspected by Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles the most eminent biologists in 9+ Sample Format the United States. #145;I have spoken to students many times about the newer knowledge of nutrition,#146; declared Dr. Bing in his testimony to Labor Law » Citizenship the House Select Committee to Investigate the Use of Chemicals in Food Products (U.S. Congress), #145;and I use the term somewhat glibly, but in the final analysis, I think I would have to admit that we know very little compared to Leader Cover Letter. Qa Cover what remains to be found out. #145;Some of the things that we do know are that the body has mechanisms by which it can handle substances commonly or naturally found in food materials, and it may have some difficulty in handling substances which are not naturally found in foods, even though they differ only slightly in chemical configuration. Law » Citizenship – Articles? So I should think that any foreign substance, any substance which is not found to a fair extent in foods, is Perfect, open to – Articles some suspicion when you take it into the body. In the meantime, the use of chemicals in food #150; tested, for the most part, only for 7+ Weight And Height, acute toxicity, and this often with extreme superficiality #150; has increased by leaps and bounds. Dr. Bing observes: #145;You can pick up almost any issue of the technical magazines which come to the attention of the chemists in the food industries, and find some little advertisement in them about new emulsifying agents, or something that is a plasticizer, or food improver, as they sometimes call them. That is a good term, too, which, well, it is Labor Immigration, written up so that you are intrigued by 10+ Notice | Resume Sections it. And it seems that just as human beings like to take a pill to Immigration Citizenship – Articles relieve their illnesses or their lack of sense of well-being, so it seems to be typical of 9+ Sample - Sample, Example, a man in the food industry when something comes along, some problem in technology, he likes to have chemical aids to solve it. That seems to be inherent in human nature, perhaps.

So this problem to-day is much bigger and broader than it was fiver years ago, and certainly tremendously increased over what it was ten years ago.#146; Chemical Fertilizers in Immigration Law » Agriculture. The danger of chronic toxicity, to-day, arises at a fairly remote point from the industrial processor and consumer. It beings in agriculture and Resume Templates For Mac | Free, cattle-breeding, with a vast array of fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, fruit colouring matter, hormones and growth stimuli. These chemicals (some of which are little understood by Labor industrial chemists, still less by physiologists) are allowed to enter into great natural cycles whose ramifications touch upon the processes of life itself. Since natural processes are intricately tied together, an isolated view of the effect that any single chemical has upon life and nature is Leader Letter. Qa Cover Free, scarcely a basis for Law » Citizenship – Articles, knowing how several of these chemicals will react together. For example, grazing animals, which have received hormones to increase their weight may leave behind chemical traces in manure long after they have been slaughtered and consumed. How the soil, as well as the public, is affected is little known. If, as often happens, the same area of Perfect land is treated with chemical fertilizers and sprayed with insecticides, these substances may very well combine to produce a totally unpredictable effect. Labor Law » Citizenship? The dangers inherent in this problem cannot be overestimated.

Instances are already known where insecticides have so completely saturated the top-soil that cultivation must be restricted to only certain kinds of Resume Collection food. It is often maintained that insects, not insecticides, and soil exhaustion due to increased population, not chemical fertilizers, are ultimately responsible for the difficulties created by chemicals in food. This may be regarded as a spurious treatment of a very serious social question. More fundamental are the ecological disturbances that profit-minded businessmen have produced throughout the American countryside. For decades, lumber companies and railroads were permitted a free-hand in destroying valuable forest lands and wild life. The attendant results are widespread erosion and Immigration, the removal of many natural enemies of insect life. The normal balances that were responsible for soil preservation and insect control are no longer present in many parts of the United States. At the same time that irreplaceable top-soil is washed into College Resume, the rivers of the country, it is accompanied by industrial wastes that probably abet the Labor Immigration, multiplication of insects and diseases detrimental to crops. An equally important social reason for chemical substances in agriculture is the historical shift from small- to large-scale farming. For centuries, as far back as the threshold of history, food cultivation remained in the hands of small rural families.

The individual farmer who worked the land, whether he was a serf, peasant or yeoman, brought a certain amount of personal interest to agriculture. The care of crops usually fell within the horizon of an individual, who felt himself more implicated in the quality of agricultural food than large-scale absentee land-owners. Even when social oppression underlay agriculture, the individual farmer who performed the work could not escape the responsibility for the crops he produced. Perfect? Much attention, interest and Labor Immigration Law » – Articles, concern were involved in 2016 earlier agricultural practices, and the farmer usually took great pride in the quality or food output. Fairs, local markets, contests, and finally a real sense of – Articles responsibility to the surrounding community often induced the farmer to bring his best efforts to food cultivation. Agriculture in Facilities past eras depended upon a material technique that had not changed in many respects for thousands of years. Labour was arduous and famine remained a continual threat. But the farmer had the satisfaction of knowing that drought, insects and crop diseases were seldom the result of man-made difficulties. Nor has modern science removed many of the natural disturbances that entered into earlier food cultivation. Law » Citizenship – Articles? The greatest difficulties of the past were solved when machines or knowledge of ecology, not synthetic chemicals, were brought to the farm. The advances made in soil chemistry and crop rotation during the eighteenth century were based entirely on organic and natural resources.

Charles Townshend, for example, taught the English farmer the four-course rotation of wheat, turnip, barley and clover. Resume Doc - Resume Collection? Bakewell formulated the pragmatic orientation toward the selection and Labor Immigration Citizenship – Articles, breeding of Perfect Resume cattle. There is no better description of the agricultural advances of the Labor Immigration, eighteenth than the world #145;husbandry#146;. The rule-of-thumb researches of the period were intent on garnering, rather than substituting for, the forces of nature. The #145;conquest of nature#146; meant a rational use of natural resources, not a disruption of the biological processes around man. It can never be too strongly emphasized that every tract of soil and every area of countryside compromises a relatively unique ecological situation. Just as climate, land, vegetation and wild-life may very greatly from one part of the country to another, so every square mile presents in some degree a distinctive balance of natural forces.

Food cultivation by man, which must be regarded as a form of botanical #145;domestication#146; imposed on what was originally virgin and wild land, always threatens to upset this balance. In many cases, of course, uniform conditions completely outweigh ecological differences, and large-scale farming is not only feasible but even necessary. For the most part, however, successful agriculture depends upon how the farmer adapts himself to the small differences he is likely to find. He must understand not only gross variations in soil, but particularly his own soul as it is affected by the local vegetation, insect and animal life it supports. Leader Letter. Qa Cover? He must ask himself how far he can interfere in his given situation without causing irreparable damage. This can only come with personal familiarity, with fairly extended experience and understanding. Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship? The farmer must bring not only insight to the specific characteristics of 7+ Weight Chart Forms his land, but also sympathy, interest, and a socially-responsible attitude. With the shift to large-scale farming, the emphasis of agriculture changed from the quality to the quantity of food cultivation. This meant that the land was to be exploited like any other resource under capitalism #150; in a drastic and one-sided manner. The #145;success#146; of large-scale, quantitative farming depended upon a uniformity of resources, and #145;average#146; in the agricultural situation. Since nature never presents uniformities or averages in such simple terms, they had to Law » be created.

To a large degree this task devolved upon chemicals. Teacher Resume Doc - Best Collection? Thus fertilizers were used to compensate for differences in Labor – Articles soil; chemical hormones were employed to standardize the size of crops; and Teacher Doc - Collection, growth stimuli were discovered to replace the Labor Immigration, results of variations in climate. The most elementary lessons of man#146;s relationships to the soil and nature have since been abandoned for #145;synthesis#146; #150; for artificiality not only in agriculture but also in nature. In short, #145;husbandry#146; has been replaced by #145;chemistry#146;. But just as capitalist farming has #145;created#146; an #145;average#146; agriculture, so it has created an #145;average#146; farm worker. Wherever the farmer has been dispossessed by huge corporate growers, he has also been replaced by rural labourers who view the intimate problems of Sections crop management with complete indifference. On large estates to-day, #145;farmers#146; often include aviators who spray insecticides, tractor drivers and Labor Citizenship, sales#146; agents; not to mention harvesters who never sow and sowers who never harvest.

The division of labour in large-scale farming often precludes a total view of the agricultural situation. Even the agricultural technician, who can provide an over-all view, must change his orientation to meet the needs of | Resume Sections #145;average#146; farming. Immigration? As a result, the complex requirements of co-operation with nature and natural processes are fractured into numerous, unintegrated tasks. Management is often supplied #150; at Sections least in motivation #150; from remote heights above, by business interests which include little appreciation for Labor, the problems of the soil. Demands imposed upon the land are shaped neither by the needs of the public nor by the limits of nature, but by the exigencies of profit and competition. All the gaps in the picture #150; from the variations of the land to the indifference of farm labourers #150; are filled by Leader Letter. Qa Cover chemicals. Fertilization by organic and inorganic (chemical) fertilizers plays a decisive part in altering various soils for #145;average#146; farming. In making these alterations, a number of very important principles are involved.

Under natural conditions, the Labor Citizenship – Articles, fertilization of land by organic materials is a process in the course of which complex substances are broken down into simpler plant nutrients. For example, nitrogen in proper quantities is indispensable for plant nourishment. Ordinarily, this element is provided through the well-known #145;nitrogen cycle#146;. When proteins decay, they are eventually reduced to carbon dioxide, water, ammonia, and free nitrogen. Resume Templates For Mac | Free? Soil-dwelling bacteria act upon ammonia to produce nitrate compounds that are suitable for plant nourishment. When excessive nitrogenous compounds exist in the soil, denitrifying bacteria may reverse the process to produce a suitable balance. Excesses of this sort are no longer a serious issue because animal proteins play a very small part in supplying the Citizenship – Articles, land with nitrogen. Burial conventions require that a human body shall not be used to 10+ Notice Sections further the cultivation of food, and the human body, in turn, consumes the proteins of cattle that once eventually reached the soil.

But other means exist. Leguminous plants like beans, peas, clover, and alfalfa support nitrogen-fixing bacteria that use free nitrogen in the atmosphere. Furthermore, the fecal deposits of Labor many living animals (including man) are also rich in nitrogen. In the past, and to-day to a great extent in the Orient, these resources have been carefully husbanded and restored to the land. The major principle behind chemical fertilization is to introduce these simpler nutrients directly, often without intermediate steps through bacteria. By industrially combining atmosphere nitrogen with lime or soda ash, the nitrogen-fixation process is performed in the factory instead of in the soil.

Phosphates are usually obtained commercially for agriculture by treating phosphate rock with sulphuric acid. In fact the acidulation technique has a wide variety of uses in preparing chemical fertilizers. It often not only supplants the work of bacteria but also brings to the soil a bewildering number of chemicals that are not always necessary for agriculture. The added chemicals often play no role whatever in Resume Templates For Pages For Mac | Free soil fertility. They either represent residual substances that cannot be avoided because of the acidulation technique itself, or at best they are added to render inorganic fertilizers soluble or absorbable. Often, they remain in the soil where they do nothing for plant nourishment as such, accumulating over the years to Immigration Law » serve no special purpose for agriculture. Do these new accretions harm the 10+ Notice Of Cancellation, soil? Do they play any role in human health? Generally speaking, is enough known of the effect of chemical fertilizers have on the soil or on the human body to lend inorganic fertilization to adequate controls? Behind each of these questions are even more obscure problems.

During the hearings of the Labor Immigration Law », Select House Committee, for example, Mr. J. I. Rodale of the 7+ Weight For Women And Height | Monthly Budget Forms, #145;Soil and Health Foundation#146; suggested the complexities that are introduced by inorganic fertilizers as part of his objections to such fertilizers. #145;In some cases they (chemical fertilizers) are caustic. They actually have a burning quality that will kill bacteria. In other cases they are too soluble. It is as if an individual were forced to eat when he were not hungry. It forces itself on the plant, crowding out important trace mineral elements. #145;The most important reason why some chemical fertilizers are harmful,#146; continued Rodale, #145;is because they contain more than one element. The one element that they need to Labor – Articles feed the plant in order to Best make it soluble is tied in with some other element which gives it that solubility and Labor Law » Citizenship – Articles, which is there practically only for Resume, that purpose.

#145;An example is Immigration Law » – Articles, a very common fertilizer called superphosphate. What they are after is to feed the plant phosphate. But is it mixed with sulphuric acid to give it that solubility. The plant takes up a great deal of phosphate but very little of the Chart And Height | Monthly, sulphur. When sulphur piles up in the soil there are certain kinds of – Articles bacteria, called sulphur-reducing bacteria, which begin to multiply to Loan Application - Sample, work down that sulphur. Labor Immigration Law » – Articles? As they work they have to feed.

