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lens optics resume The present invention relates to a laminate optic with an interior Fresnel lens, and more particularly to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, an artificial composite intraocular lens for insertion into an eye through a corneal incision of Accounting Resume, minimal size, having a partially hollow laminate optic of flexible, temporarily deformable material, including a pair of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, opposed interior surfaces, at least one of which is formed as a protected internal Fresnel lens, and both of which together define captive gas spaces therebetween. For treatment of Real Functional - Resume, conditions such as natural eye lens cataracts, a known eye surgery procedure is to remove the cataracted lens through an incision in the wall of the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, cornea of the eyeball, and replace it by Report For Board | Selonjoranorgboard an artificial intraocular lens as an Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg internal implant lens. Intraocular lenses are often made of flexible material such as silicone plastic to permit reduction of Accounting Resume Level Job Resume Sample, their overall apparent girth by temporary deformation for Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, facilitating their insertion through the cornea, thereby advantageously enabling use of a corneal incision of concomitantly reduced size. Such intraocular lenses often have haptics extending from the Associate - New Delhi, periphery of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, their optics, i.e. normally expanded resilient appendages connected to the central lens body or optic, to aid lens seating in the eye. Preferably, these haptics should also be kept in contracted state during insertion of the lens into the eye to enable the lens unit to fit without difficulty through a minimum size incision. U.S. Pat. No. 4,573,998 to Mazzocco and U.S. Pat.
No. 4,534,069 to Kelman are among typical proposals offered to provide the Hipaa Forms Forms Solutions – Cake, flexible optic and/or haptics of such an intraocular lens in temporarily reduced girth condition for incision insertion purposes. However, known optics of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, flexible material, such as silicone rubber or plastic, have the Blank Bill | Sample, distinct drawback that in order to achieve the desired optical characteristics of the particular intraocular lens, the optic must be made relatively thick, as measured along the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, optical axis, thereby increasing its mass and volume. Consequently, the Report Of Directors | Selonjoranorgboard, sought advantage of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, forming the optic of flexible material, e.g. providing a silicone optic, which would otherwise permit the optic to be deformed by Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913 curling, folding or the like, into Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, a generally cylindrical shape of sufficiently small apparent girth to fit through a minimum length corneal incision, cannot be achieved. This is because the optic must be made of a comparatively pronounced thickness, e.g. 3 mm, for Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, purely optical reasons, and therefore is of such mass and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, volume that it cannot readily be curled, folded, etc. into a small enough generally cylindrical shape to accomplish the Forms – Cake Intake, underlying purpose of forming the optic of flexible material, i.e. to exploit the use of a minimum size incision. A Fresnel lens is a known type of lens which is greatly reduced in weight by dividing the continuous lens surface into a succession of concentric rings, assembled in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, correct relationship on a generally flat surface.
More specifically, it is a compound lens of annular prisms, providing a stepped lens of Report Of Directors | Selonjoranorgboard, less weight and thickness than, for example, a corresponding plano-convex lens, with the risers of the steps desirably set at such an angle as to present no disturbance to the light rays. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg. An advantage of such a Fresnel lens is that its collection angle is generally much greater than practicable for Accounting Level, a solid type, e.g. plano-spheric, lens. U.S. Pat. No. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg. 4,673,406 to Schlegel is a recent proposal concerning the Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, inclusion of an Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg exterior Fresnel lens formation on the deformable lens body or optic of an artificial intraocular lens, made of a homogeneous, crystal-clear, high-temperature resistant plastic, preferably vulcanized silicone, to Hipaa Forms Forms – Cake, enhance the optical characteristics of the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, system while reducing the optic thickness. Specifically, the exterior Fresnel lens formation is configured with a circular central portion and at least one annular portion immediately surrounding and backwardly offset from the Job - Associate Delhi - Journalism, central portion to reduce the thickness of the lens body and facilitate its folding during lens implantation into Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, the eye.
However, once inserted in the eye, the surrounding aqueous humor in the eye interior coats the exterior Fresnel lens formation and detracts from the optical effectiveness thereof, since the aqueous humor has an Real Estate index of refraction sufficiently close to the index of refraction of the intraocular lens material that the optical characteristics of the Fresnel lens are detrimentally offset. It would be desirable to provide a deformable intraocular lens for insertion into the eye to achieve the above noted overall advantages, especially the use of a minimum size corneal incision, yet which has a Fresnel lens formation which is protected from the adverse effects on its optical characteristics of the aqueous humor environment inside the eye. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. It is Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, among the objects and advantages of the present invention to overcome the drawbacks and Accounting Resume Job Resume Sample, deficiencies of the prior art, and to provide a composite lens in the form of a partially hollow laminate optic, protectively containing an interior Fresnel lens and attendant interior surface defined captive gas enclosing, liquid free, spaces thereat of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, different index of refraction from that of the optic. It is among the additional objects and advantages of the present invention to provide a composite lens of the foregoing type, in the form of an artificial intraocular lens of For Board Of Directors, flexible, temporarily deformable, material, sized to provide the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, optic with a comparatively thin thickness to permit its deformation into a generally cylindrical shape of reduced apparent girth capable of insertion into For Board, an eye through a minimum size corneal incision, yet which will readily return to its original, expanded and undeformed state, while retaining its desired optical characteristics, once it is inside the eye, enabling the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, lens to be seated properly therein by the surgeon. It is among the further objects and advantages of the Forms Intake, present invention to provide a composite lens of the stated type which can be made from readily available materials, which is relatively safe and durable in use, and whose Fresnel lens optical characteristics are not adversely affected by the aqueous humor environment inside the eye.
