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How to Write an Artist’s CV in | Benedictine College, 10 Steps. A CV or curriculum vitae is an Sample Character Reference Letter Word, overview of your artistic professional history and achievements. Although it looks similar to a resume, it contains different elements which are only related to your artistic professional practice. One mistake emerging artists often make in writing their CVs is trying to oversell their work. Less is Organizational Chart, more. About Event Planning On Pinterest. Your CV should be neatly organized, and only include information pertinent to your artistic career. What should you include on a CV? Here is where how to compose one in 10 steps: Often, more established artists will keep it simple. Organizational Chart College. This is Reference Letter 9 Documents Word, because their CV is usually referenced as a biography rather than a resume.
Damian Hirst (b. 1965, UK) However, you can include contact information if you are sending out your CV to galleries in the hopes that they will reply: Damian Hirst, (b. 1965, UK) Either of these formats is Organizational Chart | Benedictine College, appropriate for an artist’s CV. Medical Coding Resume. Just keep in | Benedictine College, mind that you should only include your website if it directly relates to your artistic practice. You may have attended post-secondary school for art, or you might be a self-taught, mentored, or otherwise educated artist.
Generally speaking, this section of a CV relates to Test Plan, institutional education specifically in the field of visual arts. If you do have post-secondary education in Organizational Chart | Benedictine, the arts field, include the Creative Images On Pinterest | Invitation school(s), the year(s) that you graduated, and the degree(s): University of British Columbia, Master of Fine Arts, 2009. Emily Carr University, Bachelor of Fine Arts, 2005. If you do not have a degree in the visual arts field, fear not. | Benedictine College. This section of the CV is 17 Best About Event Planning Planning, not a pre-requisite for College, exhibitions or gallery representation. The only thing to note is Creative Invitations, that you should not put down any other type of education (high school graduation, degree in business management), unless it very directly relates to the artwork that you make. Organizational Chart | Benedictine. Leaving this section off of your CV is perfectly acceptable.
Beginning with your most recent, you should list your exhibitions in a manner similar to this: 2011 Title of Show , Museum of Modern Art, NY. 2010 I’ve been showing a lot lately , Galerie Espace, Montreal. If you have a large number of exhibitions, you can split them into two or more categories: solo exhibitions, group exhibitions, and Sample Character Letter In Pdf Word, even duo exhibitions. This helps define in what capacity your work was shown (you don’t want to undersell your solo show at the MoMA.) A method often used by College artists is to list “selected” exhibitions, ie, the heading would read “selected group exhibitions”.
This has benefits whether you have a lot of exhibitions or not: if you have lots, you can weed out the exhibitions that are no longer relevant to your career. If you don’t have a lot of exhibitions, you are assuring the reader that they are not looking at a short list, but rather your most relevant history. In this section of your CV, you can include any articles in which you or your art appeared. If it is an article, it should include the author, title, publication, volume, publication date, and page number: Coupland, Douglas: “Why I Love This Artwork”, Canadian Art Magazine, vol. 12, February 2011, p. 55-60. If your work appeared on the cover of a publication, you can format your information like this: Canadian Art Magazine, Cover, vol.
12, February 2011. If writing about your artwork or your artwork itself appears in a book, the formatting should read: Schwabsky, Barry (Compiler), Vitamin P: New Perspectives in 59 Best Images | Invitation, Painting , Phiadon Press 2004, p. 78. For further information and other examples of MLA format, there any many resources online. As an example, here is SFU’s citation guide for MLA style . Once I entered a competition to paint banners for Chart | Benedictine College, a small city’s Christmas celebration. I requested the Coding banner be returned when the competition was over, but they refused to return it. Now I put “City of _____” under the public collections section of my CV.
We both win! Generally, the “collections” portion of Organizational Chart College, your CV is to list public institutions which own your artwork. This could be museums, corporate collections, or even municipalities or agencies. They can simply be listed under the heading collections: The Vancouver Art Gallery. The Canada Council Art Bank. The Colart Collection. If you only have artwork in ~ Software, private collections and you wish to include this section on your CV, you should not list the | Benedictine College name of the collector unless 1. they are well-known as important collectors of art, and 2. have explicitly agreed to be listed on your CV in whatever venue it gets published (the web, etc). If several people own your artwork in private collections and you would like to note that, you can list them like this:
Private collection, Calgary AB. Private collection, Vancouver, BC. Just don’t go to overboard with the list– if you really have lots, you’ll look more understated and impressive by inserting something like this: Works held in On Pinterest | Vintage Wine, Wine, private collections in College, Canada, the United States, Germany, and New Zealand. If you have any published writing relating to either your own practice or that of others, you can list it here in proper MLA format: “This Artwork is Statement, Awesome”, Awesome exhibition catalogue, Vancouver Art Gallery, 2006. The above points are the most common and usually the most notable elements which artists include on their CVs.
However, depending on your practice, there may be a number of Organizational College, other professional and About On Pinterest | Party Planning, artistic points of interest to list. Organizational Chart | Benedictine. Here are some examples: This is a space to list any teaching positions you may have had, either as a faculty member or as a guest lecturer or speaker. You should only include those related specifically to your practice or to visual arts: 2009, Guest lecturer, Emily Carr University. 2007, Sessional instructor, SFU. If, as well as being an artist you have also undertaken curatorial projects (as so many artists seem to do now), you can list them simply as the About On Pinterest Planning exhibition itself, or, add on Organizational Chart | Benedictine College a brief explaination: 2011, “Drawings”, Richmond Art Gallery.
2010, “Paintings”, Or Gallery, co-curated by Damian Hirst. Some artists choose to list awards and 59 Best Creative Invitations Images, / or grants they have received. If you decide to include this, the list should all be specifically related to your artistic practice, unless it is extremely notable, such as the Nobel Peace Prize: 2011, Canada Council grant. 2010, BC Arts Council grant. Artist’s residencies you may have attended are good to include on Chart College your CV as they show a dedication to your practice and to Software Templates ~ Software, your professional development: 2010, Studio residency, School of Visual Arts, New York. One of the best ways to start writing your CV is to see how other artists do it. In addition to the categories listed above, there are many different professional practices or ways of organizing your information.
Many galleries or artist’s themselves post CVs on their website, so they are easily accessible. A few to check out: 143 thoughts on “ How to Write an Organizational | Benedictine College, Artist’s CV in 10 Steps ” Thanks so much, great information. really great,, I was struggling on puting one together, The information online is very conflicting when it comes to artists CV’s. thia article only Medical Coding, applies to artists with sufficient experience and various accomplishments such that this article would provide no value, with no usefulness or relevance to artists who are seeking advice on creating a resume. Hi Bradley– I’d be happy to give you other suggestions for your artist CV. What kind of artistic experience do you have, and what were you thinking of including on your CV?
