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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Blaise Pascal was a French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, inventor, and theologian. In mathematics, he was an Presentation Resources Signage | Office Of early pioneer in - Cafe Publisher Layout the fields of game theory and probability theory. In philosophy he was an early pioneer in existentialism. As a writer on theology and religion he was a defender of Christianity. Despite chronic ill health, Pascal made historic contributions to mathematics and to physical science, including both experimental and theoretical work on hydraulics, atmospheric pressure, and the existence and nature of the vacuum. As a scientist and philosopher of Presentation Resources | Templates Signage | Office, science, Pascal championed strict empirical observation and the use of controlled experiments; he opposed the rationalism and logico-deductive method of the Cartesians; and he opposed the metaphysical speculations and reverence for authority of the How To Dissolution Of Marriage In, theologians of the Presentation Resources | Office Of, Middle Ages. Although he never fully abandoned his scientific and mathematical interests, after his uncanny “Night of Fire” (the intense mystical illumination and midnight conversion that he experienced on the evening of November 23, 1654), Pascal turned his talents almost exclusively to religious writing. It was during the period from 1656 until his death in 1662 that he wrote the Lettres Provinciales and Business Proposal - 6+ In Pdf, Word the Pensees . The Lettres Provinciales is a satirical attack on Jesuit casuistry and a polemical defense of Jansenism.
The Pensees is Presentation & Door Signage a posthumously published collection of unfinished notes for what was intended to be a systematic apologia for the Christian religion. Along with his scientific writings, these two great literary works have attracted the admiration and critical interest of philosophers and serious readers of every generation. “Pascal’s life is inseparable from his work.”—A. J. Krailsheimer. Pascal’s life has stirred the same fascination and generated as much lively discussion and learned commentary as his writings. This is largely attributable to his intriguing, enigmatic personality. To read him is to come into How To Calendar | Social Media direct contact with both his strangeness and his charm. It is Resources | Templates & Door Signage Of also to encounter a tangle of incongruities and seeming contradictions. For Pascal himself – humble yet forceful; fanatical as well as skeptical; mild and empathetic, yet also capable of withering scorn – personified the very “chimera” he famously declared man to be ( Pensees , 131/164). [Note: Throughout this article, fragments of the How To A Petition Of Marriage, Pensees are identified first (that is, before the slash) by Resources | Templates | Office Of, the numeration system of Lafuma and second (after the slash) by that of Sellier – L/S.] Interest in his life is also due to our natural desire to learn more about this “scary genius” , or effrayant g enie – Chateaubriand’s memorable phrase, whose unique combination of talents enabled him to make revolutionary contributions not only to mathematics and physical science but also to the theology and literature of his age. Develop An Editorial? Merely to list his achievements is once again to encounter Pascal the Presentation Resources & Door Signage | Office, “chimera,”— the human riddle who was both an avant-garde crusader for empirical science as well as an File A Petition For Simplified Of Marriage In avid supporter of Resources | Templates & Door | Office, ancient prophecy, mysticism, miracles, and Biblical hermeneutics.
Modern readers are usually shocked to Business Proposal, discover that the father of | Templates & Door | Office Of, gambling odds and the mechanical computer wore a spiked girdle to chastise himself and further mortify a body already tormented by recurrent illness and chronic pain. He has been the subject of dozens of biographies, beginning with La Vie de M. Pascal , the brief hagiographic sketch composed by his sister Gilberte Perier shortly after his death in 1662 and first published in Sample Plan Needs On A Student Budget My 1684. New treatments of the author’s life have appeared in both French and English with remarkable regularity ever since. Perier’s memoir established a precedent by applying an underlying pattern and Presentation | Templates symmetry to her brother’s life. The implied form is that of - Cafe Menu • Istudio Publisher • Page, a well-made play with classic five-act structure. In Perier’s treatment this life-drama is a divine comedy showing the spiritual rise and eventual salvation of Presentation Resources Signage, a distressed soul who, after a series of trials and setbacks, reunites with God.
Meanwhile Pascal’s secular biographers and B2b Sales Email [free commentators, beginning with Voltaire, offer an opposite Presentation | Templates | Office Of, view. They portray Pascal’s career as essentially a tragedy, a descending arc tracing the decline into timidity and superstition of Sample Business Proposal Documents Word, a once bold and independent thinker. Nietzsche’s characterization of Pascal as “the most instructive victim of Christianity, murdered slowly, first physically, then psychologically” is a typical summation ( Ecce Homo , II, 3, p. 243). Both views are oversimplified. First of all, at no point during his lifetime was Pascal ever a libertine or libre-penseur . | Templates & Door Of? So portraying his life as though it consisted of two sudden and powerful “conversions,” with an intervening slide into worldliness and sins of the Calendar Template | Social, flesh, seems a bit too pat and melodramatic. Similarly, since Pascal was a lifelong supporter of the Catholic faith, and since he also maintained an interest in scientific and mathematical problems well after his commitment to Jansenism and Port-Royal, it seems unfair to portray his final years as a betrayal of his scientific principles rather than as an intensification or culmination of his religious views. Presentation Resources | Office? Despite these and other distortions, the traditional division of Pascal’s biography into five stages or periods remains a convenient way of reviewing his career.
Blaise Pascal was born on June 19, 1623, in Clermont (now Clermont-Ferrand) in the Auvergne region of central France. His parents were Etienne Pascal (1588 – 1651), a magistrate, civil servant, and member of the aristocratic and professional class known as the noblesse de robe , and Antoinette Begon Pascal (1596-1626), the A Petition For Simplified In, daughter of a Clermont merchant. Pascal was named for his paternal uncle as well as for St. Blaise, the 3rd-century Armenian saint martyred by having his flesh flayed by iron carding combs as his namesake would later punish his own flesh by wearing a belt studded with sharp nails. The Pascal family, including Pascal’s older sister Gilberte (b. 1620) and younger sister Jacqueline (b. 1625), enjoyed a comfortable, upper-bourgeois lifestyle. | Office Of? Etienne, in addition to being a lawyer, public official, and tax administrator, was proficient in Latin and Greek, a dabbler in natural philosophy, and an expert mathematician.
He was also a demanding but loving father who took great pride in his children’s accomplishments. Gilberte would go on Email [free to become Pascal’s first biographer and serve as a fierce guardian of his reputation. Jacqueline displayed an early literary genius and | Templates earned acclaim as a poet and Business Word dramatist before becoming a nun at Port-Royal. Pascal’s mother, who was known for her piety and charitable work, died when Pascal was only three years old and Jacqueline was but an Presentation Resources & Door Of infant. Pascal was a sickly child who suffered various pains and Of Recommendation diseases throughout his life. According to a family anecdote related by his niece, at age one he supposedly fell victim to a strange illness. His abdomen became distended and swollen, and Resources & Door Signage the slightest annoyance triggered fits of crying and In screaming. Presentation Resources | Templates Signage | Office? This affliction supposedly continued for more than a year, and the child often seemed on the verge of death.
Hearing of the boy’s condition, neighbors attributed it to witchcraft and blamed a poor elderly woman who occasionally performed household chores for the Pascal family. Etienne, as an | Accept educated gentleman, at first scoffed at the accusation, but when his patience eventually wore thin he confronted the woman and threatened her with hanging if she didn’t come forward with the truth. Presentation | Templates & Door | Office Of? The woman reportedly fell to the floor and promised to divulge everything if her life would be spared. She confessed that in a moment of anger and resentment she had cast a spell on the child – a fatal spell that could be undone only by having it transferred to some other living creature. Supposedly the family cat was given to Sample Plan On Whats To Be On A, her and made a scapegoat for the otherwise doomed child. The old woman then prescribed that a poultice of special herbs be applied to Pascal’s stomach. After an & Door Signage | Office Of intense crisis, during which he appeared to B2b Sales Email Situation [free, be comatose and close to death, Pascal awoke from Presentation Resources & Door Signage | Office Of his “spell” and eventually recovered his health.
This strange and File For Simplified Dissolution improbable “witch” tale is Resources | Templates & Door Signage | Office scarcely credible today. But that Pascal endured a serious and potentially fatal childhood illness during which his parents desperately tried all kinds of Leaflet Menu • Istudio Publisher • Page, fanciful cures and treatments seems very likely. In fact, the anecdote is perfectly consistent with the wild and paradoxical world of 17 th_ century culture and especially the medical practice of the time – a time when empirical science and natural magic, enlightened new techniques and antique superstitions, were routinely intermingled and practiced side by side. The exact cause and Resources | Office basis of Pascal’s lifelong health problems have never been fully settled or accounted for. According to Gilberte, after his 18 th birthday Pascal never lived a day of his life free from How To For Simplified Of Marriage In pain or from some sort of illness or medical affliction. The most common medical opinion is that he contracted gastrointestinal tuberculosis in early childhood and Presentation | Templates Signage | Office that manifestations of the disease, along with signs of possible concurrent nephritis or rheumatoid arthritis, recurred periodically throughout his lifetime. The accounts of his pathology are also consistent with migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, and fibromyalgia – a complex of illnesses often found together and which also frequently occur in combination with symptoms of Sample Needs To Be | Make My, anxiety, depression, and emotional distress. Scholarly interest in this matter involves more than just idle curiosity and medical detective-work. The question of Pascal’s physical and mental health goes to the heart of | Templates Signage, desires to learn more about the conditions and circumstances that produce extraordinary genius.
Affliction and disease, physical or emotional trauma, a natural disadvantage or disability have often served as an Tri-Fold Leaflet - Cafe Publisher • Page Layout added motive or accelerator for high-level creative achievement. Examples abound – from the ancient legend of the blind and vagabond Homer to the documented histories of modern creative figures like Isaac Newton, Van Gogh, Stephen Hawking, and Christy Brown. We can only speculate whether and to what extent Pascal’s physical ailments and & Door Of disabilities, instead of retarding his career, may have actually spurred and How To Dissolution Of Marriage given rise to his intellectual triumphs. In 1631, a few years after the death of Resources | Office Of, his wife, Etienne sold his government post (a common practice of the day) along with most of his property and moved with his children to Paris. Over the next nine years he devoted himself to his amateur scientific and 8+ Tenant | Accept Rejection mathematical pursuits and Presentation Resources | Office Of took personal charge of his children’s education. Recognizing early on Letter Of Recommendation | Accept Rejection his son’s exceptional intellectual gifts, Etienne designed and supervised a special program and Resources | Templates Signage Of curriculum for the boy based on his own anti-scholastic and progressive educational principles. Young Pascal was taught Latin and Greek as well as history, geography, and philosophy – all on an impromptu schedule, including during meals and at various hours throughout the day.
Science, or natural philosophy as the Letter Of Recommendation | Accept Rejection, discipline was then known, ignited Pascal’s imagination, and he demonstrated an early inquisitiveness about natural phenomena and a fondness for devising experiments. Presentation | Templates & Door? Civil and 8+ Tenant Rejection canon law were also part of a varied curriculum that included study of the Bible and the Church Fathers. The latter studies were in accordance with Etienne’s personal religious views, which were plain and respectful and as progressive as his views on education. He taught his son his own cardinal principle that whatever is a matter of faith should not also be treated as a matter of reason; and vice-versa. Signage | Office Of? It is a tenet that Pascal took to heart and followed throughout his career.
In the belief that, once exposed to mathematics, his son would be so captivated by it that he would forsake or ignore his other studies, Etienne determined to withhold instruction in math and geometry until Pascal had completed the rest of his training. 8+ Tenant Letter Of Recommendation | Accept Rejection? However, upon discovering that the boy had already achieved an intuitive understanding of the discipline including his own independently worked out demonstration of a proof in Euclid, Etienne acquiesced. The pages of Euclid were finally opened to the youth, and thus began Pascal’s belated introduction to mathematics – the subject with which he would conduct, at | Templates | Office, times guiltily, a lifelong love affair. Pascal’s education was unique for his own time and would be unusual in any era. A passionate student who delved earnestly into each new subject, he absorbed new material, including, at a later period, the 8+ Tenant | Accept Rejection, most arcane and technical components of theology quickly and effortlessly. However, his learning, while deep in | Templates Signage | Office a few areas, was never broad and was in some ways less remarkable for what it included than for what it left out.
For example, due to his assorted maladies, Pascal’s regimen included no physical training or any form of exercise. - Cafe Menu? In addition, because of the sequestered, hermetic, entirely private form of his schooling, he never experienced any of the Presentation | Templates Signage Of, personal contacts or opportunities for social development that most young people, including even novice monks in monastic schools, commonly do. How To Develop Calendar Template | Social Media? To what extent this may have deformed or limited his social and interpersonal skills it is hard to say. | Templates & Door Signage? He was known to be temperamentally impatient with and demanding of others while sometimes seeming arrogant and Email Templates For Every [free self-absorbed. At a later point in Resources | Templates Of his career, he fully acknowledged his deficiencies and Tri-Fold Leaflet indeed chastised himself for his social ambition and intellectual vanity. Pascal was not widely read in the classics or in contemporary literature. Though he was well acquainted with Aristotelian and Scholastic thought, philosophy for him consisted mainly of Epictetus, Montaigne, and the traditional debate between Stoicism and Epicureanism. Profane literature was foreign to him, and given his tastes and habits it’s impossible to Resources | Templates, imagine him reading, say, Ovid or Catullus, much less Rabelais. In fact it’s uncertain whether he had even read Homer or Virgil or for that matter any verses other than the Psalms and his sister Jacqueline’s religious poems. As for drama, Corneille was a family friend who at one time personally championed Jacqueline’s poetry and dramaturgy, and the young Racine studied classical literature and rhetoric at the school at Port-Royal while Jacqueline and Pascal were also there.
Yet Pascal never mentions the work of either great writer and indeed – other than to refer to the stage as a “dangerous diversion” ( Pensees , 764/630) – seems to have taken little interest at all in contemporary French theatre, which was then at its artistic zenith. But whatever he may have lacked in physical education, humanistic studies, and art appreciation, Pascal more than made up for in his favored pursuits. In fact, so rapidly did he advance in physics and mathematics that Etienne boldly introduced the boy at the age of only thirteen into his small Parisian academic circle known as the Acad emie libre. The central figure of this group was the On Whats Needs To Be On A Student Budget My, polymathic philosopher, mathematician, theologian, and music theorist Pere Marin Mersenne, one of the leading intellectuals of the age. Mersenne corresponded with Descartes, Huygens, Hobbes, and Resources Signage | Office Of other luminaries of the period and actively promoted the work of controversial thinkers like Galileo and Gassendi. The Mersenne circle also included such notable mathematicians as Girard Desargues and Gilles de Roberval. These inspirational figures served the • Istudio • Page Layout, young Pascal as mentors, examiners, intellectual models, and academic guides.
It was during his involvement with the Mersenne circle that Pascal published, at age sixteen, his Essai pour les Coniques , an important contribution to | Templates & Door Signage, the relatively new field of projective geometry. The essay includes an Proposal - 6+ original proof concerning the special properties of hexagons inscribed within conic sections that is Presentation | Templates & Door Signage Of still known today as Pascal’s Theorem. Around the same time that Pascal was working on his Theorem, Etienne, who had at one time served as an adviser to Cardinal Richelieu, incurred the wrath of the First Minister by leading a protest over a government bond default. Threatened with prison, he sought refuge in Auvergne. Plan Student Budget My? He was eventually restored to the Cardinal’s good graces by Resources Signage Of, the intervention of his daughter Jacqueline. (The Cardinal, a patron of the theatre, was charmed not only by Jacqueline’s poetic and Business Proposal Documents In Pdf, dramatic skills but also by her beauty and courtly manners.) It’s also likely that Richelieu had an additional motive for welcoming Etienne back. For no sooner was Etienne returned to royal favor than Richelieu appointed him the chief tax administrator for Rouen. At the Cardinal’s behest, the Pascal family moved from Paris to Rouen in Presentation | Templates & Door Of early January of 1640. Rouen was a city in crisis, beset by street violence, crop failures, a tax revolt, and an outbreak of plague. It was Etienne’s job to handle the taxpayer revolt, which he eventually managed to do by working with the local citizens and earning their confidence and respect. Pascal meanwhile seems to have been little affected by the change of Sample Proposal In Pdf,, scene and continued with his mathematical studies.
He also undertook a new project. Presentation Signage | Office? Impressed by the massive number of calculations required in his father’s work of accounting and Budget | Make My tax assessment, he wondered if the drudgery of such labor might not be relieved by some type of Signage Of, mechanical device. Setting to work on the idea in 1642, he eventually conceived, designed, and How To File oversaw the construction of Presentation | Templates | Office, what was presented to the public in 1645 as la machine arithmetique , later known as the Pdf], Pascaline. His simple design consisted of a sequence of interconnected wheels, arranged in such a fashion that a full revolution of one wheel nudged its neighbor to the left ahead one tenth of a revolution. Presentation | Templates & Door Signage Of? The Pascaline thus became the world’s first fully functional mechanical calculator, and in 1649 Pascal received a royal patent on the device.
Over the next five years he continued tinkering with his design, experimenting with various materials and trying out different linkage arrangements and gear mechanisms. Nine working models survive today and On Whats To Be Student Budget serve as a reminder that Pascal was not just a mathematical Platonist absorbed in a higher world of Resources | Templates & Door | Office, pure number but also a practical minded, down-to-earth engineering type interested in applying the insights of science and mathematics to the solution of How To An Editorial Calendar Template | Social Media, real-world problems. On an icy day in January of 1646, Etienne Pascal, in his capacity as a public official, was summoned to prevent a duel that was to take place in a field outside Rouen. Resources Signage? While en route, he slipped on the ice, fracturing a leg and injuring his hip. The family called in two local bonesetters, the brothers Deschamps, who moved into the Pascal household for a period of How To File A Petition Dissolution In, three months to Resources | Office Of, care for Etienne and oversee his recovery. The brothers turned out to Letter Of Recommendation | Accept Rejection, be members of the small, saintly community of Augustinian worshippers established at Presentation | Templates & Door Signage | Office Of, Port-Royal by the Jansenist priest Jean du Vergier de Hauranne, more simply known as the Develop Calendar Template | Social Media, abbe Saint-Cyran.
The Jansenists (named for the Dutch theologian Cornelius Jansen) accepted the strict Augustinian creed that salvation is Presentation | Templates & Door Signage Of achieved not by human virtue or merit but solely by the grace of God. At Port-Royal they practiced an ascetic lifestyle emphasizing penance, austerity, devotional exercises, and B2b Sales Email good works. Presentation | Templates | Office Of? While treating Etienne, the Deschamps brothers shared their stringent, exacting, and somewhat cheerless religious views with the Pascal family. Pascal himself, along with his father and sisters, had never displayed much in the way of genuine religious fervor. They were good upper-middle-class Catholics, mild and respectful in B2b Sales For Every Situation their beliefs rather than zealous, neither God-fearing nor, to any extraordinary degree, God-seeking. Yet the Presentation Resources & Door, ardor of the Deschamps brothers proved contagious. Pascal caught the fire and read with avidity the Jansenist texts that were given to him – sermons by 8+ Tenant Of Recommendation | Accept Rejection, Saint-Cyran along with doctrinal works by Augustine, Antoine Arnauld (Saint-Cyran’s successor), and Jansen himself. Gradually, with growing assurance, and eventually with complete sincerity and conviction, Pascal embraced the Jansenist creed. Presentation Resources | Templates & Door | Office? According to Gilberte’s account, he was the first in the family to convert to the new faith, and no sooner had he done so than he set about to convert the - Cafe Menu • Istudio • Page Layout, rest of family, first Jacqueline, then Etienne, and finally Gilberte and her husband Florin Perier. Resources | Office Of? It should be added, however, that from Pascal’s own point of view he wasn’t so much “converting” to How To For Simplified Of Marriage In, Jansenism, or any particular group or sect, as he was declaring or reaffirming his commitment to the true faith.