According to the present invention, a composite lens is provided, which comprises a generally flat, partially hollow, unitary laminate optic, formed by a pair of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, opposed, relatively thin, sheet-like elements of conforming perimetric shape and of selective index of refraction, and Job - Editor - New Delhi & Creative, having a corresponding pair of opposed interior surfaces. At least one of the elements comprises a protected internal Fresnel lens defining the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, interior surface of the element as a discontinuous surface formation including a concentric series of annular prisms composed of optical step areas interconnected by offset riser areas. The interior surfaces are peripherally sealed together to define therebetween a counterpart concentric series of Real Functional Help, permanent captive gas enclosing, liquid free, annular spaces of different index of refraction from the selective index of refraction of the elements. More particularly, the present invention contemplates a composite intraocular lens for insertion through an incision in an eye, which comprises such a generally flat, partially hollow, unitary laminate optic, formed by a pair of opposed, relatively thin, sheet-like elements of the stated type. The elements are specifically of flexible, temporarily deformable material, and together are sized to provide the optic with a comparatively thin thickness in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, relation to its diameter sufficiently to permit temporary deformation of the optic into a generally cylindrical shape of reduced apparent girth capable of insertion into the eye through a minimum size incision. Preferably, the Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, elements are wafer thin, and air is Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, enclosed in the annular spaces as captive gas. The optic of the intraocular lens may be favorably provided with haptics of like flexible, temporarily deformable material, for seating the lens in the eye.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. Other and further objects and advantages of the Job - Associate Editor & Creative, present invention will become apparent from the within specification and accompanying drawings, in which: FIG. 1 is a plan view of a composite intraocular lens having a laminate optic of flexible material, formed by a pair of opposed relatively thin sheet-like elements, and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, provided with haptics, in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention; FIG.
2 is an exaggerated sectional view taken along the line 2--2 of FIG. Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913. 1; FIG. 3 is a perspective exploded view of the lens of FIG. 1, showing one of the elements as a wafer thin Fresnel lens and the other of the elements as a wafer thin cover for the Fresnel lens; FIGS.
4 and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, 5 are enlarged, exaggerated partial sectional views of two corresponding modified laminate optic embodiments of the composite lens of the present invention; and. FIG. 6 is a schematic perspective view showing the Hipaa Compliance Forms Solutions – Cake, manner of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, deforming the composite lens of the present invention into a generally cylindrical shape of reduced apparent girth capable of | Electronic – Cake, insertion through a minimum size corneal incision into Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, the interior of the Estate Functional Resumes - Resume Help, eye. DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS. Referring to the drawings, and initially to FIGS. 1-3, a flexible, temporarily deformable, artificial intraocular lens 1, according to one embodiment of the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, present invention, is shown, which is curlable, foldable, or otherwise deformable, into a reduced girth form for insertion into the interior of an eye through a corneal incision of minimized size, as an Sample Resume Job Resume Accounting Sample implant for Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, replacing the natural lens, such as a cataracted lens. Lens 1 comprises a generally flat, partially hollow, unitary light focusing lens body or laminate optic 2, and is desirably provided with a symmetrical pair of position fixation means or haptics 3, 4 or the like, i.e. oppositely disposed outwardly flaring resilient eye seating appendages. Haptics 3, 4 or the like may be integrally connected to optic 2, and are used for embracing the adjacent portions of the eye interior for seating lens 1 in the usual manner, e.g. in the anterior chamber, in the posterior chamber, or in the posterior capsule, as the case may be, depending on Hipaa Forms Solutions – Cake the contemplated surgical procedure, once the intraocular lens has been inserted through the incision in the cornea and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, positioned for such seating.
Laminate optic 2 is formed by Real Estate Functional Resumes the pair of opposed, relatively thin, sheet-like elements 5 and 6 of conforming perimetric, e.g. round or circular, shape and of selective index of refraction, and having a corresponding pair of opposed interior surfaces 7 and 8. In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 1-3, element 5 comprises a, preferably wafer thin, protected internal Fresnel lens, and element 6 comprises a, preferably wafer thin, protective planar cover for the Fresnel lens. Elements 5 and 6 are preferably formed of plastic material, and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, haptics 3, 4 are likewise preferably formed of plastic material. As may be appreciated from Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, FIGS. 2-3, the Fresnel lens element 5 defines the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, interior surface 7 thereof as a discontinuous surface formation, which includes a concentric series of 10+ Sample Blank Bill Of Sale Forms, annular prisms 9 composed of annular refraction, i.e. optical planar, surfaces or step areas 10 interconnected by offset side wall surfaces or riser areas 11. In turn, the complemental cover element 6 has a generally flat, smooth interior surface 8 arranged for overlying disposition on the Fresnel lens interior surface 7. Interior surfaces 7 and 8 are suitable peripherally sealed together, e.g. by heat sealing, to form a bond or seal 12, so as to define therebetween a counterpart concentric series of permanent captive gas enclosing, liquid free, annular spaces 13 of different index of refraction from the selective index of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, refraction of elements 5 and 6. At the same time, seal 12 interconnects elements 5 and 6 to provide a peripherally integral laminate optic 2. As will be appreciated, any appropriate means may be used to achieve the peripheral sealing of elements 5 and 6 together at their opposed interior surfaces 7 and Forms | Electronic Solutions – Cake Intake, 8 for Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, forming the integral laminate optic 2. The captive gas enclosed in annular spaces 13 may be air or other appropriate gas, so long as the resulting index of refraction in spaces 13 is different from Hipaa, that of elements 5 and 6. In this regard, it will be appreciated that although the index of refraction of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, elements 5 and 6 may differ from Estate Help, one another, it is often preferred that the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, two elements have substantially the same index of refraction, depending on the optical characteristics sought for laminate optic 2, yet in Estate Functional Resumes - Resume Help, either case the composite lens 1 must still have an index of refraction in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, the liquid free spaces 13 which is distinctly different from Template Report, that of each of elements 5 and 6. FIG.
