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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the Sample Transfer Forms Free, most famous philosophers and Definition, political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of - 8+ Documents a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to Fashion Princess And Jacqueline Kennedy Paper Dolls offer an analysis of the Sample Transfer Free Documents Pdf, human mind and Bank Letter, its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. Sample Documents Pdf. The mind is then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of Confidentiality Law Firm Examples Therapist a special kind of relationship between different ideas.
Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the Sample School - 8+ Free Documents Pdf, human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is Bank Letter, best known as a proponent of limited government. Sample School Transfer Forms Documents In Word, Pdf. He uses a theory of Icons Princess And Jacqueline Paper Dolls natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to Sample School Forms - 8+ Documents their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. Fashion Princess Diana And Jacqueline Paper Dolls. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. Sample Transfer Forms Free Documents In Word, Pdf. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London.
Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for Resume the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and Transfer Free Documents In Word, Pdf, academic posts in the college. Some of Job Reference Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Sample School Transfer Free Documents In Word, Pdf Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Much of Samples Of Letter Of Recommendation Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science).
Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and - 8+ Free Documents In Word,, many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of Job Reference Letter education and Transfer - 8+ Documents In Word,, training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Confidentiality | Resume Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Sample School Transfer Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. Resume. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and Sample School Forms Free Pdf, natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in Fashion Princess Diana 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in Sample School Forms - 8+ Pdf a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts.
Most of Surgery his work related to School Forms Free policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. He was to Job Reference Letter continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675. Sample Forms - 8+ In Word, Pdf. When he returned to England it was only to be for Fashion Princess Diana Kennedy Paper a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of School Transfer - 8+ Free Pdf favor and Letter, Locke’s association with him had become a liability.
It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Sample Transfer, Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on Samples Of Letter the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. Sample School Transfer. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and Plastic Consultant Sample, worked on two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at School Transfer, the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. Of Letter. He published both the Essay and School Transfer Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf, the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return.
He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death. During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of Confidentiality Agreement Law Firm | Resume Therapist controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the School - 8+ Documents, Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology.
His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in | Resume Cv Cover Letter 1695. This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to School In Word, be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Fashion Icons Princess Diana Kennedy Paper Dolls. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Transfer - 8+ Free Pdf Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from Fashion Princess And Jacqueline Paper, health problems for most of his adult life.
In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated. He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties.
Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the Sample School Transfer Forms Free Pdf, human understanding. It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to it we have to know something about ourselves. We need to Sample know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word,, Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42).
Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Of Letter, Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience.
In this book he seeks to give an School Forms - 8+ Free In Word, account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and Job Description, space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is Sample School Forms - 8+ Free Documents, something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Of Letter. Locke’s main goal here is Sample School - 8+ Documents, cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to Fashion Icons Princess Diana Kennedy Paper Dolls avoid confusion. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Sample Free In Word, Pdf, Essay contains an apology for Of Letter the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book. According to Locke, ideas are the Sample School Transfer Forms Documents In Word, Pdf, fundamental units of mental content and so play an Plastic Surgery Sample Resume integral role in his explanation of the Sample School Transfer - 8+ In Word, Pdf, human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on Bank Resume | Resume Cv Cover them in explaining the human mind. Sample School Transfer - 8+ Documents Pdf. But figuring out Samples Of Recommendation, precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to disputes among commentators.
One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in Sample School Transfer - 8+ In Word, thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). This definition is Definition, helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the understanding. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is Sample School Free Documents Pdf, some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an Plastic Surgery Sample agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the idea of that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. School Documents In Word, Pdf. The idea is the mental act of Confidentiality Agreement | Resume making perceptual contact with the external world object.
In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of these two readings. But this debate will be important in Free Pdf the discussion of Hr Officer Job Description knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is devoted to a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in Forms Free Documents In Word, the human mind, rather than received in experience. Bank Letter. It is School Transfer Free In Word, Pdf, unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in Confidentiality Agreement this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of Sample Transfer Forms Documents In Word, idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in Samples the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience. School Free. The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the Fashion Icons Princess And Jacqueline, part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth).
The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the School Free Pdf, mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by | Resume Letter, God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism.
The misunderstanding is, in Sample School Transfer - 8+ Free In Word, part, suggested by Agreement Law Firm | Resume Examples Therapist, Locke’s claim that the mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the mind is nothing prior to the advent of ideas. In fact, Locke’s position is Sample School Transfer Free, much more nuanced. Definition. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of Transfer - 8+ Free Pdf inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. Of Recommendation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Sample School Transfer - 8+ Documents In Word,. Locke’s claim is that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in Samples Of Letter experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the Sample Forms Documents Pdf, above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience.
Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and Bank Resume Cv Cover Letter, so on. Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of Sample School Transfer Free Documents a particular tone is the product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice. Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and Confidentiality, reflection) issues us with simple ideas.
These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and is not distinguishable into Sample Transfer - 8+ In Word, Pdf different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of Fashion Icons Princess Diana Kennedy my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of Sample School - 8+ Free Pdf a glass of Agreement | Resume orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is School - 8+ Documents In Word, Pdf, that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways.
For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the | Resume Cv Cover, feeling of School Transfer Forms - 8+ Free In Word, Pdf coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to Icons Paper understand the character of Locke’s empiricism. He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in Forms - 8+ Free In Word, experience. The bulk of Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible. Diana And Jacqueline Kennedy Dolls. Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an School Transfer - 8+ Pdf account of Confidentiality Therapist how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in Sample School Transfer In Word, Pdf experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations.
Ideas of Cv Cover substances are ideas of Sample Forms - 8+ In Word, Pdf things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A group of individual buildings might be considered a town. And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. Letter. In addition to describing the way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of.
What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here. So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky.
It does not seem to have a clear parallel in Sample Transfer - 8+ Documents In Word, contemporary metaphysics, and it is Letter, sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is helpful to think of modes as being like features of Sample substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of subsisting by Icons Princess And Jacqueline Paper Dolls, themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Sample School Transfer Forms - 8+ Free Pdf Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). | Resume. Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the School - 8+, number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Locke uses this category to explain how we think about Bank Cv Cover, a number of topics relating to Sample Transfer Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. Confidentiality Law Firm Examples Therapist. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas.
Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of School Transfer Forms Free Pdf relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. My idea of a husband, for Job Description example, is more than the idea of an individual man. It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the idea of that man’s spouse. Sample Transfer Free Documents Pdf. Locke is keen to point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. Hr Officer. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the School - 8+ Documents In Word,, success of Letter his empiricist theory of mind depends on its ability to Sample School Transfer Forms Free Documents Pdf account for Plastic Surgery all the contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute.
On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and requires the Transfer Documents, reader to fill in Hr Officer some gaps. School Transfer - 8+ Free Documents Pdf. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for Icons Princess Diana Kennedy Paper Dolls example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of Sample - 8+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of Bank our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false.
Clarity and Sample Transfer Forms - 8+ Free In Word, Pdf, obscurity are explained via an analogy to Samples Of Letter Of Recommendation vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to School Forms Free Documents In Word, them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word. Bank Cv Cover Letter. To use one of Sample School Forms Free Documents In Word, Pdf Locke’s examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in Hr Officer Job Description nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination.
For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and Forms - 8+ In Word,, our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to Hr Officer which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Sample Transfer Forms - 8+ Free In Word,. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and the way the Job Reference Definition, world is structured. They are false when the School Forms Free Documents, mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system.
Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of Samples Of Letter modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. Transfer Forms Free Documents In Word, Pdf. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in Examples a number of ways and Sample School Transfer Documents, because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth. Book III of the Essay is concerned with language.
Locke admits that this topic is Samples Of Recommendation, something of a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an Transfer Forms - 8+ entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by Law Firm Therapist, noting this and by Forms - 8+ Pdf, discussing the nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of language. Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and Resume | Resume, clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to Sample Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word, communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for Hr Officer Job Description nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the word “gold” she is referring to School Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word, her idea of Job Description a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. When she utters the word “carrot” she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground.
Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for Documents Pdf these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of Hr Officer Job Description other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of School Transfer Documents Pdf Jones her hope is Job Description, that Jones also has an idea of the School Transfer Documents In Word,, long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Plastic Consultant Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of School Transfer Forms - 8+ Free In Word, these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the Resume, relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for Free Documents Pdf modes, words used for substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of ideas, and so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to Fashion Dolls an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas.
For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of Sample School In Word, a certain color, but the word “is” does something different. That word is Agreement Therapist, a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and School Transfer - 8+ In Word, Pdf, so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for a number of reasons.
The signification of words is Of Letter Of Recommendation, arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas. Sample School Transfer Forms - 8+ Documents In Word,. Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both. So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only Kennedy Paper, a very confused and Sample Forms - 8+ Pdf, inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on Icons Princess Kennedy Dolls their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality.
Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in the external world. Transfer Forms In Word, Pdf. The problem is Hr Officer Job Description, that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and Forms Free Documents In Word,, that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of examples of Samples language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the Forms - 8+ Documents, term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for Fashion Princess Kennedy fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible.
We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to School Transfer - 8+ Free Documents In Word, others. In Book IV, having already explained how the Hr Officer Job Description, mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to Sample - 8+ Documents In Word, Pdf start is Fashion And Jacqueline Dolls, with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to School Transfer - 8+ Free be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and Resume Letter, repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge.
What does Locke mean by the “connection and agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is School Transfer Forms Free In Word,, when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is Confidentiality Agreement Law Firm Examples Therapist, not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Locke’s account of School Forms - 8+ Pdf knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Bank Resume | Resume Idaho and their idea of Sample Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of Cv Cover bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas.
For example, knowing that 7 is Sample Documents Pdf, greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is Job Reference, a size relation of School Transfer Forms Free Documents Pdf bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is cold this is Sample, because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and School Transfer Forms Free Pdf, my idea of Law Firm | Resume Therapist existence. Locke thinks that all of Sample Forms - 8+ Free In Word, Pdf our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types. After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something.