What would you reccommend to Organizational | Benedictine, write in an unexperienced artist?s cv? I don?t even have shown my work in About Planning | Party Planning, a gallery, do you think it is a must to do this? What would be the previous steps to writing a cv? I am interested in applying for Organizational Chart College, a contest but I always end up not applying because of the 59 Best Creative Invitations cv. Wow. This blog is such a fantastic resource! I am thrilled to have found it this afternoon! Cheers! If you are creating a resume for an art teacher position, do you still include all the info you pointed out? Or do you create more of a standard resume (objective, job history, etc.)? Do they want to see if your work has been in galleries, etc?
Hi Tanya, I would still use all the info listed above, but perhaps pare it down to College, include only the “highlights.” Then you can also include standard employment info from a regular resume, as well as references. Cheers! Thanks for the info. Also, should I put experience first, then the highlights of CV? Also, is their a max for Test Templates, number of Organizational Chart | Benedictine, pages, because I know on Medical Coding Resume my standard employment resume you shouldn’t have more than 2 pages. Apologies for the delayed reply!
I agree experience first and Chart | Benedictine College, then CV highlights. Coding Resume. I’d keep it to Chart | Benedictine, 2 pages if possible, but if the position you are applying for is prestigious or highly competitive, they would probably appreciate more information. For example, the CVs of 16 Best Wine | Vintage Wine,, many scholars are pages and pages long! If you do not have a formal art degree but have taken collegiate courses, should you include the university and Organizational Chart, disciplines under Education? I was originally enrolled in a 4 year art program and due to a significant change in circumstances had to move and was forced to complete a 2 year general degree. My CV is really short, although I’m working on getting more exhibitions under my belt. Hi Diana, yes, I would include these collegiate courses but keep them brief. I would list the general degree and 59 Best Invitations Images On Pinterest | Invitation, highlight your original focus on the arts-related courses. What if you have no experience, have taken photography classes and have only shown in student shows? How can you put something together with practically nothing without making it look that way?
Hi Lisa, you should list your photography courses under education and your student shows under exhibitions. If anyone owns your work (even if you’ve gifted them a work,) you can list them as a private collection (see step 5.) Those three items formatted nicely with your contact info should give you a decent 1 page CV. Don’t worry if it seems sparse to you, there’s nothing wrong with being an emerging artist! Also remember most people will look at your artwork before they look at your CV #128521; Thank you for the information – it’s very helpful!
One other question – as far as publications is Organizational, concerned: what if my art appeared in a [student] publication, but wasn’t reviewed? The book appears every spring and consists of 59 Best Invitations Images On Pinterest, photos of various students’ work. Should I put that on Organizational | Benedictine a CV or leave it out? Hi Lisa, definitely include it. Any time your artwork is published it’s worth including! A couple of On Pinterest | Party Planning, questions: I have several exhibitions from the Navy, should they be listed by ship or simply U.S. Navy with home city and year?
I also received a nomination for 2005 Graphic Artist of the Year while in the Navy, which section would you recommend listing this? Hi Michael, for Organizational Chart, your exhibitions, I think you should list U.S. Character Letter Word. Navy, the ship, as well as home city and Chart College, year. 17 Best Images About | Party. Someone looking at your CV would probably appreciate as much information as possible. For your nomination (congratulations, by the way!) you can list that under a heading called “awards.” You could format it something like this: 2005, Nomination, Graphic Artist of the Year, US Navy. I hope that helps #128578; Very much so. Thank you!
OK, one more question, for multiple awards received in Organizational | Benedictine College, one year, list year and award individually or as a group under that one year? Hi Michael, there’s no exact right or wrong here, it’s up to you in 17 Best Images About On Pinterest, terms of what you think visually looks better. You could go like this: Nominated, Award #1. Nominated, Award #2. Finalist, Award #3. 2005, Nominated, Award #1. 2005, Nominated, Award #2.
2005, Finalist, Award #3. 2004, Winner, Award #4. just saying thank you. Organizational College. i have struggled to find a good reference for creating a cv for an artist, this one is great. Thank you! I’m glad it helped you. I was wondering whether the 17 Best Images Planning On Pinterest | Party tips above applies to Chart | Benedictine College, those wanting to pursue arts-management courses as well? . Resume. I don’t have formal post-secondary arts-related education but have taken part in Chart | Benedictine, small-scale and major group exhibitions. Hi Yangzheur, I think it depends exactly what you’re tailoring your CV for. Creative On Pinterest. Do you mean that you are applying to an arts-management business type of course? If so, look closely at Organizational | Benedictine College their requirements.
Are they asking for an artist’s CV? If so, the information about Wine would be applicable to you. If they are asking for Chart | Benedictine College, a resume, and if you feel your participation in the exhibitions are relevant to the focus of the program, you could add those to your resume as professional experience. 59 Best Images | Invitation. I hope that helps! Thank you.
Its good reference to make a CV for an artist. Reblogged this on balladblood and Organizational | Benedictine College, commented: Very helpful for those of us doing their artist C.V’s for 59 Best Creative | Invitation, the first time. Great Advice! My sister is struggling and I am trying to help in any way.
I am not an artist so all the Organizational advice helps! Can I send you her CV so far? Hi Natalie, if you have any specific questions about the CV or its formatting, please email me at [email protected] Cheers! Thanks for the information. You have clearly explained how we can write professional resume perfectly. There is one option to create perfect CV is to use resume templates. Financial. This helps in saving your lot of Organizational College, time and Resume, also helps to make your resume best among all. Wow, This is wonderful.
I am trying to take the information from my regular resume and crate a CV for Organizational College, graduate school applications. Invitations Images On Pinterest. Is there a best format for grad school applications that combines both work and art? Also, I am challenged by how I should add a competition (the only one I have to put on the CV) that was through Creative Quarterly: The Journal of Art and Organizational Chart, Design, Issue 18, which is a print and web journal. I won a Merit award in student photography and was published (full page) in 16 Best | Vintage, the magazine. Organizational | Benedictine. But in addition to Resume, that for the same issue, my winning Runner-Up image was posted in the on-line gallery.
Here’s what I have written. The formatting did not carry over with a copy and paste function. Please imagine that the journal title is College, underlined not to include the words, Volume Five, Number Four. Can you tell me if it is 17 Best Images About Planning On Pinterest | Party, correctly entered? This is so awesome! Thank you!
New Talent Merit Winner-Student Photography. Creative Quarterly: The Journal of Art and Design, Issue 18. Volume Five, Number Four. Spring 2010. 64. Print.
Runner-Up-Student Photography. “Online Gallery: CQ 18.” Creative Quarterly: The Journal of Art and Organizational College, Design, Issue 18. Creative Images | Invitation. Volume Five, Number Four. Spring 2010. Forgive if this post hows up twice. Chart. My laptop is being a pain right now. Hi, please forgive me for my delay in replying! I think you should choose what elements you need from your work resume and which from your art, and 16 Best Wine Labels Images Wine, combine them as you see fit based on the requirements of your application. Resumes are CVs are formatted fairly similarly, so if you just keep that consistent it should be just fine to combine the information that they require into | Benedictine one document.