4 shows a first modification embodiment in which the composite lens 1' is provided with a similarly preferably wafer thin cover element 6', but in this instance having a slight optical curvature containing exterior 14 on cover element 6' to enhance the desired optical properties of the optic. FIG. 5 shows a second modification embodiment in which the composite lens 1 is provided with a cover element 6 in the form of a coacting Fresnel lens element to element 5, e.g. as a complementary or duplicate such element. In this case, the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, concentrically ridged or annular prism discontinuous surfaces of both Fresnel lens elements are in contact with one another and contribute to provide even larger corresponding counterpart captive gas enclosing annular spaces 13. Also shown in phantom in FIG. Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913. 5 are respective alternative embodiments in which, like exterior 14 of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, FIG. Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913. 4, one or both of the Fresnel lens elements 5 and 6 may be optionally provided with a slight optical curvature containing exterior 15 and/or 16, as the case may be, for analogous enhancement of the optical properties of the particular resultant optic. It will be realized that the actual lens profile may contain any desired optical shape, so long as it includes at least one such internal Fresnel lens formation. Thus, any optical curvature may be formed on Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg the exterior of one or both of elements 5 and 6 so as to Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, provide the composite lens, for example, as a double convex, plano-convex, convex meniscus, double concave, plano-concave, or concave meniscus, profile type lens, depending on the desired optical properties, while still enjoying the basis advantages of the included internal Fresnel lens formation.
As shown in FIG. 5, in order to assure permanent, e.g. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg. hermetic, sealing of the peripheries of elements 5 and 6, an appropriate peripheral end wall extension 17 may be provided on one (or both) of the Real Estate - Resume, elements for proper interconnection at the interior surface locations of bond or seal 12. FIG. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg. 6 shows the manner of curling or otherwise deforming composite intraocular lens 1 (or lens 1' or 1), e.g. in the manner of a sheet of Hipaa | Electronic Forms Intake, paper, into a generally cylindrical shape of reduced apparent girth capable of insertion into the eye through a minimum size incision, in accordance with surgical procedures well known to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, those skilled in Job - Associate Editor Delhi - Journalism, the art. It will be seen from the various embodiments of FIGS. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg. 1-5 that the Real Functional, two elements are together sized to provide optic 2 with a comparatively thin composite thickness, i.e. in the direction of the attendant inherently short optical axis A (see FIGS. 1-2), in relation to the diameter thereof, which is sufficient to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, permit temporary deformation of optic 2, as well as of Accounting Resume Level Accounting Sample, any attendant haptics 3, 4, for the desired girth reduction purposes. In this regard, in accordance with one preferred feature of the present invention, optic 2 may be provided with a thickness of at Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, most about 1.5-2 mm, and a diameter of at most about 6 mm, whereupon the reduced girth, generally cylindrical shape, deformed composite lens, including any attendant haptics, will be able to be inserted into the eye readily and relatively safely through a corneal incision of only about 3 mm length, after which the composite lens can be allowed to expand to its original size and undeformed state, while retaining its desired optical characteristics, for appropriate seating in the eye in normal manner by the surgeon.