In her memoir, Gilberte refers to & Door | Office Of, the events of this period as Pascal’s “intellectual conversion,” distinguishing it from his later, more emotional, and traumatic “second conversion” of 1654. She also asserts that at Sample Business Proposal - 6+ Documents, this time Pascal formally renounced all his scientific and mathematical researches and ever afterward devoted himself entirely and exclusively to the love and service of God. This claim is inaccurate and Presentation | Templates & Door Signage Of indeed hard to fathom given that only a year later Florin Perier, Gilberte’s own husband, assisted in what is probably Pascal’s most famous scientific investigation, the celebrated Puy-de-Dome experiment measuring air pressure and proving the existence of the vacuum. B2b Sales Email For Every [free Pdf]? In fact, despite Gilberte’s claim, it would probably be closer to Presentation Resources | Templates | Office Of, the truth to say that, shortly after his conversion to How To A Petition For Simplified Of Marriage In, Jansenism, Pascal resumed his scientific endeavors with even more zest and energy than before. In the spring of 1647, partly on the advice of Resources | Templates & Door Signage | Office, his physicians, he returned to Paris where he linked up once again with former colleagues and began organizing several new essays and treatises for publication. His supposed renunciation of natural philosophy and the bright world of How To File A Petition For Simplified In, Parisian intellectual life had lasted all of six months. Contrary to Gilberte’s account, most biographers have accepted the years 1649 -1654 as a periode mondaine in Pascal’s career – that is, as a time when he retreated from his pledge to serve only Signage | Office, God and Leaflet - Cafe Menu • Page resumed to a significant degree the life of a gentleman-scientist. It was not a period of debauchery and libertinism or anything of the kind. Although he showed an occasional weakness for silk and Resources | Templates & Door Signage | Office brocade and enjoyed the amenities of both a valet and a coach-and-six, Pascal did not become a salon habitue or even much of a bon vivant. He was simply a young man who sought the company of fellow experts, savored the spotlight of recognition for personal achievement, and delighted in 8+ Tenant Rejection the social world of learned conversation and sparkling intellectual debate. His lapse or personal failing, if it can be called that, was what the Port-Royalists referred to as libido excellendi – a concupiscence of the mind rather than of the flesh and an example of the natural human desire for fame that his contemporary, John Milton, called “that last infirmity of noble mind.”
Pascal’s companions during this period included such stars of the Paris social scene as Artus Gouffier, the Duc de Roannez, a former military officer, noted courtier, and amateur dabbler in science and mathematics; Antoine Gombaud, the Chevalier de Mere, a soldier, gambler, author, and paragon of honnetete (more than mere “honesty,” this term connotes an entire code of conduct and the gallant, cheerful lifestyle of an independent-minded man of the world); and Damien Mitton, another champion of honnetete whose name became a byword for debonair charm and colorful raconteurship. Several commentators on the Pens ees argue that the work is Presentation | Templates Signage Of directly aimed at the culture of honnetete and that it specifically targets figures like Mere and Mitton, that is, persons who seek a life of virtue and happiness apart from God. Shortly after his return to Paris in 1647 and during a turn for How To A Petition Dissolution In the worse in | Templates & Door Signage his health, Pascal reunited with his old circle of friends and fellow intellectuals and was also introduced into polite society. Descartes himself paid a visit (and according to reports wisely suggested that Pascal follow a regimen of bed-rest and bouillon rather than the steady diet of enemas, purgings, and Sample Needs On A | Make blood-lettings favored by Presentation Resources | Templates & Door | Office, his doctors). The historic meeting between the two scientific and philosophical rivals reportedly did not go well. Pascal’s new life in Paris was interrupted in 1648 by the outbreak of the Fronde , the violent civil clash that began as a power struggle between Chief Minister Mazurin and leaders of Parliament and which continued as a conflict between the crown and various aristocratic factions over the next five years. To escape the mob havoc and pervasive military presence in Paris, Pascal returned to Clermont along with his sisters, brother-in-law, and father. There he effectively inserted himself into the Auvergne equivalent of Parisian high society and resumed his temporary infatuation with la vie honnetete . Tri-Fold Leaflet Menu • Istudio? He returned to Paris in 1650, reconnected with his old friends, and Presentation | Templates | Office Of began revising and polishing several scientific papers, including portions of a never completed or partially lost version of his Treatise on the Vacuum . On September 24, 1651, Etienne died; he was 63.
Pascal and On Whats Needs To Be Student Budget | Make Jacqueline were at his bedside. Gilberte was in Clermont awaiting the birth of a child who would be named Etienne Perier in honor of his grandfather. Pascal’s letter of consolation to Gilberte, preserved among his complete works, has disappointed some of his admirers due to its austere tone and Resources & Door Signage | Office Of cold Jansenist view of Sample - 6+ In Pdf,, death (we should not grieve but rejoice at God’s will; the Presentation Signage Of, deceased is now in a better world; and so forth.). However, the letter includes a note of affection for the man who had taken personal charge of his education and who was the first to introduce him to the world of science and mathematics. Pascal ends the How To In, letter with a pledge that he, Gilberte, and Jacqueline should redouble on one another the love that they shared for their late father. A few months later, Jacqueline finally made good on her determination (long postponed in obedience to her father’s and brother’s wishes) to dedicate her life to Presentation & Door | Office, holy service and enter Port-Royal as a nun. In the summer of 1654 Pascal exchanged a series of letters with Fermat on the problem of calculating gambling odds and probabilities. For Every [free? It was also at this time (although many have doubted his authorship) that he completed his Discourse on Love . And according to at least two of his biographers (Faugere and Bishop) it was during this same period (1653-54) that Pascal himself fell victim to amorous passion and Presentation | Templates even contemplated marriage (supposedly to the comely Charlotte de Rouannez, his frequent correspondent and the sister of his good friend the Duke). On the Tri-Fold Leaflet - Cafe • Istudio Publisher • Page Layout, other hand, Gilberte in her account of her brother’s life makes no mention whatsoever of Presentation | Templates Signage | Office Of, a love affair, and the evidence that Pascal ever succumbed to Email Templates For Every Situation Pdf], romance or became a suitor remains sketchy at Presentation | Office, best. One other oft-cited, but dubious and unverified, event in Pascal’s life also dates from Sample Business Proposal - 6+ Documents Word this period. According to Presentation Resources & Door Signage, various sources, none wholly reliable, in October of How To File Of Marriage, 1654, Pascal was supposedly involved in a nearly fatal accident while crossing the Presentation | Templates | Office Of, Pont de Neuilly in his coach.
His affrighted horses reportedly reared, bolted, and plunged over the side of the bridge into B2b Sales Email Templates [free the Seine, nearly dragging the coach and Pascal after them. Fortunately, the main coupling broke and the coach, with Pascal inside, miraculously hung on | Templates & Door | Office Of to the edge and stabilized. The commentators who credit this tale attribute Pascal’s “second conversion” to it and view his return to Jansenism as an immediate and direct consequence of his near-death experience. Sigmund Freud accepted the story and even used it as an example of how severe trauma can trigger an obsessive or phobic reaction. However, there is no conclusive evidence that the How To An Editorial Template, event ever happened.
The crucial event of Presentation Resources & Door Signage Of, Pascal’s life and career occurred on November 23, 1654, between the hours of 10:30 pm and 12:30 am. Plan Needs Budget | Make My? Pascal lay in Resources Signage | Office bed at his home in the Marais district in Paris when he experienced the religious ecstasy or revelation that his biographers refer to as his “second conversion” or “night of fire.” He produced a written record of this momentous experience on Proposal - 6+ Documents a sheet of paper, which he then inserted into a piece of folded parchment inscribed with a duplicate account of the same vision. This dual record, known as the Memorial, he kept sewed into the lining of his jacket as a kind of secret token or private testament of & Door Signage, his new life and total commitment to Jesus Christ. No one, not even Gilberte or Jacqueline, was aware of the existence of this document, which was not discovered until after his death. The text of the Memorial is cryptic, ejaculatory, portentous. 8+ Tenant Letter | Accept Rejection? At the top of the Resources | Templates Signage Of, sheet stands a cross followed by a few lines establishing the time and date, then the word FEU (fire) in all upper case and centered near the top of the page. Then:
Dieu d'Abraham, Dieu d'Isaac, Dieu de Jacob, non des philosophes et des savants. Certitude. Certitude. Sentiment. Joie. Paix. Dieu de Jesus-Christ. Deum meum et Deum vestrum. Ton Dieu sera mon Dieu. (God of Abraham, God of 8+ Tenant | Accept, Isaac, God of Presentation Resources | Office Of, Jacob, not of the On Whats Budget, philosophers and | Templates & Door | Office scholars.
Certitude, certitude, feeling, joy, peace. God of Jesus Christ. My God and your God. Thy God will be my God.) And so on, in a similarly ecstatic vein for about eighteen more lines. The parchment copy ends with the solemn pledge: “Total submission to Jesus Christ and to my director. Eternally in - Cafe • Page Layout joy for a day’s trial on earth. I shall not forget thy word.” As the name Memorial implies, Pascal’s words were written down to preserve them indelibly in his memory and to bear tangible witness to what was for him a soul-piercing and truly life-altering event. His account, despite its brevity and gnomic style, accords closely with the reports of conversion and mysticism classically described and analyzed by William James. In the weeks leading up to Presentation Resources Signage Of, November 23, 1654, Pascal had on several occasions visited Jacqueline at Port-Royal and had complained, despite his active social life and ongoing scientific work, of feelings of dissatisfaction, guilt, lack of purpose, and ennui.
As in the story of his carriage accident by the Seine, he seemed to be a man teetering on the edge – in this case between anxiety and hope. His “Night of Fire” dramatically changed his outlook and brought him back from the brink of despair. After his conversion Pascal formally renounced, but did not totally abandon, his scientific and mathematical studies. He instead vowed to dedicate his time and talents to the glorification of God, the edification of his fellow believers, and the salvation of the larger human community. It wasn’t long before he got an Email For Every Situation early test of his new resolve. In fact, hardly had Pascal committed himself to Port-Royal than the Jansenist enclave, never secure and always under the watchful suspicion of the greater Catholic community, found itself under theological siege.
Antoine Arnauld, the spiritual leader of Resources | Office, Port-Royal and the uncompromising voice and authority for Sample Documents its strict Augustinian beliefs and & Door Signage Of values, was embroiled in Business Proposal - 6+ Word a bitter controversy pitting Jansenism against Resources | Templates & Door Signage the Pope, the Jesuit order, and a majority of the bishops of France. Sample On Whats To Be On A Budget? In effect, opponents charged that the entire Jansenist system was based on a foundation of error. Presentation & Door Of? At issue were matters of - 6+ In Pdf,, Catholic doctrine involving grace, election, human righteousness, divine power, and free will. Arnauld denied the charges and published a series of vehement counter-attacks. Unfortunately, these only served to make the hostility towards himself and | Templates Signage | Office Of the Port-Royal community more intense. He ended up being censored by Plan On Whats, the Faculty of Theology at the Sorbonne and stood threatened with official accusations of heresy. He sought sanctuary at Port-Royal-des-Champs and awaited the Presentation Signage | Office Of, judgment of Paris and Rome. With the official voice of How To | Social, Port-Royal effectively muted, the cause of Jansenism needed a new champion.
Pascal stood ready to fill the role. During the period 1656-57, under the pseudonym Louis de Montalte, he produced a series of 18 public letters attacking the Jesuits and defending Arnauld and Jansenist doctrine. The Lettres provinciales , as they became known, introduced an Presentation Signage | Office Of entirely new tone and style into contemporary theological debate. From time to time, the genre had served as a forum for Sample Plan Needs On A Budget obfuscation, vituperation, abstruse technical language, and stodgy academic prose. Pascal’s Lettres injected a new note of wit and humor and ran the gamut from light irony and sarcasm to outright mockery and scorn. They also featured a popular idiom and Resources | Office Of conversational tone and made use of literary devices such as characterization, dialog, dramatization, and narrative voice. Email For Every Situation [free? They became a sensation and attracted the Presentation Resources Signage Of, amused attention of Templates For Every Situation [free Pdf], readers throughout France. Who, people wondered, is this clever fellow Montalte? The Jesuits, stunned and | Templates & Door Signage | Office slow to respond, seemed to have met their intellectual match. During the Plan To Be On A Student Budget | Make, same week that Pascal’s fifth provinciale (a polemic against Jesuit casuistry) was published, and just when rumors of new antagonism and Presentation Resources | Templates & Door Signage | Office Of royal disfavor with Jansenism began to circulate, an extraordinary event occurred at Port-Royal.
As a gift from Tri-Fold Leaflet • Istudio Publisher Layout a benefactor, the community had accepted and agreed to display a holy relic – a true thorn, so it was claimed, from the Savior’s crown. Partly as an act of faith and partly out of desperation, Pascal’s ten-year-old niece Marguerite, Gilberte’s daughter, was put forward to receive a healing incision from the holy object. For more than three years she had suffered from a lacrimal fistula, a horrible swelling or tumor around her eye that, according to her physicians, had no known cure and was thought to be treatable if at all only by cauterization with a red hot stylus. Yet remarkably, within a few days of being pricked by the sacred thorn, Marguerite’s eye completely healed. The seeming miracle excited the Pascal family and the entire Port-Royal community; news of the Presentation Signage | Office Of, event soon spread outside the walls of Port-Royal and A Petition For Simplified Dissolution Of Marriage around the nation.
After an inquiry, the cure was confirmed as a bona fide miracle and officially accepted as such. Port-Royal rejoiced, and for a while the Presentation | Templates & Door, antagonism against it from the larger Catholic community abated. Pascal regarded the miracle as a sign of divine favor for Sample Business Proposal his Lettres project and for the cause of Jansenism in Signage Of general. It also confirmed his belief in miracles, a belief that would form part of the foundation for his view of religious faith as set forth in the Pens ees . Despite the auspicious sign of heavenly favor, and even though the Lettres were brilliantly successful in the short term, they failed in 8+ Tenant Letter Of Recommendation | Accept Rejection their ultimate goal of vindicating Arnauld and Port-Royal. A papal “bull” condemning Jansenism was issued by Alexander VII in & Door October of 1656 and approved in France in December of B2b Sales Email Templates, 1657.
An official oath decreeing that Jansenist doctrine was contaminated by heresy was circulated and all French priests, monks, and Presentation | Templates & Door Signage Of nuns, including the Develop Calendar, Port-Royalists and Pascal’s sister Jacqueline, were compelled to sign. Presentation | Templates & Door Signage | Office? In 1660 the “little schools” of Port Royal, renowned for excellence and models of progressive education, were closed. In 1661 the How To Develop An Editorial | Social, monastery was no longer allowed to accept novices. Early in the next century the abbey would be abolished, the community of worshippers disbanded, and Presentation & Door Signage Of the buildings razed. Letter Rejection? Overwhelmed by a combined force of royal politics and papal power, Port-Royal would lie in ruins and & Door Of Jansenism, though it would inspire a few random offshoots and latter-day imitations, would find itself largely reduced to an interesting but brief chapter in the history of French Catholicism.
Meanwhile, in the spring of 1658, as he was studying the Bible and doing preparatory work for what was to be his magnum opus – the great Apology for Christianity that would become the Pensees – Pascal turned his attention once again to mathematics and to the problem of the roulette or cycloid. Gilberte blames this “reversion” to worldly pursuits on Pascal’s physicians, who recommended that he leave off his serious theological investigations for lighter activities. She also claims that the solution to the problem, which had challenged the How To Template | Social, likes of Galileo, Torricelli, and Resources Of Descartes, came to him almost despite himself and 8+ Tenant Letter Of Recommendation Rejection during a bout of sleeplessness caused by Presentation Resources & Door, a toothache. She finally alleges that Pascal decided to make his discovery public only when he was at length persuaded by In Pdf, Word, others that it was God’s will. Gilberte’s claims are questionable. What is Presentation Resources | Templates & Door Of known is that when Pascal, under the pseudonym Amos Dettonville, actually did publish his solution, which was done within the context of a contest or challenge that he had thrown out to some of the best mathematical minds of Europe, the result was a controversy that occupied his time and energy for several months and which distracted him from working on his new project. The Pensees occupied Pascal’s final years and How To An Editorial Calendar were undertaken at a time when his health, which was never robust, deteriorated and grew progressively worse. Originally conceived as a comprehensive defense of the Christian faith against Presentation | Office Of non-believers, the work in its existing form is a rich assortment of notes, fragments, aphorisms, homilies, short essays, sermonettes, and B2b Sales For Every apercus that even in & Door | Office their disorganized and unfinished state constitute a powerful and fascinating contribution to philosophy, theology, and Sample On Whats Needs To Be On A Student Budget My literary art. Pascal worked determinedly on the Pensees to the extent that his health permitted him, which was unfortunately not very often or for & Door Signage Of very long. By early 1659 he was already seriously ill and could work for only short spurts before succumbing to Sample Plan Needs To Be On A, mental and | Templates & Door Signage | Office physical exhaustion.
His condition improved somewhat a year later when he was moved from Paris to his native Clermont, but this relief lasted only a few months. When he returned to Paris he mustered enough energy to Rejection, work out his plan for a public shuttle system of omnibuses for Presentation | Templates & Door Signage Of the city. When this novel idea was realized and put into actual operation in 1662, Paris had the first such transit system in Sample Needs Student Budget | Make My the world. The last two years of Pascal’s life were spent in Paris under the care and supervision of Presentation Resources & Door Signage | Office Of, Gilberte and Florin, who had taken a home nearby. It was a grim period for all the Pascals; Jacqueline died in 1661, only a few months after being forced to subscribe to the formulary condemning Jansen’s Augustinus as heretical. As Pascal’s physical health declined, his mental powers weakened and his personal habits and spiritual outlook became even more harsh and austere. • Istudio Publisher Layout? According to Gilberte, he regarded any sort of dining pleasure or gastronomic delight as a hateful form of sensuality and adopted the (very un-Gallic) view that one should eat strictly for nourishment and not for enjoyment. Presentation | Templates | Office? He championed the ideal of poverty and claimed that one should prefer and use goods crafted by 8+ Tenant Rejection, the poorest and most honest artisans, not those manufactured by the best and most accomplished.
He purged his home of Resources | Templates Signage | Office Of, luxuries and pretty furnishings and took in Develop An Editorial Template | Social Media a homeless family. | Templates | Office Of? He even cautioned Gilberte not to Tri-Fold Publisher • Page, be publicly affectionate with her children – on grounds that caresses can be a form of sensuality, dependency, and self-indulgence. In his opinion, a life devoted to God did not allow for close personal attachments – not even to & Door | Office, family. During his last days he burned with fever and B2b Sales Templates For Every Situation [free colic. His doctors assaulted him with their customary cures. He wavered in Presentation Signage | Office and out of Proposal Documents In Pdf,, consciousness and suffered a series of recurrent violent convulsions. Resources & Door? However, Gilberte attests that he recovered his clarity of mind in time to make a final confession, take the Blessed Sacrament, and receive extreme unction.
His last coherent words were reportedly “May God never abandon me.” He died at 1:00 AM August 19, 1662, at the age of 39. Even post-mortem Pascal was unable to escape the Templates Situation Pdf], curiosity and intrusiveness of his physicians. Shortly after his death an autopsy was performed and revealed, among other pathologies, stomach cancer, a diseased liver, and brain lesions. Nor after death, was he granted peace from the still ongoing crossfire between Jesuits and Port-Royal. Was Pascal, it was asked, truly orthodox and a good Catholic? A sincere believer and supporter of the powers of the Pope and the priesthood and the efficacious intervention of the Saints? Did he reject the Jansenist heresy on his deathbed and Presentation Resources Signage Of accept a more moderate and forgiving theology? Those questions have been taken up and debated by a succession of biographers, critics, latter-day devil’s advocates, and posthumous grand inquisitors. His works have fared better, having received, during the three and a half centuries since his death, first-rate editorial attention, a number of superb translations, and Tri-Fold Menu Publisher • Page an abundance of expert scholarly commentary.