Regarding your competitions section, you could consider renaming it “Awards.” Even if you technically received runner-up, it still is appropriate. Software Test Plan Testing. I think your formatting works well. Hope that helps #128578; New Talent Student Photography Award,v The information you’ve shared is very helpful. I will change the section to Organizational Chart | Benedictine College, Awards,and I’ll change the information as you have suggested above. Financial. I really appreciate you! Thank you very much. When adding shows to your CV, should you separate juried shows from exhibitions? Does it matter and how should you separate them? I know that separating solo shows from Chart College group shows is Financial Statement Types, done, but I am wondering specifically about juried (and, now that I think about it, un-juried — but that would make it more of just a group exhibition, no?) shows.
Thank you. If you want to Organizational | Benedictine, note that certain shows were juried, I would just put a note at the end of those entries. For example: 2013: “Portraits” at Financial Statement the Downtown Art Gallery (juried) “Landscapes” at Organizational | Benedictine West Art Gallery. “Abstracts” and East Art Gallery (juried) I think if you were to About Event Planning, separate juried shows into their own section, it could get too confusing for a reader. Hope that helps! Hi! Thanks so much for this CV advice, v helpful!
I have a question aswell. Would you include web-based magazines under “bibliography”? And in that case, how would you write it? If you would like to Chart | Benedictine College, include web-based magazines or publications on your CV, go ahead. You can list them along with the other items in your bibliography, and just put ” (online) ” or similar at the end of the Coding listing. I’m sure web-based articles and reviews haven’t always been appropriate for CVs, but obviously things are changing. Any important articles and Organizational Chart | Benedictine College, reviews, online or otherwise, should be included. Hope that helps! Thanks very much for your help! Am struggling with my CV, and realized Ive been in Sample Character, some magazines that have both a paper-based article and the same article online, so just thought I could refer to the online article as it would be easier get a hold of. In that case, you could add “(also available online)”?
Perhaps that would make it clear to the reader. Thanks so much for your help with this! If I had a collaborative piece in a group show in a museum, how do I indicate that I was one of Organizational Chart | Benedictine, a number of people who produced the piece, or do I need to? You could list it like this: 2013, Group Show, Museum of Modern Art (artwork in Images On Pinterest, collaboration with Andy Warhol and Jackson Pollack) or if you don’t want to list the other artists (there’s too many, or you just want simplicity), you could simply put: 2013, Group Show, Museum of Modern Art (collaborative artwork).
Hope that helps! If you show and sell in artist markets do they go in the Exhibitiions section? Should they be in a separate section ie; Markets. Many of the markets I have done over the past year were juried. Hi Leslie, usually you would not include markets in Chart | Benedictine College, the exhibition section, even if they are juried. You could include them in their own section if you would like to Financial Statement Types, include them on your CV, but I would say only do this if you are submitting your CV for Organizational Chart, commercial purposes, ie applying to a different market. Thank you for sharing this information and displaying it in such an easy to follow fashion. Hi mate, do you suggest a cover letter with your cv?
Thank you for this, I had done mine like a job CV until I found your post. I do not have a lot of shows on my CV, but I have made the most of it with your advice. Thank you. Hello and thank you for the information you’ve shared. However, I’m someone who has had a career in producing and promoting the art of Software Templates ~ Software Testing, others. I recently found my own ‘voice’ and am trying to establish myself. My work is abstract photography and I’ve been approached for some rather large projects in Saudi Arabia, here in Los Angeles and in NYC.
I’ve had an article written on me by Organizational | Benedictine a design magazine. I do have work in Medical, private collections in London, New York, Jacksonville, Dallas, New Orleans, Provincetown and Los Angeles, as well as shows in a couple of smaller galleries here in Los Angeles, but I can’t seem to Organizational, land gallery representation. Software Test Testing. I’ve created an EMK (electronic media kit) to use to Organizational, begin cold submissions to galleries. I just was curious what input or advice you might have for me going forward. I appreciate your time and attention. Character Letter 9 Documents In Pdf Word. Robert Madden. I would suggest, if you haven’t already, researching the mandates or programs of galleries before submitting.
This could be online, or simply a phone call asking if galleries are accepting submissions, and Organizational Chart | Benedictine College, what exactly they are looking for. Hopefully you can then narrow down the list of galleries you are approaching. Of course, acquiring gallery representation is About Event On Pinterest | Party Planning, not easy for anyone. | Benedictine College. Stay persistent and keep working on your own projects and exhibitions–good things will happen. Hi dear,Thanks for sharing this format,I tried my best to made the most of it with your advise. I have attended some workshops by some well known artists.
Should I include this under education or leave it off the CV. Including the workshops would be appropriate in the education section as you suggested. Thank you so much for 16 Best Wine Images On Pinterest | Vintage Wine,, this. Even the comments under specific questions asked by others has been helpful. I appreciate your efforts. I unfortunately have no formal art training (I can not afford to attend art school) and I am near completion of my first collection (it is a mixed media project that focuses on the use of green army men in each piece). I recently discovered a not for profit gallery in my area that are taking submissions. I have a few pieces that I want to submit, and I have been racking my brain on what to place in my resume since I have not sold any work, presented it anywhere, I have yet to place any work on a website. Organizational | Benedictine College. Could you please assist me? Thank you in Character Reference Letter 9 Documents, advance. I also would like to ask if it is strange for an artist to work on Organizational | Benedictine College a political body of work (as my toy soldier piece is), and Images | Invitation, then jump to Organizational Chart | Benedictine, a humorous body of work, and back to something political in nature, and anywhere in between?
I can not think of any artist that have done that. I always make notes of ideas for bodies of works that I’d like to create (many tend to be of a conceptual nature), and Statement, I have realised that many of my ideas don’t fit into Organizational Chart College a mold that would categorize me as a person making a particular type of work. I ask this because, at some point, I would like to work on a humorous body of work after I feel ready to move on from this project. The best I can do for your is included in my newest post, which offers suggestions for Reference Word, if you need to Organizational College, write a CV and don’t have much professional experience: http://thepracticalartworld.com/2013/04/09/how-to-write-an-artists-cv-when-you-dont-have-much-or-any-professional-experience/ Alternatively, depending on what is required of you for Statement, your submission, you could include a cover letter indicating that you do not have a CV as you are a new and emerging self-taught artist.
In terms of the art itself, honesty is | Benedictine, always visible. If you make work that matters to 59 Best Invitations On Pinterest | Invitation, you, whether it’s serious or humourous, that’s the Organizational | Benedictine College best anyone can do. Thank you so much! Recently I took part in a photo competition organised by 59 Best Creative Invitations On Pinterest | Invitation a local independent art gallery. I didn’t win first prize but I was one of the runner-up(finalists). Can this be included in my CV? If so under which (specific) category?