As to haptics 3, 4, these may have a thickness of about 0.2 mm and a width, i.e. in the plane of the paper of FIG. 1, of Accounting Sample Level Job Resume Accounting, about 1.2 mm. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg. Haptics 3, 4 may be of any suitable shape well known in the art and may have a maximum composite expanded length dimension in normal, non-contracted condition of about 13 mm from the outer edge or crest portion of one haptic to Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, the diametrically opposite outer edge or crest portion of the other haptic in the elongate direction as shown in FIG. 1. A distinct feature and advantage of the present invention is that the integral composite laminate optic 2 contains a permanently sealed, and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, thus leakproof, captive gas chamber or separation space, which internally protects the at least one Fresnel lens present in the lens interior from Estate - Resume, any contact with, and in turn from the otherwise adverse effects on the Fresnel lens basic optical characteristics of, the surrounding aqueous humor environment in the eye interior. Another distinct feature and advantage of the present invention is that the presence of such captive gas chamber or separation space provides the lens with a more pliable physical construction of comparatively reduced mass and volume, enabling the relatively thin, integral laminate optic to be deformed more efficiently into the desired generally cylindrical shape and to a greater degree of apparent girth reduction. A further distinct feature and advantage of the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, present invention is that, by reason of the presence of such captive gas chamber or separation space, the lens possesses a lower composite density than otherwise for its actual externally defined volume, which contributes a buoyant effect to its mass in Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, the surrounding aqueous humor, that inherently beneficially reduces the weight or load exerted by Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg the lens on the portions of the Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, eye interior at which the lens is implanted. Thus, the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, lens construction of the present invention permits the optical characteristics of a Fresnel lens, i.e. a relatively short focal length and - Resume Help, short optical axis and a relatively large diameter, in a reduced thickness composite optic, to be exploited successfully by use thereof as an implant within the interior of an eye, without the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, previously encountered drawback of interference from surrounding eye fluids filling the spaces or grooves of the Fresnel lens discontinuous annular prism surface and detracting from the optical effectiveness thereof due to the fact that the index of refraction of such fluids in direct contact with the Fresnel lens surface is not sufficiently different from the Editor - Journalism, index of refraction of the material of the optic itself.
Lens 1 may be formed of any suitable light focusing optic serving material, which is Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, sufficiently flexible for effecting the desired girth reduction, and whose desired at least two haptics or like appendages are likewise formed of flexible material for the same purpose as well as for permitting such appendages to perform in the contemplated lens positioning manner. Of course, any such flexible material used for the lens and for its desired appendages must be compatible with the environment in the interior of the eyeball, such as a non-toxic plastic, for Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, example silicone or polymethylmethacrylate. More particularly, for the purposes of the present invention, the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, material of lens 1 must be sufficiently flexible to permit its mass to be grossly deformed, e.g. with appropriate curling, folding, crinkling and the like of such mass, spatially inwardly in a direction to Accounting Resume Level Job Resume Sample, reduce its apparent composite girth, and preferably also to be deformed spatially longitudinally in the direction of its spatial dimension taken as its length. The contemplated lens material is normally sufficiently flexible to have a temporary resilient memory, such that even if the lens mass is Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, deformed to provide the same in compressed condition for reducing its girth, and maintained in Report Report, such compressed condition for an extended period of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, time, it will thereafter still return readily to its original, expanded and undeformed state. Nevertheless, the 10+ Sample Forms, period of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, time such mass is Blank Bill | Sample Forms, kept deformed under such compressed conditions should not be more than several hours to insure that there will be no permanent loss of such resilient memory. Thus, according to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, the present invention, the artificial intraocular lens is preliminarily compacted into generally cylindrical form, which represents a conveniently shaped, small size girth, temporary insert element, which contains the lens and Accounting Sample Resume Job Resume, haptics, and which is capable upon insertion into the eye of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, returning to its original expanded size.
In this regard, the term cylindrical is used herein to comprehend not only a true right cylindrical geometric shape but also analogous elongate shapes, including those of out-of-round, oblate, and polygonal cross sectional profile, produced in any appropriate manner, as these shapes are likewise appropriate for enabling the reduced apparent girth composite lens to be inserted readily through the intended minimum size corneal incision safely and with minimum trauma or discomfort to the patient. As to the actual insertion of the composite lens into Blank Bill Of Sale Forms | Sample Forms, the eye, since its cylindrical shape is Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, of reduced girth form, the Hipaa Compliance Forms | Electronic Forms Intake, incision can be of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, greatly reduced size, and this insures that the procedure will be able to be carried out as safely as possible and Report Template Of Directors | Selonjoranorgboard Report, with minimum trauma to the patient. It should be noted that, while the composite lens of the present invention may be composed of any flexible, temporarily deformable, non-toxic and eye fluid compatible material, such as a plastic material, including in particular silicone, polymethylmethacrylate, and the like, with any associated haptic or the like position fixation members being of the same type material, or even a comparatively more flexible material such as polypropylene, nevertheless the very fact that the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, laminate optic is composed of relatively thin sheet-like, preferably wafer thin, elements, permits use of materials which are not normally considered particularly flexible or pliable. More specifically, because of the contemplated very thin individual thicknesses of the sheet-like elements and their separation from each other by the intervening captive gas enclosing spaces bounded by the perimetric seal, otherwise less flexible plastic materials such as certain forms of polymethylmethacrylate, may still be used advantageously as the flexible material according to Forms – Cake Intake, the present invention, due to their inherent ability as individual sheets to flex or bend out of their normal plane in the manner of curling, folding or otherwise deforming a sheet of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, paper, as compared to internal deformation within their own plane in the manner of physically compressing a pliable sponge. It will be appreciated that the foregoing specification and accompanying drawings are set forth by way of illustration and not limitation of the present invention, and that various modifications and changes may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention which is to be limited solely by the scope of the appended claims.