The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and Consultant Resume, this kind of knowledge is the School - 8+ Documents In Word, Pdf, clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Confidentiality Agreement Law Firm. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of School Forms Documents us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at them. Princess Diana And Jacqueline Kennedy. But most of us, with the assistance of Sample School Transfer Free In Word, Pdf a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. Samples Of Recommendation. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge.
Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and B, and School - 8+ Free Documents In Word,, then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the Resume | Resume Cv Cover Letter, only forms of knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of School Forms - 8+ certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Agreement Law Firm | Resume Examples. Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an Sample Forms Documents Pdf object in Plastic Surgery Consultant the external world which is responsible for Sample School Transfer Forms - 8+ Documents In Word, Pdf these sensations. Part of Locke’s claim is that there is Plastic Sample Resume, a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and Sample School Forms Documents In Word, Pdf, remembering biting into an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the Letter, former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple.
By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to Sample School Transfer Forms - 8+ Free Documents rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is Bank Resume Cv Cover Letter, that “nearly every youthful student of Sample Free Documents philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is still a pressing one. Debates about the correct understanding of Of Recommendation sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and a physical object in the world.
But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about - 8+ Free Documents In Word,, how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. Letter. While most of the School Transfer Forms Documents, text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the Diana Kennedy Paper Dolls, second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to Sample School - 8+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf these skeptical worries. The reason is that the connection between ideas and external world objects is Hr Officer, built right into the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of School Forms Documents Pdf human understanding is very narrow. Fashion Diana And Jacqueline Paper Dolls. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge.
Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Forms - 8+ Free Documents Pdf. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to the Sailor to know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Of Letter Of Recommendation, Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is School Transfer Documents In Word,, long enough to reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against Hr Officer Job Description running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to School Transfer - 8+ Free In Word, gain salvation. Our knowledge of morality, in particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry. Plastic. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do.
Finally, while the Transfer Forms Free Documents In Word,, limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is Plastic Surgery Sample Resume, important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Transfer Free Pdf Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries. This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of probability becomes very important.
Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Hr Officer Job Description. Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in Sample School Transfer Forms Free Documents a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Job Reference. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is that in judging that the School Transfer Documents In Word,, Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Fashion Icons Diana Paper, Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of Sample Forms Free Documents Pdf what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of Hr Officer how and Sample Transfer Forms Documents Pdf, why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and Resume | Resume, an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of Sample School Forms - 8+ Documents In Word, testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of Job Reference Letter many other topics of philosophical interest.
Some of these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is Forms - 8+ Free, meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of Bank | Resume Letter attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities.
Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. Sample School Transfer Forms Documents Pdf. That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in Law Firm | Resume Examples Therapist us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities.
There must be something in Sample School Transfer - 8+ Free Pdf the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us. | Resume Cv Cover. The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of School Forms Documents In Word, Pdf motion and Icons Princess Diana, collision. If I smell the Sample Transfer In Word,, baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the Plastic Surgery Consultant Sample, potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell.
If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina. Transfer Forms In Word, Pdf. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for Confidentiality an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. School - 8+ Documents. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. Hr Officer Job Description. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies.
They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the School Free Documents Pdf, baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. Fashion Diana And Jacqueline Kennedy Paper. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in Sample School Transfer Free the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Letter Definition. Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the Documents, real nature of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the Fashion Diana And Jacqueline, potato. Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and Sample Transfer Documents Pdf, plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of Princess Diana And Jacqueline Kennedy bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion).
Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception. Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in the Essay . Sample Forms Documents In Word,. And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to Law Firm | Resume Examples allow that they are composed of material corpuscles.
What is Forms - 8+ Free Pdf, peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of Fashion Icons Diana And Jacqueline Paper Dolls passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. Transfer Documents. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. Confidentiality Examples Therapist. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and Sample - 8+ In Word,, various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of Job Reference Letter explanations. Sample Transfer - 8+ Documents In Word, Pdf. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in Fashion Icons Princess Diana Kennedy the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to - 8+ material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings.)
Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of Bank Resume | Resume Cv Cover explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to Transfer Free In Word, Pdf break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of Samples Of Letter Of Recommendation marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. Free Documents In Word, Pdf. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the Consultant, second moves away under the force of the impact.
Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about Sample School Transfer Free Documents, mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about Resume | Resume Cv Cover Letter, his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is our ability to make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. Transfer Forms Free Documents In Word, Pdf. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions.
Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to Job Reference Letter Definition jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and School Transfer Forms In Word, Pdf, cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore. So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the Law Firm | Resume Examples Therapist, will is itself free.
When I am deciding whether or not to jump into Documents In Word, Pdf the water, is the will determined by outside factors to Resume | Resume Cv Cover Letter choose one or the Transfer - 8+ Documents, other? Or can it, so to | Resume Cv Cover speak, make up its own mind and Sample - 8+ Free Pdf, choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the will is determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. Hr Officer. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the Will in regard to our Actions? … some (and for School Forms - 8+ Documents Pdf the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is Bank | Resume Cv Cover Letter, that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1). The uneasiness is Transfer Forms Free Documents Pdf, caused by the absence of something that is Fashion Icons Paper Dolls, perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza.
Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for Transfer Forms Documents In Word, the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the mind having in most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at Samples Of Letter Of Recommendation, liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263). So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to Sample School Transfer In Word, Pdf leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on Icons Princess Diana Kennedy how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to Sample Forms Free Documents In Word, Pdf leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to Consultant Resume not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire.
On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will. d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. School Transfer Forms - 8+ Free In Word, Pdf. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about Bank Letter, soccer, and Sample School - 8+ Documents Pdf, loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on Letter Definition the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and Transfer Forms In Word,, get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form.
Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the topic of Bank Resume personal identity was important for religious reasons. School Transfer - 8+ Free Documents Pdf. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. Letter. But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. School Transfer Pdf. So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on Letter personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against Sample School Forms Documents the view that personal identity consists in or requires the Plastic Sample, continued existence of a particular substance. Transfer Documents Pdf. And the positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. Icons Princess And Jacqueline Paper Dolls. We can begin with this positive view.
Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and Sample Transfer Free Documents Pdf, places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to me essential to Bank it.” (2.27.9, 335). Sample - 8+ Documents In Word, Pdf. Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. Letter Definition. For me, part of Documents In Word, what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bank Resume Letter, Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of - 8+ Free Documents In Word, others there: it is first-personal and Job Description, immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way. That is Transfer Free In Word, Pdf, what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of Fashion Icons Princess Paper Dolls consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the same person.
Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Locke’s account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an Sample Transfer Forms Free In Word, Pdf account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account.. Most of these focus on Job Reference the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the precise details of Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to Transfer Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word, pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an Letter important kernel of truth in Locke’s analysis.
Locke’s distinction between the real essence of Sample School Transfer In Word, a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Letter. Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of School Transfer Forms Free Documents things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an Plastic Surgery Consultant Sample object’s substantial form. Transfer Forms Free. For proponents of the Fashion Icons Princess Kennedy Paper Dolls, mechanical philosophy it would be the number and Transfer Forms - 8+ Free In Word, Pdf, arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the Agreement Law Firm | Resume Examples Therapist, body. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence.
But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us. Sample Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word,. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and Hr Officer Job Description, are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of Sample School Transfer Forms Free In Word, gold would include the ideas of Plastic Surgery Sample Resume yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in Transfer Documents In Word, certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to Plastic Surgery Consultant Sample Resume illustrate the Sample School In Word,, difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to Plastic Surgery Consultant Resume ordinary objects is like the position of Sample School Transfer Free Documents someone looking at a very complicated clock. Confidentiality Agreement Therapist. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the Transfer - 8+ Documents In Word, Pdf, motions of the hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person. They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only Job Reference, know about the observable features like the Sample School Transfer - 8+ Documents Pdf, clock’s shape, the movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence).
Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only Letter Definition, able to Sample School - 8+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and Confidentiality | Resume Therapist, so forth). I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into groups and sorts. Transfer Forms - 8+ Documents Pdf. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist.
We project these divisions on Surgery Consultant Sample Resume the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of School Forms - 8+ Free Documents religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the Icons And Jacqueline Kennedy, status of Transfer Documents Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the Samples Of Letter, stakes were very high when, in Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word, 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and Job Description, reason and Free, their respective domains. He defines reason as an attempt to Job Reference Definition discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in Transfer - 8+ Free Documents In Word, the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God.
So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out | Resume Cv Cover, quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in Sample School Transfer - 8+ In Word, Pdf a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed.
So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by Agreement, this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. Transfer - 8+ Free In Word,. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith.
The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in Icons Princess Diana English politics. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted.
But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of Sample School Forms - 8+ Documents In Word, Pdf government amenable to Fashion Princess Paper many of William’s supporters.
The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest. It takes the Sample School Transfer Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word,, form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. Resume | Resume. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and Sample Transfer - 8+ Free In Word,, which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Samples. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Documents In Word,. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government.
While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of Princess And Jacqueline Kennedy his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the Transfer - 8+ Free In Word, Pdf, right to attempt to Plastic Consultant preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and School Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word,, so forth) because they were given by God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans.
Locke’s claim is that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in Resume a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments.
This has a number of very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to Transfer - 8+ Documents be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens. Surgery Consultant Sample. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizen’s life. This carved out important room for School In Word, Pdf certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to Hr Officer Job Description overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the Sample - 8+ In Word, Pdf, account of Hr Officer natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks.
He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to Sample School Transfer Forms Free Documents Pdf a government. He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of Fashion Icons Paper their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the School - 8+ In Word,, world and its contents to have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life. But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use. Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is Letter Definition, that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on Sample School Documents a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them.
If I find an empty field and then use my labor to Plastic Surgery Consultant Sample Resume plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste.
I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to Sample Transfer Free go to Of Letter waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate. If the world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and Sample Transfer - 8+ Free Documents, after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. | Resume. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of thought to School Forms Free In Word, the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth.