If am applying for Organizational, transfer of article ship in any firm where should i mention experience details.In experience column or any other place as the reason for Medical Coding, transfer. What a fantastic resource. Thank you! My issue is that I’ve taken about 10 years off to raise my children, so all of my dates are really OLD!! I’d like not to include any dates on Organizational Chart | Benedictine College exhibitions or education or anything – what do you think?
I feel like I am still emerging, and yet the dates would say otherwise (ie: undergrad in 1985-1991, grad school in On Pinterest | Vintage Wine, Wine, 1993/94, etc…) How would you include a publication you produce? I have been publishing and selling a calendar of my mandala art since 1997. Do I include that? How is the best way? You could list them under the heading “Publications” The format beyond that is Organizational Chart, up to you, but for Wine, an example you could do something like: 1997, “Michael Lukacsko” published by Mandala Art. If there are any essays or authors, you could list them also. Hope that helps!
Thank you so Much. You helped me a lot. Thank you for this advice – it helps a great deal to Chart College, make sense of the differences between a work resume and an artist CV. I do have one question – is it ok to On Pinterest, mix media on a single CV? I came from a journalism/print media background and Organizational College, am now doing photography.
Can I list my “Images of Men and Women in Advertising” Pop-Culture presentation and my piece on Coding Resume Lollapalooza on the same CV as my photography exhibit? I would say yes, as long as everything is still relevant to Chart | Benedictine College, your practice (which it sounds like it is). Thank you so much for putting this together. It is just what I need to get my CV in Software Test Plan Templates ~ Software Testing, working order for gallery applications. I have been doing solo exhibits for a number of years, but have never had the courage to try to break into | Benedictine College the world of Software Test Templates, gallery showings. The part about the CV always had me worried.
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A Case Study: Existential Therapy Essay. After meeting with Anna and Organizational | Benedictine following her initial evaluation I have decided that it would be in her best interest to Statement draw upon the concepts of the Existential theory. Using the ideas behind Existential Therapy we will move towards creating a good therapist and client relationship. We will then work together to bring Anna’s consciousness and unconsciousness to a place of psychological balance. Anna will explore herself from within her memories, thoughts, and perceptions to go beyond her limited self- awareness. Our focus will be on “what” her current issues are at this time find the possible causes explore thought patterns, reflect, and look at different ways to perceive situations changing thought patterns and behaviors thus resolving the current “What” or disturbance presently troubling Anna’s life. Anna will use exploration and client led talking techniques to Organizational | Benedictine College reveal any reoccurring thoughts, behaviors, or emotions to signify a pattern and correlation of thought with her present. Although we are using methods that look at past memories, emotions, and behaviors we are not focusing on the “why” of Images On Pinterest | Invitation, her current disturbances and not even the current behaviors, emotions, or reactions that are hindering her choices and control in her life needed for her to Organizational Chart | Benedictine College have a more positive self-image. Anna then can create purpose for life situations through good thoughts which will support a more meaningful and spiritual growth.
She will be asking herself questions such as “Who am I?” and 59 Best Creative | Invitation “What is the purpose of life?” By exploring these questions, gaining a better understanding of Chart | Benedictine College, self, then reflecting upon them we anticipate that she will find new perspective and awareness about herself, that can relieve her from the psychological distress with which she is currently suffering from. (Murdock, 2012) How it will be used in the counseling process for client. Our objective is to get Anna to 16 Best Wine | Vintage Wine, share information about her current life situations and also her past experiences, her recollections from Organizational Chart her childhood, her memories. We will work together as therapist and client to explore all of Anna’s how does she view her relationships with others, her environment, and how she views herself. Anna will share information about both her past and Software Plan Testing present situations, and how she reacted to such incidences at the time, and how she is currently reacting to her present situations in life. Together we will work at finding patterns and repetitious behaviors, looking for Chart College, the causes of any reoccurring behaviors or thoughts. Any anxieties she comes across will be explored for fears of Images About Planning Planning, isolation, loneliness, and death. Anna will learn to except life for what it is in healthier ways, and to take responsibility and control of her life by changing her self-perceptions and reactions to her environment and other peoples influence. Anna will be reflecting upon her memories, and about how these experiences made her feel along with how she is currently feeling about Chart | Benedictine, her present life situations. Anna and I, will discuss how she copes in stressful times. (Sue 1987) All this technique of talk, exploration, discovery, analysis, and 16 Best Wine On Pinterest | Vintage Wine reflection will work to get Anna to own her freedom without fear, as the one responsible and in control of her own development through her healthy thoughts and actions of her will.
She will find meaning of herself and life and develop new thoughts and behaviors that are encouraging, thus allowing her to be “true to herself”. Anna will find enrichment, and renewed energy that will enliven her to where she will find her moral and meaning and purpose in | Benedictine life. I chose the Existential and behaviorist theory and to use its methods of 16 Best Labels On Pinterest | Vintage Wine,, therapy in Anna’s case study over the other theories, because she was a good candidate for Organizational | Benedictine, a successful outcome in treatment. This theory focuses on Sample Reference Letter Word perception and changing distorted thought patterns that are the cause of current disturbances through reactive behaviors in one’s life. I think this theory will prove a successful client outcome for Anna when treating her personality disorders of depression, and anxiety. (Murdock 2012) Counseling Goals and Interventions. The main goal of existential therapy is to Organizational enable Anna to 59 Best On Pinterest start being more truthful with herself, and to gain a larger new perspective about how she views the world and herself. The objective is for Anna to better understand and reflect upon the lessons she discovers in her past, and use them as a guide for the future.
I will aim to help facilitate Anna’s motivation to One of the counseling goals will be to work together as therapist and client to bring awareness to Chart | Benedictine Anna’s consciousness so she can find wholeness and psychological balance. Once we bring together both the unconsciousness and the consciousness of Anna’s thoughts and behaviors Anna can have relief from her psychological suffering and actually find meaning to it. We also want to realign Anna’s conscious and unconscious aspects of her personality by discovering purpose and meaning for her behaviors, thoughts, and condition, and through her development of new values. Jungian uses symbols that will suddenly appear in client dreams, daily lives, projects of creativity, and their fantasies. Many of these are similar to images in myths, religion and traditions. About Planning On Pinterest | Party Planning! Concentration of Organizational Chart, these images makes energy that creates images that lead to impulses. Jungian Theory: A long Term Commitment for Counseling. This theory requires analysis which requires the therapy to be occurring on frequent basis and the counseling sessions are expected to be of high intensity. Sessions will be scheduled one to four times each week and it is possible for even five or more sessions per 17 Best Planning | Party, week to be decided. Both client and patient work to decide what would be most beneficial amount of time needed for the client’s specific needs in counseling. Typically the counseling process aligned with this theory extends over several years and could go even longer if needed. (Murdock 2012) The counselor#8217;s and client’s role in counseling?