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american west essay This essay will explore the three dominant paradigms in the history of the American West. The first paradigm, the Frontier Thesis, was developed by Frederick Jackson Turner and presented by him at the Chicago World#8217;s Columbian Exposition in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg July 1893 and was intended to serve as a model for the development of American institutions in general. However, it also greatly impacted the study of the American West. The work of new western historians, especially Patricia Nelson Limerick, is the second paradigm and emphasizes four themes within the field of western history including convergence, conquest, complexity, and continuity. Finally, world-systems analysis will be examined through the work of William G. Robbins and other historians who argue that the role of capitalism in the development of the American West is a necessary and important field of inquiry. Functional Resumes - Resume. Paradigm I: The Turner Thesis. Background of the Frontier Thesis. In his study of American historical interpretations, Gerald Nash argues that there are several important factors to consider in tracing the evolution of Turner#8217;s frontier thesis.
First, Turner#8217;s personal experiences growing up in a frontier region of Wisconsin between 1870 and 1890 shaped his thoughts and left lasting impressions.  Second, Turner was influenced by the intellectual climates at the University of Wisconsin and Johns Hopkins, where his instructors shaped his thinking of historical processes. At Johns Hopkins, for example, Turner studied under Herbert Adams who taught him the germ theory of American institutions. According to this theory, American institutions evolved from Anglo-Saxon and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, Teutonic origins in Europe that were centuries old. Real Estate Functional.  Based on his experiences in Wisconsin, Turner rejected most of Adam#8217;s theory. Turner wanted to focus instead on the forces that made American institutions exceptional. Finally, Turner#8217;s concerns with contemporary events found expression in his professional writings. Turner was concerned about the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg decline of the agrarian character of the nation in the face of industrialism, the rise of Resumes - Resume, cities, and the changing face of the United States as immigrants continued to arrive in the late 19 th century. These concerns, and others, found an outlet in Turner#8217;s nostalgic writings on Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, frontier life and the Old West.
The Frontier Thesis. In his highly influential essay, The Significance of the Real Estate Functional Resumes - Resume Frontier in American History , Frederick Jackson Turner proposed a paradigm to explain the development and expansion of American institutions. According to Turner, the development of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, these institutions could be explained by #8220;the existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, the advance of American settlement westward.#8221;  There are several important component parts related to the frontier thesis which require discussion. These include American exceptionalism, the frontier as both a process and place, the significance of the frontier for American history, and post-frontier anxiety. American exceptionalism, the belief that America is the model for freedom and liberty in the world, is a key part of Turner#8217;s paradigm.
In the process of westward migration, Turner argues that a unique American identity was created where wilderness conditions gave way to American national vitality. Through their interaction with an untamed wilderness environment, settlers were forced to develop unique institutions to survive. This process resulted in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg the development of a specific American type, one largely characterized by individualism, pragmatism, and egalitarianism.  In the immediate decades following the publication of his famous 1893 essay, many American historians believed that the Turner thesis explained American development; however, historians today have shown that a number of nations experienced periods of Real Estate Functional, frontier and territorial expansion.  In describing the frontier in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg his essay, Turner avoided monolithic definitions, choosing instead to describe the frontier as both a process and a place. Turner argues that the frontier process is illustrated by the struggle with wilderness that turned Europeans into Real Functional - Resume Help, Americans. In adapting to the demands of the frontier, Americans had to be innovative, individualistic, and rugged, among other traits. The frontier was also a place, one that moved westward throughout the early history of this nation. In terms of nailing down a definition of #8216;frontier#8217; Turner argues that it is the place where civilization meets savagery. The collision of different cultures produced uniquely American characteristics and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, institutional forms; because of this, Turner argues that the center of - New Delhi - Journalism, American history could be found at Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, its edges. Hipaa Solutions – Cake Intake. As Americans migrated westward, the frontier represented the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg outer edge of Associate Editor Delhi, a wave of civilization; this line represented the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg most effective and rapid force for the Americanization of foreigners. The western environment is central to this theme of transformation and Report Of Directors | Selonjoranorgboard, is of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, great importance for Turner#8217;s overall thesis, which is national rather than regional in explanatory aim.
While the criticisms of Editor - Journalism & Creative, Turner and his essay have been effusive, especially during the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg last three decades, there are aspects of Compliance Forms Forms Intake, his paradigm that remain useful today. Foremost among Turner#8217;s key points is a focus on the role of the environment and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, geography in shaping Americans and their institutions. Hipaa Forms Forms Solutions. As William Cronon points out, #8220;it is no accident that much of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, what we today call #8216;environmental history#8217; has been written in this country under the Real - Resume guise of western history.#8221;  Turner believed that the environment or #8216;free land#8217; west of the Mississippi River, exerted a transformative influence on immigrants, turning Europeans into Americans; this is one of the major themes of his thesis. Historians were influenced by the Turner thesis for Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg decades following its publication. The work of historians such as Walter Prescott Webb, Frederick Logan Paxson and Ray Allen Billington added depth and nuance to Turner#8217;s original thoughts.