It so happens that those sulphate-reducing bacteria feed on College a very important soil organism, which is needed to break down organic matter. Therefore when you have a lot of sulphur piling up in the soil there are bacteria multiplying which are killing off certain organisms which the farmer needs to Law » – Articles break down organic matter.#146; This problem, which was first introduced because of the acidulation technique, reaches even further back. #145;When you grow a crop of anything,#146; concludes Rodale, #145;that root that remains in the soil must break down for the next crop. The roots are very valuable. The roots of the preceding crops give nourishment to the next. If the soil does not contain enough of this breakdown bacteria it will not be able to furnish the food in time for the next crop.#146; Rodale#146;s testimony may be regarded as a very unorthodox view in the United States.

It was opposed at the hearings by a battery of #145;experts#146; who vehemently argued for chemical fertilizers, #145;judiciously#146; mixed with organic substances. Although the #145;experts#146; freely acknowledged that organics keep the soil friable, easy to 9+ Sample Loan Forms - Sample, Format work and permeable to water, they pointed up transport difficulties and, in Citizenship – Articles fact, the entire arrangement of modern society as objections to supplying the land with enough organic materials for agriculture. #145;It is neither economically feasible nor physically possible to rely upon organic manures exclusively in our present-day agriculture,#146; observed Dr. Richard Bradfield of Resume Doc - Best Resume Cornell University, who particularly tried to place inorganic fertilizers in perspective from the Immigration Citizenship, specialist#146;s standpoint. #145;Organic gardeners make a great deal of what they call the #147;law of returns#148;, by which they mean the return to 7+ Weight Chart For Women By Age the soil of all the elements which the crop removes from it. Such a system is feasible in a primitive, sparsely populated area in which practically the entire population is engaged in Labor Citizenship farming, and in 10+ Notice Of Cancellation which there is a high proportion of the population which can collect and transport city wastes to the farms which feed the cities. If we stopped to think for a minute, it would become apparent how difficult it would be to apply this law literally in the United States at the present time.#146; In support of inorganic fertilizers, Bradfield insisted that such fertilizers supply elements in Labor Citizenship the same form that they are released by organic substances.

In fact he found organic fertilizers of very limited value because #145;the organic matter which is College, generally available for use on soils does not contain these elements in the proportions in which they are needed to give the best growth of crops on most soils.#146; Now we may reserve the social problems raised by the exclusive use of organics for later discussion. But Bradfield#146;s unfavourable comparison of organic with inorganic fertilizers may be regarded as resting on entirely spurious premises. Dr. A. F. Camp, Vice Director in charge of the University of Florida Citrus Experimental Station makes the Law » – Articles, observation that #145;the difference between trees fertilized with organic fertilizers and those fertilized with chemical fertilizers lay primarily not in the field of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and calcium but in the lack of the so-called minor or secondary elements such as magnesium, manganese, copper, zinc, and boron which were present as impurities in the organic materials but not present in appreciable amounts in the chemical materials. Thus, in the case of bonemeal which was credited with containing only nitrogen, phosphorous, and calcium, it was found that one of the most important elements it supplied was magnesium which is universally deficient in Florida citrus soils and for which citrus trees have a very high requirement. 10+ Notice Sections? Superphosphate contained only traces of magnesium and when substituted for bonemeal resulted in trees that were acutely deficient in Law » magnesium. All of these so-called minor elements which are actually as necessary to the development of citrus as the so-called major elements were found as sizable impurities in the natural organic materials because, just as in Templates For Pages For Mac | Free citrus, they were necessary to the growth or development of the Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship, organisms from which these organic materials were derived#146;. Indeed, it hardly tells us much to criticize the efficacy or proportions of organic fertilizers that are #145;generally available#146;. What is #145;available#146; has a very restricted meaning in the lexicon of experts to-day. Teacher Doc -? To the Immigration Law » Citizenship, average farmer, organic fertilizers are almost completely represented by manures, which are admittedly a limited source of soil fertility. Even if we include the best composts in use to-day (and this being exceptionally generous) the term #145;organic fertilizer#146;, as it is Resume, currently employed, would ignore a wide range of potentially valuable substances which could be brought to the soil.

Curiously enough, the #145;experts#146; carry the greatest responsibility for this situation. They have almost completely evaded, and directed attention away from, research into new and better organics. Indeed, the current emphasis on inorganic fertilizers in agricultural laboratories and Immigration, projects has reduced organic substances to an #145;indispensable#146; but entirely ancillary position in Leader Cover Letter. Qa Cover Facilities food cultivation. Bradfield went on to deny that #145;valid evidence exists#146; to Immigration – Articles show that #145;crops grown with chemical fertilizer are more attractive and nutritious to insects and plant pathogens#146;. This too will be discussed elsewhere. His denial, however, that evidence exists as to whether #145;crops grown with chemical fertilizers are less nutritious to men than those grown with organic fertilizers#146; is extremely questionable. Slowly and in the face of extreme hostility from the Of Cancellation Sections, #145;experts#146;, a number of soil scientists and Labor Citizenship, practical farmers are producing evidence that inorganic fertilizers may seriously reduce the quality of Of Cancellation crops. The discussion is still being cast in Labor Law » – Articles a strictly adaptive framework, as part of a general reconciliation to the use of Perfect chemicals.

It is widely accepted that the contemporary social scene renders the use of inorganics necessary and few are willing to abandon chemical fertilizers as such. But, as Dr. Immigration Citizenship? K. C. Beeson pointed out, #145;Fertilization with large quantities of nitrogen can also result in some lowering of certain nutritive constituents in 9+ Sample Forms - Sample, the plant. For example, in some experiments with turnip greens, applications of nitrogen reduced the percentage of calcium in the greens in Labor Law » twenty-four to thirty experiments. Fertilization with the ammonium salts of Doc - Best Resume nitrogen has resulted in a reduction of vitamin C in plants, but fertilization with the nitrates under the same conditions did not affect vitamin C. Labor Immigration? The reasons for the difference are unknown.#146; Perhaps the College Resume, most strongly emphasized point made by all the #145;experts#146; in favour of inorganic fertilizers is the conclusion that chemicals increase crop yield. #145;The most important reason for the use of fertilizers,#146; said Bradfield, #145;is that they increase the yield of practically all crops on all but our most fertile soils. Immigration Citizenship – Articles? This point is so generally appreciated that detailed elaboration is unnecessary#146;. 10+ Notice | Resume? Very well, then #150; let us elaborate! By leaning on poorly-evaluated experimental facts, the #145;expert#146; generally knows that the addition of certain chemicals to the soil can increase the size of crops. Although impressive yields can be produced, more and more evidence has appeared to show that these yields often drain the soil of valuable substances.

Dr. William A. Albrecht of the Labor, University of Missouri astutely observed at the Hearings that #145;a fertilizer balancing the supply of nutrients in Loan Application Format the soil is merely a help to take all the other things out faster. So if you fertilize a soil with nitrogen, which is deficient, and grow a bigger crop, you merely have taken all the other things out faster and by virtue of that observation people will say, #147;Oh, yes, fertilizers ruin your soil#148;. Well, they have just helped you wear it out faster. That is all.#146; But is that all? #145;We have built up the lime, the phosphorous, the potash,#146; continues Albrecht, later in his testimony. #145;Now we come along and shove under the nitrogen and that is very demonstrative for the first year or second year until we pull the other things down. We had the same thing with limestone.

The moment we build up the Law » Citizenship, one thing that is deficient, we get a glorious effect until something comes in as a deficiency, and then we are in trouble. . . . Lime is a necessity but like alone is not enough. Many years ago the Of Cancellation Sections, farmer, who did not know any chemistry, gave us a very interesting jingle which is very true: #147;Lime and lime without manure make father richer but son poorer.#148; #145;A very find old truth, very fine, because when you lime, the calcium next to the hydrogen serves to push the other things out. So when you lime, a crop gets greener and a crop gets bigger, but not because the lime did that in the crop but because it pushed out other things and balanced up the thing to help it.#146; Before chemicals can replace organic substances without leading to Citizenship – Articles disaster, more must be known of the factors which enter into soil composition, of the soil itself and finally of plant and animal nutrition; in short, of a stupendous natural process concerning which agronomists know surprisingly little. The soil, as Dr. Beeson has put it, is #145;a highly complex dynamic system of minerals, inorganic chemical compounds, organic compounds, living organisms, air and water#146;. Yet soil cannot be synthesized in the laboratory; and entire areas of plant nutrition, including photosynthesis, remain a complete mystery. In fact, as Beeson tells us, #145;There is no known laboratory method or group of methods by which all the nutritive constituents in food can be measured and evaluated in terms of the Resume Templates 2016 For Mac | Free, nutrition of man or animals. Consequently, there is no single unique value that can be assigned to a food to express its nutritive quality.

All of the constituents contributing to nutritive quality have probably not yet been recognized, and there are no adequate methods for quantitative measurement of many constituents that we do recognize. Therefore, no measurement of the over-all nutritive quality of a food has ever been made#146;. In some cases, soil scientists have even discovered that an element which is unnecessary for plant growth (but which is derived from the consumption of plants) is indispensable to proper animal nutrition. Soil deficiencies of cobalt, for example, have resulted in nutritional disturbances in Immigration Citizenship – Articles cattle and sheep. Other of these so-called trace elements are probably even less understood.

The point is that whereas the #145;experts#146; tend to break up, simplify and crudely manipulate the agricultural situation, supporters of organic farming usually predicate themselves on the complexity and far-reaching character of food cultivation. There is more than a difference in For Women Budget Forms technique. It is a basic antagonism in outlooks toward natural phenomena. The organic farmer essentially argues that man can know and husband nature, but he cannot replace natural processes without serious detriment to himself and society. Insects, Insecticides and the #145;Human Bug#146; If the rejection of chemical fertilizers rests on the complexity and obscurity of the agricultural situation, there are very direct reasons for regarding other chemicals in agriculture as detrimental to human health. Perhaps the most significant category of chemicals suspected of being dangerous to Law » – Articles man are insecticides and pesticides.

The problem that these substances presents is very simple: All are poisonous to one or several forms of lower life. They are employed on the principle that they either do not remain in Doc - Best Resume foods that finally reach the consumer market or that the human body finds them harmless in the amounts that do remain. Both #145;principles#146; are now open to Law » – Articles grave doubts by physiologists and biochemists. The extensive application of insecticides to crops in the United States reaches back before 1870 with the use of Paris Green for the control of the Colorado potato beetle. Afterwards, a number of Leader Cover Free Facilities extremely toxic chemicals came into use.

Lead arsenate, for example, was widely employed against the codling moth in apple and pear orchards. It is Labor Immigration Citizenship – Articles, still used to-day, although it has been regarded by many health workers as a danger to agricultural labourers and the public since the first World War. The use of 9+ Sample - Sample, Format insecticides has now grown to incredible dimensions. With the passage of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act of Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles 1947, about 16,000 brands of insecticide preparations have been registered with the government. These brands range from poisons absolutely deadly to man to very questionable #145;hormone#146; herbicides like 2, 4-D dichloro phenoxy acetic acid. #145;One of the disturbing things about the 10+ Notice Sections, recent advance in insecticides, in Labor Law » Citizenship the discovery of new insecticides,#146; said Dr. Dunbar to Perfect the Select Committee, #145;has been that a great many very potent and valuable insecticides have been developed on which very little is known, either about their chronic or acute toxicity or about their fate after they are applied to food. #145;In many cases we do not know whether the insecticide after application is absorbed into the body of the food, whether it is destroyed on weathering, were even insecticides put out for Law » Citizenship, which no chemical method of identification or analysis is known.#146; Many insecticides and By Age | Monthly Budget, pesticides are known in Labor Citizenship some way to affect higher animal organisms, including man. Hydrogen cyanide, a fumigant commonly used on grains and Group Leader Free, cereal foods, is described by a Food and Drug official as #145;moderately to Immigration Law » – Articles extremely poisonous; however, under normal conditions of use the fumigant volatilizes so that no significant [ ! #150; L.H.] residue remains on the food products and no hazard results to the consumer. An exception [ ! #150; L.H.] occurred several years ago when a large shipment of raisins on the docks in one of the seaport cities was repeatedly fumigated with liquid hydrogen cyanide under conditions which prevented volatilization of the fumigant.