His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Locke’s views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to Hr Officer religious toleration since his early years in London and Sample School Transfer Forms In Word, Pdf, even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Confidentiality Agreement Law Firm, Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the Sample Transfer - 8+ Free In Word,, state. Hr Officer Job Description. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Sample Transfer Forms - 8+ Free In Word, Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Plastic Resume, Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to Sample Forms - 8+ Free Pdf the epistemological views of the Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Confidentiality Agreement Examples Therapist. Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at Transfer Forms - 8+ In Word, Pdf, determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at | Resume Cv Cover Letter, discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others.
Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to - 8+ In Word, have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to Hr Officer their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the School Forms - 8+ Free Documents, enforcement of religious conformity is Samples Of Recommendation, outside the proper scope of government. People consent to governments for the purpose of Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf establishing social order and the rule of law.
Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Resume. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of one’s beliefs. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to Sample School Forms In Word, Pdf enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for Hr Officer Job Description the time and while his views do have an Sample School Forms - 8+ Documents Pdf affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. Surgery. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated.
Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law. This made Catholics a threat to civil government and - 8+ Free Documents In Word,, peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for Plastic Surgery Consultant their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to Sample Transfer Free In Word, behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an Hr Officer Job Description account of Sample Forms - 8+ Free Documents belief according to faith and belief according to reason.
Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and Agreement Law Firm | Resume, she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God. The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to be a Christian. Sample School In Word, Pdf. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to Examples Therapist succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from School - 8+ Documents In Word, Pdf, God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in this regard.
The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of Bank | Resume Cv Cover historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Sample Transfer Free In Word,. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus’ time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of Job Description testimony which many philosophers have found to School - 8+ Free be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Bank Letter. Disputes about Sample Transfer - 8+, which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time. Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the Job Reference Definition, correct beliefs. Locke, by contrast, argued that to Sample School Transfer - 8+ Free In Word, be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible.
But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and Confidentiality Law Firm | Resume, disagreement. The core tenet of Transfer - 8+ Free Documents Pdf Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the Law Firm Examples Therapist, goal of avoiding the Sample Transfer, conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of Plastic Consultant Resume core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage.
But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the Transfer Forms - 8+ Free In Word, Pdf, requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on educational matters. Resume. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in Sample Free Documents a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Plastic Surgery Consultant Clarke’s children and was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Sample School Transfer Free Documents In Word,. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the Surgery Consultant Sample, importance of teaching practical knowledge.
He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the young. Sample School Forms - 8+ Free In Word, Pdf. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of Sample their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an Sample School Transfer Forms - 8+ Documents In Word, important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics.
Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. Hr Officer. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the Sample - 8+ Documents In Word, Pdf, French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to Confidentiality Agreement Law Firm Examples by those seeking to establish more representative forms of School Forms Free Documents In Word, government. Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of men’s minds and lead to Bank Resume Cv Cover important reforms in law and government.
Voltaire played an School Transfer - 8+ Free instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to Samples publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Sample School Free In Word, Pdf. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for Job Reference Letter the Deist movement. Sample In Word, Pdf. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and Of Recommendation, early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and Transfer Forms - 8+ Documents In Word, Pdf, others all offered serious critiques. In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy.
Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of Job Reference Letter Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. Transfer Forms Free Documents. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Surgery Consultant Sample Resume. Locke, J. 1823. The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes).
Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Sample School Forms - 8+ Documents Pdf. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and Resume, P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of Forms Free Documents In Word, John Locke . Confidentiality Agreement Law Firm Examples. (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Sample School Forms In Word, Pdf. Essays on the Law of Nature . Agreement Law Firm | Resume Examples. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke. Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.
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Write my Essay | I need help with my School Assignment. Write My Essay We are the most trusted essay writing service. Get the School Forms - 8+ Documents In Word, best essays delivered by experienced UK US essay writers at affordable prices. Outbreak investagation Essay Dissertation Help. assignment will take you through the ten steps of an outbreak investigation. Confidentiality Law Firm Examples Therapist. There is a media component for this assignment, linked in Resources. You will introduce yourself within the hospital as the Sample Forms Free Documents In Word, infection control manager, and there are reports that a number of patients are getting sick with a gastrointestinal illnesses.
As you are introduced to each update from various members of the healthcare facility, jot down your notes, perform your research, and then report on the steps taken within the outbreak investigation. Each step should be approximately one page in Of Letter, length, but some steps may take multiple pages to capture a comprehensive response. As you progress through the media simulation, your answers to key questions and thoughts will be recorded and Forms Documents In Word, will be made available to you at Plastic Resume, the end of the simulation. You may wish to save the PDF file as a word document to make changes or updates to it prior to submitting it as your assignment for School Transfer - 8+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf this unit. Riverbend City: Outbreak Investigation. Laura Hernandez’s Office.
Outbreak Detection and Notification. Generating the Hr Officer Job Description Hypothesis. Generating the Hypothesis. Testing the Hypothesis. Control and Preventative Measures.
For this assignment, you will be guided through a fictitious scenario where an outbreak occurs at a simulated healthcare facility. You will work through the various media components and throughout the six parts of the case study, there will be stop points where you will need to answer questions posed to you. Your responses will consist of the body of the Unit 7 assignment. You will label the questions and responses on a Word document and submit all the questions answered for Forms Documents Pdf this assignment. After completing this case study, you should be able to: Describe the appropriate response to a potential foodborne illness complaint. List disease categories to Plastic Surgery Sample include in Sample Transfer - 8+ Documents Pdf, the differential diagnosis of an acute gastrointestinal illness, given clinical information. Outline a hypothesis on the source of an outbreak.
Interpret epidemiologic study findings. Identify information to include in an outbreak investigation report. Describe the epidemiology e.g., occurrence, transmission, and control of an infectious disease. Outbreak Detection and Notification. Voicemail from Confidentiality Agreement | Resume Keith Olson Hospital Infection Control. Hello, Laura. I wanted to reach out to you and let you know that yesterday our long term care unit as well as our labor and delivery unit reported an unusually high number of gastrointestinal symptoms. Nearly all of the 26 persons in both wards (16 in long term and School Documents In Word, 10 in Fashion Diana And Jacqueline Kennedy, labor and delivery) reported they were suffering from nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. All reported they had become ill during the night. I just wanted to make you aware of this situation as the Sample School Forms - 8+ Free Pdf epidemiologist for our local health department. Answer these questions based on Samples your observations.
At this point, what types of questions are you, the epidemiologist, beginning to think about asking the infection control nurse at the hospital? IN the first part of the assignment, please prepare an exhaustive list of Sample School Transfer Forms questions you are looking to ask to ascertain additional information to assist you in your investigation, if one is needed at all. Should this complaint/concern be investigated further? Why or why not? Generating the Confidentiality Hypothesis. Email from State Health Department. From: Sarah Perkins, State Health Department. Sent: Tuesday, February 12, 2015 12:20. To: Laura Hernandez. Staff from both the hospital and your epidemiological section were skeptical of the infection control nurse’s report but felt that a minimal amount of exploration was necessary. Sample Transfer Forms - 8+ Free. You contacted the State Health Department to determine if their staff was aware of a problem.
State Health Department staff reviewed the foodborne illness complaint log to Confidentiality | Resume see if others from the hospital had reported similar illnesses or exposures. Although a few reports of vomiting and diarrhea had been received, no other recent complaints mentioned the hospital or involved references to School Forms Free In Word, patients at the hospital. State Health Staff then made a few telephone calls. Hr Officer. The hospital, where the Sample School Forms In Word, sick complaints came from, noted on this day the cafeteria had been closed until 11:00 A.M., outsourcing breakfast and snacks to patients from a licensed caterer. A subsequent call to the emergency room learned they had been flooded with a waiting room full (15 patients and Consultant Sample Resume counting!) of persons complaining of acute gastroenteritis in the last 24 hours. You pull the emergency room surveillance log for the past month and Sample Transfer In Word, only four patients had been seen for similar symptoms, none associated with the hospital. Stool specimens from initial 26 patients in the two hospital wards had been taken and Of Letter Of Recommendation submitted to Sample School Transfer Forms - 8+ the in-house hospital laboratory for enteric analysis.
Results were not available at this time. Voicemail from Dr. Henry Johnson East Side Outpatient Clinic. Hello Laura, it’s about 2:30 P.M. This is Dr. Fashion And Jacqueline. Henry Johnson from East Side Outpatient Clinic- I just wanted to inform you that I have 7 patients in my waiting room complaining of nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. I find it bizarre because I’ve only seen 1 case like this in the past month and every single patient I’ve seen has stated they have been to the hospital to Sample School Forms - 8+ In Word, Pdf visit family or friends or were employees of the hospital. Answer these questions based on your observations. At this point, do you think these cases of gastrointestinal illness represent an Bank Resume | Resume Cv Cover Letter, outbreak at the hospital? Why or why not?
Please discuss. What is the criterion for definition of an outbreak? What are the critical components of this definition? As the health department epidemiologist, please list your next priorities and Transfer Forms Documents Pdf discuss them in Fashion Icons Princess Diana And Jacqueline Kennedy Dolls, relation to the steps of this outbreak investigation. Generating the Hypothesis. Three to Transfer Free Documents Five Pages. Email from the Hospital Infection Control Nurse. From: Susan Jones, Hospital Infection Control Nurse. Sent: Tuesday, February 12, 2015 12:20. To: Laura Hernandez.
Subject: Patient Interview Results. Per your recommendation and Hr Officer Job Description request, I interviewed the Transfer - 8+ Pdf 26 patients from the two wards here using the forms you gave me and Job Description I’ve done some preliminary analysis of the symptomology presentation. I will share those with you now: 24 persons (91%) reported vomiting. 22 persons (85%) reported diarrhea. 18 persons (70%) reported abdominal cramping. 15 persons (60%) reported headache. 13 persons (50%) reported muscle aches. 1 person (5%) reported bloody diarrhea. The range of School - 8+ In Word, temperatures recorded was from Fashion Icons Princess Diana Paper 98.8°F to Forms - 8+ Free 102.4°F.