Theme: The Transformative Power of the Environment. Beginning in the early 20 th century, historians including Frederic Logan Paxson wrote extensively using Turner#8217;s model. These historians focused on the American West specifically, while developing and augmenting Turner#8217;s basic thesis. Paxson, for example, did not break with the Frontier thesis; however, after Turner#8217;s death in 1932, many historians began to reassess the validity and application of the Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913 thesis. One of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, these individuals was Walter Prescott Webb, who more than Turner, saw the frontier and the West as a place rather than a process.  Webb#8217;s conception of the American West was centered on the arid plains west of the 98 th meridian. Hipaa Forms Forms Solutions – Cake Intake. Webb defined the West as a specific and locatable area on a map, which marks an important difference between him and Turner. Webb was a regionalist while Turner was attempting to offer an explanation for the development of the entire country. There were also similarities between the two men. For instance, both believed that the natural environment was responsible for Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg innovation within American institutions. Webb argues that when Americans encountered the mostly level, treeless, and semi-arid environment of the plains, they were forced to transform their institutions in order to settle the region. In adapting to the environmental conditions of the Great Plains, American settlers relied heavily on new technologies imported from the East.
Adapting to life on the Great Plains shaped the American character, requiring settlers to be innovative in Hipaa Forms Solutions solving problems while making them stronger in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg their efforts to cling to the land in the absence of material comforts. The transportation problem on the Great Plains was solved with the arrival of railroads, a process that intensified following the Civil War.  The significance of the railroad is that it made communication and transportation over large areas possible, while bringing construction materials from the Template For Board East that enabled settlers to build communities. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg.  The issue of Template For Board Of Directors | Selonjoranorgboard, fencing was resolved with the introduction of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, Joseph Glidden#8217;s barbed wire invention of 1874.  Webb argues that the Resume Level Job Resume Accounting Sample invention of barbed wire revolutionized land values on the Great Plains and without it, the plains homestead could never have been protected from the grazing herds of neighboring ranches.  Webb#8217;s emphasis on the natural environment as a field of study links him to new western historians, including Elliott West and others. The overriding influence in Webb#8217;s work was his focus on the study of civilizations and cultures from the physical foundation on which they rested.  In the late 1940s, Ray Allen Billington began a career dedicated to preserving Turner#8217;s frontier thesis. Throughout his long career, Billington modified Turner#8217;s thesis to say that the frontier was not the only factor in the development of American institutions. For example, Turner had long argued that the spread of democracy owed its origins to the forests of New England, one of the earliest frontiers. Billington understood that he would need to compromise with Turner#8217;s critics if he was going to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg salvage the frontier thesis. Therefore, Billington admitted that there had long been a trend toward democracy in the western world; the Hipaa | Electronic Solutions Intake American environment was important, but not as important as Turner and other frontier historians had originally argued. The more Billington was forced to modify the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg thesis, the more people questioned which aspects were still valid for historical explanation and analysis. Earl Pomeroy offers an excellent segue from old western historians to Hipaa Forms Forms Solutions Intake a discussion of new western historians. Long before the publications of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, Patricia Limerick, William Cronon, Richard White, and Donald Worster, Pomeroy called for a reappraisal of the #8220;Turner-Webb environmental-deterministic#8221; paradigm.  Where Turner saw innovative, nation-building frontiersmen, Pomeroy saw class stratification and hierarchies of power.
Foreshadowing the new western history, Pomeroy argued against the significance of Turner#8217;s closing frontier. Instead, he chose to stress the continuity of history in the West from the 19 th to Hipaa | Electronic Solutions Intake the 20 th centuries.  Paradigm II: New Western History. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg. The origins of the new western history movement can be traced to the new social history movement of the 1960s and 1970s.  Many within the post-war generation who grew up in the 1960s became alienated by the crimes of our society, including nuclear testing, the violation of civil rights, the assassination of JFK, and Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, especially the war in Vietnam. Practitioners of the new western history generally advocate new perspectives that illuminate the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg experiences of diverse groups of people. Gender, race, class, and the environment are some of the important lenses western historians began employing in the 1980s. The accomplishments of four new western historians have added a great amount of depth and Real Resumes Help, clarity to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg the field; they include William Cronon, Richard White, Donald Worster, and Patricia Nelson Limerick. Each of these historians emphasizes distinct ways to practice the new western history.
In explaining his take on the new western history, William Cronon argues that there remains some value in Turner#8217;s thesis. Cronon believes that one of Turner#8217;s most fruitful suggestions was that invasion, settlement, and community formation followed certain broad, repeating patterns throughout most of North America.  Turner described a large-scale process referred to as parallel historical change through his argument about the ways in Of Sale Forms which the frontier process repeated itself as it moved westward. Cronon links his conception of western history to Turner while simultaneously striking out on Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, his own by Bill Of Sale Forms | Sample stating that he believes that Turner#8217;s comparative study of parallel regional changes has much to offer the field today, especially in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg formulating new approaches. According to Cronon, a new approach that stresses the connectedness of frontier areas, as opposed to their isolation, will help to make sense of western history in - Journalism the broader context of European colonialism.  Richard White argues that the frontier thesis remains a source of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, environmental history and a window to the popular mind.  For White, the Sample Job Resume Sample major source of continuity and the source for discontinuities between the old western and new western histories is the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg way that each group has formulated the role of the environment in creating a western region.  While both groups of historians acknowledge the importance of the environment, White argues that old western historians continue to wear #8216;frontier blinders#8217; that restrict and narrow their view of the past. The narrative of the old western history is the story of a journey, a challenge, and a dual transformation of land and Hipaa Compliance Forms Solutions – Cake Intake, people. However, White argues that new western historians have abandoned #8216;frontier blinders#8217;, choosing instead to focus on Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, three things in constructing western environmental history narratives. First, they look at the contesting groups, second, they examine the various perceptions of the land and ambitions for it, and finally, they examine structures of power that shape these contests over land use that result in environmental change. While this model goes beyond the Hipaa Forms | Electronic Forms simple dichotomy of the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg old western historians, it does retain the focus of the importance of the environment as a foundational belief. In his book, It#8217;s Your Misfortune and None of My Own , White presents a new history of the American West.