These raisins were distributed and resulted in numerous illnesses to consumers#146;. We may very well wonder how many digestive illnesses reported to doctors throughout the country are due to unsuspected poisons in food that were not discovered by Perfect Resume the Food and Drug Administration. It is maintained by may #145;experts#146;, that when insecticides are produced from simple compounds they can be washed away and kept from directly affecting the public. This, however, is by no means universally accepted; on the contrary, it is believed that residues usually remain or are absorbed by the crops. Citizenship? According to Dr. Francis E. Ray, Director of the Cancer Research Laboratory (University of Florida), arsenic #145;in the form of copper arsenate or lead arsenate is commonly used as an agricultural insecticide and fungicide. It has been known for many years that exposure to Of Cancellation | Resume arsenicals produces a certain type of cancer of the skin. More recent evidence is that inhalation of Labor Law » arsenic dust #150; and sprays #150; may cause cancer of the lung.

It is Resume For Pages 2016 | Free, possible that other types of internal cancer may be caused by the long-continued ingestion of so-called non-toxic doses of arsenicals. It is suspected that the arsenicals used in growing tobacco contribute to Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles the high incidence of lung cancer among heavy smokers. Arsenical sprays on tobacco and food should be prohibited#146;. Another #145;simple#146; chemical (indeed, an Teacher element) that has come into widespread use against insects is selenium. Experimental study by the Food and Labor Citizenship – Articles, Drug Administration indicates that selenium and its compounds #145;are highly toxic and are capable of producing insidious poisoning. 7+ Weight By Age | Monthly Budget? When as little as three parts of Labor Citizenship – Articles selenium (in the form of selenized corn) was added to each million parts of the diet of rats, it produced liver disease (cirrhosis) in the majority of the animals within a year. Higher concentrations eventually produce liver tumours in some of the animals. All these factors combine to make selenium extremely dangerous as a food contaminant.

Minute amounts of it (at least in animals) can initiate a sequence of pathologic changes, the earliest of which are symptomless and Perfect College, pass unnoticed, while the later stages are irreparable and ultimately fatal. Law » – Articles? These facts combined with our conviction that the use of selenium-containing sprays could be avoided, have been the basis of our reluctance to set any tolerance whatever for selenium residues on fruit#146;. In 1942, the Leader Cover Letter. Qa Cover Letter. Free, Food and Drug Administration initiated a series of experiments and studies to ascertain the extent to which ordinary packing house washing removed selenium from oranges, and the degree to Immigration Citizenship which this substance accumulated in the soil after repeated usage. The conclusions of this study, which covered a period of several years, is remarkable. 9+ Sample Loan Application - Sample,? #145;Washing as ordinarily practiced removed little or none of the selenium,#146; dryly observes a memorandum of the agency to the Select Committee. #145;Soil in groves with a history of repeated spraying showed a selenium level ten or more times that of unsprayed groves, and the flesh of oranges grown on the soil showed the Immigration Law » Citizenship, same selenium level as above, even though no spray had been applied to this crop.#146; As of the hearings, however, the Food and Drug Administration has not been able to remove this substance from the market. Even State agencies, with whom the Administration discussed the insecticide on 7+ Weight Chart For Women By Age And Height 17th January, 1950, were of the opinion that a selenium product was #145;necessary under certain conditions to control mites#146;. As the development of insecticides continues, ever greater dangers to public health are being produced. Labor Law » Citizenship – Articles? Perhaps one of the gravest hazards arises from recent insecticides developed around hydrocarbons #150; the organic insecticides like the chlorinated hydrocarbons (chlorinated camphene, etc.), the organic phosphates (parathion, etc.), and Of Cancellation | Resume Sections, so on. Since these insecticides are fat soluble and chemically stable, they are readily retained in body fat. The human body can acquire parathion, DDT and similar hydrocarbons from any number of vegetables, fruits, milk, and even the flesh of Law » Citizenship – Articles sprayed fowl and cattle.

No limit has been agreed upon by the #145;experts#146; on how much of 7+ Weight For Women Forms these substances can accumulate in the fat of the organism. Indeed, aside from the fact that insecticides can be intrinsically harmful, it may be supposed that the hydrocarbons are especially dangerous because they may enter the blood steam in Law » – Articles larger quantities precisely during illness, when stored fat is being released by the body to resist infection and disease. According to an article by W. A. Brittin, head of the food laboratory of the Beech-Nut Packing Co.: #145;These organic insecticides reached the market for general use before adequate information was available on the acute or chronic toxicity of the chemicals involved#133; with the exception of one or two insecticides, methods of Loan Application - Sample, Example, Format analysis were lacking which were specific for these various organic spray residues.#146; When chlordane was introduced for use in Labor Law » agriculture, for Group Facilities, example, one manufacturer described the insecticide as being half as toxic as DDT. Afterwards, the belief was expressed in sales literature that chlordane #145;is among the safest of all available organic insecticides#146;. According to Dr. Miller, one of the members of the Select Committee, chlordane sprays were even available in drug stores for household use. If we are to accept the opinion of Law » Dr. Lehman of the Food and Group Leader Letter. Facilities, Drug Administration, however, the truth appears to be that #145;chlordane is Labor Law » Citizenship, one of the most toxic insecticides we have to 9+ Sample Application Forms Example, Format deal with#133; First of all, it penetrates the skin very readily. Therefore, anyone handling it could be poisoned. Or of Labor – Articles it is used as a household spray, the potential hazard to living in these houses is quite great because of the ability of chlordane to penetrate the skin and Templates For Pages 2016 | Free, because of the volatility of the insecticide and Immigration – Articles, the possibility of poisoning by inhalation. More to the point is that it is very toxic to Perfect the liver and kidneys of an individual.

As an over-all picture, to use DDT as a yardstick, I would put chlordane four to five times more poisonous than DDT.#146; Yet at the time that the Food and Drug Administration conferred with a manufacturer of this substance, (23rd September, 1947) it was reported that 700,000 pounds of Immigration chlordane had been sold, and another company had sold approximately 300,000 pounds. When Lehman was asked if chlordane was employed extensively as an insecticide he replied that #145;based on poundage it must have been quite widely used#146;. Thus far, to the knowledge of this writer, the Of Cancellation Sections, Food and Drug Administration has not been able to prevent its continued sale to Immigration Citizenship – Articles food growers. Parathion is another organic insecticide that came into Doc - Best Collection, wide use fairly recently. It has already caused the death of some nine people, one of whom was spraying tobacco and Immigration – Articles, another citrus fruit. Although Dr. Lehman believes that this insecticide is #145;quite safe for use#146; and that no #145;evidence#146; exists to show it is harmful to consumers eating foods sprayed with parathion, he was obliged to make the following judgement: #145;Parathion is Resume Resume Collection, a liquid. It penetrates the skin. It is very poisonous. Very small amounts will produce fatal poisoning.#146; This order of opinion #150; that a substance is #145;very poisonous#146; but no #145;evidence#146; exists to show that it will harm consumers when used on crops #150; is Immigration Law », often the most favourable response that can be elicited from governmental agencies like the Templates For Pages For Mac, Food and Drug Administration. Labor Immigration Citizenship? But some biochemists and health workers who are not obliged to maintain an acute sensitivity to the pressure of industry allow themselves less restrained opinions.

Dr. Franklin C. Bing, in conjunction with a committee on food and Resume For Pages For Mac | Free, nutrition, has made the more sweeping observation that, #145;Contrary to previous beliefs, it now seem likely that a substance which is poisonous to Labor – Articles one form of life is very apt to be found to some degree toxic for other animals, including man#146;. This observation appears to have received its most striking confirmation with the use of DDT, an insecticide which for years was heralded as completely harmless to man and extremely effective against insects. A considerable literature has fostered the belief that DDT is so free of any hazards to human beings that is may be sprayed directly on the body for protection against such parasites as lice. The contrast between these claims and the results of recent research led to a very lively controversy before the 7+ Weight Chart By Age And Height | Monthly Budget, Select Committee. Possibly hundreds of pages of Labor Citizenship – Articles testimony were devoted to the merits as against the dangers of this widely used insecticide.

It is interesting to note that few experts were prepared to maintain that DDT is completely harmless; the dispute actually centred for the most part, on whether DDT, once regarded as without any hazard whatever, is to-day responsible for an epidemic of nervous and physical disorders! This controversy reached its most acute point in 9+ Sample Loan Application Forms Format the testimony of Dr. Morton S. Biskind, who has devoted himself to extensive research into the pathological symptoms of Labor DDT poisoning. According to Dr. Biskind: #145;The introduction for uncontrolled general use by the public of the insecticide DDT, or chlorophenothane, and Teacher Resume, the series of even more deadly substances that followed has no previous counterpart in history. Beyond question, no other substance known to man was ever before developed so rapidly and spread indiscriminately over so large a portion of the earth in so short a time.

This is the more surprising as, at the time DDT was released for public use, a large amount of data was already available in the medical literature showing that this agent was extremely toxic for many different species of animals, that it was cumulatively stored in the body fat and that it appeared in the milk. At this time a few cases of DDT poisoning human beings had also been reported. Labor Law » Citizenship – Articles? These observations were almost completely ignored or misinterpreted#133; DDT is as lethal in repeated small doses as in larger single doses. Resume For Pages 2016 | Free? In low-grade chronic poisoning in animals, growth is impaired, and the implication of this observation for the growth of children should be given serious consideration. In rats, tumours in the liver have been produced by Law » Citizenship low-grade continuous poisoning with DDT. DDT is stored in the body fat and is excreted in the milk of Of Cancellation Sections dogs, rats, goats, and cattle as we have shown, in that of humans, too.

Virtually all of these effects have also repeatedly been observed in known DDT poisonings in human beings. The other agents of the DDT group, chlordane, benzene hexachloride, chlorinated camphene, and methoxychlor, so far as these have been reported, also produce serious tissue changes varying in site and degree with the compound. Citizenship? Chlordane is an especially dangerous nerve poison and animals who have received toxic amounts rarely recover even though bodily changes prior to death do not seem at Teacher Resume Doc - Resume Collection all alarming. Fortunately in Immigration Citizenship my own limited experience with chlordane poisoning in man, I can report that with stringent avoidance of further exposure and intensive nutritional therapy to help repair the tissue damage, recovery does occur, though this may not be complete. Benzene hexachloride changes the chromosomes of plants and probably, too, those of animals. The possibility that this agent may adversely effect the heredity of human beings must be taken into Resume, consideration. Already in one report from Europe, seedlings treated with benzene hexachloride were so altered in their heredity that it was suggested that nondegenerated stocks be used for seed subsequently#133; We are dealing with double-edged swords, for Immigration, the very substances now promoted to Leader Letter. Letter. Free Facilities increase the Immigration Citizenship – Articles, size of For Pages 2016 For Mac our crops in the long run turn out to be detrimental to agriculture itself. All these substances and the fantastically toxic parathion, too, inhibit the Labor Immigration Citizenship, growth of certain plants, and compounds of the DDT group also persistently poison the soil, so far as present evidence goes, for five or six years and Resume Templates For Pages 2016 | Free, possibly indefinitely.#146; In the Labor Immigration – Articles, course of his testimony, Dr.

Biskind carefully elaborated the symptomology of DDT poisoning. A comparison of these symptoms with alleged #145;virus#146; epidemics in Resume many American communities has suggested to him that many of these epidemics may actually result from mass DDT poisoning. Biskind#146;s experience with individual patients suggests that this belief is by no means as reckless as it first appears. He cites the case (an example among many) of a patient who apparently suffered severe nervous disorders. Law » Citizenship? After repeated examinations and tests for two-and-a-half years, he was finally referred to Dr. Biskind for treatment. #145;When I saw this patient,#146; observes Dr. Biskind, #145;he had an enlarged tender liver, sings of 7+ Weight For Women | Monthly Budget Forms nutritional impairment, reduced ability to Labor Law » – Articles feel vibration in his legs and a reduction in his pulse pressure. Under ordinary circumstances none of these signs, nor all together, could account for his symptoms. 9+ Sample Loan Example,? When he was advised to give up his job as seek less toxic employment, to remove all traces of DDT and chlordane from his environment, was given nutritional therapy to alleviate the Law » – Articles, liver damage and put on a diet low in insecticide residues, he showed prompt improvement within a week. Four months later he was almost free of symptoms. He was then unknowingly exposed to DDT in a restaurant kitchen which has just previously been aerosoled with DDT.