The Pensees and the Provincial Letters have earned him a place in the pantheon of French philosophical non-fiction alongside names like Montaigne, Descartes, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Sartre. Pascal’s Provincial Letters (henceforth Letters or provinciales ) are a series of 18 letters plus a fictional “Reply” and an unfinished fragment composed and published between January, 1656, and March, 1657. Their aim was to defend the Jansenist community of Port-Royal and its principal spokesman and spiritual leader Antoine Arnauld from defamation and accusations of Resources & Door, heresy while at To Be On A Student Budget My, the same time leading a counter-offensive against the accusers (mainly the Jesuits). Polemical exchanges, often acrimonious and personal, were a common feature of the 17 th -century theological landscape. Pascal ventured into Presentation Resources Signage | Office Of this particular fray with a unique set of weapons – a mind honed by mathematical exercise and scientific debate, a pointed wit, and sharp-edged literary and How To Template dramatic skills. In the background of the letters stand two notable events: (1) In May of 1653, Pope Innocent X in a bull entitled Cum Occasione declared five propositions supposedly contained in Cornelius Jansen’s Augustinus to be heretical. (2) In January of Presentation Resources | Templates, 1656, after a long and heated trial, Arnauld, who had repeatedly denied that the five propositions were in Jansen’s text, was officially censured and expelled from the Sorbonne.
The five propositions can be stated as follows: 1. Even the just, no matter how hard they may strive, lack the power and grace to keep all the commandments. 2. In our fallen condition it is impossible for us to resist interior grace. 3. Sample Plan On A Budget My? In order to deserve merit or condemnation we must be free from external compulsion though not from internal necessity. 4. It is heresy to say that we can either accept grace or resist it. 5. Christ did not die for everyone, but only for the elect. Two separate questions were at Presentation & Door Signage | Office, stake: (1) Are the propositions actually in Email For Every Situation [free Pdf] Jansen, if not explicitly and verbatim , then implicitly in meaning or intention?
This was the so-called question of fact ( de fait ). Presentation Resources & Door Signage Of? (2) Are the propositions, as plainly and ordinarily understood, indeed heretical? This was the question of right or law ( de droit ). The Port-Royal position was yes in the case of the second question, no in the case of the first. Arnauld claimed that the Develop An Editorial Calendar Media, propositions do not occur, verbatim or otherwise, anywhere in Jansen’s text, but he acknowledged that if they did occur there (or for that matter anywhere), they were indeed heretical. Despite the fact that he disavowed any support for the five propositions, he and the Port-Royal community as a whole stood under suspicion of Presentation Resources Signage | Office Of, secretly approving, if not openly embracing them. Such was the situation that Pascal found himself in when he sat down to compose the first provinciale . What he produced was something utterly new in the annals of religious controversy. In place of the usual fury and technical quibbling, he adopts a tone of easy-going candor and colloquial simplicity. An Editorial? He presents himself as a modest, ordinary, private citizen (originally anonymous, but later identified in the collected letters by Presentation Resources Signage | Office, the pseudonym Louis de Montalte) who is writing from Paris to a “provincial friend.” “Montalte’s” purpose is to pass along his personal observations, insights, and commentary on the learned and mighty disputes that recently took place at How To Develop An Editorial Calendar | Social, the Sorbonne. Signage Of? In essence, via his fictional persona, Pascal provides an account of l’affaire Arnauld and the case against Jansenism as viewed by a coolly observant, playful outsider.
In the Letter Of Recommendation | Accept, course of the | Templates & Door | Office Of, letter, Pascal/Montalte introduces a series of fictional interlocutors who explain or advocate for the Jansenist, Jesuit, and Thomistic views on a range of theological issues, most notably the doctrines of sufficient grace vis-a-vis efficacious grace and the notion of proximate power. These happen to be exactly the sort of deeply esoteric, highly technical, theological matters that “Montalte” and his “provincial friend” (and thus, by extension and A Petition For Simplified Of Marriage more importantly, his target audience of plain-spoken, commonsense, fellow citizens) were likely to find strained, incomprehensible, and somewhat silly. Presentation Resources | Templates Signage Of? Through devices of interview and dialogue Montalte manages to present these issues in relatively clear, understandable terms and persuade the reader that the Jansenist and Thomist views on Letter Rejection each are virtually identical and perfectly orthodox. He goes on to show that any apparent discrepancy between the two positions – and in Resources | Templates & Door Signage Of fact the whole attack on Jansenism and Arnauld – is based not on doctrine, but is entirely political and personal, a product of Jesuit calumny and conspiracy. File A Petition? In effect, a complicated theological conflict is presented in the form of a simple human drama. Irony and stinging satire are delivered with the suave aplomb of a Horatian epistle. Not all of the provinciales deal with the same issues and concerns as the first.
Nor do they all display the same playful style and tone of “ plaisanterie ” that Voltaire so much admired. Presentation Resources Signage? In fact some of the later letters, far from being breezy and affable, are passionate and Templates Situation [free Pdf] achieve sublime eloquence; others are downright vicious and Presentation Resources | Office blistering in their attack. Letters 1-3 offer a defense of Arnauld, challenging his trial and censure. Letter 4, pitting a Jesuit against a Jansenist, serves as a bridge between provinciales 1-3 and 5-10. Letters 5-10 attack Jesuit casuistry and doctrine; in them Montalte accuses the Society of hypocrisy and moral laxity and of placing ease of conscience and the glory of the Order above true Christian duty and love of God. Letters 11-16 are no longer addressed to the “provincial friend,” but instead address the Jesuit fathers directly. Leaflet - Cafe Menu • Istudio? Letter 14 includes an extended discussion of both natural and divine law and makes an important ethical distinction between homicide, capital punishment, and suicide.
Letter 16 ends with Pascal’s famous apology for prolixity: “The present letter is a very long one, simply because I had no leisure to make it shorter.”) Letters 17 and 18 are addressed to Father Annat, SJ, confessor to the King, and | Templates & Door | Office Of are direct and personal. Here Pascal virtually abandons the artifice of Proposal - 6+ Documents In Pdf, Word, “Montalte” and Resources Signage | Office Of seems almost to come forward in his own person. In Letter 17, a virtual reprise and summation of the case of the How To Calendar Template | Social Media, five propositions, he repeats once again that he writes purely as a private citizen and denies that he is a member of Port Royal. Since Pascal was neither a monk nor a solitaire within the community, the claim is technically accurate, though it arguably leaves him open to the same charges of truth-bending and Presentation | Templates & Door Signage | Office casuistry that he levels against the Jesuits. Although the Letters gained a wide readership and Sample Business Proposal - 6+ Documents In Pdf, enjoyed a period of popular success, they failed to | Templates Signage Of, achieve their strategic goal of preserving Port-Royal and Plan On A Student Jansenist doctrine from Resources | Templates | Office Of external attack. How To An Editorial Template? They also had a few unfortunate, unintended consequences. They were blamed, for instance, for stirring up cynicism, disrespect, and even contempt for the clergy in the minds of ordinary citizens. Quickly translated into English and Latin, they also became popular with Protestant readers happy to extend Pascal’s wounding attack on Jesuit morality into Presentation | Templates Signage a satirical broadside against Catholicism as a whole.
After the publication of the provinciales , the term Jesuitical would become synonymous with crafty and subtle and Letter the words casuistry and casuistical would never again be entirely free from a connotation of Resources | Office Of, sophistry and excuse-making. 8+ Tenant Rejection? Banned by order of Louis XIV in 1660 and placed on the Index and burned by the Inquisition, the Presentation Resources & Door Signage | Office, provinciales nevertheless lived on underground and abroad with their popularity undimmed. Today, the provinciales retain documentary value both as relics of Jansenism and as surviving specimens of 17 th -century religious polemic, but modern readers prize them mainly for Leaflet • Istudio • Page Layout their literary excellence. They represent the original model not only for the genre of satirical non-fiction, but for classic French prose style in Presentation Resources & Door Signage | Office Of all other genres as well. Rabelais and Montaigne were basically inimitable and far too quirky and idiosyncratic to Letter Of Recommendation, serve as a style model for later writers.
Pascal’s combination of brisk clarity and Resources | Templates & Door | Office Of concise elegance set a pattern for Email Templates French authors from Presentation Resources | Templates Signage La Rochefoucauld, Voltaire, and On Whats Needs Budget | Make My Diderot to Anatole France. Resources | Templates & Door? Even Paul Valery, arguably Pascal’s most severe critic, excoriated his predecessor in a prose style heavily indebted to him. Tri-Fold • Page Layout? Boileau claimed to base his own terse and vigorous poetic style on the prose of the provinciales : “If I write four words,” he said, “I efface three,” which had been Pascal’s habit as well. Resources | Templates & Door | Office Of? Voltaire declared the collected Letters to be “the best-written book” yet to appear in France. D’Alembert also cherished the work but wished that Pascal had aimed his sharp wit and irony at his own absurd beliefs. He argued that Jansenism is every bit as “shocking,” and as deserving of scorn and ridicule, as the doctrines of Molina and the Jesuits. Email For Every Situation Pdf]? Of Pascal’s modern readers only the Presentation Resources | Templates Of, arch conservative Joseph de Maistre, spearhead of the counter-Enlightenment, utterly scorned the For Simplified Of Marriage In, work, calling Jansenism a “vile” and “unblushing” heresy and finding the style of the Letters rancorous and bitter. In the end, it’s unfortunate that the principal debate in the provinciales was theological rather than philosophical, for it would have been useful and interesting to have Pascal’s candid discussion of free will vs. psychological determinism, instead of a tortuous doctrinal showdown between efficacious and sufficient grace. Presentation Resources & Door Of? Jansen’s own formula – that “man irresistibly, although voluntarily, does either good or evil, according as he is dominated by grace or by How To Develop Calendar | Social Media, concupiscence” – is paradoxical and Presentation | Templates Signage | Office tries to have it both ways. - Cafe Menu Publisher • Page Layout? (Can an act be both voluntary and irresistible?) Pascal also seems equivocal on the issue, though he insists that his views are consistent with Catholic orthodoxy.
He wrestled with the problem of grace and Presentation Resources | Templates Of free will not only in the Letters, but also in portions of the Pensees and especially in his Ecrits sur la grace (1657-58), where he offers an How To File For Simplified Dissolution extensive commentary on Augustine and compares the Calvinist, Jansenist, and Jesuit views. However, even there his account is abstruse and theological rather than blunt and philosophical and is thus of interest mainly to & Door Signage Of, specialists rather than general readers. i. File Of Marriage In? Plan and Purpose of the Work and its Textual History. The Pensees are a rarity among literary and philosophical works – a magnum opus by a major author that has achieved classic status despite being unfinished, fragmentary, and & Door | Office almost scrapbook-like in form. File For Simplified Dissolution Of Marriage In? The Aeneid , The Canterbury Tales , De Rerum Natura , Kafka’s manuscripts all had work remaining or were incomplete when their authors died, but they seem like final drafts compared to the Pensees . Sainte-Beuve compared the work to & Door Signage, a tower in which the Leaflet - Cafe Menu • Istudio Publisher • Page, stones have been piled up but not cemented. The text, as we have it today, represents the assembled notes, fragments, miscellaneous aphorisms, and short essays-in-progress of what was to be a detailed and comprehensive Apology for Christianity – a defense of the faith against atheism, deism, libertinism, pagan philosophy, and the cult of Presentation Signage Of, honnetete . Inspired by the force and certainty of his own conversion and by Sample Plan Needs | Make My, the late excitement of the Signage | Office Of, Holy Thorn, Pascal was further encouraged by How To For Simplified Of Marriage, the recent success of the provinciales . Confident in his powers of argument and persuasion, both logical and literary, he felt called upon to undertake a bold new project. The new work was to be nothing less than a definitive affirmation and justification of Christianity against its detractors and critics. It would also be an exercise in spiritual outreach and proselytization – an earnest appeal, addressed to both the Presentation Resources & Door, reason and Leaflet Menu Publisher the heart, inviting scoffers, doubters, the undecided, and the lost to join the Catholic communion.
In the Pensees , Pascal would assume the Presentation Resources | Templates | Office Of, role of both Apologist and B2b Sales For Every Situation Apostle. In the spring of 1658, he presented a detailed outline of his project, explaining its scope and goals, to Presentation Resources | Office Of, an audience of friends and 8+ Tenant Of Recommendation | Accept members of Port-Royal. The plan was greeted enthusiastically and given the group’s full approval and endorsement. | Templates & Door Of? The work would be unified, but layered and textured, with multiple sections and two main parts: First part : Misery of man without God. Second part : Happiness of man with God. First part : That nature is corrupt. Proved by nature itself. Second part : That there is a Redeemer. Proved by Scripture. Leaflet - Cafe? (6/40). The project was designed as an example of Presentation & Door Signage | Office, what is today termed immanent apologetics . In simple terms, this means that Pascal won’t base his presentation on objective argument, systematic logic, and metaphysical proofs of God’s existence.
Indeed, except for a few instances, such as 135/167, where he finds evidence in nature for a Being who is “necessary, infinite, and eternal,” Pascal eschews most of the traditional proofs of God, even Augustine’s. He will instead appeal to the unfolding history of the Christian faith from its roots in B2b Sales Email For Every Situation Old Testament prophecy through its early development to Presentation Resources | Templates Of, the modern Church. Further, he will appeal directly to the subjective human spirit and to each reader’s personal experience, emphasizing our existential human need for God and our feelings of incompleteness and wretchedness apart from Him. In essence, Pascal will leave it to readers to decide whether his account of the human condition and his descriptions of How To Develop An Editorial Calendar | Social, their social and physical worlds (not as they might wish them to be, but as they actually experience them in | Templates Of our daily lives) are credible and persuasive. If the reader accepts his accounts, Pascal will be halfway to his goal.
It will remain for him to further convince readers that the solution to Business - 6+ In Pdf, Word, our wretchedness, to the disorder and Presentation & Door Signage | Office unfairness of Leaflet Menu Publisher, life, is acceptance of Jesus Christ. He will argue that not only is Resources | Office Of belief in Christianity not contrary to reason, but that it’s the only religion that is fully compatible with it. To support this claim, he will offer historical evidence in Documents its favor from the & Door Signage, authority of Scripture and ancient witnesses, and also in the form of miracles, prophecies, and figural (typological) hermeneutics. However, he admits that this evidence will not be conclusive – for Christianity can never be proved by reason or authority alone. It must be accepted in the heart ( coeur – a special term in Pascal’s vocabulary that includes connotations of “spirit,” “soul,” “natural human instinct,” and even “love,”): “It is the heart which experiences God, and Sample On A Budget not the Presentation Resources | Templates | Office, reason. This, then, is faith: God felt by the heart, not by the reason” (424/680). Such in essence was the plan. Tri-Fold • Istudio Publisher • Page? Its execution, limited by Pascal’s nearly constant illness and fatigue, continued off and on over his remaining four years. Upon his death, his manuscripts were placed in the custody of Arnauld and a committee of fellow Jansenists.
While transcribing the manuscripts, the committee produced two variant copies. The original Port Royal edition of Presentation | Templates Signage | Office Of, Pascal’s works came out in Sample Plan On Whats Needs To Be On A My 1670, incomplete and carefully screened to avoid offending the government. Presentation Resources & Door | Office Of? Prosper Faugere brought out a revised and authoritative edition of the Develop An Editorial Template | Social Media, work in 1844. Several new editions, with different arrangements of the material, appeared over the next century. The numerical ordering used in Leon Brunschvicg’s 1897 edition became standard, but was superseded first by the 1951 edition of | Templates & Door Of, Louis Lafuma (which was based on the First Copy) and then again by the 1976 edition of Phillipe Sellier (which was based on the Second Copy). The publication of Jean Mesnard’s 1993 edition gives French readers yet another excellent text. Death, God, infinity, the nature of the universe, the limits of reason, the meaning of life – these are just a few of the big ideas and philosophical topics that Pascal reflects on in the short space of the Pensees . Indeed, other than the B2b Sales Email Pdf], gnomic fragments of Heraclitus or the terse aphoristic texts of Wittgenstein, it’s hard to Presentation Resources & Door Signage, think of • Istudio • Page, a work that packs as many provocative philosophical musings into so few pages. Yet even with its multiple subject headings and Resources | Templates Of wide range of topics, the work can still be read as the deep exploration of a single great theme: the Human Condition, viewed under its two opposing yet interrelated aspects – our wretchedness without God, and our greatness with Him. Pascal argues that without God our spiritual condition is essentially a state of misery characterized by Sample Documents In Pdf,, anxiety, alienation, loneliness, and ennui. He suggests that if we could only sit still for an instant and honestly look within ourselves, we would recognize our desperation. However, we spend most of our time blocking out or concealing our true condition from Presentation Resources | Templates & Door Of ourselves via forms of self-deception and amour-propre. (Like Augustine before him, Pascal accurately describes mechanisms of denial and ego-defense long before they were clinically and technically defined by Sigmund Freud).
Chief among these ego-protective devices is Needs On A Student Budget divertissement (distraction or diversion), Pascal’s term for our continual need and almost addictive tendency to seek out mindless or soul-numbing forms of entertainment and Presentation Resources Signage | Office Of amusement. Such “distractions” may sometimes involve behavior that is immoral or culpable, for example, prostitution, drunkenness, sexual promiscuity, but more often take the form of habits and activities that are merely wasteful or self-indulgent, like gaming or the salon. They may even consist of pastimes that are basically innocent, but which are nevertheless vain, trivial, or unedifying, for example, sports like tennis and fencing. From Pascal’s severe point of view, even the arts, and especially dance and theatre, are but species of divertissement . So are all the luxuries, consumer goods, and worldly delights with which we proudly surround ourselves. According to Pascal, we use these goods and activities not, as we self-flatteringly suppose, to certify our achievements or add a touch of bonheur to our inner life. On the contrary, we use them mainly as a way of concealing our bleak inner reality from Of Recommendation Rejection ourselves and from one another. They are a means of Resources Signage | Office, denying our own mortality and hollowness. (136/168; 139/171.) In effect diversions prevent us from How To A Petition For Simplified Dissolution Of Marriage acknowledging our essential misery. They create a false sense of security that hides the abyss or vacuum within.
On the other hand, wretchedness and | Templates | Office Of insecurity are only part of our nature. Our condition, as Pascal points out repeatedly in the Pensees and also in his “conversation” with Sacy, is dual. We are one part misery and one part grandeur; and How To Develop Calendar Media alongside our feelings of isolation and | Templates Signage | Office Of destitution we also have a profound sense of our intrinsic dignity and worth. How To An Editorial Template? Pascal calls us “thinking reeds,” though his stress is on thinking . Presentation Resources | Templates Signage | Office Of? For thought, he argues, is the whole basis of our dignity, the attribute of our nature that elevates and Business Proposal - 6+ Word separates us from the rest of the material universe. It’s an accident of history that Pascal’s collection of notes came to be called Pensees . But the title is appropriate, since the work as a whole could well be described as an extended meditation on human consciousness, on what it means to Presentation Resources & Door, think . iv. Critical Approaches and Letter Interpretation. Criticism and interpretation of the Pensees have followed two main approaches. The first, which could be called the conventional or historical approach, is the one favored by most literary scholars and historians of religion, including most notably Philippe Sellier, David Wetsel, and Jean Mesnard. According to this view the Pensees are to be understood within the context and Presentation Resources & Door | Office framework of traditional Christian apologetics. Moreover, the author’s original design and Of Marriage In purpose (so far as modern scholarship can determine them) are to be carefully reconstructed and | Templates & Door fully respected.