He argues that the West is a distinct region, however, for reasons other than those presented by Turner, Webb and others. White argues that the West is characterized by Bill Forms | Sample Forms distinct sets of relationships that set the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg region apart from other regions in Resume Level the nation. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg.  Of great importance is the relationship between the federal government and the West, a dual labor system based on race, and patterns of political participation and organization. Taken together, these relationships have combined to make the American West a distinct region. In his book, Under Western Skies , Donald Worster presents his understanding of the goals and direction of the new western history. Accounting Sample Level Job Resume Accounting.  Worster argues that with the new western history, we are beginning to get a history that is beyond myth, beyond the traditional consciousness of the white conquerors, and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, beyond a primitive emotional need of heroes and heroines.  According to Worster, there are four important arguments that the new western history makes. The first argument is Blank | Sample Forms, that the invaded and subject peoples of the West must be given a voice in the region#8217;s history. The second argument is the admission that the drive for the economic development of the West was often a ruthless assault on nature, and it has left behind it much death, depletion and ruin.  The third argument is Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, that the Job - - New Delhi West has been ruled by concentrated power, though here, as in other places, power has often hidden itself behind beguiling masks. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg.  Finally, the single most important and most distinguishing characteristic of the new western history is Of Sale, its determination not to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg offer cover for the powers that be#8212;not to become subservient to them, by silence or consent.  While Worster takes Turner to Associate Editor - New - Journalism & Creative task for his focus on process rather on fixing a specific geographic definition for the American West, he argues that Webb attempted to fix firm coordinates to the West as early as the 1950s.  This illustrates the link between old western historians and Worster#8217;s understanding of western history today. Worster argues that Webb used aridity in defining his West, the area west of the 98 th meridian; an idea that Webb took from John Wesley Powell.
Webb#8217;s definition of the West, the region#8217;s aridity, fits with Worster#8217;s own experience of growing up in Kansas and California. This experience has led Worster to accept Webb#8217;s definition due in large part to his own understanding of the region as a place where people struggle for survival under a variety of circumstances, especially aridity.  As has been demonstrated, the new western history coalesced in the 1980s in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg the writings of Forms Forms Solutions, William Cronon, Richard White and Donald Worster; however, the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg work of Limerick is among the most expressive in terms of 10+ Sample Of Sale | Sample Forms, defining this new paradigm. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg. Limerick argues that she did not create this paradigm; rather, she was a part of a larger movement of western historians who believed in trusting their own experiences and beliefs and who questioned the authority of the Turner thesis. Limerick articulates her understanding of the new western history in Resume Accounting several groundbreaking books and articles.  It is helpful to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg compare and contrast Limerick#8217;s understanding of the new western history with Turner#8217;s frontier thesis. For Turner, the frontier is both a process and a place; it is the place where civilization meets savagery and it is the process in which settlers wrestle with wild nature and become Americanized. Limerick also sees the West as both process and place. The West is a place, the region west of the 100 th meridian and she stresses both aridity and the natural environment as barriers to negotiate.
The West is a process due to the convergence of Editor Delhi - Journalism & Creative, races, ideas, and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, environmental factors that come together to form something new. Like Turner, Limerick is making an exceptionalist argument about the Report Template For Board Of Directors West; however, she states that the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg West has characteristics that make it unique, not better. 10+ Sample Bill. Among these characteristics are the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg border with Mexico, the presence of | Sample, large Native American populations on their homelands, aridity, and the fact that the bulk of the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg land remains under federal control. Report Template For Board Of Directors Report. The Four C#8217;s of New Western History. According to Limerick, new west historians employ new terms that reflect new perspectives; among these terms are the four C#8217;s of the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg new western history: conquest, convergence, continuity, and complexity. Supporters of the Turner thesis utilized a vague definition of #8216;frontier#8217;, in which they envisioned an ever-expanding zone of freedom, opportunity and democracy.
Limerick argues that such a definition exempted the United States from global history while attempting to downplay the significance of European actions. Hipaa Compliance Forms | Electronic Solutions – Cake. Limerick prefers to use the word #8216;conquest#8217; rather than frontier because she believes that this is a more accurate description of what transpired. Using conquest as a lens to study the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg history of the American West allows historians to make sense of the seizure of Accounting Level Sample, resources, the imposition of colonial dominance, intermarriage, and syncretism and to recognize these events when they see them. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg. Limerick utilizes the theme of convergence to uncover and understand how the American West looked historically in terms of race, class, gender, etc. In the traditional narrative of Western history, the doings of white people, especially white men, controlled center stage.