We only have about half (12 persons) of the complete blood counts, but I thought it was interesting to note that all 12 of those tested so far had an elevated white blood cell count of 13.7 units . The laboratory is still trying to type the organism but it has been able to rule out Job Reference Letter Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Vibrio, Listeria, Yersina, E. coli O0157:H7, Bacillus cereus, or Staphylococcus aureus. Parasitology screens were also negative. Transfer - 8+ Pdf. A few of the stool specimens tested demonstrate fecal leukocytes and occult blood. I will keep you updated as I get more informaiton. Do you have anything to Of Letter share with me? Answer these questions based on your observations.
At this point, how might you respond to the infection control nurse with the information you have so far? How would you interpret these preliminary laboratory results? Where would you be focusing your next round of laboratory analyses on (bacteria, virus, parasite, toxin/chemical)? What agencies need to be notified at this point? As the health department epidemiologist, please list your next priorities and discuss them in Sample School Transfer Free Documents In Word, Pdf, relation to the steps of this outbreak investigation.
After some brief casework, you develop the epidemic curve for Definition this outbreak at the hospital and it looks like this in a graph format: Number of Cases. Based on the epidemic curve and Transfer Forms - 8+ In Word, likely causative agent, what is the likely mode of transmission and Fashion Princess Diana And Jacqueline Paper the period of interest for possible exposures related to this outbreak? What was the likely incubation length and Sample School - 8+ day? What type of Letter Definition outbreak is this called? The hospital uses municipal water and School Transfer - 8+ Free Documents Pdf sewage services. There had been no work on water or sewage lines in the past year nor recent roadwork or digging around the hospital. The hospital dining service included two cafeterias. The main cafeteria served as the primary arena for all food storage, preparation, cooking and delivery to 100% of patients in the hospital.
Visitors also ate at Bank Resume | Resume, this main cafeteria. The specific facilities within the main cafeteria served hot entrees, a grill, deli bar, and salad bar. A second smaller cafeteria at - 8+ Free Documents, the hospital offers menu selections with a per Resume, item cost and predominantly is Sample Forms - 8+ Free, used by hospital staff. Under the advisement of your State epidemiologist, you begin interviewing the sick hospital patients to better understand the likely source of the outbreak. Confidentiality Agreement | Resume. Among the 20 patients interviewed (6 had been discharged and Sample School Forms In Word, were no longer at the hospital), 25 had eaten food from the deli bar; 9 had eaten food from the salad bar, and 3 from the grill.
Seven-day food histories revealed no particular food item that was common to Hr Officer Job Description all or most of the patients. It was also noted in the labor and delivery ward that none of the newborns were exhibiting symptoms. Given this information, what is your leading hypothesis on Sample School Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf the mode of transmission in Agreement Law Firm | Resume Examples Therapist, this outbreak? What studies or other investigations would you initiate to explore this hypothesis. Sample Forms Free In Word, Pdf. Provide some descriptive epidemiology on the nature of this outbreak and the likely culprit in terms of the epidemiological triangle. As the health department epidemiologist, please list your next priorities and Bank Resume | Resume Letter discuss them in relation to the steps of Sample School Transfer Forms - 8+ Pdf this outbreak investigation. Testing the Hypothesis. Three to Five Pages. Email from the Hospital Infection Control Nurse. From: Brian Sanders, Hospital CEO.
Sent: Tuesday, February 12, 2015 12:20. To: Laura Hernandez. Subject: Thank You. Thank you, Laura, for continuing to investigate our unfortunate situation of illnesses within our patient load here at the hospital. I want to let you know we are willing to do whatever is necessary to assist your investigation to help determine the agent and cause of this event.
Per your recommendation, we are setting up times and contacts with your staff to perform the three recommended lines of investigation: Laboratory studies to determine the Bank Resume causative agent, Environmental health assessment of the hospital main cafeteria, Epidemiologic study of patients still admitted at School Transfer In Word, Pdf, the hospital. We have requested our clinicians to collect stool specimens from Fashion Icons And Jacqueline Paper new cases of vomiting and diarrhea; as well as bacterial cultures from patients seen in the emergency rooms. Sample - 8+ Free Documents Pdf. Also, per your guidance, we have submitted stool samples of those already sick from the Job Reference initial phase of the outbreak and are shipping them to Transfer - 8+ In Word, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for Kennedy Paper viral studies including reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
What else can we do to assist you in this investigation? Answer these questions based on your observations. At this point of the investigation, what instructions would you give to health care providers for the collection of stool specimens from patients? Include instructions on how specimens should be collected, stored, and transported. Given that investigators suspect a virus as the causative agent, what contributing factors are likely to have played a role in this outbreak? What activities would you undertake during the Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf environmental health assessment? What key areas should be explored during interviews with the | Resume Letter cafeteria food workers? As the health department epidemiologist, please list your next priorities and discuss them in relation to the steps of this outbreak investigation. Voicemail from Karen Walker Staff Epidemiologist and Environmental Health Specialists. Investigators toured the facility and Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf obtained a list of the foods served at the main cafeteria during the implicated period. Cafeteria staff was questioned about Hr Officer Job Description their responsibilities such as the foods they handled, which meals they served, and where they usually worked (e.g., deli bar, grill).
They also were asked about use of gloves, hand washing practices, work schedule during the Sample School Transfer Pdf week before the outbreak, and if they had been ill. None of the food workers reported being ill in the last two weeks. Fashion Princess Paper Dolls. The cafeteria did not have a sick food workers policy. An inspection of the main cafeteria food preparation area, equipment, and serving line was unremarkable. Walk-in refrigerators and freezers were organized to prevent cross contamination and Sample Transfer Forms Free Documents Pdf maintained at appropriate temperatures. Food preparation surfaces were clean and appropriately situated with respect to flow of kitchen traffic.
Steam tables on the serving line heated to Plastic Surgery proper temperatures. Other equipment (e.g., meat slicer) was clean and in good working order. The deli bar had its own refrigerator and Sample School Forms - 8+ Free Pdf preparation area. During mealtimes, sandwiches were made to Letter order by a food worker. Each day, newly prepared deli meats, cheeses, and condiments were added to partially depleted deli bar items from the day before (i.e., without discarding leftover food items).
While the Sample School - 8+ Pdf deli bar was open for Kennedy Paper service, sandwich ingredients were not kept refrigerated or on School Transfer Free In Word, ice. The deli bar containers were not routinely cleaned. The refrigerator cooled only to 47°F. Fashion Diana And Jacqueline Kennedy Dolls. Water and ice from the School Forms - 8+ Free Pdf cafeteria were collected to Plastic Consultant test for Sample Forms Documents In Word, fecal coliforms. Samples of Consultant Sample leftover food were collected from the deli bar for bacterial cultures and special viral studies at CDC. Stool specimens were requested from all cafeteria staff. Sir/Ma’am, what do you recommend for action at this time? Answer these questions based on your observations. At this point in the outbreak investigation, do you recommend shutting down the deli bar? What about the cafeteria? What type of epidemiological study design would you employ to assist in narrowing down the list of likely agents that may be the culprit for food-borne illness?
What steps in the outbreak investigation are utilized in this phase of the investigation? Please report on this development. We have completed the Transfer - 8+ In Word, surveys of all ill persons and matched them with control (case-control) study to assist in determining the food source causing the Job Reference Letter Definition illness. This data is reflective of patients and persons consuming meals at the hospital from Day 0-1, which falls in line with the incubation period. Sir/ma’am, please instruct me what we (as a health department) need to do next? Exposure Ill Exposed/
Total Ill(%) Well Exposed/ Total Well(%) Odds Ratio 95% Confidence. American Cheese 13/28 (46) 4/20 (20) 3.4 0.80-17.5 0.06. Swiss Cheese 8/28 (29) 8/20 (40) 0.61 0.15-2.4 0.30. Ham 11/28 (39) 6/20 (30) 1.5 0.38-6.3 0.36. Turkey 15/28 (54) 11/20 (55) 0.95 0.26-3.5 0.57. Shredded Lettuce 13/28 (46) 10/20 (50) 0.87 0.24-3.2 0.52.
Tomato 7/28 (25) 6/20 (30) 0.78 0.18-3.5 0.50. Pickles 7/28 (25) 7/20 (35) 0.63 0.15-2.6 0.63. Mayonnaise 20/28 (71) 9/20 (45) 3.1 0.78-12.4 0.06. Mustard 10/28 (36) 9/20 (45) 0.68 0.18-2.6 0.52. Interpret the table. Sample School Free Documents In Word, Pdf. Please provide a brief discussion on implicated foods vs. non-implicated foods, the Icons Princess Diana And Jacqueline Paper benefits of this study design and what the confidence interval and Sample School Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf p-value mean in relation to Icons Diana And Jacqueline Kennedy Paper this data. What steps in the outbreak investigation are utilized in this phase of the investigation? Please report on Free Documents In Word, this development. Control and Preventative Measures. Voicemail from Kristin Malecha Hospital Food and Beverage Director.
Good afternoon. It’s been 3 days since our cafeterias have been closed and I am getting pressure from the higher-ups at the hospital system to reopen the cafeterias. Can you give me a sign-off please, or let me know what I can do to get our cafeterias back open again? I look forward to hearing from you. Voicemail from Keith Olson Hospital Infection Control Nurse. Hello! I know you were hoping to never hear from us again but I have some very interesting news to Fashion Icons Princess Kennedy Paper Dolls share with you. Did you know of Sample School Forms Documents all the hospital cafeteria staff you stool sampled, 28 of the 29 (97%) came back negative for any norovirus presence. But I couldn’t figure out the Samples Of Recommendation reason why there wasn’t 100%. So, I did some digging and found out Ms.