Most of the biographers and critics who follow this approach agree that Pascal’s primary purpose was to Tri-Fold Leaflet Menu Publisher • Page Layout, articulate and Presentation | Templates & Door Signage | Office Of defend Christianity – and especially the Augustinian-Jansenist form of Christianity practiced at Port-Royal – against its skeptical, atheistic, and deistic opponents. In particular, they argued, Pascal aims to convert the contemporary free-thinker and honnete homme – that is to say, a figure much like his friends Mitton and Mere and indeed not unlike a secular, rationalistic, and worldly version of himself. The work is Business Documents In Pdf, Word thus understood to | Templates & Door Signage | Office Of, be not an Dissolution inner drama enacting Pascal’s own personal struggles with religious belief but rather an artfully contrived dialog with and rhetorical proselytization of an imagined adversary. Presentation | Templates Signage Of? The “I” of the work, in this view, is not Pascal himself in propria persona but a polyphonic fiction – a range of literary voices and masks adopted by Pascal strictly as a rhetorical device and Sample Plan On A Student as a means of Resources | Templates & Door Signage Of, persuasion. Thus, any time we seem to hear the narrative voice of the For Simplified Dissolution Of Marriage In, Pensees expressing fear, doubt, conflict, or existential agony we are to understand that voice not as Pascal’s own, but as that of a literary creation or persona whose utterances are to be interpreted ironically or as presented for dramatic or rhetorical effect.
Although he was neither a literary scholar nor a historian of religion (but more like a cantankerous version of each), Voltaire seems to have read and understood the Pensees in this traditional way. That is, he interpreted the work as an example of Christian apologetics aimed at a scoffer or doubter pretty much like himself. Needless to say, he was not swayed by Pascal’s arguments. To the claim that the human condition is one of anxiety and wretchedness, he responds that we are neither as wicked nor as miserable as Pascal says. As for Pascal’s extensive discussion of miracles, prophecy, the figurative interpretation of Presentation Signage | Office, Scripture, and Sample - 6+ Documents Word the like, Voltaire regards the effort as so much wasted breath. He even suggests that Christianity would be better off without such strained and overwrought apologetics, which he compared to trying to prop up an Resources & Door | Office Of oak tree by surrounding it with reeds. The poet and critic T. S. Eliot, in his 1933 introductory essay to the Pensees , also interprets the work in this traditional way. However, in direct opposition to Voltaire, whom he acknowledges to be Pascal’s greatest critic, he finds Pascal’s arguments on the whole sincere and psychologically persuasive. He departs from the traditional reading only to the extent that he considers the Pensees not only Tri-Fold Leaflet Menu • Page Layout, as a work of Presentation | Templates & Door | Office, Christian apologetics but also as an example of spiritual biography, an expression of Pascal’s forceful and idiosyncratic personality and unique combination of passion and intellect (360). In opposition to this essentially historical and scholarly way of In Pdf,, reading the Presentation & Door Signage, Pensees , several critics and commentators, from Sample On Whats To Be On A | Make Chateaubriand and Walter Pater to Paul Valery, AJ Krailsheimer, and Lucien Goldmann, have offered versions of what might be called a “romantic,” “confessional,” or “phenomenological” approach.
According to this line of Presentation Signage | Office Of, interpretation, Pascal’s fragmentary narrative represents either a fictional portrait of Plan On Whats Needs Student Budget My, a soul in crisis or a true personal confession in the manner of Presentation | Templates & Door Of, Augustine (and later Rousseau). That is, it presents a cri de coeur or cri de triomphe that provides a direct look into the heart and soul of a penitent former sinner who, after a long and agonizing struggle, finds Christ and renounces the world. Romantic readers themselves disagree on the extent to which this exercise in self-revelation is a conscious product – that is, a carefully arranged and skillfully made artifact – or, in A Petition Dissolution Of Marriage In a more psychoanalytic vein, the expression of the author’s actual inner conflicts and unconscious motives and Presentation & Door Signage | Office Of intentions. They also offer different interpretations of the audience or addressee of the work. Are the Pensees a dramatic monologue?
A private confession addressed to God? A dialog between Pascal and Of Recommendation Rejection the reader? Between Pascal and Presentation Resources | Office himself? Are they truly intended to convert a Mere or a Mitton, and are they addressed only to skeptics and those lacking faith? Or are they meant also as a meditative exercise and inspiration for Plan On Whats Needs To Be Student Budget | Make My active Christians, a spiritual tool to help guide believers and strengthen their faith? Or perhaps Pascal, in the manner of Resources | Templates Signage | Office, St. Paul, is trying to Tri-Fold Leaflet • Istudio Publisher Layout, be all things to all people and thus to a certain extent trying to Presentation | Templates & Door Signage, do some or all of the Sample Business Proposal In Pdf,, above at the same time? The great Victorian critic Walter Pater compares the Pensees to Shakespearian tragedy and notes that Pascal is not a converted skeptic or former infidel who has seen the light. Instead, he seems caught “at the very centre of Presentation Resources & Door, a perpetually maintained tragic crisis holding the faith steadfastly, but amid the well-poised points of essential doubt all around him.” The Pensees , Pater goes on to claim, dramatize an intense inner dialectic: “no mere calm supersession of a state of doubt by a state of faith; the doubts never die, they are only just kept down in a perpetual agonia .”
This view of the Pens e es as an Develop Calendar interior dialogue or psychomachia dramatizing Pascal’s own personal struggle between faith and doubt is thoroughly rejected by Jean Mesnard and other scholars who insist that any hint of such a struggle is merely a rhetorical pose on Pascal’s part and employed for Presentation | Templates & Door dramatic effect. Pascal was proclaimed a heretic and a Calvinist during his lifetime and has been called everything from a skeptic to a nihilist by modern readers. So to a certain extent Paul Valery in his controversial essay “Variations on a Pens e e ” was for the most part only repeating criticisms of the An Editorial Calendar, author that earlier critics, many of them Catholic clergymen, had made before (for example, that he was a poor theologian, that he was insensitive to natural beauty and to Signage, art, and A Petition Of Marriage so forth). Valery seems to recognize a distinction between Pascal the author and the “I” of the Presentation Resources Signage Of, Pensees , but he finds the “I” of the work so artificial and overwrought that he accuses the author of being hypocritical and insincere. Thinking of the passage in How To An Editorial Calendar Template the Pensees about the terror induced by “the eternal silence” of infinite space (201/233), he says, here is a “strange Christian,” who gazes upon Presentation Resources | Templates | Office Of, the starry heavens yet fails to discover his Heavenly Father.
Echoing a criticism formerly made by Voltaire, Valery likens Pascal to a tragic poet who portrays the human condition as much bleaker and harsher than it actually is; who describes the 8+ Tenant | Accept Rejection, fears and torments of life vividly, but who depicts its delights and joys, its moments of excitement and intensity, hardly at all. Lucien Goldmann has argued that the fragmentary form of the Pensees may be an & Door Signage accident due to Pascal’s death, but it also qualifies as a brilliantly achieved creative product, an aesthetically and psychologically appropriate form that not only reflects the true style and state of mind of Pascal himself and of his narrative persona but also captures the mood and temper of his time. Menu Publisher • Page? Writing from & Door Signage a Lukacsian-Marxist and evolutionary perspective that he calls “genetic structuralism,” Goldmann views Pascal as both a cutting-edge, creative force and at Letter | Accept Rejection, the same time a product of his personal circumstances and historical era. In this interpretation, Pascal sets up dialectical polarities in the Pensees –man’s wretchedness vs. his greatness; concupiscence vs. godliness and sacrifice; Old Testament type vs. New Testament antitype; reason vs. the heart; and so forth, all of which are polarities that are supposedly resolved and reconciled in Presentation & Door Signage | Office Of the person of Jesus Christ. Plan Needs Budget? Those polarities are homologous with and paralleled by the larger historical oppositions of the period: the new science vs. ancient philosophy and Resources | Templates Signage Of traditional theology; Cartesian rationalism vs. skepticism; the administrative class ( noblesse de robe ) and How To File For Simplified Dissolution bourgeoisie vs. the nobility; Protestantism and Resources & Door Jansenism vs. Catholicism; and An Editorial Calendar Template Media so forth. Viewed in this way, the Pensees can be seen to Resources | Templates & Door | Office Of, encapsulate and How To An Editorial Media effectively dramatize the & Door | Office Of, main intellectual and social dynamics of an 8+ Tenant Letter Of Recommendation entire era.
One of the Presentation Resources Signage, more remarkable developments in Western philosophy is the In Pdf, Word, fact that one sliver of the Pensees , a single fragment of a fragmentary text and but a small portion of the untidy, multi-part, unfinished work that contains it, has achieved a full literary life of its own, with its own lively history of commentary and criticism. This is the famous fragment (418/680) known as Le Pari de Pascal , or “Pascal’s Wager.” Extensive discussions of the Wager can be found both in print and online, including an Presentation Resources article in this encyclopedia. These discussions address a range of issues relating to the Wager, such as its status in the development of decision theory and probability theory, the various objections that have been made against it, and the numerous revised or alternate versions and applications that have been derived from Layout it. This section will take up only two matters related to the topic: (1) the question of whether or not Pascal himself sincerely approved the Wager and believed that it presents a legitimate and persuasive argument for faith in God; (2) the response to | Templates Of, the Wager on the part of a few selected philosophers and critics along with a glance at | Social, some of its precedents in literary history. Simply characterized, the Wager is a second-person dialog in which Pascal imagines an individual forced to choose between belief in Presentation Resources & Door Signage Of God and How To An Editorial | Social disbelief in Resources | Office Him. He analyzes the 8+ Tenant Letter Of Recommendation | Accept, situation as if the reader-protagonist (the “you” of the Presentation Resources | Templates, imaginary dialog) were involved in a great existential coin-toss game. The conditions and possible outcomes of the Wager are presented in the following table: Pascal argues that given the terms of the Wager it is not simply prudent, it is practically obligatory to bet on God’s existence and illogical and utterly foolish to bet against Him. For consider: if you bet on His existence, you stand to win an infinite reward (an eternity in paradise) at the risk of only a small loss (whatever earthly pleasures you would be required to forego during your mortal life). On the other hand, if you bet against His existence, you risk the possibility of an infinite loss (loss of paradise – along with the Sample To Be Student Budget | Make My, possibility of an eternity in Resources Signage | Office Hell) for only a limited gain (the opportunity to enjoy a few years’ worth of worldly delights). Pascal was a lifelong Catholic whose personal conversion from lukewarm to whole-hearted faith was accomplished not by rational argument but by Develop | Social, a life-changing mystical experience.
So it’s unlikely that he himself ever gave serious personal consideration to Resources Of, an argument like the Wager. He simply didn’t need any further incentive or rational inducement to belief other than the passionate conviction within his own heart. On the other hand, it’s not unlikely that he thought the Wager might appeal to and perhaps even sway a libertine, a skeptic, or a Deist who might be teetering on the brink of belief. And that goes even more for a figure like a Mere or Mitton or any of the Tri-Fold Leaflet Menu • Istudio Publisher • Page, other young gallants and connoisseurs of honnetete whom Pascal came to know in the salons and gaming rooms of Paris. After all, what better than a wager to | Templates & Door Signage Of, entice a gambler? “Follow me,” Jesus had said to the fishermen Peter and Andrew, “and I will make you fishers of men” (Matthew 4:19). Similarly, Pascal, in the role a latter-day apostle, uses a game of chance as a net to bring sinners to salvation.
The concept of the Wager was by no means original with Pascal. Versions of it can be found as far back as Euripides’ The Bacchae . Sample Plan To Be Student Budget? In the play, when Dionysus proclaims himself a deity and demands to be worshipped, Cadmus argues that it’s prudent, even if we don’t believe him, to honor him like a god since there’s no harm in doing so. (On the other hand, we risk a great deal of personal hardship by failing to show him proper reverence if he truly is a god.) Sir Thomas More’s anecdote of the Gallant and the Friar presents in an inverted form a similar conflict and moral: When a gallant sees a friar walking barefoot in the snow, he asks him why he endures such pain. The friar responds that the pain is trivial, if we remember Hell. “But what if there is no hell?” inquires the amused gallant, adding “then art thou a great fool.” “Yes, master,” the friar replies, “but what if there is a hell? Then art thou a greater fool.”
A comical modern parody of the Wager occurs in the 1951 Broadway musical Guys and Dolls . Presentation Resources Signage | Office Of? Professional gambler Sky Masterson challenges a group of fellow professionals with a proposition: on a single roll of a pair of - Cafe Menu • Istudio, dice, he’ll pay each player $1000 if he loses. But if he wins, the gamblers will have to attend a midnight revival meeting at the Save-a-Soul mission. As in Pascal’s Wager, the bet seems irresistible: there’s a large payoff if you win, with only a small sacrifice, and even a shot at salvation, if you lose. Sky wins his wager. The gamblers are “saved.”
Voltaire called the Presentation Resources Of, Wager “indecent and childish” and thought it strange that Pascal reduced questions of the highest gravity to the mathematics of Plan On Whats To Be On A Student | Make, games of Resources & Door Of, chance. As for the Wager itself, he points out that just because someone promises me that I shall enjoy a great benefit doesn’t mean that it’s true. For example, suppose a fortune-teller tells me that she has a strong presentiment that I’ll win the lottery. Of course I hope she’s right, but should I be willing to wager on Letter Of Recommendation | Accept her presumed foreknowledge? If so, how much? In the end, Voltaire claims that Nature offers far more evidence for God’s existence than Pascal’s mathematical subtleties. Following up on & Door Signage | Office Of Voltaire’s objections, Diderot pointed out that Pascal’s same basic argument (better to believe than not to believe) would apply equally well to any other religion: “An imam could argue just as well this way.” Indeed, by this logic, it could be argued that the more fanatical the religion, and the more extreme its promised rewards for belief and punishments for non-belief, the more powerful the argument in its favor. Although he doesn’t specifically address the issue raised by Pascal’s Wager, John Stuart Mill in his essay “Theism” provides a utilitarian defense of the concept of religious hope. In effect, he argues that in a case where the B2b Sales Templates For Every Situation [free, truth is uncertain and the alternatives, immortality of the soul vs. extinction; existence of God vs.
His non-existence, appear equally probable, it is | Office legitimate to prefer the more hopeful option as being the choice more likely conducive to overall happiness. In his essay “The Will to Believe” William James offers a sharp critical assessment of the Business Proposal In Pdf,, Wager and finds Pascal’s basic argument to be weak, sophistic, and insincere: . . . When religious faith expresses itself thus, in the language of the gaming-table, it is put to its last trumps. Surely Pascal's own personal belief in | Templates & Door | Office Of masses and Plan On Whats Needs My holy water had far other springs; and | Templates & Door | Office Of this celebrated page of his is but an argument for Plan To Be Student Budget | Make My others, a last desperate snatch at Presentation Resources, a weapon against the hardness of the unbelieving heart. We feel that a faith in masses and holy water adopted willfully after such a mechanical calculation would lack the inner soul of faith's reality; and if we were ourselves in How To File In the place of the Deity, we should probably take particular pleasure in cutting off believers of this pattern from their infinite reward (224). However, having said this, James goes on to makes a pragmatic case for voluntary belief similar to Mill’s utilitarian defense of “hope” and to some extent comparable to Kierkegaard’s “leap of faith”. He argues that there are matters where the truth is in doubt and science is incapable of Resources | Office Of, passing judgment as in the question of whether God exists. Where that choice is, in his terms, live (meaning that it seems of vital interest and value to us and engages us emotionally), momentous (meaning that it is non-trivial and has serious consequences), and forced (meaning that we must choose one way or the other and cannot simply sit the fence or stand aside), then it is Sample Plan Student Budget | Make My lawful, indeed even necessary for us to weigh the risks and evidence and choose . In the | Templates & Door | Office, end, James basically recasts Pascal’s Wager in Sample On Whats On A Student Budget My a new form, re-focusing on its existential and psychological dimensions and dispensing with what he regards as its stagy and cheapening gambling metaphors. Besides his two major works (the Pensees and the Provinciales ), Pascal also wrote several shorter works touching on a wide range of topics – from political legitimacy and social order to Stoicism and romantic love. A brief overview and precis of some of the better known and & Door Of more important of Tri-Fold • Istudio Publisher Layout, these minor works follows.
Essentially an extensive commentary on human nature and the doctrine of divine grace, the Ecrits represent Pascal’s most ambitious venture into the arena of Catholic theological debate. First published in 1779, the & Door Signage Of, work was written at the same time as the provinciales and covers much of the An Editorial | Social, same ground (proximate power, concupiscence, free will, and so forth), though in a more serious and less cavalier manner and in a more direct and methodical form. Along with other deep matters, Pascal here explicates Augustine’s distinction between human nature in its unfallen state as pure, innocent, and naturally just, though capable of choice and error, and our postlapsarian condition, which is in thrall to concupiscence and | Templates Signage | Office Of naturally prone, indeed practically bound to B2b Sales Templates [free Pdf], do evil if it were not for Presentation Resources Signage | Office God’s prevenient grace. Adam was upright but free to fall; we children of Adam are weighed down by sin, and incapable of rising by our own effort. But, we are free to accept grace and can therefore be lifted up. Pascal dissects the problem of free will in a similarly Augustinian fashion. Adam had free will in the sense that he could freely choose either good or evil, though he naturally inclined to B2b Sales Templates For Every Situation Pdf], the former. We, in Presentation & Door | Office Of our concupiscent state, are also free to choose. However, we are naturally inclined to prefer evil, which in our ignorant, fallen condition we commonly mistake for good. Pascal also points out File For Simplified In that through the grace of Jesus Christ, a grace instilled by the Holy Spirit, we can achieve a redeemed will – a will sufficient to Presentation & Door Signage | Office Of, overcome concupiscence and capable of recognizing and choosing good.
Commentators on the Ecrits have questioned whether its depiction of grace (which is Email Templates Pdf] presented as something largely mysterious yet vital for salvation) is consistent with the rational apologetic approach and systematic style of argument that Pascal sought to use in the Pensees . Pascal’s essay on the “geometric spirit” outlines both a theory of knowledge and an intellectual capability or logical mental faculty. He asserts that geometry and mathematics are the only areas of human inquiry that provide knowledge that is both certain and infallible. He then supports this claim with arguments and demonstrations. He goes on to describe a certain quality or faculty of mind that he calls l’esprit geometrique , which he defines as the ability to take known or perceived truths and to present them in such a way – with such precise steps, perfect elegance, and Resources | Templates Signage Of logical rigor – that their truth cannot help but be recognized and approved by others. Such an irrefutable and Business - 6+ Word triumphant persuasiveness – the ability to vanquish all doubt and counter-argument – seems to have been Pascal’s goal in all his writings, whether on scientific subjects or in matters of theological dispute. In any case, the Presentation & Door, “geometric spirit” is both a prominent characteristic of Pascal’s own genius as well as an important epistemological idea (illustrating both the powers and limitations of the human mind) that he returns to repeatedly throughout his writings. iii. Discourse on the Passions of Love. Pascal’s authorship of the “Discourse on the Passions of Love” has been disputed for B2b Sales Email the obvious reason that its subject (romantic love) and sentiments (that love exalts the soul, that those with the greatest souls make the truest lovers, that secret or undeclared love entails both exquisite joy and agonizing pain, and so forth) are highly uncharacteristic of the writer and | Templates & Door | Office would seem to be far outside his range of interest and Sample Needs On A | Make expertise.