The counselor and Organizational Chart College client roles in Anna’s counseling will be shared in many areas such as serious commitment to counseling since this type is one that requires long-term therapy over several years. The counselor’s role is to Wine Images On Pinterest | Vintage Wine, help the client focus on their experiences in Organizational Chart | Benedictine their daily life, past memories, relationships, feelings and reactions to these experiences, reflection, and exploration of the client’s dreams. Through the interaction and strength of the relationship between the client and the therapist decisions are made together about the counseling process. Sample Character 9 Documents In Pdf Word! The client is expected to share information the counselor is the analyst although the client shares in Organizational Chart | Benedictine College the analyzing of the information and decisions to Statement Types be made. Confidentiality is a must. | Benedictine! The counselor has the hard role of Sample Reference Letter, analyst the difficulty of Organizational Chart College, exploring the “psyche “of the client. The client has the role of Statement, constantly needing to be conscious of their thoughts and behaviors. Commitment, relationship, and focus on realigning the unconscious and Chart conscious psyche in relationship, I think are the most important roles in this type of counseling process. For what population(s) is this theory most appropriate? How does this theory address the social and cultural needs of the client? This analysis type does well for people who have emotional issues, have relationship problems want growth and Wine Images On Pinterest Wine, seek meaning of life, those on spiritual exploration, people who suffer with depression, anxiety, and with the culturally diverse clients when modified to the client needs and because it focuses on a person’s “psyche” so there is not a specific personality type or way of thinking that is required for this analysis to be successful and effective (Addison.
1997). Here the focus on Organizational Chart College the entire “psyche” of a person’s mind goes beyond the social identity of ones ego as long as the analyst is culturally aware of the clients diversity during the analytic process of exploring the client’s information and findings, there shouldn’t be any issues with the client’s cultural needs being compromised. (Blass 2003) Other important information that client should disclose and possible risks of Jungian analysis Other important information the Software Test Plan client should disclose would be abuse, trauma, or any other memory or significant experience that had an emotional impact upon the client. Organizational Chart College! There is Labels | Vintage Wine, Wine, always the risk of developing a more severe anxiety when unconscious memories and/or emotions suddenly surface causing anxiety that could put a stop on this type of counseling process immediately due to potential harm for Chart | Benedictine College, the client. Cherry, Kendra. Psychoanalytic Theories of Development, About Education (2015) psychology.about.com/od/developmentecourse/a/dev_psychoanaly.htm Addison, R. (1997): The racially different patient in individual and group psychotherapy. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapyt, 9, 1, 39-40. Blass, R.B. “on Ethical Issues at Coding the Foundation of the Organizational Chart College Debate over The Goals of Phychoanalysis.” International Journal of Phychoanalysis 84 (August 2003): 929-943. Financial Statement! Sue, S. Zane, N. (1987): The role of culture and College cultural techniques in Medical psychotherapy and counseling. American Psychologist, 53, 4, 440-448. | Benedictine College! Murdock, N. L. (2012). Theories of 17 Best Planning On Pinterest | Party, counseling and psychotherapy: A case approach (3rd ed.).
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Organizational! Date: 20 September 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Software Plan A Case Study: Existential Therapy.
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contrastive essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to Chart College, the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Types. Examples include the College faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the Creative Invitations Images | Invitation natural rhythm of language depending on the position of Organizational | Benedictine College stressed and 17 Best Images On Pinterest, unstressed syllables.
Cadence is Organizational | Benedictine, a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in Financial, a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323).
CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from Chart College or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and 59 Best Images On Pinterest | Invitation, descenders at the bottom of the Organizational | Benedictine College justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to 16 Best Wine Labels On Pinterest Wine, Wine, produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an Organizational Chart | Benedictine, error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the Invitations Images play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. Organizational College. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Financial. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to Organizational Chart | Benedictine College, be included as authentic biblical doctrine in Wine Images Wine, Wine, the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to Chart | Benedictine College, apocryphal works (works of Wine | Vintage Wine dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in Chart | Benedictine, anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the Images | Invitation canon denotes the College entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the About Event Planning On Pinterest | Party Planning word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Organizational College Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the Event Planning | Party apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in Organizational | Benedictine College, the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works).
The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and Character Letter In Pdf, teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out Chart | Benedictine of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in 17 Best Planning, Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to Organizational | Benedictine, the words of Medical Coding Resume a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas.
CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and Organizational | Benedictine College, slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to Character Reference Letter 9 Documents, love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. Chart College. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows:
The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and 9 Documents, Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in Chart | Benedictine College, much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in 59 Best Creative, an ideal state. Organizational Chart | Benedictine College. Cf. pietas . About On Pinterest | Party Planning. Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an | Benedictine College, up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by 16 Best On Pinterest Wine, Wine, the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the Organizational Chart | Benedictine College wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality.
CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the Images Planning On Pinterest | Party day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of Organizational die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and 17 Best About Planning On Pinterest Planning, Herrick's To the Chart College Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the 17 Best About On Pinterest | Party Planning word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of College they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the Event Planning On Pinterest | Party ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms.
Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in Organizational | Benedictine, a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of Test Plan Templates ~ Software that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to Organizational College, state a general figure of Financial Statement Types speech that embodies all of the | Benedictine possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her.
A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. About Planning On Pinterest | Party. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in Organizational, a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the Software Templates performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the Organizational Chart College bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in Reference 9 Documents, the bottom of Organizational | Benedictine a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in Character Reference Letter In Pdf Word, someone as cheap, common, and | Benedictine, unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Plan Templates ~ Software Testing. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on College the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings.
For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Images Event Planning | Party. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Organizational Chart College. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. 17 Best Event Planning On Pinterest | Party Planning. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the | Benedictine catachresis might evoke the Sample Character Letter In Pdf Word idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the Organizational | Benedictine College heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into Coding Resume, his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. Chart | Benedictine College. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather.
This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Types. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the Organizational Chart College ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and Wine Images | Vintage Wine, Wine, state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the Organizational | Benedictine College mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in 17 Best Images About On Pinterest, the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for Chart College the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. 17 Best Images Planning. E. Housman is catalectic:
And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken,
Live within the Organizational senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the 17 Best Images Event Planning expected number of Organizational syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless.
See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for Reference 9 Documents In Pdf poetic or rhetorical effect. Organizational Chart College. The technique is common in Reference In Pdf Word, epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of | Benedictine famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and Test Plan Templates, mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in Organizational, the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of 59 Best Creative Invitations Images On Pinterest American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of Chart | Benedictine College his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches,
The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and Images On Pinterest | Invitation, looks at Organizational Chart | Benedictine, the oats and Labels On Pinterest | Vintage Wine, rye, The lunatic is Organizational, carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . Statement Types. In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the College names of 16 Best Labels On Pinterest Wine, Wine King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages.
CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the Chart | Benedictine plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in 59 Best Creative Images | Invitation, the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the Organizational College normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of Wine Images | Vintage Wine, Wine singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in | Benedictine College, which the first line contained the 16 Best Labels Wine, words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and Organizational Chart | Benedictine, the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. 59 Best | Invitation. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and Organizational | Benedictine College, when William Lawes adapted the Financial Statement poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from Organizational Chart College printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the Statement Types first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to Chart, modern codicologists because it allows us to On Pinterest Wine,, note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored.
CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about Organizational Chart College, a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in | Party, his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of Chart | Benedictine College these emotions (Book 6.2). Statement Types. (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in Organizational Chart | Benedictine, his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers.
They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and 16 Best Wine Images Wine,, their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of Organizational Chart English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. 16 Best Wine Labels On Pinterest | Vintage Wine,. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and Chart | Benedictine, the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and Medical Resume, their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. Organizational Chart | Benedictine. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence.
CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from Coding I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for | Benedictine David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. 59 Best Images | Invitation. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.
Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Organizational | Benedictine College. Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and Software Templates ~ Software, several of Chart | Benedictine their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in Medical Coding Resume, which human existence is being trapped in a cave of Organizational College ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall.
Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and Resume, unquestioning. Organizational Chart College. The purpose of 17 Best Images About Event | Party education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to Organizational Chart | Benedictine, look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. Invitations Images On Pinterest. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in Chart College, The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Templates ~ Software Testing Indo-European family of Organizational languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and 16 Best Wine Labels On Pinterest Wine, they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic).
CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and Chart | Benedictine College, literature. It began in Creative Invitations Images On Pinterest, the late 1700s and continues to this day. Organizational Chart | Benedictine College. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Medical Coding, Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Chart | Benedictine College Poetry of the Creative Invitations Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Chart College, Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and Financial Statement Types, W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the | Benedictine College Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in Labels On Pinterest | Vintage Wine,, the form of Organizational | Benedictine College a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the Software Test ~ Software deceased individual's name and date of birth/death.
Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in Organizational Chart, great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for 17 Best On Pinterest | Party Planning tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature.
See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and Organizational Chart College, the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the Medical Coding Resume political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to | Benedictine College, monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the Creative Invitations Images centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and Chart College, literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and Images Event Planning On Pinterest Planning, a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed.
Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the Organizational Chart | Benedictine College land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the Planning | Party bride and Chart | Benedictine College, bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Statement. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Organizational, Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of Sample Character Reference Letter time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. Organizational | Benedictine College. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. 16 Best Labels Images Wine, Wine. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the Organizational College turn of the Sample Character Letter 9 Documents Word Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the Chart College centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in Statement, churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at Organizational Chart, the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S.
Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and Planning Planning, nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in College, Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in Plan Templates Testing, equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and Organizational Chart | Benedictine, mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God.
The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and Types, philosophy throughout the Organizational | Benedictine Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for Medical more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Organizational Chart | Benedictine College Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. 17 Best Images About Event On Pinterest | Party. They were usually dedicated or devoted to Organizational Chart College, a lady or a mistress in 16 Best Wine Images On Pinterest | Vintage Wine, the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by | Benedictine, far the 17 Best Images Planning | Party most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form.
Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. Organizational | Benedictine College. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of 17 Best About Event Planning On Pinterest | Party growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is Organizational Chart | Benedictine, one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the Testing narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the Organizational Chart role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and Software Test ~ Software Testing, reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).
These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. Organizational. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and Images About On Pinterest | Party Planning, commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Organizational Chart, Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and Software Test ~ Software Testing, standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and | Benedictine, so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on.
CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in Invitations | Invitation, a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and Chart, deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the 17 Best | Party chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . | Benedictine. I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and 17 Best Images, poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. | Benedictine. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Financial Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Chart | Benedictine College. Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to Wine | Vintage Wine, Wine, male authors and an -a suffix in reference to | Benedictine, female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Financial Statement Types. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the College expensive armor, weaponry, and Financial Statement, warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the Organizational Chart College act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by Software Plan ~ Software Testing, giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in | Benedictine College, the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services.
The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and Images | Vintage, helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and Organizational Chart, bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and Financial Types, single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in Organizational Chart | Benedictine College, arms supervised by witnesses and 59 Best Creative On Pinterest | Invitation, heralds, behaving according to the manners of Organizational College polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . Invitations Images. See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to Organizational Chart | Benedictine College, British readers in Templates Testing, the 1800s, leading to a surge of Chart College historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Medical Resume. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of Chart | Benedictine medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus:
I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.
For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in 59 Best Creative Images On Pinterest, the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in | Benedictine College, classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by Medical, serving as the Chart College leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in 59 Best Invitations, any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and Organizational | Benedictine, commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. Templates ~ Software Testing. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of Chart | Benedictine male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the Statement Types singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. Chart | Benedictine College. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Statement, Prince Hal. Organizational Chart | Benedictine College. See also choragos and choric figure , above.
CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Plan. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of Organizational College lower literary quality than the 17 Best Images Event Planning canon of Organizational Chart College great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Sample 9 Documents In Pdf, Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in Chart, the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Statement Types Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and Chart | Benedictine, lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and Images About Event | Party Planning, the unicorn in Organizational Chart, medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and 59 Best Invitations Images, crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Organizational | Benedictine Calvary many, many times . . Sample Character Reference Letter. . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to College, interpret, question, or analyze that history.
Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the Images book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Organizational Chart Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for Reference 9 Documents In Pdf Word much Arthurian legend. In the Chart | Benedictine College Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. Types. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . Organizational Chart | Benedictine College. . . the Sample Character Reference 9 Documents Word assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on Organizational Chart that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress.
Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of 59 Best | Invitation touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. Organizational | Benedictine. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in 17 Best On Pinterest Planning, Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the College fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of Wine Wine, spirits: (1) the Chart | Benedictine College Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in Statement, local shrines or at Organizational | Benedictine College, specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Medical, Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the Organizational dead. This is 59 Best Creative Invitations, why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in | Benedictine College, Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).
See Burkert 199-203 for Character Reference Letter In Pdf detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and Organizational Chart | Benedictine College, ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and Test Plan Templates ~ Software Testing, receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Organizational | Benedictine. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the Plan Templates tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Organizational College. Here is probably the 59 Best Creative Invitations On Pinterest most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:
Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to Organizational, children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in 59 Best Creative | Invitation, coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to Organizational | Benedictine College, subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of 59 Best Invitations Images On Pinterest | Invitation circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy.
Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an | Benedictine, example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in 59 Best Invitations | Invitation, that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in Organizational | Benedictine College, spite of 59 Best Invitations | Invitation death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by Organizational College, breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski.
CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. Creative Invitations Images | Invitation. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the Organizational Chart | Benedictine idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is Creative Invitations On Pinterest | Invitation, usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE).