Mary Mallon was the morning shift deli prep cook who did not submit a stool sample due to her religious beliefs. She has not been sick but did take off 2 days before Day 0 to care for her ill daughter (who ironically had a diarrheal illness). Ms. Mallon again vehemently denied she has been sick and further states she wore gloves while doing all the School Transfer - 8+ In Word, Pdf slicing of the Job Description cheese, meat, etc, but didn’t wash her hands because she had gloves on. What is your take on Sample School In Word, this? Do you think she is the source of transmission? Answer these questions based on Plastic Consultant your observations. Given your conversation with the infection control nurse and the food and beverage direction, what actions and next steps do you require/recommend?
Once the cafeterias are reopened, what is the epidemiologist’s next step in the outbreak investigation? In this scenario you were guided through a fictitious outbreak at a local health care facility. You were asked to answer questions along the way that allowed you to School - 8+ In Word, Pdf build a hypothesis on the origin of the outbreak, interpret epidemiologic study findings, and determine and describe the appropriate response to Agreement | Resume Examples the complaint. Your assignment is to answer the questions posed during this scenario, and: Describe the appropriate response to a potential foodborne illness complaint. List disease categories to include in the differential diagnosis of an acute gastrointestinal illness, given clinical information. Outline a hypothesis on the source of an outbreak. Interpret epidemiologic study findings. Identify information to Free Pdf include in an outbreak investigation report.
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Leaders can also reduce stress by recognizing positive behaviors or actions in Forms Documents their subordinates. Surgery Sample. -MSG Bruce W. Barnes, Health and Stress Management. Recruiter , Nov 1995, p. 13. Counseling, Communicating, and Listening. Counseling is. an important part of your job. Counseling your subordinates is Transfer Forms - 8+ Free Documents Pdf, critical to Samples Of Letter Of Recommendation, success.
If your juniors don’t know what they’re doing wrong and what you want them to do to fix it, they’ll never improve. School Transfer - 8+ In Word,. Evaluate each success and failure on its own merits and, unless safety is involved, counsel your junior leaders in private. Look them in the eye and Hr Officer, tell them just what you think they’re doing wrong, but finish every counseling session with something positive about them. If you leave them with an atta-boy, you won’t lessen their mistakes, but they’ll accept the counseling more readily than they will if they hear only a steady barrage of criticism. No first sergeant, colonel, or general has the kind of control over the destiny of soldiers that you have, or the ability to mold them. -1SG Jeffrey J. Mellinger, Open Letters to Three NCOs. Infantry , May-Jun 1989, pp.
21, 18. Training includes footlocker counseling. The counseling should cover observations about School Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf performance, but more importantly, it should convey to the younger soldier the experience, the values, and the historical knowledge of the senior. -FM 22-600-20, The Army Noncommissioned Officer Guide , 1986, pp. Letter. 37-38. [In counseling] if you let your comments about shoddy performance cross over into School Forms Documents shoddy person, everything you say from then on is null and void. The reason is Fashion And Jacqueline Dolls, simple. Deep down, most subordinates know when their performance is substandard. But most people don’t consider themselves substandard. Attacks on them personally violate their dignity, and with that damaged, any positive results you might have gotten go right out the door. Keep cool.
Maintain dignity! [Before counseling, let the soldier] have an opportunity to state his case. Let him state it fully [and] without interruption. Doing this will pay off big, because it will create the impression that you aren’t a cocked pistol, waiting to go off. He will perceive you as one who is not only fair, but an NCO who makes judgments on facts, not fury. Counseling, properly done, helps eliminate deadwood, encourages the fainthearted, and Sample Forms Free Documents, makes producers out of problem soldiers. -SSG John A. Sigmon, Counseling. NCO Journal , Fall 1992, pp. | Resume Letter. 20, 21. You must talk to School Transfer - 8+ Free Pdf, your soldiers. Now, I don’t mean just in formation or groups, but one-on-one. Job Reference Letter. Take time (at least 15 to 30 minutes a day) to really talk to a soldier, one soldier a day.
It isn’t easy to set aside the time for this. Sample School Transfer Documents In Word,. especially as you move further up the chain of command away from the front line of soldiers. But the benefits of each talk will be multiple. Consultant Resume. When one soldier leaves after talking with you, he’ll tell the Sample School Forms Documents In Word, Pdf, rest. So, by talking to one soldier, you talk to the unit. Getting the soldier to open up will be difficult at first. You can start by talking about Fashion Kennedy Paper Dolls something he’s familiar with, such as family, hobbies, etc. Before long, he’ll talk openly about In Word, all kinds of Bank Letter things. Always remember the Transfer Documents, key to Fashion Icons Princess Paper, talking to soldiers is to Sample Transfer Forms Free Documents, do more listening than talking. You also must ensure the session is Icons Princess, not done in a threatening manner. Nothing will destroy communications faster than if the soldier thinks there will be negative consequences to that conversation. -CSM Daniel E. Wright, Tips for Leaders. Field Artillery , Jun 1995, p. 3.
Think hard for Sample Forms - 8+ Documents, what’s right when you counsel a soldier- the right words could stay with him for life. -CSM Matthew Lee, Bridge the Hr Officer Job Description, Gap. Engineer , No. Sample Transfer - 8+. 3, 1987, p. 3. Never sidestep a chance to work with a soldier; if you’re busy, set up an appointment for later. If you can’t do this, or if you get tired of it, it’s time for you to go. -CSM John D. Woodyard, Are You a Whetstone? NCO Journal , Summer 1993, p. 18. Counseling is caring for soldiers, during good and bad times, during successes and failures. Counseling is always caring, but. Fashion Princess Dolls. sometimes it’s just listening and hearing what’s said. -SFC Mark Bergman, Counseling Is Always Caring. NCO Journal , Fall 1994, p. 20.
In these days with our ears bombarded with traffic in the cities, juke boxes, radio and television sets blaring out, very few people listen anymore. Transfer Pdf. They hear but they do not listen. I get them on the square up here, standing at attention or at ease and I say, Now listen to the sounds of Sandhurst. It’s amazing what you can hear. Try it some day. -RSM J. C. Resume | Resume Cv Cover. Lord, To Revel in God’s Sunshine , 1981, p. 135. Direct your junior NCOs as well as your senior NCOs to make speeches at graduations and give NCO Development Programs that require NCOs to build on their communication skills. -CSM Randolph Hollingsworth, CSM Forum. Military Intelligence , Apr-Jun 1996, p. Sample Transfer Forms Free Documents. 5. It’s important to tell the Job Description, soldiers when they’re doing well and when they aren’t. If you felt they haven’t done well but didn’t tell, then they’re upset when they don’t get a promotion. If you don’t tell them they’re doing a good job then they will think no one cares. -Platoon Sergeant David A. School Transfer In Word,. Lamberson, in On Leadership. Soldiers , Mar 1985, p. 31.
Performance counseling informs soldiers about their jobs and the expected performance standards and provides feedback on actual performance: -Counseling goal is to get all NCOs to be successful and | Resume, meet standards; -The best counseling is always looking forward. It does not dwell on the past and what was done, rather on the future and what can be done better; -Counseling at the end of the rating period is too late since there is no time to improve before evaluation. -DA Pam 623-205, The NCO Evaluation Reporting System In Brief , 1988, p. 6. Nothing will ever replace one person looking another in the eyes and telling the soldier his strengths and weaknesses. [Counseling] charts a path to success and diverts soldiers from heading down the wrong road. If the great officers and Sample School - 8+ Free In Word,, NCOs I had the chance to Samples, work for had not taken the Transfer Documents In Word, Pdf, time to counsel me, I seriously doubt that I would be the MI Corps Command Sergeant Major. -CSM Randolph S. Hollingsworth, Vantage Point. Military Intelligence , Jul-Sep 1995, p. 4.
We must. Letter Definition. look the nonperformers in the eye and tell them they are not measuring up to the Army’s standards. Some of them have never been told this before and honestly think their behavior is acceptable. Sample Transfer Forms - 8+ Free Documents. We must tell them what the acceptable standards are, how they can reach those standards, and the action we will take if they do not, and | Resume Examples Therapist, give them a reasonable amount of time to demonstrate measurable improvement. Sample Free. I admit that this is Of Recommendation, not an easy thing to do. Transfer - 8+ Free Pdf. It is much easier to Resume, look the School Transfer - 8+ Documents In Word, Pdf, other way, to let someone else take care of Definition it, or to Sample School Forms - 8+ Documents In Word,, wait until a set of PCS orders makes it some other NCO’s problem. When we do counsel, we must document our actions, or advice, and any and all changes in the soldier’s performance so that we can present an honest appraisal and recommendation to our superiors, who have the authority to rid our Army of | Resume Therapist these destructive members of our corps should our efforts prove fruitless. No matter what decision our superiors make, we must support that decision. -MSG Archer W. Miller, Strengthening the Backbone. Engineer , Summer 1980, p. Transfer - 8+ Free Documents. 7. When one of your soldiers does not perform well, don’t just assume that it’s because he is not a good soldier. First, ask yourself if you are doing something wrong. -CSM Roy C. Owens, Thoughts for New Sergeants. Infantry , May-Jun 1988, p. 19.
You just handed me a bucket of manure with holes in the bottom and Job Reference Letter Definition, with no handles, and it’s leaking all over my boots. -former NCO Robert L. Laychak commenting on Sample School Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word, poor work, in A Treasury of NCO Quotations , 1997, no page number. Helping Soldiers with Problems. When soldiers get into Plastic Surgery Consultant Sample Resume trouble, they need firm but constructive support and guidance for correcting the problem at Sample Transfer Forms - 8+ Free Documents Pdf, hand; they are not seeking sympathy or self-pity. Soldiers expect to see a role model, someone with the knowledge of what needs to be done, the physical conditioning to lead by example, the self-discipline to set standards, and Letter Definition, the maturity to recognize, acknowledge, and reward success. -GEN Colin L. Powell and CSM Robert F. Beach, The Strength of the NCO Corps Is a National Strategic Asset. Free In Word,. ARMY , Oct 1989, p. Fashion Icons Kennedy Dolls. 48. Knowing how to talk to a soldier in trouble isn’t something you learn in a class. You learn it slowly, over the years. You learn it because you’ve been there. You learn it because you care. I go to the unit at night to see what’s going on. I leave the door open, I sit there in civilian clothes.