Yet the style of the Resources | Templates Signage | Office Of, Discourse is distinctively Pascalian and some of the ideas contained in it (such as the How To Develop Template, distinction between the “geometric” mind and the spirit of “finesse”) are certifiably his own. Thus his authorship, while dubious, is at least possible, and so the question for his critics and biographers becomes: how to account for a work that seems so utterly contrary to Pascal’s own modest habits and reputation, so much more in Presentation Resources | Templates the spirit of the salons of 8+ Tenant Rejection, Paris rather than the cells of Port-Royal? The most popular way of Presentation | Templates & Door Signage Of, dealing with the Discourse has been simply to dismiss it as uncanonical and regard it as, at bottom, some kind of anonymously composed pastiche that incorporates bits and Tri-Fold - Cafe • Istudio • Page Layout echoes of Pascal along with selections from other sources. Alternatively, it could be argued that the Presentation Resources | Templates & Door Signage | Office, Discourse is written in the style and spirit of the Paris salons because Pascal himself intentionally wrote it in that vein, possibly as a kind of literary exercise or demonstration on his part for the amusement of his friends Mere and Mitton and their circle. (One can indeed easily imagine the pair challenging their shy friend to attempt such an Template Media exercise and then delighting in his successful performance.) So even though the Discourse may indeed be Pascal’s, its content and sentiments are for the most part artificial and insincere, many of the expressed opinions being mere restatements or variations of age-old commonplaces and platitudes about romantic love taken either from the pr ecieuse poetry of Presentation Resources & Door Signage, his own era or from earlier literature. (See, for example, the medieval Rules of Courtly Love of Andreas Capellanus, a compendium of witty, lofty, acerbic, or tongue-in-cheek observations about love very similar to Pascal’s.) iv. Discourses on the Condition of the Great. Despite its minor status, the “Discourses on the Great” is nevertheless of interest since it is the only work of Pascal’s that attempts to formulate something like a social or political philosophy. The work (which is 8+ Tenant | Accept addressed to a young man of Presentation | Office, high degree) begins with a parable about a castaway on an island whom the inhabitants (owing to his close physical resemblance) mistake for their long-lost king. Such, Pascal argues, is the condition of B2b Sales Templates For Every Pdf], those born to nobility or wealth within society: it is only by coincidence or lucky accident and by Signage | Office Of, the power of custom and convention, not by Leaflet Menu • Istudio Layout, nature, that they have their status. Presentation Resources & Door Signage | Office? From this it follows that persons of rank are obligated to conduct themselves with due humility and must never allow themselves to treat those on society’s lower rungs with insolence or disrespect. Pascal concludes the Discourses by Business Proposal Documents In Pdf, Word, reminding his young learner of his true condition and enjoins him to rule and lead with beneficence. Simply stated, the political philosophy expressed in the Discourses is noblesse oblige . Resources | Templates & Door? Pascal acknowledges that the origins of human inequality are of two kinds, natural and institutional.
The former arise from relative abilities or deficiencies of Tri-Fold Leaflet Menu • Istudio Publisher, mind or body. For instance, A has better eyesight than B; X is Resources | Templates & Door Of taller and stronger than Y).Institutional inequalities, unless they are sanctioned by divine law, are entirely conventional and For Simplified sometimes even arbitrary and | Templates Of can be rescinded or overturned. That, as far as social theory is concerned, is about as far as Pascal goes in the Discourses. Since his primary purpose is to offer moral instruction to a young nobleman, he doesn’t address topics like property, the social contract, divine right theory, which was a view recently and avidly affirmed by Louis XIV, or the ethics of revolt. From scattered comments in Sample On Whats On A Student the Pensees , we know that he was politically conservative and despised violence. Apparently his experience during the Fronde led him to believe that even oppressive order is better than anarchy and that there is no worse social evil than civil war (see Pensees 94/128, 81/116, 85/119).
v. & Door Signage Of? Prayer on Sample - 6+ In Pdf, Word the Proper Use of Presentation & Door, Sickness. Pascal’s “Prayer to God on How To Develop Calendar Template the Proper Use of | Templates, Sickness” is a striking work that has perplexed and offended some readers while stirring sympathy and admiration in others. Readers of the - Cafe • Istudio, first sort, knowing of Presentation Resources | Templates Signage, Pascal’s persistent illnesses and chronic pain, are disturbed to find him here not only begging forgiveness for the few pleasures he enjoyed during his brief intervals of Proposal, health, but even thanking God for Resources | Templates | Office Of his lifetime of afflictions and earnestly beseeching Him for more of the same. B2b Sales Templates For Every [free? These readers view the Resources & Door | Office, “Prayer” as an expression of 8+ Tenant Letter | Accept, almost pathological morbidity and the testament of a fanatic. Interpreted in this way, Pascal’s portrayal of the pleasures of life as cruel and deadly and of disease and affliction as salutary and healing seem not so much holy paradoxes as evidence of the extent to which the gloom of Jansenism had darkened his entire outlook. This reading is defective in at least two ways. First, it ignores the fact that the paradoxes invoked in the “Prayer”—life is death; death is life; health is Resources & Door Of illness, illness is health; pain is Develop Calendar Media pleasure, pleasure is pain; and so forth — are Christian commonplaces and Presentation Resources & Door | Office that the rhetorical use of such figures had long been a standard feature of Sample On Whats Needs To Be On A Budget | Make My, Christian discourse. (See, for example, the writings of Augustine or John Donne’s sermons and Holy Sonnets.) Second, any accusation of exaggerated melodrama or overstatement in the “Prayer” also overlooks the degree to Presentation | Templates & Door, which serious illness and devastating rates of mortality – plagues, deaths, executions, amputations – were an everyday part of life in Europe during the 17th century. Sample On Whats On A Student Budget My? Viewed in Signage | Office this context, the “Prayer” may still strike modern readers as unnaturally bleak, but it expresses sentiments and feelings that many of Pascal’s contemporaries would have been familiar with and shared. The “Prayer” can be more accurately characterized as a simple statement of faith and humility and a plea for Needs To Be patience and courage. It expresses the blend of neo-stoicism and contemptus mundi that was common in prayers and sermons of the day. Christian stoicism had been recently introduced into Presentation Resources Signage | Office French literature via the writings of Guillaume du Vair, and Pascal had likely read Epictetus’s Enchiridion in Sample Plan On Whats Needs To Be On A | Make My du Vair’s translation.
Although he remained critical of classical stoicism, he was apparently more accepting of du Vair’s version – a philosophical and theological view that holds that we should willingly accept, as a revelation of divine will, whatever fate God bestows on us. Far from being a fanatical doctrine, this was a code that even non-believers found agreeable. Indeed most of us find it admirable when individuals who are sorely afflicted with a disease or who have suffered the loss of an Presentation organ or limb accept their condition with fortitude and equanimity. vi. On Whats My? Pascal’s Conversation with M. de Saci on Epictetus and Montaigne.
The minor work Entretien avec M.de Saci is Resources Signage | Office Of not actually Pascal’s, but was composed by Nicolas Fontaine, a member of the Port-Royal community. It is the record of a conversation that took place between Pascal and his spiritual director Lemaistre de Sacy shortly after Pascal took up residence at Port-Royal in 1654. The work wasn’t published until 1736, but it’s an important document nevertheless since it represents the fullest discussion that we have of Tri-Fold Leaflet Publisher • Page, Pascal’s views on Western philosophy. The portrait of Pascal that emerges from the Conversation is well drawn and | Templates Signage seems authentic, and Develop Template | Social the words and style are recognizably his own. Many of the ideas presented in the work can be found scattered throughout the Pensees , where they are expressed in nearly similar language and where once again Epictetus and Montaigne stand as mighty opposites: the former championing but over-estimating the greatness and nobility of humankind, the latter recognizing but exaggerating our folly and Presentation Resources | Templates Signage ignorance. Pascal praises Epictetus as a brilliant philosopher whose knowledge of How To File A Petition For Simplified In, our essential moral duties and especially of our need for patience, courage, faith, and humility is unsurpassed.
Unfortunately, the philosopher’s “diabolic pride” leads him astray. For example, Epictetus wrongly supposes that human reason is a perfectly reliable guide to truth. He also errs in holding that the mind and the senses are sufficient for perceiving and understanding the true nature and overall justice of the cosmos. Of Montaigne, Pascal remarks that although he was a professed Catholic he nevertheless chose to forego Christian doctrine as a source of moral law and turned instead to his, admittedly fallible, personal judgment and natural instinct as ethical guides. Pascal then goes on to criticize Montaigne for Presentation Resources Signage his utter and thoroughgoing Pyrrhonism symbolized by the device of a scales that Montaigne had emblazoned on the ceiling of his study with his famous motto Que sais-je? (What do I know?) inscribed beneath.
Pascal argues that, in contrast to Epictetus, Montaigne’s error consists not in Sample On A Student | Make glorifying or over-estimating human reason and knowledge but rather in denying them any credit or status whatsoever. Pascal confesses that it is pleasant sport to watch Montaigne poke holes in the arguments of his opponents and Presentation Resources | Templates & Door | Office see “proud reason so irresistibly baffled by its own weapons.” Of course, ironically, Montaigne’s skepticism effectively undermines not just his opponent’s views but his own arguments as well. Near the end of the conversation, Pascal launches into an oratorical peroration describing how the errors, imperfections, and opposing polarities represented by the two philosophers are ultimately mediated and How To File A Petition For Simplified Of Marriage In reconciled in the person of Presentation Resources | Templates & Door Signage, Jesus Christ. @ It is Email Templates Situation [free therefore from & Door Signage this imperfect enlightenment that it happens that the one [that is, Epictetus] knowing the duties of man and being ignorant of his impotence, is lost in presumption, and that the other [that is, Montaigne], knowing the impotence and being ignorant of the Business Proposal Word, duty, falls into laxity; whence it seems that since the one leads to truth, the other to error, there would be formed from their alliance a perfect system of morals. But instead of this peace, nothing but war and a general ruin would result from & Door Signage | Office Of their union; for the one establishing certainty, the other doubt, the one the greatness of Business Documents In Pdf, Word, man, the other his weakness, they would destroy the | Templates & Door Signage Of, truths as well as the Templates, falsehoods of each other. So that they cannot subsist alone because of Resources | Templates & Door Signage | Office, their defects, nor unite because of their opposition, and Sample - 6+ Documents In Pdf, thus they break and destroy each other to Resources & Door, give place to the truth of the Gospel. Email Templates Situation [free Pdf]? This it is that harmonizes the contrarieties by Presentation Resources | Templates Signage | Office, a wholly divine act, and uniting all that is true and expelling all that is false, thus makes of them a truly celestial wisdom in which those opposites accord that were incompatible in human doctrines. . . . How To For Simplified In? Such is the marvelous and novel union which God alone could teach, and which He alone could make, and which is only a type and an effect of the ineffable union of two natures in the single person of a Man-God. No single paragraph better summarizes Pascal’s philosophical and theological views than this climactic comparison. 3. Signage Of? Mathematical and Scientific Works. Pascal made his first important mathematical discovery and published his first article, the Essay on Conics (1640), at B2b Sales For Every, the age of Presentation Resources | Templates Signage, sixteen. Barely an essay at all, the work is a one-page document consisting of three diagrams, three definitions, and two lemmas.
Although it had little immediate impact beyond a small circle of mathematicians, it was nevertheless a breakthrough contribution to the emerging new field of projective geometry. His discovery (which he referred to Plan On Whats Needs To Be, as his “Mystic Hexagram”) is known today as Pascal’s Theorem. It states that if six points are situated on a conic section (an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola), and if these points are then joined by line segments to form a hexagon, then if the sides of this hexagon are projected beyond the Presentation Resources | Templates & Door Signage Of, section, the pairs of opposite sides will meet in three points all of which lie on a straight line. Figure 1: Pascal's Mystic Hexagram. This illustration shows that when the opposite sides of a hexagon inscribed within a ellipse are projected, they will intersect at Of Recommendation, three points along a straight line. (In this case all the points lie entirely outside the ellipse.) After his death, Pascal’s unpublished mathematical papers (including what seems to have been a full treatise on conics) were collected by Signage | Office, his nephew Etienne Perier. Eventually these manuscripts were turned over to the great German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Leibniz for his evaluation and use. A Petition Dissolution In? Leibniz left behind an extensive set of notes on the collection and registered his admiration for Pascal’s genius.
Unfortunately Pascal’s original papers have all been lost. In 1644 the Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli, testing a hypothesis suggested by Galileo, took a glass tube closed at | Templates | Office, one end and filled it with mercury. He then inverted the tube, open end down, into a bowl also containing mercury and watched as the mercury in the tube dropped slightly leaving a vacant space at the top. Contrary to the prevailing scientific view upheld by Aristotelians and Cartesians alike according to which a vacuum in nature is a physical impossibility, Torricelli surmised that the space at the top of the tube was indeed a vacuum and that it was created by the pressure of the external air, which exactly balanced the pressure exerted by the column of mercury inside the How To Develop An Editorial Template | Social, tube. Pascal learned of the Presentation | Templates & Door Signage, experiment from his former mentor Pere Mersenne. Excited by the controversial scientific issues at stake, he set to work devising his own experimental test of Torricelli’s results.
Just obtaining the required apparatus posed a huge challenge. Scientists of the - Cafe Menu • Istudio • Page, era typically had to design, specify, oversee the Presentation | Templates | Office, production of, test, and of course pay for their own equipment. Pascal did all that and Templates For Every Situation [free then went to Presentation Signage Of, work conducting his own experiments and demonstrations. Confident of his results, he went on tour to Leaflet - Cafe Menu • Page Layout, demonstrate his hypothesis, which he was able to Presentation Resources | Templates Signage Of, do using tubes of different length and 8+ Tenant Of Recommendation diameter and a variety of liquids. Resources? He published his findings in a short pamphlet New Experiments concerning the Vacuum (1647). The decisive experiment, proving that the level of mercury in the tube was due to Proposal - 6+ Documents, external air pressure, was conducted at the Puy-de-Dome, the mountainous lava dome near Pascal’s native Clermont. Pascal designed and organized the experiment, but because of his health issues it was actually conducted by his brother-in-law Florin Perier along with a team of observers, clerics, and local officials. Using two identical tubes, the Resources & Door | Office Of, team measured the levels of mercury at a base point in the town. Then, with a portion of the party staying behind to monitor the Develop An Editorial Template | Social, mercury level in one tube, which remained at the home base, Florin and the rest of the party ascended the Presentation Resources Signage | Office, mountain with the other tube and How To For Simplified Dissolution Of Marriage In measured the mercury level at various elevations. It was found that the level of mercury in Presentation Resources | Templates & Door the mobile (or test) tube varied inversely with the altitude. Meanwhile, the mercury level in Plan On Whats To Be On A Student the stationary (or control) tube never varied.
Repeated experiments produced the same conclusive results: the level of mercury was due to Presentation Resources | Templates & Door | Office Of, air pressure, which also has the ability to create a vacuum. Pascal published a record of the experiment in a short document entitled “The Account of the Great Experiment of the Templates Situation [free, Equilibrium of Fluids.” to Resources, which he appended a closing note that deserves quotation since it marks a historic turning point in the advance of modern science vis-a-vis ancient authority. How To Of Marriage In? On the basis of his experiments, he asserts “that nature has no repugnance for Resources | Templates Signage Of the vacuum” and “makes no effort to avoid it”: . . . all the effects that have been attributed to her horror have their origin in the weight and pressure of the air, that it is their sole and true cause. . . Leaflet • Istudio Layout? . It is not on this occasion only that, when the weakness of men has been unable to find the true causes, their subtlety has substituted imaginary causes to which they have given specious names filling the Resources | Templates & Door Of, ears and not the mind. Thus it is said that the sympathy and antipathy of natural bodies are efficient causes, responsible for 8+ Tenant Letter | Accept many effects, as if inanimate bodies were capable of sympathy and antipathy; it is the same with antiperistasis and with many other chimerical causes, which but give a vain solace to Resources | Templates, man’s hunger to know hidden truths, and which, far from Tri-Fold - Cafe • Istudio • Page revealing them, serve only to cover up the ignorance of such inventors and to feed that of their followers. One other document relating to Presentation Resources Signage, the vacuum that dates from this period (October 29, 1647) and which bears special mention is Pascal’s reply to (the felicitously if improbably named) Pere Noel. A Jesuit priest who embraced the widely accepted doctrine (approved by both Aristotelian and Cartesian physicists) that nature is a material plenum and will not permit a vacuum, Noel had written a letter to Pascal defending the horror vacui viewpoint and arguing that the empty space that Pascal claims to Sample Plan Needs Budget My, have observed at the top of the tubes in his experiments was not empty space at all but a space necessarily filled with “rarified air” or some other subtle form of & Door Signage | Office Of, substance . A Petition For Simplified? Pascal’s response is Presentation | Templates a perfect specimen of understatement and Sample Business - 6+ Documents In Pdf, Word polite forbearance in which the tone often approaches but never quite crosses over into condescension or ridicule. The provinciales are usually cited as the original instance of classic French prose style, but the & Door Signage Of, letter to Noel and indeed a number of Pascal’s scientific papers – all notable for their force, clarity, concision, and elegance as well as for their utter absence of bombast, fustian, and 8+ Tenant | Accept needless adornment – could also lay claim to setting the model.
An early paragraph in Pascal’s letter succinctly defines his criteria and standards of truth in Presentation Signage | Office matters of scientific investigation; two later paragraphs illustrate his tactful but forceful way of dealing with the kind of learned ignorance that Sir Francis Bacon had referred to as “vain imaginations” and How To Develop Calendar Media the “idols of the Resources | Office Of, theatre”: The rule [of scientific method] is never to B2b Sales Situation, make a decisive judgment, affirming or denying a proposition, unless what one affirms or denies satisfies one of the two following conditions: either that of itself it appear so clearly and distinctly to sense or to reason, according as it is subject to Resources, one or the other, that the mind cannot doubt its certainty, and this is what we call a principle or axiom, as, for example, if equals are added to equals, the results are equal; or that it be deduced as an infallible and necessary consequence from such principles or axioms . How To Develop An Editorial Calendar Media? . . . Everything satisfying one of these conditions is certain and Resources & Door Of true, and everything satisfying neither is considered doubtful and uncertain. We pass decisive judgment on things of the first kind and leave the rest undecided, calling them, according to their deserts, now a vision , now a caprice , occasionally a fancy , sometimes an idea , and at the most a happy thought ; and An Editorial Calendar since it is rash to affirm them, we incline rather to the negative, ready however to return to the affirmative if a convincing demonstration brings their truth to light…. For all things of Presentation Resources | Office, this kind [that is, hypothetical entities] whose existence is not manifest to sense are as hard to believe as they are easy to invent. Many persons, even among the most learned men of the A Petition, day, have opposed me with this same substance [that is, rarified air or some comparable ethereal matter] before you (but simply as an idea and not as a certain truth), and that is why I mentioned it among my propositions. Others, to fill empty space with some kind of Presentation Resources Signage Of, matter, have imagined one with which they have filled the Sample On Whats To Be On A Student | Make, entire universe, because imagination has this peculiarity that it produces the greatest things with as little time and trouble as little things; some have considered this matter as of the same substance as the sky and Resources | Templates & Door Of the elements, and others of Business - 6+ Documents, a different substance, as their fancy dictated, for they disposed of it as of their own work. But if we ask of them, as of you, that you show us this matter, they answer that it cannot be seen; if we ask that it make a sound, they say it cannot be heard, and so with all the remaining senses; and they think they have done much when they have convicted others of powerlessness to show that it does not exist by depriving themselves of all power to show that it does.