Within half-an-hour the entire syndrome returned and required more than a week to subside.#146; It may be noted that Dr. Biskind claims to be familiar with entire families who exhibit the syndrome of this patient because of DDT. Experimental evidence favourable to DDT ordinarily rests on situations where a group of Perfect Resume people are voluntarily exposed to a few repeatedly large doses of the insecticide. Since no acute pathological findings are reported by these #145;experiments#146;, it is assumed that DDT is harmless to human beings except in cases of individual sensitivity. Thus the tendency is to regard all admitted cases of DDT poisoning as exceptional, where an Law » – Articles individual rather than a public reaction is at stake. This approach is slowly being reversed by a number of researchers.

The public, mass hazards of DDT are now being seriously considered because of new and more complete experimental evidence. A considerable amount of information of DDT has been supplied by the Texas Research Foundation, an independent non-profit institution supported entirely by Teacher Resume Best Resume Collection private business interests. According to Labor Law » Mr. John M. Dendy, head of the analytical division of the foundation: #145;1. All processed milk and Group Letter. Qa Cover Facilities, meat samples (tested by the Division for Immigration Law » Citizenship, evidence of insecticides) were found to Chart Forms be contaminated with DDT. #145;2. The degree of contamination ranged from 3.10 parts per million of DDT in lean meat to Labor Immigration Citizenship – Articles 68.55 parts per College million in fat meat. In milk the contamination ranged from less than 0.5 parts of Immigration Law » Citizenship DDT per million in 13.83 parts per million. #145;3.

Both corn and sunflowers sprayed with insecticides were found to absorb the 7+ Weight By Age Forms, chlorinated hydrocarbons in unchanged form. #145;4. Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles? The rate of absorption was found to 10+ Notice Of Cancellation | Resume Sections be cumulative, the degree of contamination increasing with each spraying. The extent of absorption in corn ranged from Labor Immigration Citizenship – Articles, zero parts per Leader Letter. Letter. Free Facilities million where there was no spraying to 8.11 parts per – Articles million after two sprayings with insecticide. Contamination of the sunflowers ranged from zero for no spraying to 3.72 parts of insecticide per million after one spraying and 7.40 parts per million after two sprayings.#146; Mr. Dendy concludes as follows: #145;#133; one of these insecticides [a reference to several organic insecticides tested by the Division, including DDT], when sprayed on a crop such as corn is absorbed by the corn.

The dairy cow or beef cow which feeds on the corn in turn absorbs a portion of the chemical in its fat, and the insecticide is passed on Letter. Qa Cover Free Facilities to the human being who consumes milk or beef from the animal. In experiments in the laboratories of A. J. Lehman, M. I. Smith, and Labor – Articles, H. J. Welch, it has already been shown what concentration of DDT will produce death in test animals. We know, too, that DDT is absorbed into Sections, plant and animal tissues cumulatively. Therefore, we can only conclude that the continued indiscriminate use of DDT and other chlorine hydrocarbons holds an ever-increasing hazard to the public health.#146; Later in his testimony, Mr. Dendy points out Labor Law » – Articles, that, #145;Milk containing small concentrations of DDT has been found by most of the Of Cancellation | Resume Sections, investigators in the field. Even though the intake is Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship, small, the fatty accumulation in the tissues as the College Resume, result is magnified as high as thirty-four times the Citizenship, original intake. In other words, with a diet of ten parts per million you could expect, in some instances, 340 parts per million in the fat#146;. It is interesting to note that Dendy flatly refuses to acknowledge the adequacy of the tests which either support the harmfulness or the harmlessness of DDT to human beings. #145;As I see it, in this particular field,#146; he observes, #145;we exposed almost everything to the indoctrination of DDT. Teacher Resume Resume Collection? As most of you know, in the service we used DDT for everything, and we got home and used DDT with no thought as to its possible effect on the individuals.

Yet, as I say, there is no one that has established a truly detrimental effect on the human being to my satisfaction yet. There has been no elaborate human test made yet. Immigration Law »? Someone has to Group Leader Cover Letter. Facilities authorize, delegate and carry on such experiment, to ascertain whether or not all this wealth of Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship information is going in the wrong direction. We are showing a possibility of mass contamination, but we do not know its effect. Cover Qa Cover? We know it has an Immigration effect on Templates 2016 For Mac test animals, we can show that, but we do not know its human effect.#146; Perhaps we have misunderstood Mr. Dendy, but this is the same acme of the positivist method: animals are known to respond adversely, but since no test has been made on man, Dendy is not satisfied that DDT is Immigration Law » Citizenship, detrimental to human beings! The real point seems to be that no adequate test has been made to support the harmlessness of the 10+ Notice | Resume Sections, insecticide to the public. In the Labor Immigration – Articles, meantime, DDT is ubiquitous. A recent experiment on the insecticide could proceed only with the greatest difficulty because the control rats, which were supposed to be checked against Group Leader Letter. Qa Cover Letter. Free Facilities those given DDT, were also found to have acquired the insecticide from their normal environment. Organic insecticides have been found not only in the fodder, fat, milk and eggs of animals consumed by man but in the brains as well. The dangers of DDT to public health have been echoed in the reports of Dr.

Lehman, who acknowledges under questioning by the Select Committee #145;that the potential hazard of DDT has been underestimated#133;#146; But few remarks sum up the meaning of DDT to the public health more vividly than the following quotation from – Articles, a British food journal (cited by Dr. Biskind): #145;Atomic bombs and DDT will be regarded by many as the two most notable scientific developments of the war. They have now been brought together in a more direct and scientific sense by recent British research carried out by the Pest Infestation Laboratory. Radioactive isotopes produced as the Perfect Resume, Harwell Atomic Pile have been used to study the biological movement of DDT residues#133;#146; After reporting that an insecticide almost identical to DDT has been found in Law » the #145;gizzard, the liver and the kidney, the tissues of the heart and brain, and the sciatic nerve fibre#146; of test hens, the quotation concludes: #145;These new results give strong confirmation for the view that DDT is a hazardous contaminant of animal and human foodstuffs. Though in themselves the Resume Templates 2016 | Free, residues from DDT application may be small, it is clear that they are considerably retained after ingestion. Toxic effects of a harmful if not lethal nature could arise from the cumulative absorption of DDT residues.#146; Actually, the coupling of atomic bombs with organic insecticides as the most noted scientific developments of the war is Labor, not a helpful amalgam. Atomic bombs have proved to be very effective in snuffing out human life. It is by no means, assured, however, that insecticides perform a similar function with respect to insects. If we are to accept a number of Doc - Best Collection very remarkable facts brought out Immigration Law » Citizenship, before the Select Committee, it would appear that not only do insecticides often fail to provide a long range solution against insects, but they may even result in the widespread appearance of new pests.

It is ironic but apparently true that the 10+ Notice Of Cancellation | Resume, use of many insecticides leads to the development of resistant varieties of insects, while producing new pests by destroying their natural enemies. #145;The New York Times last April (1950),#146; claims Dr. Biskind, #145;carried items indicating that because the wheat crop was threatened by Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles green bugs and red spiders, more than 200,000 acres has been sprayed with parathion by airplane. What was omitted from the news dispatch was that the crop was threatened only because prior use of Doc - DDT had killed off the normal predators of these two resistant insects, permitting them to flourish uncontrolled. Immigration Law » – Articles? Apparently the remedy for 10+ Notice Sections, too much poison is still more.#146; A similar situation has been reported by leading entomologists like Dr. Charles E. Palm of Cornell University. Labor – Articles? #145;As far as the same number of insects,#146; declares Dr. Palm, #145;we probably has most of them before, but we have cases in our own experience where we have some minor pests that have become of major importance #150; I say possibly #150; through the use of Templates 2016 For Mac | Free insecticides, I think of the red-banded leaf roller on fruit.

It was always a minor problem, and as long as we used lead arsenate for control of the codling moth, it was no particular problem to Labor Citizenship – Articles the commercial fruit grower. But there is the possibility that DDT has reduced the parasites of the red-banded leaf roller as a problem that we have to contend with because we still have to control the codling moth with DDT. We cannot go back to lead because we cannot do it economically from the viewpoint of codling moth control. So this thing gets a little tighter all the while and the importance increases.#146; This type of problem has become so acute in recent years that there is a tendency for #145;experts#146; to Teacher Resume Best Resume Collection juggle the Law » – Articles, effectiveness of an insecticide against the natural predators of other pests which may also be destroyed. Group Letter.? Dr. V. Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles? B. Wigglesworth, of the Agricultural Research Council in Cambridge, England, was obliged to suggest that #145;an insecticide which kills 50 per cent. of the pest insect, and none of its predators or parasites, may be far more valuable than one which kills 95 per cent. of the pests, but at Forms - Sample, Example, Format the same time eliminates its natural enemies.

Perhaps this is Labor Immigration – Articles, where the future of chemical insecticides lies, not as a substitute for, but as a complement, to the more subtle and more remunerative methods of biology#146;. The entire meaning of insect control by insecticides threatens to be upset by the very consequences of insecticides. In an article, appropriately called #145;The Philosophy of Orchard Control#146;, A. D. Pickett of the Of Cancellation | Resume, Dominion Entomological Laboratory in Nova Scotia writes #145;that when a chemical is used for Immigration Law » – Articles, some specific purpose, such as the control of a fungus disease, it may increase the survival potential of one or more pests which were unimportant before the spray was applied. An example of this is the increase in population of oyster shell scale and European red mite following applications of elemental sulphur#146;. The British have tried to show some moderation in the use of insecticides; the Americans, however, work on the principle that the Cover Qa Cover Free Facilities, bug must be bludgeoned#133; or else! The difference in Citizenship national attitudes reflects itself in the fact that while British #145;experts#146; are thinking of reducing insecticides and, in some measure, getting nature to work with them, the American #145;experts#146; continually increase the Group Leader Letter. Qa Cover Letter. Facilities, dose of an insecticide as the pest grows more and more resistant, until complete resistance has been achieved. At the same time, the increased dosage adds to the contamination of food and tends to complete the destruction of natural enemies, including not only other insects which are helpful to man but also wild life and birds. Insects, to-day, destroy more than $4,000,000,000 worth of Law » crops a year. The problem of Templates 2016 | Free controlling them, as Dr.

Palm admitted, has become more acute and expensive that it ever was in the past. The one possibility of reducing insect predators, namely by improving plant nutrition, has received very little attention by soil scientists. Yet it is an area of investigation that some of the most interesting facts and results have been brought to light. During the Select Committee hearings, the American novelist and practical farmer, Mr. Labor Immigration – Articles? Louis Bromfield, frankly stated his belief that the #145;increasing attack by insects and diseases upon 7+ Weight By Age | Monthly our agriculture and horticulture has arisen largely through poor and greedy agricultural methods, through the steady deterioration of soils and the steady loss of organic material with which nitrogen is closely affiliated, and the increasing unavailability of the natural elements though the loss and destruction of soil structures and content. In other words, a sick soil produces a sick and weakened plants which are immediately subject to disease and insect attack. – Articles? In properly managed soils the necessity for using poisonous preparations injurious to animals and people is greatly diminished and in Perfect many cases disappears altogether. The general deterioration of most soils in the United States since the first plough entered them is closely related to the increasing attack of disease and insects and the consequent short-cut use of poisonous dusts and sprays later consumed by humans.#146; Falling back on his extensive experience in farming, Bromfield went on to say: #145;I myself farmed and gardened in Labor Immigration France, on College Resume land that has been in use for 1,200 years, for seventeen years without every using a dust or spray. It was wholly unnecessary because during that time the soil had been properly handled.#146; According to Mr.

Bromfield, the University of Missouri #145;has found that sufficient amounts of the element nitrogen will control the attack of Labor Law » Citizenship chinch bugs on corn. They found that corn not suffering from nitrogen starvation was simply not attacked by the pests#146;. Similar experiences have been obtained #145;in related to the attack of the green bug on wheat#146; in Kansas. #145;The green bug,#146; observed Mr. Bromfield, #145;does not start on one side of the of the field and work his way across. They always go to work on the yellowish spot in the field and they work out in a circle. This yellowish spot is where there is a strong nitrogen deficiency, because they will not attack the Cover Letter. Qa Cover Letter. Free, deep-green wheat.#146; Bromfield#146;s remarks are a matter of record in the scientific journals and – Articles, have even received confirmation from workers in the field who still regard the use of insecticides as indispensable to agriculture. Chemicals substances are not only 10+ Notice, introduced into the soil and sprayed on crops, but they are also injected on Labor Immigration Law » an ever-increasing scale into 10+ Notice | Resume Sections, cattle and fowl. An extraordinary example was cited by Dr. Clive McCay. #145;As you are aware,#146; Dr. McCay told the Labor Law » Citizenship – Articles, committee, #145;some producers of chickens are introducing under the skin into the neck of the chicken diethylstilbestrol. Such procedures produce more pounds of chicken from a hundred pounds of Of Cancellation feed and increase profits.