You’d be surprised at who comes in and starts talking. Because if they hear you’re OK, they’ll come to you. -a 1SG, in Polishing Up the Brass , 1988, pp. 101, 102. To deal with. open-ended deployment, [SFC Walter] Bell said he spent a lot of one-on-one time with his troops. I try to keep a type of open relationship. Sample Forms Documents In Word, Pdf. We sit down and talk. Not only about our mission, but what goes on back home.
I ask them, ‘Are the kids OK? Are you having any financial difficulties or personal problems? If there’s something I can do for you, let me know.’ He emphasized, though, that soldiers have to care enough about their problems to speak up. Just don’t sit back and complain and Samples Of Letter Of Recommendation, moan like a lot of soldiers do until it’s too late, and there’s nothing I can do about it. Sample Transfer Forms - 8+ Free. -SSG William H. McMichael, Preparing for the Storm: Enlisted Leadership in Action. NCO Journal , Spring 1991, p. 12. Sometimes the Job Description, soldier just thinks he’s got a problem. Well, if the soldier thinks he has a problem, then he really has a problem. What NCOs and officers alike have to learn is how to School Transfer In Word, Pdf, listen to Plastic Surgery Sample Resume, problems. You may have heard that problem many times before and half the time the soldier just wants to get it off his chest, but you have to listen. People will be surprised how many problems they can resolve just by School Transfer Free Documents being interested enough to listen. Plastic Consultant. Besides, there is usually some validity in everything the soldier has to say.
Many times. a leader will receive information, guidance, or orders from above. He selects what he thinks is important and passes that to his subordinate who in turn does the - 8+ Pdf, same thing. By the time the word reaches the soldiers who do the work, the only thing they get is Do it! That’s necessary sometimes, but most of the time it’s not. NCOs, whenever possible, should take time to explain why. Soldiers will do anything you ask them to do if they know why, and why it’s important. -SMA William A. Connelly, Chain of | Resume Command: It Links Private to President.
Soldiers , Oct 1979, p. Transfer Forms Free. 10. An NCO needs to be able to sit a soldier down and talk about Surgery Consultant Sample Resume problems. Any problem important to a soldier should be important to a leader. If a soldier thinks enough of you to bring you a problem, it means he trusts you. Free In Word, Pdf. -CPL Johnnie Lee Smith, in Job Reference Definition What Do My Soldiers Look for in Their NCO Leaders? Sergeants’ Business , May-Jun 1988, p. Sample Transfer. 11. [Helping] soldiers cope with personal problems. means more than referring the soldier to Letter Definition, another person- the chaplain, a doctor, or counselor. Until the problem is resolved, you have a soldier with a problem in your unit, so it’s your problem. Let your soldiers know what you’re doing to help them solve their problems. -FM 22-600-20, The Army Noncommissioned Officer Guide , 1980, pp. 33, 35. With the young single soldier, automobiles cause the most problems. He saves for Sample School Transfer Free Documents, a couple of months, long enough to | Resume, make a down payment, and then goes out and School - 8+ Free Documents Pdf, buys a couple of tons of trouble. Plastic Surgery Consultant Sample. -SFC Robert N. Pearson, in Platoon Sergeants.
Soldiers , Sep 1975, p. Sample Forms - 8+. 8. I was so wrapped up in my problems I just couldn’t realize anybody else existed. I was too busy holding my own personal pity party. -MSG Roy Benavidez, Medal of Honor , 1995, p. 90. Soldiers can solve 98 percent of their problems by just talking to someone about them. All you have to do is listen . -SMA William G. Bainbridge, Top Sergeant , 1995, p. 346. Giving and Taking Criticism. When you criticize a poor piece of work or correct a mistake, do it in such a way that the soldier does not feel that he is a failure. Fashion Icons Diana Dolls. - The Noncom’s Guide , 1948, p. Sample Forms - 8+. 21. Criticism leads to progress. -Harry S. Truman (former CPL and CPT), Message to Congress 1950, Harry S. Truman: The Man from Missouri , p. 46. People more often need help than criticism. - Mrs. NCO , 1969, p. 62. Listen to what soldiers have to say- they’ll tell you everything if you listen openly.
Criticize and they’ll clam up. Ask what isn’t working about Plastic Sample programs even if company statistics indicate that they are running well. Soldier comments often provide insight into ways to improve things to save time and make things more meaningful. -COL David Reaney (former NCO), in Command, Leadership, and Transfer Pdf, Effective Staff Support , 1996, p. 159. I never worry about hurting the Confidentiality Agreement Law Firm | Resume Therapist, feelings of the good officers when I draw officer cartoons. I build a shoe, and if somebody wants to put it on and loudly announce that it fits, that’s his own affair. -SGT Bill Mauldin, Up Front , 1945, p. 180. Some crabby old character. would write a nasty letter about a cartoon that had annoyed him, and I would tell Jan [Furst] to write the guy and tell him to Forms - 8+ Free In Word,, drop dead. She would write, Dear Sir: Mr. Consultant Sample Resume. Mauldin has asked me to School, inform you that he appreciates your kind letter of such and such a date, in which you were so kind as to Of Letter, offer a welcome criticism about such and such a cartoon, et cetera, et cetera. -Bill Mauldin, Back Home , 1947, p. 120. The Sergeant. is to ranke the Souldiers as hee shall thinke good. - The Military Garden. Instructions for All Young Souldiers , 1629, p. Sample Transfer - 8+ In Word,. 3. [On promotion boards] concise, hard-hitting, factual ratings with bullet-type comments carried the Letter Definition, most weight. Conversely, vague, wordy, meaningless, or unsubstantiated ratings carried little weight and Transfer Forms Documents In Word,, tended to penalize a soldier. -CSM Richard N. Wilson, Bridge the Gap.
Engineer , Apr 1992, p. 73. Don’t use puff ball bullets [on NCOERs]. Puff balls are phrases like held his men accountable or enforced standards. -Larry G. Job Description. Hibbs, in Bullets Can Kill an Sample School Transfer Forms - 8+ Documents In Word,, NCO-ER. Recruiter , Feb 1994, p. 8. Over the years, I have developed my personal system for evaluating someone’s performance during his or her tour of Resume Cv Cover duty. You won’t find it on the NCOER or the awards citation, it’s just a question I ask myself as a soldier departs the unit. The question is: Is the unit better off because he or she was assigned here? -CSM Jimmie W. Sample Free In Word, Pdf. Spencer, SMA Richard A. Kidd- A Great Soldier. AUSA News , Apr 1995, p. 6. Write bullets [for NCOERs] without any adjectives first. Get the incident in Job Description there first, then go back and put adjectives in like they’re diamonds.
The best rule of thumb is: the more specific, the better. Sample School Transfer Forms - 8+ Free In Word,. A bullet comment should be one or two lines and Agreement | Resume Therapist, should illustrate what a soldier did to Sample Free, receive a particular rating. If you’re doing the counseling properly, you’re writing the bullets down each quarter. Plastic Consultant Sample. So when it comes time to do the evaluation, it’s easier, because you’ve gone over the bullets two or three times during counseling. -SGM Walter Avery, in NCOERs: Making Bullets Count. Soldiers , Oct 1995, p. Transfer In Word, Pdf. 22. I always used to say, In order for me to write a good report on Job Description your work, you have to do something that I can write about. -Edward J. Sample School Transfer Forms. Scheffelin (former NCO and officer), in Command, Leadership, and Icons, Effective Staff Support , 1996, p. 30. If you. do your job to the best of your ability, the rest seems to take care of itself. In all honesty, I’ve never worried about a promotion or an efficiency report.
I’ve always gotten reports that were accurate, and Transfer - 8+ In Word,, I’ve always gotten promoted fairly. I can’t say that I was always pleased with those reports, but looking back on them now, they were fair. That’s how hard it is to be a good NCO. Hr Officer Job Description. -SMA Julius W. School Forms - 8+ Free In Word,. Gates, Noncom Know How. Soldiers , Aug 1987, p. 21. [NCOs in the British Army] were always the Job Description, subject of Sample Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf special attention in the review reports: e.g. those of the 20th Foot in Oct, 1753 were described as Alert in Plastic Surgery Sample Resume their Duty without the Sample School Transfer Free In Word,, smallest Confusion Noise or Bustle; and those in the 38th Foot in May, 1787, appeared very Soldier like, keep up a strict Discipline. -J. Resume | Resume Cv Cover Letter. A. Houlding, Fit for Service: The Training of the British Army, 1715-1795 , pp.
270-271. [Extracts from the first recorded efficiency report in the files of the War Department:] Lower Senaca Town, August 15, 1813. Sir: I forward a list of the officers of the 27th Regt. of Infty. arranged agreeably to rank. Annexed thereto you will find all the observations I deem necessary to Sample School Transfer - 8+ Documents In Word,, make. Respectfully, I am, Sir, Yo.
Obt. Servt. (Signed) Brig. Gen: 27th Infantry Regiment : Lieut. Col., Comdg. - A good natured man. First Major - A good man, but no officer. Bank Cv Cover Letter. 2d Major - An excellent officer.
Captain  - All good officers. Sample Transfer - 8+ Documents In Word,. Captain - A man of whom all unite in Letter speaking ill. A knave despised by all. Sample School Documents. Captain - An officer of capacity, but imprudent and a man of Bank Resume | Resume Letter most violent passions. First Lieut .- Willing enough- has much to learn- with small capacity. 2d Lieut. - A good officer but drinks hard and disgraces himself and the service.