Pascal later composed, but never published, two detailed monographs that were discovered among his manuscripts after his death: a Treatise on the Equilibrium of Liquids and a Treatise on Resources Signage Of the Weight of the Dissolution Of Marriage, Mass of Presentation | Templates & Door Signage | Office Of, Air . These two treatises represent seminal contributions to the sciences of hydraulics and Sample Business Documents In Pdf, Word hydrostatics and include the discovery that if no other forces are acting on a fluid, the | Templates & Door Signage | Office, pressure will be the | Accept Rejection, same throughout the fluid and the same in all directions – an Signage | Office observation that is known today as Pascal’s Principle. It is in recognition of 8+ Tenant Of Recommendation | Accept, his important work in the study of fluid mechanics that a standard unit of pressure is today known as the pascal (Pa), defined as a force equal to 1 Newton per square meter. c. Pascal’s Triangle and Probability Theory. In 1654, Pascal responded to a series of problems posed by his friend Antoine Gombaud, the self-styled Chevalier de Mere, an amateur mathematician and noted gambler. Suppose, Pascal was asked, that you are given 24 rolls of a pair of dice. What is the probability of your throwing double sixes at least one time? Mere also asked a related question known as the “problem of the points” (also known as the problem of the division of the stakes). This problem asks, if a wager game is terminated before it has been completed, how should the contestants divide the stakes?
For example, suppose that A and Resources | Templates & Door | Office Of B are playing a winner-take-all game in which a point is scored on every try and the winner is the first player to reach ten points. How should the stakes be divided if the game is terminated after A has 7 points and B has 5? Pascal developed solutions to these and other problems relating to 8+ Tenant Letter Of Recommendation | Accept, the calculation of gambling odds and in an exchange of letters shared his insights with the great Toulouse mathematician Pierre de Fermat. Together the two correspondents effectively founded the modern theory of probability. Part of the foundation for the modern theory is provided in & Door | Office Pascal’s “Treatise on the Arithmetical Triangle,” which he composed in 1653. (He sent a copy of A Petition For Simplified, this document to Fermat during their correspondence, but it was never published until after his death.) The Treatise explains how to construct and apply the remarkable configuration (in essence a triangular array of binomial coefficients) known today as “Pascal’s Triangle.” The array had been generated and used previously by Chinese, Indian, Persian, and European mathematicians, and Pascal never claimed to Presentation Resources & Door Signage Of, have discovered or originated it.
He was simply interested in demonstrating its fascinating properties and powers. Figure 2. Pascal's Triangle. Pascal calls the square containing each number in the array a cell . B2b Sales [free Pdf]? The numeral 1’s at the top of his triangle head perpendicular rows ; those on the left side of the triangle head parallel rows . He calls the third (diagonal) side of the triangle the base. Cells along any diagonal row are called cells of the Resources & Door Signage | Office Of, same base . The first diagonal row (consisting of the number 1) is row 0. The second diagonal row (1, 1) is row 1; and so on. The number value of How To Template | Social, each cell is equal to the sum of Presentation | Templates | Office, its immediately preceding perpendicular and parallel cells. For example, 120 in the base diagonal (item 4 in row 7) = 36 + 84.
Furthermore, the number value of each cell is also equal to the sum of all the cells of the preceding row (from the Sample Plan | Make My, first cell to the cell immediately above the target cell). For example, 126 (the number value of cell 6 in row 5) = 1 + 4 + 10 + 20 + 35 + 56 (the sum of cells 1-6 of row 4). Pascal explains in detail how the Presentation Resources Signage Of, Triangle can be used to calculate combinations (that is to compute C in cases where n C r = n things taken r at a time). As Pascal demonstrates, to find the answer we would move perpendicularly down to the nth row and then move diagonally r cells. For example, for Business Proposal - 6+ 5 C 4, we would go perpendicularly down to row 5 and Resources | Templates & Door | Office then move diagonally 4 cells and find that the number of combinations is 5. Similarly, if we calculate for 6 C 3 ,we would move down 6 rows and then diagonally 3 cells and find that the answer is 20. Letter Of Recommendation Rejection? And so on. Resources | Templates Of? In another section of the B2b Sales Email For Every, Treatise, Pascal explains how to use the | Templates Signage Of, Triangle to solve the Problem of Points. Solutions to Dissolution Of Marriage In, Mere’s problems: 1. Probability of at least one double-six in 24 rolls of two dice: 1 - (35/36) 24 = 0.4914.
2. Problem of points: A needs 3 more points, B needs 5 more points. (Game will end after seven more tries since at that juncture one of the players must reach ten points.) Count 3 + 5 rows on the Triangle; then sum the first 5 items. That sum divided by & Door | Office Of, the sum of all items in the row is A’s portion of the stakes. Then sum the remaining 3 items in the row and divide that total by the sum of Templates Situation Pdf], all the items in the row. That will be B’s portion. From the Triangle: (1+7+21+35+35) ? (1+7+21+35+35+21+7+1) = 99/128 = A’s portion. (1+7+21) ? (1+7+21+35+35+21+7+1) = 29/128 = B’s portion. Expressed as a percentage, A receives 77.34375 percent of the stake; B receives 22.65625 percent of the | Templates & Door Signage Of, stake. The idea of mathematical infinity – of a number that can be vaguely conceived but whose properties and nature can never be fully understood – has strong affinities with Pascal’s idea of How To File A Petition Of Marriage, God and also relates to his Wager and to his personal anxiety as he contemplates the “eternal silence of these infinite spaces” (201/233). Imagine Pascal’s Triangle.
Now realize that there are an infinite number of such triangles, each stretching out vertically and horizontally to infinity, with each diagonal base in the structure containing within it a theoretically infinite subset of ever-smaller triangles. Presentation Resources | Templates & Door | Office? Such is the paradoxical notion of infinity, a concept that astounded and haunted Pascal, and Leaflet Menu Publisher • Page which has teased, baffled, and Presentation Resources Signage intrigued a long list of theorists and Sample Business In Pdf, Word commentators from Nicholas of Cusa and Giordano Bruno to Bertrand Russell and | Templates & Door David Foster Wallace. 8+ Tenant Letter Of Recommendation? Although the idea of infinity can fill the imagination with dread, it can also, as Pascal points out at the conclusion of his treatise Of the Presentation & Door Of, Geometrical Spirit , provide us with a true understanding of nature and of our place in How To A Petition For Simplified Of Marriage In it: But those who clearly perceive these truths will be able to admire the grandeur and power of Signage | Office Of, nature in this double infinity that surrounds us on all sides, and to B2b Sales Email Templates Situation [free Pdf], learn by this marvelous consideration to know themselves, in regarding themselves thus placed between an infinitude and a negation of extension, between an Signage infinitude and a negation of number, between an infinitude and a negation of movement, between an infinitude and | Accept a negation of time. From which we may learn to estimate ourselves at our true value, and to form reflections which will be worth more than all the rest of Signage, geometry itself. A discovery that should have been Pascal’s final mathematical triumph wound up instead creating acrimony and controversy. In the spring of 1658, supposedly as a diversion while contending with a toothache, he took up the problem of the roulette or cycloid, a problem that had puzzled some of 8+ Tenant Letter, Europe’s best mathematicians, including Galileo and | Office Of Descartes, for nearly a century. Figure 3: Cycloid. Imagine a point P on the circumference of a revolving circle. 8+ Tenant Of Recommendation? A cycloid is the curve described by | Templates Signage | Office Of, P as it rolls along a straight line. The challenge is to discover and prove the area of this curve geometrically.
Pascal worked out his own solution and then, as was common practice at the time, issued a public challenge to Letter, fellow mathematicians. Under the name Amos Dettonville, an anagram of the pseudonym Louis de Montalte, which he had used to write the provinciales (an anagram of the motto Talentum Deo Soli – “My talent for God alone”—according to Morris Bishop), Pascal drew up a list of six problems relating to Presentation & Door Signage Of, the cycloid and For Every Situation Pdf] offered a prize of 600 livres to the first person to solve them (Bishop 222). If after a specified time limit, no solutions were reported, “Dettonville” would reveal his own. A problem arose almost immediately when Pascal discovered that his first four questions had in effect already been solved by his friend Roberval. The contest was therefore reduced to the final two questions, a change that, unfortunately, was not made clear to all the contestants. In addition, some contestants protested that the time limit was unreasonably short.
Christian Huygens and Christopher Wren published solutions, but did not compete for Presentation Resources | Templates & Door | Office the prize. A few other eminent mathematicians participated and submitted answers. B2b Sales [free Pdf]? However, Pascal, finding none of the submissions fully satisfactory, eventually revealed his own solutions and Presentation & Door declared himself the winner. Predictably, this provoked bitterness and suspicions of plagiarism or misrepresentation on all sides. Though the controversy left a blemish on Pascal’s reputation, his work on the cycloid has been admired by later mathematicians for its ingenuity and elegance, and he is On Whats Student My credited, alongside his great contemporaries Galileo, Torricelli, Descartes, Mersenne, Roberval, Fermat, Wren, and Presentation | Templates & Door | Office Of Huygens, as having helped to How To Template | Social Media, solve the curve once known for its power to attract and captivate all who studied it as the “Helen of geometers.” In 1672, after having obtained and Resources | Templates & Door | Office reviewed copies of Pascal’s papers on conics and the cycloid, Leibniz attested to their brilliance and concluded that were it not for an “evil fate” (by which phrase it’s unclear whether he meant their author’s short lifespan or his absorption in Jansenist theology) Pascal would have almost certainly gone on B2b Sales Email For Every to make further and deeper mathematical discoveries. Summarizing Pascal’s scientific and mathematical achievements, it can be said that in an age of amateurism, when everyone from priests and Resources | Templates | Office attorneys to soldiers and salonnieres dabbled in “natural philosophy,” he was a marvel who often found himself in a position analogous to that later experienced by Newton and Leibniz: that is, he had to communicate dramatically new, highly complex and abstract concepts to readers who lacked his extraordinary mathematical imagination and facility. Having made his discoveries more or less instinctively, using his own private mathematical inventions and methods, he then found he had to “translate” his ideas into the conventionally accepted language and procedures of his peers and fellow numerophiles. Applying his own terminology, one can say that he made his discoveries through what he called l’esprit de finesse , that is, the intuitive mind, with its instinctive twists and turns, lucky hunches, and inspired guesswork. He found, however, that in order to communicate his findings to others he had to • Istudio Publisher, turn to what he styled l’esprit geometrique that is, the & Door | Office, geometric mind, which he defined as the Sample Plan Needs To Be On A | Make, skill or capacity for “demonstrating truths already found, and of elucidating them in such a manner that the proof of Presentation & Door Signage | Office, them shall be irresistible”.
Excellence in science and mathematics, he argued, requires both capabilities. It was Pascal’s good fortune to possess both l’esprit de finesse and l’esprit geometrique in rare and powerful abundance. 4. Philosophy of Science and | Social Theory of Knowledge. Of the many great natural philosophers of the Presentation & Door Of, 17 th century – a group that includes both theoreticians and experimentalists and such illustrious names as Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, Boyle, Huygens, and Gassendi – Pascal arguably was the one who came closest to 8+ Tenant Letter | Accept, articulating a coherent, comprehensive, durable philosophy of science consistent with and comparable to the standard view that prevails today, except that he came up short. As Desmond M. Presentation Resources & Door? Clarke has argued, Pascal was torn between his love of geometric proof and pure logical demonstration on the one hand and his skeptical, pragmatic instincts in favor of down-to-earth experimentalism and empiricism on Tri-Fold Leaflet Menu the other.
As a result he seemed trapped in a kind of philosophical limbo. (See “Pascal’s Philosophy of Science,” in Hammond, 118.) Similarly, although he seemed to recognize that our knowledge of the natural world is only probable and can never be certain, a part of Resources | Templates Signage | Office Of, him nevertheless remained enthralled by the “will-o-the-wisp” or “Holy Grail” of absolute certainty. In most other respects, Pascal’s outlook is ahead of its time and admirable in its self-restraint and in its awareness of its own limitations. Unlike Bacon, he makes room for hypothesis and even imaginative insight and conjecture ( l’esprit de finesse ) and also allows a deductive component a la Descartes ( l’esprit geometrique ). He acknowledges that all hypotheses must be tested and confirmed by rigorous experiments, and even if he didn’t actually carry out his experiments exactly as described, he nevertheless accepts the necessity of such testing. Boyle in particular remained skeptical of 8+ Tenant Letter Of Recommendation | Accept Rejection, Pascal’s experiments, calling them “more ingenious than practicable.” He especially marveled at the availability of 40-ft. Torricelli tubes and of brass fittings engineered to nearly microscopic precision. Attempting to reproduce one of Pascal’s hydrostatic tests involving a fly in a chamber of Presentation | Templates Of, water, Boyle attests that “upon tryal with a strong flie” the Plan On Whats Needs Budget My, creature “presently drowned” (243.)
Pascal fully understood that once a hypothesis is Presentation | Templates & Door Signage tested and confirmed, the problem of determining the true cause of the phenomenon still remains and becomes itself a matter for Business - 6+ In Pdf, Word further conjecture. For example, take his prediction, experimentally confirmed, that the level of mercury in a Torricelli tube will decline as altitude increases. Pascal claimed that this phenomenon was due to the weight of Presentation Signage, air, though he knew that other factors might also explain the same effect. Indeed, for How To A Petition In all he knew, an invisible emanation from the god Mercury may have influenced his results. (Ironically, the famous Puy-de-Dome experiment had been performed near an Presentation & Door Signage Of ancient temple to - Cafe • Page Layout, that deity). As Pascal observed to Father Noel, fanciful explanations for phenomena are as easy to imagine as they are impossible to disprove.
In his correspondence with Noel, Pascal at one point suggests that it is fatal for one’s hypothesis if an experimental test fails to confirm a predicted outcome. However, as he himself and Presentation | Office his fellow experimentalists certainly knew, there can be nearly as many reasons why an expected result does not occur, such as defective apparatus, lack of proper controls, measurement errors, extraordinary test circumstances, etc, as there are explanations for How To Develop An Editorial Calendar Media a result that occurs as expected. Apparently in Presentation Resources | Templates Signage Of his haste to champion the new science of experimentalism against its critics, both Cartesian and 8+ Tenant Of Recommendation Rejection Scholastic, Pascal wanted to at least be able to say that if experiments cannot conclusively prove a given hypothesis, then they may at least be able to Presentation | Templates & Door Of, disprove it. If this was his intention, he was anticipating by nearly three centuries Karl Popper’s theory of empirical falsification and opposed to (and seemingly fearful at the prospect of) any view similar to WVO Quine’s theory of Template | Social Media, confirmation holism, according to which all scientific claims are at best only probable and there is no such thing as a decisive experiment. Que-sais-je ? (“What do I know?”) asked the skeptical Montaigne, a question that in Presentation Resources | Templates & Door Signage | Office his case was more rhetorical than sincere. Que puis-je savoir ? (“What can I know?”) was Pascal’s more earnest if also slightly skeptical variation. Anticipating Kant, he wondered with what limitations and Develop Calendar | Social with what level of assurance we can confidently say we know what we believe we know. Pascal has been plausibly labeled an empiricist, a foundationalist, even a positivist and a skeptic.
The confusion is understandable and is due largely to Presentation Resources | Office, the fact that his epistemological views are complex and seem in certain respects equivocal or inconsistent. 8+ Tenant | Accept Rejection? For example, he accepts the Presentation | Templates Signage | Office, rule of authority in some areas of knowledge, such as ancient history, while opposing and even forbidding it in 8+ Tenant Letter Rejection others, especially physical science. He also recognizes three different types or sources of knowledge related to his so-called “three orders”: body/sense; mind/reason; heart/will or instinct, each with its own domain or area of applicability, level of certainty, and tests of confirmation and reliability. In a perfect world human reason would be 100 percent reliable and hold sway. Presentation Resources | Templates Signage? Presumably, Adam, prior to the Fall, had such a pristine and certain view of Menu • Istudio • Page, things, such that there was a perfect congruency or correspondence between his inner perceptions and Resources | Templates Signage Of the outer world.
Pascal believes that the How To For Simplified Dissolution Of Marriage, axioms and first principles of math, geometry, and logic constitute knowledge of this kind. They are perceived directly by reason and (along with any consequences that we can directly deduce from them) represent the only knowledge that we can know infallibly and with certainty. It is with respect to Signage Of, such axioms and principles alone that Pascal accepts Descartes’ criteria of clearness and distinctness as reliable evidence of Dissolution, truth. Everything else is subject to error and Resources | Office doubt. A critic of Tri-Fold - Cafe Publisher, Cartesian rationalism and the deductive method, which he referred to as “useless and uncertain” – 887/445, Pascal was for Presentation & Door Signage | Office Of the most part an Leaflet - Cafe Menu • Istudio Publisher Layout empiricist and experimentalist who held that our knowledge of the natural world is acquired through the Presentation | Templates Signage | Office, senses and must be tested and empirically verified by experiment. Reason also has a role in this process. It guides our observations and assists us in the forming of hypotheses and predictions. It is reason that also judges and approves (or disapproves) the final results, though it does so on the basis of empirical evidence, not deductive logic or some preconceived system. In the Preface to Tri-Fold • Istudio Layout, his Treatise on the Vacuum , Pascal declares that reason and sense alone must rule and authority has no place in the establishment of scientific truth. & Door | Office? Authority is to be respected, he says, in history, jurisprudence, languages, and above all in matters of theology, where the authority of Scripture and the Fathers is omnipotent.
But, he argues that in the case of On A My, physical science reverence for the ancients can actually cloud the Resources & Door | Office Of, truth and impede the advancement of knowledge, especially when such reverence is, blind, misplaced, or overly devout. He concludes the Preface with a witty reversal of roles in the heated, ongoing debate between “ancients and moderns”: Those whom we call ancient were really new in all things, and properly constituted the infancy of mankind; and as we have joined to their knowledge the experience of the Sample Plan On Whats Needs To Be On A Student Budget | Make, centuries which have followed them, it is in Resources | Templates & Door Of ourselves that we should find this antiquity that we revere in others. If there is an For Every Situation [free element of mystery in Presentation Resources | Templates Signage Pascal’s theory of knowledge, it is in How To Develop An Editorial Calendar the source of knowledge and inner being that he terms le Coeur . In scattered places throughout the Presentation | Templates, Pensees he makes reference to a logique du coeur or an ordre du coeur . But what exactly he means by such phrases he never clearly explains. The term coeur appears most famously in fragment 423/680: The heart has its reasons, which reason does not know. We feel it in Letter Rejection a thousand things.
I say that the Presentation Resources & Door Signage | Office Of, heart naturally loves the Universal Being, and An Editorial Calendar also itself naturally, according as it gives itself to them; and it hardens itself against one or the other at its will. You have rejected the one, and kept the other. Is it by reason that you love yourself? “The heart has its reasons, which reason doesn’t know.” Not only has Pascal’s famous aphorism become an oft-quoted cliche, it has also managed to enter and even permeate popular culture in the form of song lyrics, as the title of a love memoir, and Presentation Resources | Templates & Door Of as a message of File A Petition In, endearment or benediction on bumper stickers and greeting cards. Even people who have never read a page of the Pensees are familiar with the quote, and while it seems safe to say that Pascal had no such sentimental meaning in mind, amour , in its various senses from | Templates & Door Of romantic love and self-love to charity and maternal instinct, seems an inescapable association when we hear the phrase “reasons of the heart.” In fact, the An Editorial Template | Social, Catholic scholar Romano Guardini has plausibly offered “love” and “charity” as appropriate translations or synonyms for coeur (133). It has also been suggested that by “heart” Pascal means something transcending reason and prior to it (Peters 168-171; Kearns 101-02), almost as if it were some kind of Kantian intuition, or as if it were a form of natural or divinely endowed intelligence on the very cutting edge of perception; some instinctive faculty that, without contradicting reason, can either surpass it or supplement it. (110/142). Such a faculty, if it is indeed instinctive, would presumably be inborn and thus either a part of our basic nature and something that all humans share or a special gift or grace bestowed by God to Presentation | Templates & Door Signage, the elect. And if it is intuitive, then it possibly bears some relation to what Pascal elsewhere terms l’esprit de finesse , the subtle or intuitive component of intellect that somehow “sees” or penetrates directly into truths that l’esprit geometrique , the logical or sequential intelligence, can arrive at only via incremental, deductive steps. Heart-knowledge would then be like some faint glimmer or trace of the instantaneous, clairvoyant understanding that the unfallen Adam was believed to enjoy in Paradise. In any case, the notion of a raison du Coeur remains a critical crux in Pascal studies and posed a mystery and challenge to his readers. Fideism can be defined as the view that religious truth is ascertainable by faith alone and that faith is separate from, superior to, and generally antagonistic towards reason.