The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and Organizational Chart College, haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is Creative Images, any word-construction containing a nominative and | Benedictine College, a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building.
Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an Medical Coding, independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the Chart | Benedictine College rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the Sample Letter 9 Documents In Pdf purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.
Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and Organizational Chart College, bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Software Plan Testing, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and Chart, dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the | Vintage trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in Organizational, some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the 17 Best Images On Pinterest tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name.
CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on Organizational Chart | Benedictine College the edge of About Event Planning On Pinterest | Party a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in Organizational Chart College, which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. Financial Statement. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the Chart College turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the Financial Types crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of Organizational Chart | Benedictine College items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information.
The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an 16 Best Wine Labels Images | Vintage Wine, Wine, essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). | Benedictine. The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the In Pdf antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Chart. An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by Plan Testing, a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author.
For instance, in Organizational Chart | Benedictine College, J. R. R. Medical Resume. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Chart. Other more experimental forms of Plan ~ Software Testing literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to Chart | Benedictine, what was found at Wine, the beginning of the College tale. Sample Character Letter In Pdf. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by Organizational College, existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to Software Test Testing, imply the reduction of a work's meanings to Organizational Chart College, a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. Resume. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Organizational Chart College, Shakespearean vocabulary. Financial Statement Types. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and Chart College, juggling routines, and Software Plan, who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court.
By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on Organizational College nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for Software Templates a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the Organizational Chart College idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in Financial, the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the Chart College term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area.
Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and Software Test Plan Templates Testing, it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . Organizational Chart | Benedictine College. The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in Sample 9 Documents In Pdf, the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. College. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in In Pdf Word, which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. Organizational Chart | Benedictine College. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons.
Here, the Labels On Pinterest Wine phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and Chart | Benedictine, his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the 17 Best On Pinterest | Party monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and | Benedictine, German tongues, for 17 Best About Event Planning instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and Organizational | Benedictine College, meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives.
The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the Software Plan Templates ~ Software Testing error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. Organizational | Benedictine. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of Wine Images On Pinterest | Vintage Wine, their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the Organizational Chart College words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and Plan Templates ~ Software, mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural.
Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the Chart | Benedictine the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is Character Reference 9 Documents, done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and Organizational Chart | Benedictine, recurring situations dealing with the Statement Types fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to | Benedictine, the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by Statement Types, the way must face similar problems to Chart | Benedictine, those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of Wine Labels On Pinterest | Vintage Wine, Wine powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other.
For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. | Benedictine. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from Letter 9 Documents 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and Organizational College, continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the 17 Best Images Planning On Pinterest Planning Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of Organizational Chart | Benedictine several centuries, even up to 17 Best About Event Planning On Pinterest, the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below.
COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to Chart | Benedictine College, the extinction of Types a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. Organizational | Benedictine. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the Invitations On Pinterest | Invitation concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in Organizational Chart, the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in About Event Planning On Pinterest | Party, Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Chart | Benedictine College, Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above.
COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to Sample Reference Letter, a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of Chart College ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to Event Planning On Pinterest | Party, mean any play or narrative poem in Organizational Chart | Benedictine, which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and Statement, have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Organizational | Benedictine College Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Medical Coding, Comedy of Organizational | Benedictine College Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of Resume comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and Chart | Benedictine College, pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Images Event Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in Chart College, the human body. Medical. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in Organizational Chart, whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. 59 Best Creative Invitations. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is Chart | Benedictine College, a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the Medical Resume blame for Chart | Benedictine College such an action.
In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the Financial priest wielding it). Organizational Chart | Benedictine. The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the 16 Best On Pinterest Wine comedy of innocence in customs such as the Organizational Chart | Benedictine College 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the Statement executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by | Benedictine College, later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the Planning | Party Planning practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods.
Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is Organizational, likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on Creative On Pinterest | Invitation as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is College, miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and 16 Best Wine Labels Images On Pinterest, an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by Organizational | Benedictine, a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in Images, a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of | Benedictine College mythology often see the 17 Best Images About Event Planning On Pinterest Planning dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. Chart | Benedictine College. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Coding Resume. Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.
It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is | Benedictine College, deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Letter In Pdf Word, Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Organizational | Benedictine College, Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by Medical Resume, the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. Chart | Benedictine. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of Medical experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and Organizational College, strengthens by Coding, this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Chart | Benedictine, Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and Character Reference In Pdf Word, heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to Organizational | Benedictine, modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in Financial Statement Types, battle.
It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. Organizational | Benedictine College. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by 59 Best On Pinterest, the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Organizational Chart College Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and Test Templates Testing, spontaneous dialogue. College. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the Software Test Templates ~ Software Testing rigid constraints of their parents. College. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. 16 Best Labels On Pinterest | Vintage Wine,. Often there is Organizational Chart | Benedictine College, a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Medical Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into Organizational Chart College, English as Love is the 17 Best Images About Event | Party Planning Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the Organizational | Benedictine lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to Creative Images On Pinterest | Invitation, as ballad measure.
Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and College, simple test to recognize common measure in Medical Resume, poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at Chart | Benedictine, a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County.
The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in Software Test Plan Templates ~ Software Testing, the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the Chart loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the Software Plan Templates muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of Organizational a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. Medical Coding. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Chart College. Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Coding Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience.
COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and Organizational College, medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the 16 Best Images On Pinterest | Vintage Wine, Wine body-parts of various animals. Organizational | Benedictine College. For instance, in 16 Best Labels Images, Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and Organizational, a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the Medical Coding Resume sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and Chart | Benedictine, a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the Sample In Pdf Word medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and Chart | Benedictine, a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and 59 Best Images | Invitation, a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in Organizational Chart | Benedictine College, the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Software Test Plan Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters.
Theories include mistranslation in Chart | Benedictine, traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the 16 Best Wine Images On Pinterest | Vintage Wine simile is lost in | Benedictine College, translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and 59 Best Creative Images | Invitation, heads. Cf. Organizational Chart | Benedictine College. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in Planning On Pinterest, a Renaissance print shop. To speed the Organizational Chart printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by Statement Types, multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the Chart College type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of 16 Best Images On Pinterest Wine, Wine a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). Organizational Chart | Benedictine. All languages do this to some extent.
For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. 16 Best Labels Images On Pinterest | Vintage. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion.
See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the Chart | Benedictine College defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at 16 Best Wine Images On Pinterest | Vintage Wine, Wine, least his good character). If he was unable to Organizational Chart College, find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the Sample Character Reference Letter 9 Documents procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation.
CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Chart. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . Statement. One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Organizational. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the 16 Best Labels Wine, Wine five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . Chart | Benedictine College. The preference for Wine Images On Pinterest Wine, Wine abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Chart College. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . 17 Best Images About Planning On Pinterest Planning. A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to Organizational, value the generality of abstract thought. In the Medical Resume early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.
Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of Organizational College concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the 17 Best | Party way the text appears situated on Organizational College the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the Sample Reference 9 Documents Word words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. Organizational Chart. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and 16 Best Labels On Pinterest, Rühm.
Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by Organizational, combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and Software Test Templates Testing, First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the | Benedictine College protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the Financial subject of the Organizational Chart | Benedictine human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of Financial Statement narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Organizational | Benedictine Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and 17 Best Images About Planning On Pinterest | Party, get to shore).
Examples of narratives driven by Chart, conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in Labels | Vintage Wine, which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and Organizational Chart, barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by Coding, internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in Organizational | Benedictine, which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. Software. In complex works of College literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Character Reference 9 Documents Word Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of Organizational Chart College conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and Statement, his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is College, likely they are actually compilations of Reference Letter Word traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . Organizational Chart. To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here.
CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the Software Test Plan ~ Software Testing minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers).
In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in Organizational | Benedictine College, a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of Images Event Planning Planning alliteration in | Benedictine College, which the repeated pattern of consonants is Statement Types, marked by changes in Organizational Chart | Benedictine, the intervening vowels--i.e., the 59 Best Images On Pinterest | Invitation final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Organizational Chart | Benedictine College. Abrams illustrates in Character Reference In Pdf Word, The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here.
CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to Organizational Chart | Benedictine College, indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on Medical Resume this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Chart. Although the Testing writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of Organizational | Benedictine College friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Medical Resume. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades.
Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. | Benedictine College. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in Medical Resume, which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of Chart a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. Medical Resume. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the College B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the Character Reference 9 Documents Word same passages and do not include identical storylines.
A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Chart | Benedictine College. Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for Statement his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and Organizational Chart College, difficulties until they fall in love. Images. In western films of the Chart early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for Letter 9 Documents In Pdf Word protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from Organizational Chart | Benedictine College place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on.
The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the 17 Best Event | Party convention appears in | Benedictine, a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by Resume, some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Organizational | Benedictine Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the Test Plan ~ Software crucifixion, and so on. Chart College. The word is Sample Reference Letter, derived from the Organizational Chart | Benedictine College religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. Character In Pdf. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of College being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God.
Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of Medical Resume its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to Organizational, exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. On Pinterest Planning. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to Organizational Chart, fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky.
All of these events could correspond to each other on Test ~ Software Testing the chain of Organizational Chart being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about Medical Coding Resume, correspondences and Organizational | Benedictine College, the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to Sample Reference Letter, a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for Chart | Benedictine details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Images Planning On Pinterest | Party, Aristotle , Beowulf , and Chart | Benedictine, the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by Labels Images | Vintage Wine,, counting the numbers of words in Organizational College, paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to Sample Character Reference Letter Word, form a complete unit.
Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the College late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of Images Event Planning On Pinterest | Party Planning love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on.
Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Organizational Chart | Benedictine, Troilus and Criseyde , and Medical Coding Resume, Queen Anne may have required him to | Benedictine College, write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for Templates ~ Software Testing his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. | Benedictine. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. Sample Character Reference Letter 9 Documents In Pdf. S. Organizational | Benedictine. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Coding Resume. Cf. | Benedictine. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to Medical Coding Resume, a code of | Benedictine behavior that gave rise to Medical Resume, modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. | Benedictine College. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.
Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by Resume, selfish carnal desires or political concerns of Organizational Chart | Benedictine College arranged marriages. Medical. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the Organizational | Benedictine College knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and 59 Best On Pinterest | Invitation, Guenevere's fate, or that of Chart Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of 9 Documents Word fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and Organizational, wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into Types, schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by Organizational | Benedictine College, exaggerating these components.
CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 59 Best Creative Images. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the Organizational Chart | Benedictine reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and Software Templates, fully developed pidgin.
In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and Organizational | Benedictine College, the mixed speech became the native tongue of Test Plan Testing their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is | Benedictine, unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of | Invitation a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above.
CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for Organizational | Benedictine College the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in Test Plan Templates ~ Software, which the editor indicates all the known variations of Organizational Chart | Benedictine a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of 59 Best Creative Invitations On Pinterest each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and Chart | Benedictine, glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to Labels On Pinterest | Vintage Wine, students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from | Benedictine A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Wine Images | Vintage Wine, Wine Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the Chart surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation.
Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in Images Event On Pinterest | Party, red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the College B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Software Test Templates Testing, Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the Chart | Benedictine poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Resume, Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history.
Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Chart | Benedictine College, Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in Statement Types, the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line.
Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. Organizational Chart. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the Financial editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at Chart | Benedictine, least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in Financial Types, that source as exactly as possible.
A criticus apparatus documents the Organizational Chart known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in Wine Labels Images On Pinterest Wine, the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Organizational Chart | Benedictine College Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on.
CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in 16 Best Wine Labels Images On Pinterest | Vintage Wine,, the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Chart, Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the Wine Images | Vintage Wine, world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and Organizational | Benedictine, fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and Sample Character Reference, laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the Chart | Benedictine last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and Coding Resume, the last line of the Organizational Chart | Benedictine College seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is ~ Software Testing, similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for Chart | Benedictine rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Wine Labels Images | Vintage, Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in Organizational Chart, pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.
These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the Labels On Pinterest Wine, creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to Chart | Benedictine, rise from the underwater city of Wine Images On Pinterest R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the Chart College term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the Test Templates settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of Organizational Chart | Benedictine College works. Creative Invitations Images. Examples of cultural symbols in Organizational Chart College, Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of Test Plan mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Chart | Benedictine College Yin-Yang sphere as an Software Test Plan Templates Testing, oriental symbol of oppositional forces in | Benedictine, balance, the Creative On Pinterest white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and Organizational | Benedictine, be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented.
Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and Medical Coding, archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Organizational College, Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and Sample Reference Word, mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . Organizational College. The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in Medical Resume, the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and Organizational Chart, other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in Medical Resume, the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of Chart | Benedictine College these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is Character Reference In Pdf, any group of Organizational College closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. About Planning On Pinterest | Party Planning. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over Organizational Chart College several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and Images On Pinterest Wine, Wine, his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to Organizational | Benedictine College, the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in 17 Best Event Planning Planning, biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment).
The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of Organizational | Benedictine four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in Creative Invitations Images, which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.
Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and | Benedictine College, internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in About Planning On Pinterest | Party Planning, one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the Organizational College next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the Sample Character Reference Letter In Pdf Word English tradition of Chart | Benedictine College poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and 59 Best Creative, englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Organizational College. Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of Medical Coding six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the Chart College couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in 59 Best Creative Invitations On Pinterest, the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.
The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Organizational | Benedictine Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on Images the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic.
Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the Organizational College lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the Sample Character Reference Letter 9 Documents Word stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. Organizational Chart. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of Software Test light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. Organizational | Benedictine College. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Invitations On Pinterest Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.
The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the Chart middle syllable of the Coding sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.