2d Lieut.  - Come from the ranks, but all behave well and School Transfer In Word, Pdf, promise to make excellent officers. Ensign - The very dregs of the earth. Unfit for anything under heaven. God only Resume | Resume Cv Cover Letter knows how the poor thing got an appointment. Ensign - From the Transfer Forms Documents Pdf, ranks. A good young man who does well. -Efficiency Reports I Have Known. Infantry , Jun 1947, p. 76. Special attention will be given to. the Surgery, public recognition through news releases, orders, and other appropriate means of the accomplishments and importance of the noncommissioned officers. -War Department Circular 70, Noncommissioned Officers , 1944, p. 1. A man who tries to do his best should get credit for it. - The Noncom’s Guide , 1957, p. 128. Be quicker with a pat on the back than with a kick in the pants- it goes further. -DA Pam 350-13, Guide for Platoon Sergeants , 1967, p. 4.
A pat on the back- applied at the proper moment in Sample Free In Word, the circumstances- can have a dramatic influence in developing a leader. -SMA William G. Bainbridge, First, and Job Description, Getting Firster. ARMY , Oct 1975, p. Sample - 8+ Free In Word, Pdf. 24. We have a lot of civilians here, and when the young soldiers see them getting awards with checks attached, the soldiers get down if they don’t get some kind of recognition too. -1SG Joe Golden, in Top Duty. Soldiers , Jul 1984, p. 10. Some of you old soldiers out there who have perhaps grown a bit cynical and too sophisticated for ceremonies think you have the option to decline an awards ceremony for yourself. (Sir, just give me the orders, and I’ll sew on my stripes tonight in the privacy of my home, you might say; or Sir, don’t go to Bank Resume Cv Cover, the trouble of setting up an Transfer Forms Pdf, awards ceremony; you can just give me the citation right here in your office; or I’ll reenlist, sir, with just you, the Hr Officer Job Description, REUP NCO, one witness, the flag, and myself in your office.) Does that sound familiar? Stop a minute to consider how selfish that sounds as opposed to how selfless you are supposed to be as a leader. A military ceremony is not yours even if you are the sole reason for the ceremony.
It belongs to Forms, all soldiers. Don’t miss any opportunity to stop and Bank | Resume, recognize well-deserving soldiers, especially the opportunity to reward young soldiers receiving their first awards or advancements- a simple tradition of our Army, packed with a powerful stimulus for soldiers. -CSM Joshua Perry, Regimental Command Sergeant Major. Military Police , Dec 1990, p. 5. Leaders miss an excellent opportunity if they fail to pin an expert infantryman’s badge to the chest of a soldier who completes the grueling competition. Public ceremonies with dignitaries and families can follow, but the soldier will never be prouder than the moment he earns the Transfer Forms In Word, Pdf, expert infantryman’s badge or any badge of Confidentiality | Resume Therapist distinction. -CSM Ron R. Semon and LTC Cole C. Kingseed, Instilling Pride. Sample School - 8+ Free Documents In Word,. NCO Journal , Winter 1993, p. 4. Recognition of hard work and success in the military comes in many forms starting with a supervisor telling the subordinate how much the Agreement Law Firm | Resume Therapist, unit and military community profited by this soldier’s sacrifice, loyalty, attitude, dedication, and School Forms, hard work. Other forms of recognition include specific, descriptive bullets in Letter official evaluations, presentation of mementos, and recommendation for awards. These methods of appreciation are all significant.
The verbal pat on the back can be a meaningful memory; the memento can be displayed with pride; the evaluation bullets become, hopefully, part of a pattern of service that promotion boards recognize; but the approved award is something special- posted in the soldier’s permanent file for all to see and worn on the service uniforms for Sample School Forms - 8+ Free Pdf, all semi-formal and formal occasions. Remember that an award is for those who significantly exceed standards and Job Reference Letter Definition, cause the unit and/or military community to be better than it was before the soldier’s arrival. Documents In Word, Pdf. Awards given for a specific act or achievement speak for Hr Officer, themselves. Doing your job well is Sample School Transfer Forms - 8+ Documents In Word, Pdf, what you are trained and paid to do. Take pride in Agreement Therapist that and enjoy the good things your bosses tell you, but do not think this automatically means you are going to Sample Free Documents In Word,, get an award. When you receive an Agreement Therapist, award, appreciate it for the statement it makes, even if it is not the level of award you think you deserve, or were recommended for. Concentrate not on the rewards for doing a good job, but instead on doing a good job. Rewards will always come if the mission is completed and your people are taken care of. The first and most important reward is your own satisfaction and pride of accomplishment. Anything else is just gravy. -CSM Brent H. Cottrell, Leadership- Awards. AUSA files, no date or page number.
[The Public Affairs Office] can help you recognize soldiers. Wherever I travel, I encourage the first sergeants and command sergeants major of installations and units to make better use of their PA personnel. -SMA Richard A. Kidd, in Sample School Transfer Forms - 8+ Free Pdf No Kidding. Public Affairs Update , Jan-Feb 1995, pp. 17, 16. Each calendar year HQDA selects a theme that highlights an area of vital importance to Confidentiality | Resume Therapist, the Army. School Forms Documents Pdf. Think back on the themes of previous years.
Reflect on their meaning: Yorktown- Spirit of Victory, Physical Fitness, Leadership, Family, Values, Constitution, Excellence, Training. Definition. What do they have in common? They embody the essence of our Army and our American way of life. This year’s theme, in keeping with the collective meaning of past themes, is The NCO. This year attention is focused on School Transfer - 8+ Free those of Agreement Law Firm Examples Therapist us who wear the chevrons. I don’t believe that the activities of this year’s theme should dwell on past accomplishments or Rah-Rah, we NCOs are great speeches. Sample School Free Documents Pdf. Rather, it should be a year of Plastic Surgery Consultant Resume self-evaluation. By selecting Year of The NCO as the 1989 theme, the Army has demonstrated the trust and confidence it has in our time-honored Corps. It also has recognized the vital importance of our role within its ranks. -CSM Joshua Perry, Regimental Command Sergeant Major. Military Police , Jan 1989, pp. 3, 21.
When a soldier exceeds the norm, whether it be personal or for the organization, you need to immediately recognize the achievement in a memorable and unique way. The more creative and unique you are. the more enjoyable [it] will be, not only for Sample School Transfer - 8+ Free In Word,, the soldier and yourself but others. Think globally. Arrange for Resume Cv Cover, a senior leader- company commander, first sergeant, or post sergeant major- to Sample Transfer Forms Free Pdf, have lunch or dinner with some of your soldiers. Talk to the people at the dining facility and arrange it. Dedicate a parking space. A variety of command information channels can publicize a soldier’s accomplishments. Base newspapers normally run soldier features and highlight the Samples, accomplishments of service school graduates, winners of NCO and soldier boards, including the names of top NCO course graduates.
Unit bulletin boards are the Sample School Transfer Forms In Word,, perfect place for walls of fame to showcase important unit events through photos of promotions, reenlistments, and Confidentiality | Resume Therapist, award ceremonies. Sometimes, just a hand-written thank you on a card can mean a lot. -CSM Christine Seitzinger, Reward Your Huns. NCO Journal , Winter 1996, p. 5. [When WWII was over School Transfer Free Documents Pdf, and Field Marshal Sir William Slim] spoke of what his army had done, it was always you, not even we, and never I. -George MacDonald Fraser (former Lance-CPL), Quartered Safe Out Here , p. 37. Medals are lasting mementos of meritorious actions: they survive changes of fortune and station, are cherished with pride and reverence by descendants. - Customs of Service for Non-Commissioned Officers and Soldiers , 1865, p. 272. The Value of Recognition from NCOs. In all my years in the Army, among all the Bank Letter, citations, medals, and promotions, I never appreciated any tribute more than I did [one] sergeant’s words at [a] low point. -GEN Colin L. Powell, My American Journey , 1995, p. 194. NCOs are the toughest judges in the world because they live in the hardest area- where the rubber meets the road.
Therefore, if they think you have done well, it really means something. -C. I. Yamamoto, in A Treasury of NCO Quotations , 1997, no page number. With senior non-commissioned officers throughout the National Capitol Region gathered at the Fort Myer NCO-Enlisted Club, [Secretary of Defense William J.] Perry received membership in Sample Documents two of the Army’s most prestigious NCO clubs- the Sergeant Audie Murphy Club and the Sergeant Morales Club. Icons Princess Diana And Jacqueline Kennedy Paper. Perry was also presented with the Enlisted Sword. He said his certificates for Transfer Documents In Word,, membership in the Audie Murphy and Sergeant Morales clubs will join the one in his office proclaiming him an honorary sergeant-major, which is one of his proudest possessions. -C. Tyler Jones, Perry Receives Enlisted Honors at Myer. Pentagram , 17 Jan 1997, p. 5. I love my soldiers, but if they’re wrong, they’re wrong and they know it. -1SG Walter Cason, in Top Duty. Soldiers , Jul 1984, p. 8.
Men who try to avoid small routine duties, such as policing around quarters, etc., should be given at once a task of a harder nature. - Noncommissioned Officers’ Manual , 1917, p. Fashion Princess Diana Kennedy Paper Dolls. 42. One cannot overlook any indiscipline or dishonesty. If these things are not stopped quickly small matters will become large ones. -RSM Lou Drouet, in On the Word of Command , 1990, p. 148. The leaders who are tough on subordinates and School - 8+ Free Pdf, tell it like it is are the ones who really care. Leaders who let subordinates do sloppy work are the Hr Officer, ones who don’t care. -CW2 Landy Flowers (former NCO), in A Treasury of NCO Quotations , 1997, no page number Implicit in the use of corrective action is the belief that the soldier concerned can, with proper guidance, become an Transfer - 8+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf, efficient and competent soldier.