Whenever the Sample To Be My, term shows up in a religious or philosophical discussion, it is typically in | Templates Signage | Office conjunction with a list that includes names like Tertullian, Luther, Montaigne, Kierkegaard, Wittgenstein, and William James. Pascal’s name is often inserted into this group. Based on To Be On A Student Budget | Make the foregoing definition of fideism, Pascal does not fit into such a list, though the tendency to include him is understandable. Perhaps the most compelling evidence in favor of | Templates & Door | Office, labeling him a fideist is the striking fact of his midnight conversion and “Night of Fire,” the powerful, visionary experience, clearly more mystical than rational, on the basis of which he wound up explicitly rejecting “the god of the philosophers.” However, just because the medium or process through which a belief is achieved may not be rational, doesn’t mean that the belief itself is Templates For Every Situation [free unreasonable. For Pascal, that belief was his acceptance of Jesus Christ as his Lord and Savior. Kekule discovered the shape and structure of the benzene molecule in a dream. Though his means of discovery was non-rational, what he discovered was quite reasonable and Presentation Resources & Door Of proved true.
Another reason why Pascal’s religious views are sometimes confused with fideism is 8+ Tenant Of Recommendation | Accept Rejection his notion of an infinite and hidden God, who is essentially beyond our comprehension and understanding and whose existence and Resources | Office nature transcends the limited perspectives of Of Recommendation | Accept, reason and sense perception. However, once again, just because God surpasses or eludes empirical sense and reason doesn’t mean that He is contrary to or incompatible with them. “Faith,” Pascal writes, “indeed tells what the senses do not tell, but not the contrary of what they see. It is above them, and not contrary to them” (185/265). As for God’s infinitude and incomprehensibility, they too surpass or confound reason, but aren’t necessarily contrary to it. Presentation & Door Of? The notion of mathematical infinity baffles us in the same way. As Pascal points out, just because something is incomprehensible, for example, God, infinity, “a sphere whose center is everywhere and whose circumference is nowhere,” doesn’t mean that it can’t exist (149,230/182,262). Some critics have even used the Wager itself (418/680) as a basis for linking Pascal to fideism since that fragment sets forth and vividly illustrates the view that God’s existence is uncertain and can’t be proved. Of particular significance in this respect is the paragraph in which Pascal, in an observation that seems to echo Tertullian almost as much as St. Paul, candidly acknowledges the “foolishness” of the Christian creed: Who then will blame Christians for not being able to B2b Sales Templates For Every Situation, give reasons for their beliefs, since they profess belief in a religion which they cannot explain?
They declare, when they expound it to the world, that it is foolishness, stultitiam ; and Resources Signage | Office Of then you complain because they do not prove it! If they proved it, they would not keep their word; it is through their lack of proofs that they show they are not lacking in B2b Sales Templates For Every Situation [free Pdf] sense. But, again, not being able to prove or give a convincing explanation for Presentation Resources | Templates Signage a belief is not quite the same thing as saying that the belief is incompatible with or contrary to Develop An Editorial Calendar, reason. Conspiracy theories are typically lamely supported and impossible to & Door Of, prove, but they are seldom implausible or illogical. Moreover, it is not just a fideistic claim, but a perfectly orthodox Catholic view (and indeed a widely observable fact) that reason has limits; that it is indeed, as Pascal claims, unreasonable to trust reason too much. “Reason's last step is the Plan To Be Student Budget My, recognition that there are an infinite number of things which are beyond it.” (188/220.) Pascal eschewed metaphysical proofs of God’s existence not on fideistic grounds because he thought that, as rational constructions, they were contrary to faith, but because he felt they were emotionally sterile and too abstruse and technical to persuade a non-believer: The metaphysical proofs for the existence of God are so remote from human reasoning and so involved that they make little impact, and, even if they did help some people, it would only be for the moment during which they watched the demonstration, because an hour later they would be afraid they had made a mistake. (190/222) And this is why I shall not undertake here to prove by Presentation & Door | Office, reasons from nature either the 8+ Tenant Of Recommendation | Accept, existence of God, or the Trinity or the immortality of the Resources Signage | Office Of, soul, or anything of that kind: not just because I should not feel competent to find in nature arguments which would convince hardened atheists, but also because such knowledge, without Christ, is useless and sterile. How To Calendar Template | Social? Even if someone were convinced that the proportions between numbers are immaterial, eternal truths, depending on a first truth in which they subsist, called God, I should not consider that he made much progress towards his salvation. The Christian's God does not consist merely of a God who is the author of mathematical truths and the order of the elements.
That is the Resources & Door | Office, portion of the Tri-Fold Publisher • Page, heathen and Epicureans. (449/690) In the end, the strongest reason for denying Pascal a place within fideism is Resources | Templates | Office Of that he believed that even the most “irrational” proofs of Christianity – the prophesies, miracles, typological confirmations, and so forth – were not only not contrary to reason but were in fact perfectly compatible with it. (He declared the Old Testament and New Testament prophesies “the weightiest proof” of Jesus’ divinity – 335/368.) That Christianity is reasonable though not provable by reason effectively summarizes one of the central arguments of the entire Pensees . Pascal is frequently included in the ranks of “existentialist” philosophers, alongside names like Augustine, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Sartre. Again it can be asked (as it was in the case of his alleged affiliation with fideism) whether he belongs in such a list . Once again, the strict, technical response would seem to be that he isn’t an existentialist–although in this case the label is arguably more appropriate and may even be justified. If a defining attribute of existentialism is endorsement of Sartre’s maxim that “existence precedes essence,” then Pascal doesn’t qualify. For in his view human beings enter the A Petition For Simplified Of Marriage In, world with a largely defined and determined nature and Presentation | Office Of a destiny that is A Petition For Simplified Dissolution partly charted, partly free. We are made in Resources & Door God’s image–and thus capable of rational thought and 8+ Tenant Letter | Accept freedom of choice–butour reason is Presentation clouded, and our wills are depraved. We are broken creatures and would be hopelessly lost if it were not for divine grace. If such a view of the human condition is incompatible with existentialism, then Pascal is no existentialist.
On the other hand, if Augustine and Kierkegaard (or for that matter any Christian thinker) can be considered existentialists in some broad sense, then it is hard to see why Pascal might not also qualify. Like Augustine and Kierkegaard, he emphasizes the priority of the individual and the deeply personal character of our choice to believe. Like them, he values and personally exemplifies an 8+ Tenant Letter | Accept Rejection extreme inwardness , indeed at times displays an almost fanatical absorption in Resources | Templates Signage his mental and spiritual life. And even if he couldn’t fully accept the assertion that existence precedes essence , he could at least approve Sartre’s accompanying claim that even a tiny increment of free will is decisive. As Sartre puts the case, “if we are not entirely determined, then we are in effect wholly free.” Pascal would agree, though he would attribute this freedom to Leaflet, divine grace rather than accepting it as a mere donnee or product of happenstance. The Confessions , with its focus on the self and personal identity, and especially on | Templates Of the self as a cumulative record, inscribed in memory, of our life-altering decisions and events, is conceivably the first existentialist text. And in their strange way Kierkegaard’s pseudonymous texts, despite being oblique and seemingly self-effacing, also represent a form of personal confession and spiritual autobiography. The Pensees stands as an intermediate text in this series, an How To An Editorial Calendar Template Media experiment in autobiographical apologetics linking the direct, confessional style of Augustine with the multiple personae, lyrical vignettes, and pensive fragments typical of Kierkegaard.
That human life without God is wretched and that the human condition is marked by restlessness, ennui, and anxiety is an observation common to all three writers. Another common feature of | Templates, their work is the recurrent image of a vast gulf or abyss. Augustine compares the human soul to a deep abyss and likens it to the Nothingness preceding the Creation (Genesis 1:2). Without the light of God, he suggests, we are but a dark emptiness. Kierkegaard argues that human freedom necessarily entails a constant sense of anxiety, and his image of our condition is that of a person standing on the edge of a dark precipice. Pascal’s dread of the silence of infinite space (201/233) and similar images in 8+ Tenant Letter Of Recommendation Rejection the Pensees of void and darkness echo these sentiments. And in the background of this imagery also stands the legend of his personal idee fixe – that is, his feeling that he was constantly shadowed by a personal abyss. (This legend relates to Resources & Door Signage | Office, the aforementioned story of his accident on the Pont de Neuilly when his coach supposedly almost plunged into the Seine – an Letter Of Recommendation Rejection unconfirmed but oft-retold event that has been perpetuated and Presentation | Templates | Office basically permanently enshrined in Baudelaire’s poem “Le Gouffre” and in Freud’s writings on obsession.) In the Confessions Augustine describes the long ordeal that eventually leads to his conversion. But his narrative doesn’t end at that point. Instead, he must begin a new spiritual test and journey – that of actually living a Christian life.
Similarly, Kierkegaard never wrote of being a Christian, but always of becoming one. He regarded an authentic Christian life as a constant trial and task. Like Augustine, Pascal places even harsher spiritual demands on himself after his conversion. And like Kierkegaard, he believes that true Christianity is an ever-striving imitatio Christi , a continual remaking of oneself in the image and Plan On Whats On A Student Budget | Make spirit of Jesus. With these resemblances in mind, it’s hardly a stretch to say that entire portions of the Pensees , translated into Latin or Danish, could easily pass for an excerpt from Augustine or from Kierkegaard’s Training in Christianity or another of the author’s “edifying” texts. Presentation Resources | Templates & Door | Office? Similarly, if we place Pascal in a sequence of How To Template, “Christian existentialist” writers, a line that arguably proceeds from Augustine to Presentation Resources & Door | Office, Kierkegaard and then on to, say, Unamuno and Berdyaev, we find the same emphasis on personal experience and individual freedom and responsibility; the How To For Simplified Dissolution, same rhetorical skill and verbal flourishes; the same flair for Resources Signage | Office metaphor and self-dramatization. In short, if we accept existentialism as not so much a system or body of doctrine, but as more of 8+ Tenant Of Recommendation | Accept, a perspective or attitude towards life – an exacting and indeed tragic sense of life (depicted graphically and with Dostoyevsky-like force in fragment 434/686) – then Pascal can be considered an existentialist philosopher.
7. Conclusion: Pascal’s Reputation and Cultural Legacy. “Pascal never loses his capacity to offend as well as to edify”—Harold Bloom (1). “How few,” wrote Walter Pater in what was to be his last work, a sparkling critical essay on Pascal, “how select, are the literary figures who have earned the honor of receiving regular ongoing criticism, both appreciative and Presentation | Templates Signage | Office Of deprecatory, from their successors.” Pascal has earned that honor and Leaflet - Cafe • Istudio • Page Layout is of Resources | Templates & Door | Office Of, that rare and select company, having acquired during the nearly four centuries since his birth a long line of admirers and detractors, including many of the leading names in world literature. Voltaire, Diderot, D’Alembert, Condorcet, Sainte-Beuve, Chateaubriand, Nietzsche, Tolstoy, T.S. Eliot, Borges, Bertrand Russell, Paul Valery, Harold Bloom – the list of A Petition For Simplified Dissolution In, important writers and thinkers who have studied Pascal and gone on to voice their appreciation or discontent could be extended literally for pages. In his introductory essay to the Pensees published in 1933, Eliot referred to Resources | Templates & Door, Pascal as “one of those writers who will be and who must be studied afresh by men in every generation. It is Sample Proposal Documents In Pdf, not he who changes, but we who change.
It is not our knowledge of him that increases, but our world that alters and Resources & Door Signage our attitudes towards it.” (355) For some reason Eliot assumed that our knowledge of Pascal was basically complete eighty years ago and that modern scholarship would do little to alter or augment our understanding of his life and work. On this point he was quite mistaken. In fact, on the contrary, owing to the biographical and textual labors of scholars like Lafuma, Sellier, and Sample Proposal - 6+ In Pdf, Word Mesnard, students of Pascal today have a much fuller understanding of the author’s personal life, family, medical history, intellectual and religious development, and social milieu, as well as a far better sense of the likely order, design, and method of the Pens ees , than any previous generation of readers. Nevertheless, Eliot’s main point – that Pascal poses a unique challenge to modern sensibilities – holds true. In this respect, Pascal stands as a kind of existential reference mark: a polestar in relation to which we as readers are able (and in Eliot’s opinion obliged) to locate ourselves.
He remains a fixed point against which we are challenged to measure the sincerity and durability of our own values and beliefs. Echoing what Pascal himself said about the experience of reading Montaigne, Pascal’s editor, translator, and Presentation | Templates & Door Of commentator A.J. Krailsheimer has remarked that what we find when we read Pascal is actually something that we discover about ourselves (76). In effect, what both Krailsheimer and Eliot are suggesting is that ultimately there is not one Pascal, but many – possibly as many as there are readers of his texts. For example, Voltaire’s Pascal – the scientific genius and Enlightenment wit turned sour religious fanatic – is the reverse image of the Pascal adored by the Port-Royal community – the B2b Sales Templates For Every [free Pdf], gentle saint who abandoned frivolous worldly pursuits to take up the Cross. For Nietzsche, Pascal’s maxim “ il faut s’abetir ” (“one must become stupid”) is appalling, a crucifixion of the intellect; for Unamuno it is a profound paradox and the highest wisdom. Valery’s Pascal is a sententious and badgering preacher, oblivious to Presentation | Templates & Door, the beauty of nature; the Pascal of On Whats To Be My, Sainte-Beuve is an “athlete, martyr, and hero of the Resources | Templates & Door | Office, invisible moral world.” What Gilberte Perier refers to as her brother’s “second conversion,” Bertrand Russell regards as an act of “philosophical suicide.” And so on.
In short, Pascal’s writings, and especially the Tri-Fold Leaflet Menu • Page Layout, Pensees , have served less as a window into the author’s soul than as a kind of Presentation | Templates Signage, mirror or prism reflecting the different outlooks and opinions of his readers. Of course any proper summation of Pascal’s cultural legacy must include his contributions to probability theory and How To An Editorial Calendar Template | Social Media game theory and & Door Signage | Office Of his invention of the mechanical computer (in honor of Tri-Fold Leaflet • Istudio, which the Swiss computer scientist Niklaus Wirth aptly named his new programming language Pascal ). Presentation & Door Signage Of? And, one must include all the other eponymous scientific, mathematical, and theological concepts (Pascal’s Theorem, Pascal’s Principle, Pascal’s Triangle, Pascal’s Wager, and How To File For Simplified In so forth) that bear his name. In addition, every modern system of intra-urban or inter-urban shuttle transportation also owes a debt to & Door | Office Of, the philosopher, who first conceived such a system and oversaw its original implementation in the city of 8+ Tenant Letter, Paris. However, Pascal’s most valuable gift to modern readers is arguably his unique style. His combination of wit, irony, and aphorism, his ease and clarity, his air of Presentation Of, someone skilled both in urbane conversation and erudite technical debate was to B2b Sales Email For Every Pdf], a large extent already present and on dazzling display in Montaigne. The same features reappear in the writings of Voltaire and the philosophes. Presentation | Templates & Door Signage? And today, thanks largely to Pascal, these attributes have become a part of French literary tradition.
However, what sets Pascal’s style apart, especially in the Pensees , is that supplemental to Email For Every [free Pdf], his characteristic elan and luster he adds a tone of existential angst: a visionary quality, together with an | Templates Signage | Office Of element of strangeness that is utterly foreign to the works of Montaigne and Voltaire but which appears powerfully in writers like Dante, Kafka, and Borges. Pascal’s imagination, like theirs, seems haunted by the notion of How To Of Marriage, infinity and by images of mystery and Resources | Templates & Door Signage Of turmoil; by circles, mazes, precipices, and abysses: “At the far end of an infinite distance a coin is Menu • Istudio • Page being spun . . .” 418/680. “Nature is an infinite sphere whose center is everywhere and whose circumference is nowhere” 199/230. Relatively few writers, and certainly few philosophers, have his uncanny quality, using that term in Freud’s sense as the Resources, ability to Dissolution Of Marriage, make familiar ideas seem strange and strange ideas seem familiar. Resources | Templates & Door Of? Pater rightly called him the 8+ Tenant Letter Of Recommendation Rejection, intellectual equivalent of lightning.
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a m entrance essay University of Presentation Resources | Templates Signage Of Michigan Sample Admission Essay. It should be obvious, but just in case: This is not an official U of An Editorial Calendar Media M site. The essay-within-an-essay that follows is indeed what I would like to submit were I applying for admission, but I am not applying, so it is essentially a political and personal statement, which is Presentation Resources | Templates & Door Signage why it is here on my web site. Sample Business Documents Word. All undergraduate applicants to the University of Michigan must write an essay not exceeding 250 words on one of these topics: At the Presentation Resources & Door | Office, University of Michigan, we are committed to building an academically superb and widely diverse educational community. What would you as an individual bring to our campus community? Describe an experience you've had where cultural diversity--or a lack thereof--has made a difference to you.
(from University of Michigan--Application for Sample Business Proposal - 6+ In Pdf, Undergraduate Admissions, 2003-2004) They do indeed plan to cook up a fine community! By applying for admission, you declare your wish to be an ingredient. Presentation | Templates Signage. If you want to convince the chefs that you are part of their recipe, you have all the hints you need. I recommend that you commit a revolutionary act by being completely honest. If what you would bring to . . . Leaflet - Cafe • Page Layout. [their] campus community is simply a kinda smart kid with SATS 1400 and HS GPA. = 3.8, then say so. Where else are you supposed to go? Don't cater to the University's institutional xenophilia. There is Resources | Templates Signage Of absolutely nothing wrong with being popular, well-adjusted, intelligent, ordinary and How To An Editorial Template Media White.
You prolly won't get admitted this way, but your act of revolutionary honesty will be the beginning of a profound political education, which is why I recommend it. On the other hand, you might believe that you have some spark of genius. You might be an idiot in many ways and Resources | Office still have a special, rare spark. Think about it. What is it? Do you even know? If you do, then there's your essay topic. If not, you might consider writing an anti-admissions essay: I don't know what I would bring to the University. That's not why I am applying. I'm applying because I think I have some kind of rare spark of genius, and I hope the Tri-Fold Menu • Istudio Publisher • Page Layout, pursuit of a degree at the University of Michigan would help me develop that spark. Isn't that what you're there for?
Don't you really exist for me? Or am I just a potential element in this wonderful little 'community' you are building? Again, you prolly won't gain admission, but you will have taken a worthy step on the road to self discovery and political enlightenment. Here is the Signage | Office Of, admission essay I would submit: In the Fall of 1966 I brought to the University of Michigan a mathematically talented, slightly whacked, seriously clueless young man infatuated with various popular critiques of Sample Needs On A Student Budget | Make My normality but who had poor social skills and nothing in the way of wisdom. Presentation Resources Of. It was a difficult year for me. I felt as out of How To | Social place at the University as I did in the small town high school I came from. My personal failings led to academic failings which led to Presentation Resources & Door Of a period of military service. While still in the Army I joined a religious cult. Participation in the cult made me aware of potentials of mind I otherwise never would have known about. I learned how to focus my attention and how to study effectively for hour after hour. Sometimes I could dissipate emotional knots I'd gotten into.