When these chickens are slaughtered the necks are cut off and Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles, may be fed to Resume Doc - Best foxes and mink. Some of these farms have reported substantial failure in breeding. Now the question arises whether enough of this compound finds its way into the flesh to affect the person who consumes the Immigration Law », chicken. #145;The same type of Templates For Pages 2016 For Mac | Free problem arises when meat-producing animals are fed compounds to injure the thyroid so that the basal metabolism of the pig or steer will be lowered and more meat will result from each pound of Labor Citizenship feed. Does enough of the compound fed the animal remain in the meat so that the consumer will be injured?#146; Despite a furious attempt by manufacturers of cattle hormones to prove the Group Letter. Qa Cover Letter. Facilities, contrary, some of the most eminent endocrinologists in the United States no longer regard stilbestrol as a #145;problem#146; to be decided upon either favourably or unfavourably. In their opinion, these hormones, and Law » Citizenship – Articles, especially stilbestrol, are a great hazard to the public health. According to Dr. Robert K. Enders, chairman of the Department of Zoology in Swarthmore College, #145;it is against the public interest to permit its [stilbestrol#146;s] use and sale under present conditions#146;. 9+ Sample Loan Forms Example,? The supporters of the use of Immigration Law » Citizenship diethylstilbestrol,#146; observes Enders, who experimented with the hormone for three years, #145;always cite that the drug is used in medicine with inference that it is, therefore, harmless.

They point out the fact that large doses have been given patients without disaster although they may produce vomiting. They never mention the fact that small amounts, even minute amounts, given over a longer period may give results that differ from those where large dosages are given under the supervision of a physician. Of Cancellation | Resume Sections? Yet the literature shows that extremely minute doses can effectively sterilize and injure laboratory animals where larger doses have no long-range effect (Roberts and Nature). These small doses do not produce vomiting. Immigration Law »? Nor do the supporters quote a leading endocrinologist who says: #147;#145; In women there is evidence that oestrogens are concerned in Forms - Sample, Example, the etiology of mammary cancer. Not only Labor Law » Citizenship, does the Templates For Pages, clinical evidence point to Immigration Law » – Articles such a conclusion, but now, with the Teacher Resume Best Resume Collection, lapse of time, cases are being reported in which cancer of the breast has followed prolonged treatment with oestrogens.#148; #145;Supporters of the use of diethylstilbestrol always say that #147;in properly treated fowl#148; there is no residue or if there is it is discarded with the head or that there is no effect of the drug detectable on humans.

Apparently the definition of what constitutes a #147;properly treated#148; fowl and Labor Immigration Citizenship – Articles, fowl as they reach the market are far from the same thing. Having examined the heads of poultry that has been killed for market, I can assure the Cover Letter. Free Facilities, committee that a considerable number of Immigration Law » chickens contained unabsorbed portions of pellets of the drug#133; What can and does happen is well illustrated by an examination of caponettes, as sold on the open market. An expert examined fifty heads from one well-regulated packing house. He found pellets in Forms - Sample, twenty-six of the heads. Eight of the heads showed that pellets had been absorbed, three heads had the appearance of Immigration Citizenship normal cockerels but no evidence of a pellet or injection site could be found in eight birds. This means that in 16 per cent. of the chickens sold the Group Leader Letter. Qa Cover, site of implantation was in such a place that it was sold with the meat. Even if only had of these had a residue of diethylstilbestrol left, 8 per cent. of the chickens contained large amounts of the chemical which is not destroyed in Labor Citizenship – Articles normal cooking. #145;The reluctance of the trade to For Pages | Free use animal charcoal to Labor Immigration Law » mix with the 9+ Sample Loan Application - Sample, Example, Format, pellet to mark the site of the injection may be due to the fact that the site of injection may be included in the sale of the fowl.#146;

Commenting on damage that stilbestrol can inflict, Dr. Enders warned that #145;one two-hundredth of the dose, that is of a maximum dose, given regularly over a period of time will kill the (experimental) animal. Now while two one-hundredths of a milligram given over Labor Immigration Citizenship – Articles a period of Forms - Sample, Example, a time will kill the animal, as much as two milligrams given over the same period of Labor Immigration Law » – Articles time to Group Leader Cover Letter. Free an animal of the same weight will not kill him. To me that can only mean one thing, that small doses are much more toxic than large doses#146;. Enders observes that mink fed with stilbestrol #145;were the poorest mink I have ever seen that were still breathing. Labor Law » Citizenship – Articles? That is, they lost their hair, they were fat and puffy, you could put your finger in the skin and dimple it and Templates For Pages 2016 | Free, the skin would not come back, there were scales around the Labor Immigration – Articles, external orifices because something was wrong with the urine, and, as I say, the few survivors were the Resume Resume Collection, most miserable animals I have ever seen for animals that were still breathing#146;. The testimony of Enders indicates that large enough doses of Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles stilbestrol will stop ovulation in women, profoundly alter the blood picture in chickens and cause changes in the reproductive tracts of experimental animals fed on poultry waste shudders at this prospect. Cystic ovaries, paper-thin uterine walls, dead and 9+ Sample - Sample,, resorbing embryos follow such use. The drug should not be available except to experimenters and the physician.#146; Dr.

Carl G. Hartman, a venerable leader in endocrinological research, gave testimony bearing out some of Dr. Enders#146; opinions before the Select Committee. #145;Whenever you tamper with one gland you tamper with all the others,#146; he warned. #145;When the ovaries or the tests are removed, the physiological effect is Labor Law », profound in the organism. If you give too much thyroid, you injure the Leader Letter. Free, ovary or the testes. We have to think of the body as a whole, and Citizenship – Articles, when you have an excess of one hormone over another you get effects which reverberate with the entire organism.#146; Hartman#146;s testimony was centred around synthetic chemicals that have estrogenic effects, of which #145;stilbestrol is the queen of them all#146;. These estrogenic chemicals not only Templates | Free, find their way into meat but also into the cosmetics and homes of millions of women throughout the United States. When Hartman was asked if the estrogenic chemicals destroy the fibrin and fibrinogin in the blood, he replied: #145;I would not be able to say as to that, but I do know in the dog, for example, estrogen causes profound changes in the bone marrow where the red blood cells are made. A dog, in – Articles three months, will die of asphyxia because it does not have red blood cells enough to go around. In the chicken likewise the blood-forming organs are profoundly effected.#146; Although it is reported that the Canadian government plans to Group Leader Letter. Qa Cover Letter. Facilities prohibit the use of stilbestrol in poultry, the Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship, use of this chemical has increased enormously in Resume Collection the United States over the past two years. Labor Citizenship – Articles? #145;The acceptance of the hormonized, or chemically treated birds, by the public has reached national proportions,#146; reports Dr. Arthur D. Goldhaft, a director of a poultry laboratory that manufactures and distributes stilbestrol. #145;The major markets in American report a substantial increase of sale of this type of poultry meat with an increasing demand for | Resume, this product. The reaction of the New York City Live Poultry Terminal Market is characteristic.

This market records a phenomenal gain in chemically treated birds in Immigration Citizenship – Articles 1950; in fact, the hormonized birds have practically sounded the death knell of the legions of cross broilers that have been such a standby in the market for the past ten years. In the Perfect College Resume, first ten months of 1950 they have gone from a low of 0.46 per cent. of total receipts #150; less, turkeys, ducks, and geese #150; in Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles January to 25.77 per cent. in October.#146; We may, perhaps, compare these remarks with the reaction of Dr. Miler, a member of the Select Committee, to Leader Facilities the report of Immigration Law » – Articles Dr. Enders: #145;Dr. Miller.

I read your paper last night and I had to Group Letter. Free Facilities take an aspirin after dinner last night, I could not sleep. It disturbed me for a while. It was disturbing to think what it may do to the human race. Dr. Enders. That is what I say, the vegetarians may inherit the earth.#146; Dr. Enders expressed agreement #145;with those endocrinologists who say that the use of the drug to fatten poultry is an economic fraud. Chicken feed is not saved; it is merely turned into fat instead of protein.

Fat is abundant in the American diet so more is undesirable. Protein is what one wants from poultry. By their own admission it is the improvement in Labor Immigration Citizenship appearance and increase in fat that makes it more profitable to the poultryman to use the drug. This fat is of very doubtful value and Perfect, is in no way the dietary equal to the protein that the consumer thinks he is paying for#146;. The truth is Labor Immigration – Articles, that even more is 7+ Weight For Women And Height Budget Forms, involved. The use of hormones in cattle and fowl, including thyroid depressants like thiourea (a drug that was already prohibited by the government for one purpose, only to reappear again for another), suggests a new emphasis on animal weight over animal reproduction. Dr. Albrecht, noting the Labor Immigration Citizenship, tendency to Leader Letter. Qa Cover Letter. ignore the mineral quality of cattle feeds for the carbohydrate and fat content, remarks that the #145;business of fattening cattle and pigs, more than reproducing and growing them, has been the much heralded agricultural success with livestock. In Missouri, the pig crop that goes to market is Labor – Articles, only 60 per cent. of 10+ Notice that delivered by the sow in the litters of Labor Immigration Citizenship – Articles pigs at their birth. Dairy calves at weaning time are only 60 per cent. of the total conceptions. Diseases of the udder, of the reproductive organs, and others of the dairy cow #150; so baffling to veterinary science as to call for legislation #150; threatening to kill the very animals, are rampant#146;.

It seems fairly apparent that the extension of hormones from face creams and cosmetics to stock-breeding and poultry will only serve to Templates For Mac | Free reinforce the trend toward carbohydrates which was begun with the Immigration, improper feeding of cattle. The use of hormones in Loan Application Forms - Sample, Example, this connection is still relatively new. But the public may well imagine seven-league strides toward sweeping applications of synthesized pituitary, thyroid and sex hormones if makers of these products have their way. Immigration Citizenship – Articles? Since the invention of the atomic bomb (and, we may add, DDT), the wits of Teacher Resume Doc - Best our time are continually conjecturing on how man will destroy himself. We feel justified in believing that if modern social relations continue, this will occur in stages rather than by a single blow. Law » Citizenship – Articles? The meat eaters will probably perish first, assuming anyone survives the application of insecticides to agriculture. After the vegetarians take over, most of them will probably die from #145;improvements#146; in Leader Letter. Qa Cover Letter. Facilities new and better insecticides. Those who survive will undoubtedly kill themselves with the atomic bomb and, finally, to Immigration complete irony by irony#133;the insects will inherit the earth. Thus far we have examined the function and #145;possibilities#146; of chemicals in agriculture and stock-breeding.

Now, we shall attempt to accompany our product #150; sprayed by poisons and injected with hormones #150; to the next great stage: the processing of food products for the market. Before, we were occupied with agriculture; now, we are concerned with industry. But since agriculture simply reflects industry to-day, since both are thus oriented toward quantity instead of | Resume Sections quality, the reader will not be surprised to Labor Immigration Citizenship – Articles learn that the prevalence of commercial over nutritive ends originates in the processing of foods. 7+ Weight Chart By Age And Height Budget? In this connection, Dr. McCay assures us, we are guided by a great tradition. #145;Since very early times, in the interests of making more profits, men have attempted to introduce chemicals into foods in order to make a cheaper product appear like a better one.#146; In accord with great traditions, let us take the fate of Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship bread. Ecclesiastical literature describes bread as the #145;staff of life#146;. So profoundly has the importance of bread been etched on human civilization that our great divines often contrast the body with the spirit by saying: #145;Man does not live by bread alone.#146; At the very least, this implies that man also cannot live without bread. 9+ Sample Forms - Sample,? The implication was true until fairly recently. It is now an – Articles open question whether the Perfect, product which currently passes for bread in the United States is any longer the same food that inspired many earlier sermons, aspirations, dreams #150; indeed, vast historical movements.

#145;Bread traditionally was made from flour, yeast and salt,#146; profoundly avers Dr. William B. Bradley of the American Institute of Baking, #145;and that is what it is made from in Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles most countries other than this one.#146; These are memorable words. Resume Templates For Pages? They may well comprise the last, faint descriptions of the few scholars who still see bread. Indeed, bread seems to Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles be traveling on Templates For Pages | Free the road toward extinction, for in this country, at least, it is Labor Immigration Law », being made with the addition of many synthetic substances and chemicals. Do these chemicals mark any improvement? Do they serve any beneficial function? Perhaps we may answer these questions by contrasting trends in Doc - Best Resume Collection the improvement of bread with the substances out of which many #145;breads#146; are now made in the United States.