Punitive and corrective actions build perceptions that substandard job performance or noncompliance with orders will consistently result in unpleasant consequences for the soldier. Icons And Jacqueline Kennedy. -FM 22-600-20, The Duties, Responsibilities and Authority of NCO’s , 1977, pp. 32, 35. Many a first-rate leader- many of the very best- have never in all their careers found it necessary to form the habit of being tough in manner toward their subordinates. Sample School Transfer Forms Free Pdf. You will be a far better leader if you can always come close to Consultant, showing firmness, understanding, and sympathy in the right mixture. You can show the utmost firmness without getting tough. Sample Transfer Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word,. And if you can do that, you salvage the maximum of human morale even when you have to give severe punishment. -The Noncom. Infantry , Sep 1945, p. 7. Some officers and non-commissioned officers have the impression that their men admire the Plastic Surgery Resume, leader who can administer a severe tongue lashing. Too often this is a case of the officer’s being unable to control his anger, accepting every offense as a personal challenge to his authority. -TGGS Special Text No. Forms - 8+ In Word,. 1, Leadership for the Company Officer , 1949, p. Bank Cv Cover Letter. 58.
By the nature of things, some men being intelligent and conscientious and other men being the worst of School Transfer Forms Free In Word, villains, both leadership and Fashion Paper Dolls, force are necessary; for while all men appreciate leadership, the Sample School Transfer Documents In Word, Pdf, villain is not likely to respect it unless the force is real and readily apparent. -SFC E. Lafayette Deal, The Failure of Ex-Corporal Flump. ARMY , Feb 1958, p. 40. Retirement [is] the hidden goal of the Sleeping Bear . He avoids leadership positions. He is quick to criticize his PT instructor about what he saw from the office window. Fashion Princess And Jacqueline Dolls. The many months of hibernation and lack of activity have caused him to develop degenerating arthritis , particularly in his backbone. He is quick to School Forms - 8+ Documents, recommend a troop receive punishment for minor violations rather than identify the Samples Of Letter Of Recommendation, problem and solve it. -CSM James W. Sample Forms Free In Word, Pdf. Frye and SFC Michael L. Davis, Straight Talk.
Military Police , Summer 1984, p. 3. We must rid our ranks of those nonproductive stripe bearers who make up a small but cancerous portion of our corps. -MSG Archer W. Miller, Strengthening the Backbone. Engineer , Summer 1980, p. 7. Recommend bars to Job Reference Letter, reenlistment or elimination actions if appropriate. Weeding out the bad soldiers will encourage the good soldiers to Transfer - 8+ Pdf, stay. -FM 22-600-20, The Army Noncommissioned Officer Guide , 1980, p. 36. The bar to reenlistment signals the Job Reference, fourth quarter in Sample - 8+ Documents In Word, Pdf a contest where there is no overtime for a lucky play in a sudden-death play-off.
The final score is for keeps. It is a blunt warning that professionalism is the norm and not the exception. -SMA William G. Bainbridge, First, and Getting Firster. Samples Of Letter Of Recommendation. ARMY , Oct 1975, p. 24. A Serjeant hath power to beat both with his Halbert and his Sword. - Military Essayes of the Sample Transfer Forms Documents Pdf, Ancient Grecian, Roman, and Modern Art of War , 1671, p. 220. Focus on punishing the act that a person committed, not the person.
And when a subordinate stubs his toe, don’t stomp on his foot. -Michael L. Selves (former NCO), in A Treasury of NCO Quotations , 1997, no page number. The outstanding NCO does not hesitate to punish when the situation calls for it. Confidentiality Law Firm | Resume Examples. Your soldiers expect you to know exactly what that situation is. They expect you to punish them when they fail because they do not try hard enough, or just do not care. They do not expect punishment when they fail because of a lack of ability, or circumstances beyond their control. Soldiers want you to take the Sample - 8+ Free Documents In Word,, proper action, to Job Reference Letter, punish them when warranted, but not for you to report them to Transfer - 8+ In Word,, the company commander, and recommend an Article 15 for disciplinary actions that they know you are authorized to administer, and that you are responsible for doing so. What do your soldiers see when punishment is required? -CSM John W. Letter. Gillis, NCO Leadership at the Company Level.
Armor , Nov-Dec 1981, p. Forms Free In Word, Pdf. 9. NCOs serve an important role as advisors to Bank Resume | Resume, commanders in deciding how to deal with a soldier accused of an offense. Misconduct should be dealt with at the lowest level that will meet the needs of the Army, the unit, and the soldier. Although the commander has final responsibility for this decision, your advice as an NCO should weigh heavily. Your candid assessment of the Sample School Documents In Word, Pdf, soldier’s strengths and weaknesses is a great help. Especially valuable is Resume Cv Cover, your estimate of the soldier’s potential for rehabilitation. -SGM Carlo Roquemore, How NCOs Support Military Justice. Sergeants’ Business , Mar-Apr 1990, pp.
2-3. Don’t punish soldiers who are unable to perform a task; punish only Transfer In Word, Pdf those who are unwilling or unmotivated to succeed. Samples Of Letter. -TC 22-6, The Army Noncommissioned Officer Guide , 1990, p. 33. [The Sergeant Major must banish] uglie crimes oute of the Companies of his Regiment. - A Discourse of Military Discipline , 1634, p. - 8+ In Word, Pdf. 33. If by chance [the sergeant should be] angrie with any Souldier of his, (in turninge his backe he is to forget that furie) and afterwardes sheowe him selfe amiable and lovinge, and soe they cominge to the knoledge of his [humors], they shall have the Resume Letter, more care not to anger him. School Free In Word, Pdf. - A Discourse of Military Discipline , 1634, p. Icons Princess Diana And Jacqueline Dolls. 15. An officer or noncommissioned officer who loses his temper and flies into a tantrum has failed to obtain his first triumph in discipline. - Noncommissioned Officers’ Manual , 1917, p. 33. When a soldier is threatened, he feels anger, fear, or despair, depending on his estimate of his ability to cope with the situation. Anger is a good sign; it usually indicates a high level of Sample Transfer Forms - 8+ Documents In Word, confidence.
The leader’s problem with an Job Description, angry soldier is to channel that angry behavior in the right direction. -1SG Walter D. Stock, Leading to - 8+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf, Confidence. Infantry , May-Jun 1978, p. 24. If you react to anger with anger, too often you have a situation deteriorated beyond repair. Consultant Resume. If you respond calmly and professionally, you can frequently achieve a responsive, professional resolution for the situation. If you respond to anger with anger, there are then two angry people instead of one. -Michael L. Sample School - 8+ In Word,. Selves (former NCO), in Command, Leadership, and Effective Staff Support , 1996, pp. 104, 105. Setting, Maintaining, and Enforcing Standards. People talk a lot about Ranger battalions. Every unit in Job Description the Army could be like a Ranger unit.
What the Rangers have is a high set of standards that the leadership and the soldiers must meet. The leadership demands and ensures standards are met. -SMA Glen E. Morrell, As the SMA Sees It. School Transfer Free Documents In Word, Pdf. Army Trainer , Fall 1984, pp. 22-23. Any time we see something wrong and don’t correct it, we lose some of the Plastic Consultant Sample Resume, professionalism that earns our soldiers’ respect and confidence. Each time we look the other way and ignore a minor deficiency because we’re in Forms - 8+ Free Documents In Word, a hurry or it’s not that important, it becomes easier to overlook other things.
We tend to And Jacqueline Kennedy Paper Dolls, let more slide until, one day, we overlook something that causes an accident. With luck, it only costs damaged equipment. All too often the price is an injured or dead soldier. -SMA Glen E. School - 8+ Documents. Morrell, Safety and Resume, the NCO. Ordnance , Winter 1986, p. 45. Enforcing the standards is a tough job.
It requires intestinal fortitude and School Documents, impartial fairness. -SMA Julius W. Gates, Sergeant to Sergeant. Sergeants’ Business , Mar-Apr 1988, p. 4. I don’t know what possesses a professional who has been around five, ten, or 20 years to Definition, turn his or her back and walk away from a deficiency. The first tenet of our behavior as professionals must be to never do this. Sample Transfer In Word,. -SMA William A. Job Reference Definition. Connelly, NCOs: It’s Time to School Transfer Forms - 8+ Documents, Get Tough. ARMY , Oct 1981, p. 31. When you see an operation being performed incorrectly, take the Of Letter, time to stop and correct the deficiency. If you fail to do this, you have just established a lower standard. - Army National Guard Noncommissioned Officer Handbook , 1989, p. School Forms Free. D-13. In the summer of 1991, the Sergeants Major Academy hosted a German Forces Noncommissioned Officer conference. One of the conferees, a former East German Army Sergeant Major. said all East German soldiers believed that American morale and discipline were poor and the only thing holding American soldiers in their units was the Samples, threat of severe punishment. Then he startled us with the following statement.
I see now that is not true. School Free In Word,. I am struck by Examples the high standards practiced by the sergeants in your armed forces. I will take these standards back with me to my place of Sample Transfer Forms In Word, duty in the former East and try to Fashion And Jacqueline Kennedy Paper, make them work there. -‘Magic’ Standards and the East German Visitor. School Transfer Free In Word,. NCO Journal , Winter 1995, p. 7. Too often, we accept word of mouth as the standard. Always use the Army standard as your base, then build on it. -SFC Lawrence Kordosky, OREs Just Tools of the Trade.
NCO Journal , Spring 1995, p. 17. You often hear people say that while in command you have to start off tough and then you can ease up. Letter. This is not always the case. As a commander, if you think standards need to be tightened, you’ll be surprised what NCOs can and will do if you ask them. -COL Donald L. Langridge, in Sample School Transfer Forms Pdf A Treasury of NCO Quotations , 1997, no page number. Whenever the company commander and 1SG try to Of Letter Of Recommendation, raise unit standards, they may encounter some resistance at first. But as the unit begins to experience success this will change, and then the soldiers will want the Sample Transfer Free Documents In Word, Pdf, unit to succeed. -LTC William F. Lemnitzer and 1SG Armour R. Brown, in A Treasury of NCO Quotations , 1997, no page number. The Army is a wonderful place to serve as an Job Reference Definition, NCO and officer because we have a standard for everything- dress, discipline, maintenance, and training. The only time we get in difficulty as leaders is when we do not know what the standard is Sample Transfer Forms - 8+ Documents In Word, Pdf, or we do not enforce the standard. -CSM Bill Peters, quoted by GEN Carl E. Vuono, Collected Works , 1991, pp.