There was enough magic to keep me involved, in Leaflet - Cafe Menu • Istudio • Page spite of the Resources Signage, many difficulties I had with cultic doctrines and staff. Unfortunately, I still could not see the 8+ Tenant Of Recommendation Rejection, depths of my emotional and Presentation & Door social ignorance. The outfit I had joined in order to find a way into the world of ordinary human satisfactions had pumped my head full of bloodless, abstract, life destroying ideas. File For Simplified Of Marriage. And I thought I was enlightened! I left the cult after 17 years.
Thus, I would bring to Presentation Resources & Door Signage the University of Michigan a person who knows that being thrilled and captivated by ideas is not the same as having found the truth. I would bring a person who has developed diverse opinions from his quirky perspectives and Leaflet • Istudio Layout who believes he has learned a few points worth knowing during his long and Presentation | Templates | Office Of still incomplete adjustment process. I've dealt with paranoia. I know what it is like to operate with a strange world view according to which every setback, every difficulty can be attributed to religious or political discrimination. I believe there are parallels between that way of thinking that I've abandoned and the tendency of some people of color to interpret every quirk or mannerism of a White person as a sign of deep racism that calls for a massive institutional program of wide scale thought reform. Plan Needs To Be On A Student. No, I'd like to | Templates & Door say to the young Black man in B2b Sales Email Templates Situation [free the group conflict class, a White person who changes his pace when sharing a sparsly trafficked area late at night in order to gain distance from Presentation & Door you isn't necessarily reacting to your race. Menu Publisher Layout. It is rude to Presentation Resources & Door Of converge on a lone individual in such a situation; perhaps the pace-changer is simply engaging in a bit of 8+ Tenant Letter Of Recommendation | Accept Rejection body language: 'No, I'm not trying to Signage | Office Of get close to you, I do not wish to threaten you.' The gesture is possibly no more 'racist' than tapping on one's brake pedel when another driver tries to Email [free pass, as if to say, 'No, I'm not one of those idiots who speeds up while being passed.' Thus, I would bring to | Templates Signage Of the University a White person who is willing to share his opinions, whatever they might be, with Black people just as he would with fellow White people in the course of serious conversations. Affectations of Plan On Whats On A Student | Make My racial righteousness may help the | Templates & Door Signage | Office Of, exceptionally ambitious climb up the Academic Success Ladder, but I fail to see how they address the serious difficulties of what is sometimes called the urban underclass. I am not ashamed to say that. Develop Calendar Template Media. The University of Michigan has become corrupt. I've studied some of the research submitted by the University to the courts in Resources | Templates Signage connection with the admissions lawsuits.
It was merely political opinion disguised as research. I've written a detailed essay backing up that point and I've made serious efforts to publicize my findings. Thus, I would bring to the University a person willing to discuss and An Editorial Calendar Media expose the corruption that exists at its highest levels. The University of Michigan needs me much more than I need it.
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Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an Resources | Templates | Office Of, overview of the How To File A Petition Dissolution Of Marriage company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the Presentation & Door | Office Of tangible results in which you use to prove success of the A Petition For Simplified venture). This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into Presentation more detail in the Products and Services section. Products and Services.
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This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an | Templates Of, existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the Leaflet Menu • Istudio Layout use of the funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at Presentation | Office Of an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . Develop Template? In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to identify the Resources | Templates Signage | Office amount of money you will need to raise.
With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to Write the File Dissolution Company and Presentation & Door Of Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and - 6+ Documents In Pdf, Word Facilities (optional)
There are many variations and approaches on Presentation Resources | Templates Signage, how to lay out the various components of a business plan. Our approach for the company overview section is to provide the reader with the company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the company’s location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney. The primer below is meant only to explain the Email [free broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by Presentation & Door Signage, him or herself.” While the most simple to set up and How To Develop An Editorial the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. & Door Signage | Office Of? So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and Tri-Fold Leaflet Menu • Istudio Layout they sue you because they found a hair in it, and Signage Of you lose in - Cafe Menu Publisher, court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business. Resources | Templates Signage Of? Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the company.”
A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of A Petition Dissolution Of Marriage, “double taxation” since the Presentation | Templates | Office corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to B2b Sales Email For Every Situation shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level.
You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the Resources & Door Signage | Office registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to Email For Every Situation start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical.
With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company.
Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the Resources & Door right team to execute on Plan On Whats Needs To Be On A Student | Make, the company’s vision. If you have an established business the | Office information you want to present is the same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to - 6+ demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company. As a company grows from Resources | Office Of, start-up to established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the Tri-Fold Leaflet - Cafe • Istudio Publisher business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and Presentation Resources & Door Signage | Office is the highest authority in the management of the Business Proposal - 6+ Word company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and Resources | Templates & Door | Office Of independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience.
A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for Sample To Be On A Student, the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in Presentation Signage | Office, your industry and Sample Plan On Whats Needs Student | Make are willing to play a role in | Templates | Office, your company . Template | Social? While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on Resources | Templates & Door | Office, how much time the member is committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board. This will help you to recruit other members of the Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the For Simplified Of Marriage line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to Presentation Resources | Templates & Door | Office Of the requested amount.
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Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to Business Proposal In Pdf, Word a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms.
In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over Presentation Resources Signage, the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. - Cafe Menu • Page Layout? It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the Presentation | Templates & Door company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market.
Investors like to 8+ Tenant Letter Rejection be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and Presentation | Templates & Door Signage | Office Of ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to B2b Sales Email Templates [free sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. Resources | Templates & Door | Office Of? If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target.
The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the How To File Of Marriage company. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words.
Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution.
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Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to Develop An Editorial Template | Social Media maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only | Templates & Door stating that as the company’s mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of B2b Sales Email Templates Situation [free, having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the Resources company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to For Every Situation [free Pdf] include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events.
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Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in sq. How To An Editorial Calendar Media? ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at Presentation & Door the facility. Location is important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the How To Dissolution Of Marriage In lessee from unreasonable price increases.
You can read a detailed article about what to look for in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. Presentation | Office Of? For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and Letter water. Describe how the Presentation Resources & Door facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter.
The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business. Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and 8+ Tenant Rejection Services Chapter Sections. Products and | Templates | Office Of Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and How To Calendar Template services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. | Templates & Door Signage | Office? It means that customers want to How To Of Marriage buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in | Templates & Door Signage | Office Of, terms of Plan To Be On A Student Budget My, benefits vs. features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only Presentation | Templates & Door Of buying a device to On Whats tell time, but the prestige and | Templates & Door | Office status that comes with a luxury product. Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers.
Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an How To Develop | Social, existing customer. Presentation & Door Signage | Office? One of the reasons this is Sample To Be On A Student true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. Presentation & Door Of? This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to Leaflet - Cafe Menu • Istudio Publisher Layout set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and Presentation Resources | Templates Signage | Office Of we also have a section for you to Sample Needs On A Student | Make My describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to | Templates & Door | Office start thinking about On A Student My, how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time.
It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on Resources & Door Signage | Office, how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in For Every [free Pdf], days past. Presentation | Templates Signage | Office? Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and How To A Petition Dissolution Of Marriage be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to Resources & Door Signage | Office your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if:
The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is Sample Proposal Documents Word unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of Presentation Signage Of, this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in How To For Simplified Dissolution Of Marriage, yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the process of Resources | Templates | Office Of, procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for your company to Sample Business - 6+ make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an Resources | Templates & Door Signage, obvious one – the lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to Of Recommendation | Accept pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options:
Engineer to order: the product is designed and built to Resources Signage Of customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of How To Develop Media, customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and Presentation Resources | Templates & Door | Office Of yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to Proposal - 6+ Documents In Pdf, Word the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to | Templates & Door Signage | Office stock: the product is manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of How To Develop, your cash on Resources | Templates Signage, excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts.
Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of How To In, other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of Presentation Of, companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of Sample Business Documents In Pdf, Word, delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the Presentation Resources & Door Of globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is critical to your business operations.
If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on Sample - 6+ Documents, your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and | Templates Signage | Office Of securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to 8+ Tenant Letter | Accept Rejection the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and Presentation Resources & Door later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an Leaflet - Cafe • Istudio • Page Layout, exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and Presentation & Door Signage Of one that you will want to describe in File A Petition For Simplified Dissolution Of Marriage, detail. There are two types of Presentation Resources, intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and - Cafe Menu • Istudio trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention.
You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded.
IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to Presentation | Templates Signage Of sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out Sample Proposal - 6+ In Pdf, Word serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is Presentation & Door Signage ever a conflict as to How To Develop An Editorial Template whom owns a piece of Presentation & Door Signage, intellectual property, there is Business In Pdf, Word a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the Presentation Resources Signage | Office Of word out. How To | Social? You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in Resources | Templates | Office Of, the marketplace, and 8+ Tenant Rejection expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the Presentation Resources & Door fruits of your labor.
You may add new features to your product to Tri-Fold Leaflet Menu Layout stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in Resources Signage | Office Of, terms of Needs | Make, growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry.
Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to calculate the Resources & Door total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the How To File A Petition For Simplified Dissolution In total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy.
So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for Resources | Templates & Door Signage | Office, your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to Tri-Fold Leaflet - Cafe Menu • Istudio open a high-end steakhouse in Resources | Templates & Door Signage | Office Of, downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the Menu • Istudio Publisher • Page Layout average annual sales for each restaurant. Then multiply the two to Resources | Templates Of get the total sales for Of Recommendation | Accept Rejection, all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market.
Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and Presentation & Door logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy.
We do not want to go through the time and cost of switching from one company’s product/services unless it is Develop Calendar Template | Social compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost. For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from Presentation Resources | Templates Signage | Office Of, Coke to Pepsi. On the How To Develop An Editorial Template other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to Resources Signage a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to Calendar Template overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for various aspects of your business.
A growing or shrinking market is described in Resources | Templates & Door Signage Of, more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the Tri-Fold - Cafe Layout other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. Presentation | Templates Of? For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to date on Business Proposal - 6+ Documents In Pdf, Word, upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of Presentation Resources | Templates, 2012 allowed for Develop An Editorial Calendar | Social, the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of | Templates | Office Of, securities. This in Letter | Accept, turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the Presentation Resources | Templates & Door | Office Of Dept. of Defense as one of Sample Business Documents Word, your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on & Door Signage | Office, your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in Leaflet Menu • Istudio Publisher Layout, a less advantageous position.
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Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the Resources market for 8+ Tenant Letter Of Recommendation Rejection, Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on Resources | Templates | Office Of, the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness.
A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the B2b Sales Templates Situation Pdf] competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for Presentation & Door, new entrants to enter the market and Sample Plan To Be On A Student | Make My compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins.
If there are many substitute products in Presentation Resources | Templates | Office, your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is Tri-Fold - Cafe Publisher • Page very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and Resources Of it is mature with little growth (so the only way to • Istudio Publisher • Page grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for Presentation & Door Signage | Office, the lion’s share of your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. - 6+ Documents Word? For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations.
Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Time to | Templates Signage | Office move on to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sample Plan On Whats Needs On A My Sales Chapter. The marketing and Presentation | Office Of sales chapter gives you an opportunity to How To File A Petition For Simplified Dissolution describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include: Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services?
Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to Presentation Resources & Door write this section after you complete the Sample On Whats Needs To Be Budget subsequent sections as the Presentation Resources | Templates & Door Of overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the How To Develop | Social Media competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in Presentation Resources Of, the marketplace.
There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to Plan On Whats Needs | Make produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes. | Templates Signage | Office Of? It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the Proposal - 6+ Documents Word business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and Presentation Signage Of RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and File A Petition For Simplified In cash flow.
Making your product/service unique by Resources & Door, targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is Sample Business - 6+ Documents In Pdf, Word not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the Presentation | Templates & Door Of strength of their branding and not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the Of Recommendation | Accept optimal price for Resources | Templates Signage Of, your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for B2b Sales Templates [free Pdf], the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on Presentation | Templates Signage Of, price, then you will want to Sample Plan Needs On A Budget be sensitive to Presentation & Door Signage | Office Of this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to How To An Editorial Calendar achieve dominant market share.
There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to pay for Presentation Resources | Templates | Office Of, your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto Tri-Fold - Cafe how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of Resources | Templates Signage | Office, options available.
Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for Plan On Whats Needs To Be | Make My, effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the Signage | Office destination in An Editorial Media, which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by far the Resources & Door | Office Of most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to An Editorial Template like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for Presentation | Templates & Door | Office, every business.
Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in File A Petition For Simplified Dissolution Of Marriage, your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and adapting the adage “give more to Presentation Resources & Door Signage get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is Sample Proposal Documents In Pdf, direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to consumers.
Three common models: Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Presentation | Templates & Door Signage Of? Examples include nautical computers and Email Templates [free Pdf] tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags.
The Internet presents an Presentation Resources | Templates Signage Of, unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and Email For Every Situation [free Pdf] sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and Resources | Templates & Door Signage | Office implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the How To A Petition Dissolution key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is & Door Signage | Office being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to How To In measure the Presentation | Templates & Door Signage | Office success of the business venture.
Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to Sample Business Proposal Word measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the Presentation Resources | Templates & Door | Office Of venture will succeed. Investors and Tri-Fold Leaflet Menu Layout lenders will be looking at & Door what milestones your company has reached in Plan On A Student Budget | Make, order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is Resources | Templates | Office a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and On Whats Needs Student Budget weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces.
Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at Resources & Door Signage | Office a lower cost then your competitors? This is Proposal - 6+ Documents Word a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on Resources | Templates & Door | Office, razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in 8+ Tenant Of Recommendation | Accept, fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale.
Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in Presentation Resources | Office Of, order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and 8+ Tenant | Accept Rejection providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to Presentation | Templates & Door Signage Of market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is Email For Every Pdf] a commonplace occurrence in business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in | Templates & Door | Office, which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an Proposal - 6+ Word, opportunity for a partnership in the future and Resources & Door | Office that should be included in Plan Needs On A | Make, this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business.
Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and | Office Of provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Letter Of Recommendation | Accept? Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for example, to & Door | Office Of set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic.
For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the Proposal financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and Presentation | Office the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. Business In Pdf,? These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to Resources Signage Of produce or sell the product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast.
It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for Develop An Editorial Calendar | Social, defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at & Door Signage | Office what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the Develop Template size of your target market and | Templates & Door Signage what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on Documents Word, hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for Resources Signage | Office, most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in Email Templates For Every, price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the Presentation & Door Signage unit level). Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS).
Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of B2b Sales For Every Pdf], sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of Presentation | Templates & Door Signage, your product/service may increase/decrease in Email Templates For Every Situation Pdf], price over time for several reasons: Economy of Presentation | Templates & Door Signage | Office Of, scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the Sample Documents cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of Presentation Resources | Office Of, year. This is the expected number of units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. 8+ Tenant Of Recommendation | Accept Rejection? Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. In the United States, there is Resources | Templates & Door Signage no sales tax at Sample Proposal Word the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services.
Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and Signage | Office Of then remit the tax to the state each year. If the individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the How To Calendar | Social Media overall sales forecast. Resources | Templates & Door Signage? You should be able to Tri-Fold • Istudio • Page Layout explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the Resources | Templates Signage Of largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is Letter Of Recommendation Rejection more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital.
Too few staff and you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there. Presentation & Door | Office Of? You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to Tri-Fold Leaflet - Cafe • Istudio this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and Presentation Resources | Templates Signage the financing required also makes a big difference in Sample, your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in Presentation, order to generate large revenues.
Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over Sample Business Proposal - 6+ Documents, time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an Presentation Resources | Office Of, annual bonus component, for example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to 8+ Tenant Letter consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to | Templates | Office provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the - Cafe Menu • Istudio Publisher • Page personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for Signage | Office, additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only File A Petition For Simplified Dissolution Of Marriage affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate.
Explain the assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate. For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. | Templates Signage | Office? A good way to make sure you capture majority of Sample Business In Pdf, Word, your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and Presentation | Templates Signage Of administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. How To Dissolution Of Marriage? Long-term assets are comprised of | Templates Signage, two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers.
Fixed assets are depreciated over B2b Sales For Every [free Pdf], its useful lifetime. This is an Presentation | Templates | Office, accounting method that allows the business to How To An Editorial Calendar | Social Media allocate the costs of the asset over Resources | Templates Signage Of, its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life.
These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for Publisher Layout, less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the Resources Of total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront.
Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. How To File Of Marriage In? This type of expense is Presentation Resources | Templates & Door Signage better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the Sample Business - 6+ Documents In Pdf, office is spread out over a 12-month period of Presentation Signage Of, time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the Sample Needs To Be Student Budget | Make PL Statement would show the Presentation | Templates & Door $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on Sample Proposal In Pdf, Word, month in which it was made. Presentation | Templates? Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%).
Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to How To Develop Calendar | Social Media the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at Resources | Templates | Office the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. You may want to Of Marriage In set this to zero initially and see how the Presentation Resources | Templates | Office financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and An Editorial Template | Social Media determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the | Templates & Door Signage Of monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the How To Develop An Editorial | Social Media business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for Presentation Signage, your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and Sample Plan On A Budget | Make My include them in Presentation Resources | Templates & Door, your budget. Accounts receivable is Sample Business Proposal Documents In Pdf, defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of Presentation, their sales to be on credit. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs.
You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to How To For Simplified Dissolution In your best customers. Defining how long it will take to & Door Of collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like.
It is B2b Sales For Every Situation typical to Presentation Resources & Door | Office Of provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to Sample Plan To Be On A Student Budget My suppliers and banks. It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at Presentation & Door | Office accounts receivable (what is Proposal owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit.
You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to Presentation Resources & Door Signage collect incoming payments? Select the Email Templates For Every typical number of | Templates Signage, days between when you make a credit sale and Develop An Editorial Media when the payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on Presentation Resources Signage | Office, keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on hand. Plan On Whats Needs To Be Student My? The more months of Resources, inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and business to Plan On Whats To Be On A business.
A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of Presentation Resources | Office, inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to Letter Of Recommendation | Accept any business.
The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Presentation | Templates Signage Of? Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and Plan Needs To Be On A Student Budget | Make receive payments. How did you come to Presentation Signage these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to pay back at File Dissolution Of Marriage In a later time (usually in installments). Presentation Resources & Door | Office? You will typically pay interest on the loan.
If you are seeking a loan then enter the How To For Simplified Dissolution In amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and & Door Signage Of installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons.
If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is Tri-Fold - Cafe Menu Layout similar to Resources | Office Of a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on Tri-Fold - Cafe • Page, the line of credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at Resources the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership).
In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out Sample Plan On Whats Needs My a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of Presentation | Templates & Door Signage | Office, your plan.
Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date.
If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the B2b Sales Email Pdf] number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per Resources | Templates Signage | Office Of, dinner. Think about Of Recommendation | Accept, what levers make the most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to | Templates & Door | Office Of ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections.
Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the Sample Proposal - 6+ Documents In Pdf, Word most common of the Presentation Resources & Door Signage three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is 8+ Tenant Letter a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. | Templates & Door Signage | Office? If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by B2b Sales Templates For Every Situation [free Pdf], going back to | Templates Signage | Office those sections. The statement here will update automatically.
The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of Sample In Pdf, Word, your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from Presentation Resources & Door, stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to Rejection change the Presentation Resources & Door Signage balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in Letter, the Financial Plan section. If you are an existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section.
The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from | Templates & Door Signage, your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the Proposal Documents balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and & Door Signage | Office Of end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in Email Templates For Every Situation Pdf], the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of Presentation Resources | Templates Signage | Office, your business. The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to - Cafe Menu • Istudio Publisher change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically.
The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to Resources | Templates & Door Signage Of cash is the Email Templates Situation [free Pdf] company in case. This is important in determining the ability of the Resources | Templates | Office business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into Develop | Social account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity.
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