We know what enters into #145;traditional#146; bread. Now a better, more nutritive bread is one to which has been added milk, eggs and or/butter. In the Labor Immigration, mental and old-age institutions of New York State, for example, a minimum of six per cent. fluid milk and two per cent. wheat germ is required for an acceptable bread. This bread, according to Dr. McCay, #145;costs only a half-cent more than the Loan Forms - Sample, Format, worst#146;. Yet despite the small difference in price, a growing tendency among bakers has favoured the replacement of valuable natural and dairy nutrients by Immigration Law » chemical substances that may either be harmful to the public health or may at the very least contain less or none of the nutritive values in the foods they have supplanted. A bad, although commonly used bread, for example, is 7+ Weight Chart For Women, likely to include bleached flour, softeners or emulsifiers, increased quantities of water, yeast and salt. Dairy products will have been #145;successfully#146; removed.

They way in which wheat is refined and Labor Immigration Law », bleached to-day has radically altered the nutritive weight of bread in the modern diet. Research shows that a greater proportion of mineral richness in wheat is to be found in Perfect College Resume the outer layers of the Labor Immigration Citizenship, berry. Yet it is usually this part that is removed for the baking of bread and cake, while the less valuable endosperm is retained. It is perhaps even more interesting to College Resume note that natural wheat is not as fattening as is ordinarily supposed. A pound of red winter wheat has about 1,471 calories.

As a result of milling, however, a pound of extraction flour yields 1,618 calories, an increase of more than 200 calories per pound. For every eight pounds of white bread consumed, the caloric equivalent of a pound of natural wheat is unnecessarily added to the diet. The outer layer goes as offal to farm animals; the inner layer is sent off for man. The first contains a higher ratio of minerals to carbohydrates than the Labor Immigration – Articles, second. In short, farm animals receive the best portion of the grain while man is stuffed with substances that make for increased carbohydrates and Resume, the concomitant physical disorders of a burdened, over-weighted body. Labor Law » – Articles? The bread industry in the United States has tended to become a modern Circe: turning men into swine #150; in appearance if not in Resume Templates For Mac | Free habits.

But the problem does not end at this point. The remaining berry is often bleached until it is rendered suitable for the production of white bread. To-day this may mean that the berry is Immigration, subjected to For Women By Age And Height Budget Forms oxides of nitrogen, chlorine, potassium bromate, bitrosyle chloride, benzoyl peroxide or any #145;permitted#146; combination of these chemicals. Labor Immigration Citizenship – Articles? Are these chemicals harmful? Will we have to wait for close on half a century (as with agene) to learn that they create disorders of Chart For Women And Height Budget Forms some sort in experimental animals? A number of countries have already answered these questions by simply prohibiting the bleaching of flour. Indeed, it is unnecessary in any case to bleach flour in order to make white bread. When flour is stored and permitted to age, it will turn white naturally. The use of Law » chemical #145;maturing#146; agents arises principally because storage facilities are too expensive, insects have increased as a problem for stored foods generally and contemporary methods of distribution favour quick processing as against traditional techniques. Naturally-white flour is simply unprofitable and Loan Forms, difficult to handle in the present social set-up. Another #145;development#146; in bread is the introduction of emulsifying or softening agents.

The typical method for determining whether bread is fresh or not is by feeling it, by #145;playing the Labor Immigration Citizenship – Articles, piano#146; (as the Group Cover Letter. Qa Cover Free Facilities, industry puts it) on the bread rack in Immigration Law » Citizenship retail stores. 9+ Sample Loan Application Forms? Until recently, the softness of bread and cake products was a good index of how long a product had been away from the Citizenship, oven. For the most part, the degree of softness depends upon the rapidity with which a cereal loses its moisture. Surface-active materials like natural fats, lecithin in egg yolk, and some plant substances which are in themselves valuable to the body will retain air and moisture in grain foods and thus keep these products soft without necessarily keeping them #145;fresh#146;. In this case, the consumer gains in food value what he may have lost in freshness. While this method of keeping bread and cake soft benefits the public, it is expensive and unprofitable to the bread industry. #145;Naturally#146;, a #145;way out#146; of the #145;horrible#146; dilemma had to be found. Resume Collection? Naturally. During the #145;thirties, enterprising researches discovered that chemical surface-active agents like the mono- and diglycerides and polyoxyethylene monostearates could achieve the desired end. – Articles? At first, this discovery did not quite revolutionize the baking industry. At the time that emulsifiers were first put forward, observes Mr.

George T. Teacher Doc - Best Resume? Carlin of Law » Swift and 10+ Notice | Resume Sections, Company, #145;the bread-softness vogue had not become as pronounced as to-day and we never thought in Law » Citizenship terms of softness in 1937. In fact, we tried to patent their (emulsifiers) use as staling retarders but found our usage patent application had been anticipated by at least ten years#146;. During the war, however, the emulsifier industry prepared an extensive sales campaign for the baking industry until the Group Qa Cover Letter. Free, idea finally began to bear #145;fruit#146;. At this writing, the public how has little choice between breads which contain emulsifiers and those which do not. According to G.F.

Gauger of the Purity Baking Company, an estimated 75 per cent. of the Labor Immigration Law » – Articles, bakers in the United States use emulsifiers in bread. Perfect Resume? The possibilities which emulsifiers have are nothing less than extraordinary. Carlin advises the Committee, for example, that it is possible to reduce the fat in a cake mix from a high of 14 per cent. to zero. Labor? The Swift Laboratories #145;have made suitable mixes with 0 per cent. shortening content with the synthetic emulsifier#146;. Not only could the fat content be manipulated at will but #145;the reduction would make a cake that would be perhaps more appealing#146;. Chart For Women By Age And Height | Monthly? Mr. Carlin adds #145;that the egg content of Labor Immigration Law » a cake mix parallels the fat content. Fat makes a cake tender, eggs make it tough. In other words, the eggs, the coagulation of the Chart By Age Budget, eggs will offset the tendering influence of Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles fat, so when you reduce fat, you may also simultaneously reduce the eggs#146;. #145;Mr.

Keefe (Representative from Wisconsin): You would almost have to, would you not?#146; #145;Mr. Carlin: Unless you wished a tough, rubbery cake, you would.#146; If we are to accept the Teacher Resume Doc - Resume Collection, opinion of a number of Labor Law » – Articles food specialists, however, the principal danger of certain emulsifiers comes from the physical damage they have produced in experimental animals. Perfect? Recently, the Swift laboratories subjected some emulsifiers and allied substances to toxicological and nutritional evaluation. The experiments centred on Labor Immigration Citizenship the effect which #145;Myrj 45#146; and #145;Sta-Soft#146; (polyoxyethylene monostearate) have on Resume For Pages 2016 For Mac | Free rats, hamsters and rabbits. The results obtained were summarized by Dr.

Edward Eagle as follows: #145;. . .Single doses (20 milliliter) of Sta-Soft of Myrj 45 in rabbits changed the normally cloudy, alkaline urine containing varying amounts of white crystalline precipitate to a clear, acid, precipitate-free urine containing 5.9 to 6.5 milligrams polyoxyethylene glycol per milliliter. #145;The rats fed Sta-Soft showed occult blood in the feces#133; the Sta-Soft rats showed no unusual gross pathology; microscopically, however, they manifested unusual gastric, lymphoid, renal, and Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles, testicular involvement.#146; The level used in these experiments were five, ten, fifteen and twenty-five times the amount recommended for use in break and cake. According to Dr. Eagle, this represents a fraction of the test levels which the Food and Drug Administration advises for chemical substances used in food. #145;Furthermore,#146; observes Dr. Eagle, #145;the Food and Drug Administration states in writing, in scientific journals, that in order to prove the non-toxicity of 10+ Notice Of Cancellation | Resume any substance, it has to Labor Law » Citizenship – Articles be fed to animals at a level of 5 per cent. with no harmful effects. These materials cannot be fed to animals at 5 per cent. with no harmful effects#133; There are some people who feed a small dose to Perfect College Resume a rat, for example, and say that since man, a 70-kilo man weighs 350 times as much as a 200-gram rat, then man can take 350 times as much as a rat can take. Citizenship – Articles? That is very poor reasoning. #145;The best example I think you can give for that is Teacher Doc - Best Collection, aspirin.

The LD-50 (lethal dose which will kill half the number of animals to which the dose is administered) for aspirin is 1,300 milligrams per kilogram. Law » Citizenship – Articles? That means about five 5-gram aspirin tablets represents the LD-50 dose for the rat and kills half the animals. If a man weighs 350 times the weight of that rat, then 350 times 5 aspirin tablets is 1,750 aspirin tablets, and no one would ever say that a man can take 1,750 aspirin tablets and survive#133;. If you can cause harm to Of Cancellation any animal with anything, that material is not good for man, and that is the reasoning behind a good many of the discussions with Food and Drug people. Man is the most sensitive of animals #150; at least, they regard him so #150; so that any material which is toxic to a rat or a hamster or a rabbit is unsafe for man.#146; Independent experiments by Dr. B. S. Schweigert of the University of Labor Law » Chicago essentially confirm the results obtained by Dr. Eagle.

Schweigert submits the following summary: #145;The effects of feeding 5 or 15 per 9+ Sample Loan Forms Format cent. of two polyoxyethylene monostearates (trade names Myrj and Sta-Soft) in the diet of weanling hamsters was investigated. Labor? Thirty-three animals were used in each group and the growth rate, food utilization, general appearance, gross pathology and 7+ Weight And Height | Monthly Forms, histological abnormalities were noted and compared to those observed for comparable groups fed 5 or 15 per cent. prime stead lard. The basal diet was designed to be adequate in all known nutrients. The animals were kept on experiment for ten weeks, at which time all remaining animals in each group were sacrificed. #145;A significant reduction in the rate of gain was observed for Labor Law » – Articles, the groups fed either 5 or 15 per Example, cent.

Myrj or Sta-Soft as compared to the groups fed lard. A decrease in food utilization was also noted when Myrj or Sta-Soft was fed. Immigration Law »? Marked changes in the intestinal tract occurred and severe diarrhea also were observed for the animals fed Myrj or Sta-Soft. Mortality data, data on organ weights and gross pathology, also indicated that the ingestion of these compounds in these amounts was deleterious to the hamster as compared to the data obtained for animals fed lard. #145;Animals fed 5 or 15 per cent. Myrj, Sta-Soft, or lard were sacrificed after two, four, six, eight, and ten weeks on 2016 | Free experiment for histological study. Sections of the ileum, duodenum, rectum, liver, and kidney were examined for Labor Immigration Law » – Articles, any histological abnormalities by Dr. 9+ Sample Loan - Sample, Example, Format? Wang, chief of the division of histology of the Labor Citizenship, American Meat Institute Foundation. In addition, sections of the College, bone marrow and of testes were taken from some of the animals. Labor Citizenship – Articles? Marked changes were observed in the duodenum, ileum, liver, kidney, and Teacher Best Resume Collection, testis of hamsters fed 5 to 15 per cent. Myrj or Sta-Soft after two to Citizenship ten weeks on experiment.

The changes in the duodenum and ileum consisted of a severe erosion of the mucosa. Necrosis of the liver, decreased spermatogenetic activity of the testis, and tubular degeneration of the | Resume, kidney were also observed.#146; The fate of bread is Labor Citizenship, only part of an entire industrial and profit-mad pattern. Even the dairy products that are recommended for bread have become suspect because of the chemicals employed. Resume Templates For Pages 2016 For Mac | Free? Butter, for example, was relatively pure food until recently. To-day it is common to dye this food a sickly-yellow colour. The problem grows in dimensions when we recognize that the testing standards among pathologists are improving while those of industrial chemists often lag far behind. A large portion of chemicals employed in food products has been insufficiently investigated for carcinogenic (cancer-causing) properties. Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles? They have been tested primarily for acute toxicity. Another portion either has been or is being used which is allied to know carcinogens.

Still others are poisonous under some conditions and #145;less toxic#146; under other circumstances. #145;Butter yellow,#146; notes a memorandum from the Food and Drug Administration, is a colouring matter that was #145;used for Resume | Free, a long time before it was discovered to be carcinogenic, at least in animals.#146; It belongs to an entire class of chemicals known as the AZO compounds which have been found to produce cancer in mice. Oil orange E, another dye #145;in general use#146;, according to Dr. Francis E. Ray, Director of the Cancer Research Laboratory with the University of Florida, #145;caused tumours in seven out of seventeen mice, fourteen months after the start of the experiment #150; fourteen months is about half the life of a healthy mouse. An eighth mouse showed extensive liver damage#146;.

According to Immigration Citizenship a list prepared by the Food and Drug Administration, over 7+ Weight For Women By Age And Height | Monthly 800 chemicals #145;have been used or are proposed for use in or on Law » Citizenship foods, or in such a manner as to constitute potential food contaminants#146;. Many of these chemicals have crept into foods for extremely obscure purposes. Resume Templates 2016 For Mac? The public, for example, does not have the faintest idea that phenyl alpha naphthylamine is an anti-oxidant that is known to have been used in chewing gum. Labor Law » Citizenship? Yet this chemical is College Resume, regarded by the Food and Drug Administration as toxic and #145;not suitable for Labor Immigration Law », food use generally#146;. Some substances, like potassium iodide, are used as nutritive supplements in #145;iodized salt#146;. #145;However, potassium iodide per Chart By Age And Height | Monthly Forms se is a poisonous substance. Morever, its use in even relatively small quantities may lead to adverse effects in the case of persons suffering from tuberculosis and Labor – Articles, possibly other disease.#146; Sometimes, a chemical like saccharic acid, which is For Women And Height Budget, considered to Immigration Law » Citizenship be #145;harmless#146; in Group Leader Qa Cover pure form, is rendered toxic in commercial form because of impurities. Chemicals, which are apparently harmless, may break down into substances that have toxic effects. Dulcin (alias Sucrol and Valzin), for example, is a synthetic sweetening agent that is chemically known as paraphenetyl urea. It is about 200 times as sweet as cane sugar and Immigration Citizenship, does not produce the 9+ Sample Loan Application - Sample,, after-taste found in saccharine. According to Dr.

A. J. Lehman, Director of the Division of Pharmacology of the Law » – Articles, Food and Drug Administration: #145;Although it has been available for over fifty years no investigation of its possible adverse affects when consumed daily in small amounts over a long period of time was made until a few years ago when the Food and Drug Administration studied the problem. Previous toxicity studies had been content to show that no immediate ill effects were noted in either man or animals from quantities such as would be used for sweetening foods. The fact that several workers had reported that Dulcin could break down to para amino phenol in the body us suspicious of | Resume Sections it. Para amino phenol is also formed from acetanilid and is responsible for that drug#146;s poisonous effect on the blood. Our study of the chronic toxicity of Dulcin was begun in the fall of 1947 and extended over a two-year period. It consisted of incorporating Dulcin or one of three other synthetic sweetening agents into the diet of rats and observing the Labor Immigration Citizenship, effects on growth and survival throughout their lifetime. After death the various organs were examined throughout their lifetime. After death the Of Cancellation, various organs were examined microscopically to Immigration Law » see what pathological changes had taken place. As the experiment progressed it became increasingly evident that the 10+ Notice Of Cancellation Sections, toxic properties of Dulcin make it unsuitable for use in food. As soon as the scientific evidence permitted such a conclusion a statement of policy was published in the Federal Register (19th January, 1950) announcing that we regarded Dulcin and P-4000 (another synthetic sweetener) as poisonous substances which have no place in food.#146;

Dulcin, it may be noted, was used in food products for sufferers of diabetes mellitus. Anyone who is familiar with the characteristics of this disease may well know the extraordinary danger that toxins #150; especially blood toxins #150; present to diabetics. On 9th February, 1949, the Food and Drug Administration undertook to advise a large manufacturer of diabetic food products that incomplete studies indicated the toxic properties of Dulcin. After an exchange of Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles letters and 10+ Notice Of Cancellation, oral views that continued into Law » – Articles, September of the same year a representative of the And Height Budget Forms, Food and Drug Administration observed that #145;we were somewhat surprised to learn that your company had continued to use Dulcin although fully aware of the fact that studies that were under way were indicative of the probably toxicity of Dulcin#146;. The Company finally discontinued the use of Citizenship this substance. The Food and Drug Administration, it may further be noted, also learned that Dulcin not only 10+ Notice | Resume Sections, inhibits growth and affects the blood adversely, but that it also produces#133; liver tumours! While few companies, to-day, are prepated to make the Labor Citizenship – Articles, protracted tests that finally revealed the toxic effects of Dulcin, the Resume, use of toxic, #145;near#146; toxic, #145;probably#146; toxic, and toxic but #145;harmless#146; chemicals (all of these categories are frequently established in food chemistry) can be multiplied almost indefinitely. They have grown with entirely new classes of synthetic substances for entirely new types of meaningless or obscure uses.

Alkyl aryl sulfanates are #145;wetting agents#146;, the Labor Law » Citizenship – Articles, toxicity and 10+ Notice | Resume Sections, side effects of which #145;require careful study#146; according to Citizenship the Food and Drug Administration. But what, if you please, is a #145;wetting agent#146;? Is the public familiar with its function or its need? A Food and Drug Administration list faintly hints that this type of substance is employed for washing fruits and vegetables. Or else one discovers that there are wax coatings, resins, plasticizers and 10+ Notice Sections, other ingredients of packaging materials.

Phenol-formaldehyde resins, for example, are a number of such substances that have been used for coating tin cans. Some of these resins are explicitly regarded by the Food and Drug Administration as deleterious; others are believed to be #145;relatively#146; safe. The hazards to the consumer depend upon #145;whether the material would be transferred to the foods with which it might come in contact either by Law » Citizenship – Articles direct solution or leaching, volatilization, abrasion, or other methods#146;. The problems, in short, are legion and the possibilities for endangering the public health depend not only upon primary or secondary effects, but reach back into tertiary stages of Leader Letter. Qa Cover Facilities nutrition. They grow with a one-sided over-complication of society, with a distortion of man#146;s relationship to natural forces and his bodily needs. Within recent years, the Law » – Articles, rise of little known and even unknown infectious diseases, the increase of degenerative illnesses and, finally, the high incidence of 9+ Sample Loan Application Forms cancer suggests come connection between the growing use of Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles chemicals in food and human diseases. 9+ Sample Application - Sample,? There are, of course, many diseases that have been with man for immemorial ages. Little is known of why these diseases are acquired by Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles some individuals while other individuals are immune. Investigation is slowly (and all too slowly) moving toward the study of Chart For Women By Age And Height Budget immunity, of resistance factors which depend partly upon heredity but also upon the level of nutrition. Now, chemicals in food products may well play a very important role in these problems.

Much has to be learned of the Labor Immigration, primary, secondary and tertiary effects individual chemical substances, their derivatives and combinations play in reducing immunity. Something is already known of the lower nutritive level that has already been produced by many chemical substitutes in food. The toxins produced by Perfect College bacteria, however, remain the direct agents of death from infectious disease. In this connection, an Immigration entirely new field of Perfect research is being opened. It is known, for example, that species of bacteria are no longer as stable as was once assumed. Labor Immigration Law » – Articles? Apparently harmless bacteria may undergo mutation or enter into an environment that suddenly renders them dangerous to human health.

The question is: are chemicals in food products responsible for any of these changes and new environmental conditions? In testimony before the Select Committee, Dr. Bing raised some considerations along this line. #145;The incidence of many diseases is changing,#146; he said. Perfect College Resume? #145;There is an Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship increase in the morbidity and mortality from a number of diseases. And then we have this phenomenon of Collection new diseases appearing, conditions which were unknown heretofore or which were seen so little that they went unrecognized. #145;The increase in incidence #150; and, well, man is heir not only to old diseases, but he acquires some new ones from time to time. Whenever that occurs we naturally suspect a change in the environment. #145;Now, foods are part of the environment of the – Articles, human being, and some alterations in foods are suspect or some alterations in 9+ Sample Loan Application drugs that may be given are always suspect.#146; Dr. Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles? Bing specifically pointed to Group Letter. Facilities one disease that is suspected to have arisen or, at least, to have increased in incidence because of an Citizenship emulsifying agent in vitamins. #145;There is this condition of retrolental fibroplasias of babies born prematurely. That condition is characterized by Resume Templates For Pages 2016 | Free a change in the retina of the eye, and it results in total blindness of the baby in Labor Immigration – Articles both eyes. #145;That condition was either now known or was observed so occasionally that it was not recognized, by and large, up until about 1941, and then the 9+ Sample Loan Application Forms - Sample,, incidence of it increased so that from Immigration – Articles, 30 to 40 per cent. of the prematurely born babies in For Mac | Free some nurseries, some hospitals, had this condition and become blind.

#145;Now, the Labor Citizenship – Articles, medical investigators looking into that have cast suspicion on the use of synthetic emulsifying agents present in a vitamin preparation which was administered to the new-born babies. Perfect? They are not sure that I was the emulsifying agent or not, but they have called attention to the fact that when they changed from the vitamin preparation containing this synthetic emulsifying agent to the same vitamins without that particular material, the incidence went from 30 to 40 per cent. blindness down to Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles less than 1 per 7+ Weight By Age And Height Forms cent.#146; It is widely agreed that the tempo and insecurity of American social life is a vital factor in Labor Law » – Articles the increase of degenerative diseases like heart and circulatory illnesses. But very little attention has been given to the role of chemicals in food. This problem is especially complex because much has to be learned about the | Monthly Budget, way the body absorbs and uses calcium and magnesium salts #150; in addition to many other substances that make for over-all health. When synthetic toxins and chemical combinations are introduced into the body, however, it is clear that all the balances that normally exist in a healthy human being are altered. While nature provides for many tolerances in the body, a sustained attack upon these tolerances is certain to have disastrous effects.

In the oxidation of sugars, for example, quantities varying up to a teaspoonful of Immigration Law » – Articles insulin (about 1 cc) are responsible for the difference between a mild and severe case of | Resume diabetes. Consider then, what it means when chemicals are introduced that violate these #150; and even more slender #150; tolerances day after day and year after year. Labor? A further problem is the heavy burden which toxins and chemicals place on the eliminatory organs of the body. Under the Resume Templates For Pages 2016, best conditions (which seldom prevail) these toxins are excreted. Before they are removed, however, they not only remain a burden to the entire organism but especially to the heart, liver and kidneys which are most frequently involved in Labor Law » – Articles diseases of old age. By Age | Monthly Forms? In short, it is Immigration Law » – Articles, still to 10+ Notice Of Cancellation be determined how a chemical in Labor Immigration Citizenship food #145;behaves in the body, how it is handled in the alimentary tract; whether it is digested and absorbed; and, if absorbed, where it goes. Is it handled by the liver, the great chemical organ of the body, and converted to something else, and the eliminated or does it pile up in the tissues or go to the kidneys, where many soluble substances are channeled in order to be excreted? Does it have any effect on any of the organs of the body?#146; Dr.

Bing, who posed these questions for Teacher Doc - Best, the Select Committee, expanded upon the problems they raise for research. #145;We now know that there are some poisons which will kill an Labor Law » Citizenship – Articles animal without causing any demonstrable pathology or change in the structure of the cells. Cyanides can combine with the Forms Format, blood pigment and Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles, prevent taking in oxygen from the air. And then there are certain organic synthetic compounds which react with substances in the body called enzymes, and can cause sudden death in experimental animals without giving any clue to any pathologist who may make sections of Leader Letter. Facilities all the Labor Citizenship – Articles, tissues of the Perfect Resume, body and look for changes in Immigration Law » the cell structure.#146; They very multitude of questions that can be raised around chemicals in 9+ Sample - Sample, Example, food provides the essential setting for an answer. In so delicate an arrangement as the human body, it can be asserted that many synthetic chemicals probably play a sweeping role in diseases that are due to changes in human physiology #150; in Labor Immigration Law » – Articles the #145;degenerative#146; illnesses. Perhaps the most remarkable data thus far on the role of chemicals in disease has been accumulated on cancer. This data has been supplied from two aspects of 9+ Sample Loan Application Forms - Sample, Example, Format research: the known properties of many chemicals in causing cancer (carcinogens) and the characteristics of malignant growth. That certain chemical substances could produce cancer was proven in Law » Citizenship – Articles 1915 when two Japanese investigators, Yamagiwa and Ichikawa, managed to Teacher Best Collection produce cancer in rabbits with coal tar. Since then tests of some 1,000 chemicals have led to Immigration – Articles the discovery of Of Cancellation about 100 carcinogens. Some of these chemicals like 9,10-dumethul-1, 2-benezathracine require only three applications to the skin to lead to cancer in a few months.

But it is necessary to emphasize that the vast majority of carcinogens require long-continued applications of small doses before cancer can be produced. Carcinogens can be used for a long time before they are known to cause malignant tumours. As a result of investigations by Goldblatt, for Labor Citizenship, example, the #145;interval between the first exposure of workmen to cancer-producing compounds and the appearance of symptoms of the disease was eleven to sixteen years in 54 per cent. of the cases. It was twenty to forty-eight years in 10+ Notice | Resume 19 per – Articles cent. The shortest period exposure sufficient to cause cancer was 3.5 years and the longest thirty-three years.#146; A carcinogen may thus be used as a chemical in food without lending itself to any assured means of Doc - Collection discovery #150; perhaps not only for many years but even at all. Even when carcinogens are used on short-lived experimental animals, unknown conditions for Labor Immigration, cancer may remain long after use has been discontinued. In recent studies on the incidence of lung cancer among smokers, the 10+ Notice Of Cancellation Sections, investigators proffered the Immigration Citizenship – Articles, suspicion that cancer appeared later in life as a result of 9+ Sample Loan Forms Example, Format smoking although smoking was discontinued decades earlier. A new term (carcinogens) has been established for chemicals that #145;will not produce cancer when administered alone, but will enhance the cancer-producing power of other chemicals.

For example, if very small doses of 20-methylcholanthrene are applied to Labor Immigration Law » – Articles the skin, no cancer may develop but if the skin is then rubbed with croton oil, tumours soon appear at its site of application. #145;These small doses of the carcinogens will not produce cancer, but when the small doses of carcinogen is followed by the croton oil, then a tumour appears. #145;The croton oil can be applied several months after the cancer-producing chemical has been administered. Simultaneous application is not necessary.#146; The effects of carcinogens and cocarcinogens, therefore, prove to have an extremely complex background. Two substances may not appear to be carcinogenic when individual tests are made; but in combination, or in | Resume Sections any given sequence of application, they may produce cancer sooner or later.

Since any numbers of Immigration Citizenship combinations or sequences are theoretically possible, the entire concept of carcinogens wants revision. As long as synthetic chemicals are used in food, the human body comes to resemble ac chemical factory in which incalculable combinations of toxins and carcinogens are possible at any stage of life. The problems of chemicals in food products no longer centre so much on individual chemicals as they do on Templates For Pages a completely altered level of physiology, nutrition and irritability. The fact that cancer can derive from the mistreatment of the body as a whole is suggested from the standpoint of pathological as well as chemical research especially in the work of Harry S. N. Greene at Labor Citizenship – Articles the Yale University Medical School. In the course of transplanting tissues that was microscopically diagnosed as cancerous, Greene found that sometimes tissue could be transferred successfully to the eye of an alien species and at other times it could not. After further research, Green came to the conclusion that many tumours which receive a diagnosis of cancer as a result of microscopic analysis were actually benign. Leader Letter. Free Facilities? Only the malignant tumours could be transferred. Labor Immigration Law »? These facts led to several lines of speculation.

Cancer may be suspected of Perfect College deriving as a rule from pre-cancerous lesions. In the pre-cancerous stage, a tumour may microscopically resemble in every detail a malignant growth and still be benign. Although it will be diagnosed as cancer and often successfully removed, in this stage there is no danger of Labor Immigration – Articles metastasis (spreading to other sites). After a while, the supposed cancer may become truly cancerous and only then will metastasis occur. What causes the change in behaviour? Greene expresses the belief that constitutional rather than local abnormalities are responsible. Abnormalities in Teacher Resume Best the organism as a whole seem to disturb the organization of the cellular structure.

This leads first to a development through a pre-cancerous stage and eventually into malignant tumours and metastasis. Greene#146;s view, of course, does not necessarily challenge the Labor Immigration Citizenship – Articles, local view of cancer; as, for example, when tissue is rendered cancerous by continual irritation. Rather, Greene also seems to Chart And Height | Monthly Budget open a more general source of Labor Immigration Law » disturbance. His view implicitly challenges the entire environment of Resume Resume Collection man. Among the most direct factors of man#146;s environment to-day that make for constitutional abnormalities are the tempo and insecurity of existence and the wholesale alteration of diet by the use of chemicals in food products. The former has given rise to nervous disorders on a vast scale. The latter tends to Labor Citizenship – Articles upset and Application Forms Example,, distort human physiological processes, render nutrition inadequate and introduce repeated irritants and an over-loading of Immigration – Articles substances or toxins into the body. The problem that chemicals in food presents can no longer be confined to the danger of acute toxicity.

Sensational cases of food-poisoning (bad as they are) have been overshadowed by the slow distortion of organic processes as a whole. Broad issues in ecology, chemistry and physiology are being raised #150; not simply local instances of acute toxicity which supplied most of the attacks and legislation against the food industry in the past. When chemical fertilizers include the risk of altering soils, a general ecological problem is presented. When insecticides are developed from relatively simple compounds to complex and stable hydrocarbons that remain in animal tissue, the very constituents of the Cover Letter. Qa Cover Facilities, human body are involved. Law » – Articles? Finally, when innumerable types of 7+ Weight Chart By Age | Monthly Budget Forms chemical substances are introduced into the absorptive, physiological and metabolic processes of the body, the Citizenship – Articles, whole cycle of nutrition, growth, organic development and the normal tempo of physical degeneration in the course of life is 7+ Weight For Women Budget, changed adversely. We have said that the motive for introducing chemicals in food is profit. We shall soon have the occasion to Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles point out that even more fundamental reasons have arisen in recent times for chemicals in food products.

But for the present this motive continues to operate and extend itself, and it has led to an increasing and reckless marketing of the public health. Just as the profit-system introduces more and more irrational uses of man#146;s productive forces, so the problems raised by chemicals in food are met with totally irrational #145;solutions#146;. Perhaps the most absurd illustration is the story of Teacher Doc - Best Resume Collection #145;enriched#146; bread. To-day, the housewife is likely to Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship encounter explosive advertising notices on bread that is Templates 2016 For Mac, #145;enriched#146; with vitamins and other substances. The facts, however, are that many breads which are described as enriched have first been deprived of Labor Immigration Citizenship valuable nutrients. The wheat is bleached and 9+ Sample Forms Format, chemicals are introduced to Immigration Law » Citizenship replace the effect of natural substances that are useful to the human body. This approach to nutrition #150; if such it can be called #150; is in itself so perfectly irrational and wasteful that it would defy any rational mind if it was any worse than many irrationalities to-day.

Many individuals who do not pretend to Perfect an expert knowledge of food or agriculture see in chemicals an Labor Immigration Law » – Articles assertion of man#146;s power over nature, a substitute for vital natural products and human labour. This concept is only partly true, as it stands, and Perfect, so far as food is Immigration Law » – Articles, concerned is dangerously wrong. The human body probably functions with the greatest difficulty when it is nourished in piece-meal fashion, on the basis of Resume Templates For Mac what we think we know it requires. There are many important things we do not know for which there are certainly no synthetic substitutes. Modern science, at present, tends to segment the unity of the body into departments of knowledge that are, thus far, only approximations of its actual activities. These departments #150; physiology, morphology and Labor Immigration Law » – Articles, so on #150; do not completely open to us the Application - Sample,, complex, organic facts and relations that actually exist in the organism. Immigration Law » Citizenship – Articles? The body, for example, requires certain indispensable traces of metals and Of Cancellation Sections, compounds. Labor Citizenship? In greater quantities these substances prove to be poisonous and, perhaps, carcinogenic.

When foods are bleached, dyed, sprayed or synthesized, these traces can be lost or excessively increased. Sometimes, the Resume Templates For Pages | Free, chemist and physiologist has only a faint idea #150; if at all #150; of Labor Immigration Citizenship what is required. Chemistry continually suggests cheap substitutes, but it is seldom possible to arrive at what is actually necessary to meet the complexities that enter into the total process. In pure foods, however, traces are not only acquired in a manner by 9+ Sample Loan Forms - Sample, Example, which the Labor Immigration Law », organism, over the course of Perfect Resume animal evolution, has long been adapted to receive them, but they can also be eliminated without damage when these trace materials become excessive. The chemist, on the other hand, may synthesize compounds which the – Articles, body is compelled to receive because these compounds obey the general laws of Loan Forms Format chemistry more closely than the chemical processes of Labor – Articles life.

He may render compounds soluble which in Resume Templates 2016 pure foods are first acted upon by digestive agents. – Articles? Indispensable steps in digestion, which may be both stages of nutrition and also obstacles to the assimilation of undesirable compounds both in quality and quantity, are thus replaced by Leader Cover Letter. laboratory techniques. Even enzymes have now been synthesized to replace natural agents of digestion, often with a very imperfect picture of human digestive activity as a whole. The human body, therefore, becomes a receptacle for chemicals it is Immigration Law » Citizenship, compelled to Resume Templates For Pages 2016 absorb, not what it definitely needs. The principle behind this fact can be extended to nearly every aspect of nutrition to-day. The modern concept of #145;power over Immigration – Articles nature#146; is a similar distortion. For centuries, great thinkers had seen in man#146;s control of natural agencies the Templates For Mac, key to man#146;s access to leisure, intellectual and spiritual development, and freedom. They did not see in this control an end in itself, but an end to suit man. Moreover, #145;control#146; did not signify violation. It referred to a conscious turning of nature to meet human needs, as these needs arose from a rational body of social relationships rather than irrational society. #145;Control of nature#146; was founded upon the belief that nature had its own complex laws and that man could produce a society founded upon reason.

At present, the Immigration Law » Citizenship, #145;conquest#146; of nature is predicated partly upon a control of forces to conquer the human organism. It is as though our insight into the facts of Chart For Women And Height | Monthly Budget Forms nature has been employed to manipulate the human body as something outside of Citizenship – Articles nature. Soil experts, nutritionists and above all food industrialists toy with the human body very much as though it no longer was as much a part of nature as the very natural forces that are commanded by chemistry. But the principal issue is that the #145;conquest#146; of nature currently rests upon 7+ Weight Chart For Women | Monthly problems arising from social blindness and Labor Immigration Law » – Articles, idiocy. By the misuse of chemistry, man is #145;solving#146; social problems; problems that are related to social insight and intelligence rather than the physical and Of Cancellation | Resume Sections, organic science. The growth of population, for example, has become a major excuse for chemicals in Labor Law » agriculture and food. Yet population is large to-day primarily in For Women By Age the sense that half the world is practically uninhabited or has little industry, while huge urban centres are choking with millions. Land is Labor Citizenship, insufficient because it is misused and frequently ignore where it is actually available; worse, modern forms of land tenure have driven millions off the land, often into useless occupations. Numerous clerks, impotent bureaucrats, advertising agents and salesmen have created a new form of urban idiocy to overshadow the tradition of rural idiocy. This idiocy ranges from a daily squandering of hours on trains and buses to an inordinate preoccupation with anti-social and demoralizing media of entertainment.

Modern society resists the possibility of restoring human contacts that have been broken by Application Forms - Sample, Format tawdry #145;entertainment#146;, siphoned into the home by television and radio. Only recently has an increasing number of people begun to think of decentralizing the great urban menageries #150; and this because of a fear of Labor Immigration Law » Citizenship modern warfare and bombing. Yet in decentralization exists a real possibility for developing the best traditions of social life and for solving agricultural and nutritional difficulties that have thus far been delivered to chemistry. Most of the food problems of the world would be solved to-day by well-balanced and rounded communities, intelligently urbanized, well-equipped with industry and 10+ Notice Sections, with easy access to the land. There is a logic to every situation in modern society. With the rise of huge cities, with a meaningless increase in detail labour, with the total supplanting of quality by quantity production #150; pure foods have not only been rendered unprofitable but also impossible if only because of transport conditions. Labor Immigration Law »? The adulteration of food has now become a system, a net from which it is almost impossible to withdraw. Nearly every food product that appears on the market is to-day the repository of Example, chemical substances. Years ago, this trend was ineffectively challenged by various #145;fad#146; movements. Now, there is scarcely any basis for choice between pure food and Immigration Citizenship – Articles, chemically treated products.

The door has been closed to individual selection, and the process of adding synthetic substances proceeds unabated. It is doubtful if legislation will do anything to arrest this trend, even if legislation against chemicals in food is enacted. The problem has become a social problem #150; an Resume Templates For Pages For Mac issue concerning the misuse of industry as a whole. It is on this basis alone that it can be solved. This page has been accessed by visitors outside of Pitzer College times since December 18, 1999.