Native Americans were recognized as obstacles or barriers to the big process of frontier expansion, while Chinese and Mexican workers could find relevance only as they contributed to the building of Accounting Level Job Resume, railroads and the development of agriculture. Contrary to this traditional narrative, the West was a place of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, extraordinary convergence; people from all over the world met, negotiated for position, and tried to better understand one another. A criticism of the Turner thesis is that this paradigm places too much importance on the closing of the frontier in 1890 as an event that marks the end of Report For Board Of Directors Report, Western history. Supporters of the new western history see no gap between the 19 th and 20 th centuries; they argue that narrative and causal ties link the two centuries. For example, there was more homesteading after 1890 than before, major extractive industries saw their principle boom and bust cycles during the 20 th century, conflicts and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, dilemmas stirred up in the late 19 th century have remained to 10+ Sample Forms Forms haunt Westerners in the 20 th and now 21 st centuries. Limerick argues that by Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg stressing continuity within Western history, it will be possible to for Westerners to better understand and navigate through their dilemmas.
The final #8216;C#8217; of 10+ Sample Blank Forms | Sample, new western history is aimed directly at many of those individuals who desire to see history in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg black and white; good guys and bad guys. Contrary to | Electronic Forms – Cake Intake many of the myths and romanticized notions, Limerick argues that human behavior in the American West, both past and present, has shown the same level of moral complexity as human behavior in any other part of the planet. This is an important theme of the new western history; it is brutally honest, not romanticized. Limerick goes so far as to state that those who want to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg preserve their myths enjoy #8220;appealing and colorful legends.#8221; Migration and settlement are illustrative topics within the new western theme of convergence. The massive influx of migrants to the American West during the 19 th and 20 th centuries brought together different races and Bill Forms | Sample Forms, cultural groups that resulted in distinct challenges for the communities in which they settled.  White Americans and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, former slaves migrated West while Asians migrated East and Mexicans continued moving north; at the same time, the prior presence of thousands of Blank Of Sale, Native Americans in the region set the stage for cultural and economic exchange, new understanding, and violence as these groups converged and interacted. Richard White argues that historically, there have been three types of western migration, including community or kinship based, utopian (Mormons), and modern. The first two types of migration saw their destination, whether Oregon or Utah, as a site for the re-creation of an existing way of life or for the establishment of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, a new and better life.  The journey to California is an example of modern migration; this was often seen as a temporary migration with the purpose of accumulating portable wealth and property. The question of who took part in Report Of Directors western migration remains contentious. White argues that networks of information ultimately determined which communities were likely to send migrants to California, Oregon, and points in between. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg.  However, Susan Lee Johnson argues that it was the tentacles of Job - Associate Editor & Creative, capitalism that determined who could and ultimately would migrate to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg the California gold fields.
Capitalist market economies around the globe linked people, places, and Forms Solutions – Cake Intake, products together in the search for wealth; those individuals who ventured to the California gold fields were grappling with monumental economic changes.  During the post-Reconstruction period in the South, a mass exodus of former slaves was launched with the hopes of evading the cultures of terrorism and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, poverty that characterized their existence after 1877. Beginning in 1878, thousands of #8216;exodusters#8217; migrated to Kansas in the hopes of finding their personal Liberia or Canaan. Real Estate - Resume Help. This movement was one of the first migrations of African Americans westward and as such, it is an excellent example of the convergence of different racial and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, cultural groups. According to the historian Nell Irvin Painter, exodusters encountered discrimination in Kansas; however, by 1900, blacks in the state were generally better off economically than their southern counterparts were.
As far as their impact on Kansas communities, Painter argues that the biggest fear many whites held was that Anglo-American migrants would choose to settle in Nebraska or Minnesota once word got out that thousands of former slaves had taken up residence as farmers and laborers in Kansas.  Irish migrations to the copper town of Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, Butte, Montana followed the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg same general pattern of other mining communities in terms of push and pull factors; however, there were some unique aspects, including the Delhi fact that the owner of the Anaconda Mine was born in Ireland. In an article on the Irish in Butte, David M. Emmons argues that the Irish in this mining community were representative of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, migrants who wanted to gain portable wealth and move on, perhaps back to their hometown or country of origin.  Josef J. Barton demonstrates that European immigrants in Accounting Sample Resume Sample the American West also sought to recreate and maintain their traditional ways of life in this country without the intention of going back to their home countries, which was impossible for some groups.  Barton#8217;s study of Czech farmers in south Texas details the steps taken by this group to maintain decent and secure lives. The history of migration in the American West demonstrates that the 20 th century saw more migration, in pure numbers, than did the 19 th century. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg. Migration to the East Bay in California has been well documented and discussed by historians. Marilynn S. Johnson traces the development of the East Bay during World War II with an emphasis on how government spending transformed the region. Johnson focuses on the convergence of different races, genders, and generations as new migrants mixed with old settlers and as all of Job Resume Accounting, these groups worked and lived in the same area.  The tension between newcomers and old time residents was palpable, as old timers attempted (successfully) to shape public policy decisions on Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, everything from Hipaa Compliance Forms Solutions Intake, housing, to land use and the prosecution of criminals with the goal of maintaining traditional social patterns and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, limiting the influence of migrants. Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo provides an in depth examination of Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, African American female migrants to the East Bay during World War II. She argues that migrant women were critical agents in the larger migration and settlement process.  Many minority migrant groups faced racism and discrimination as they intermingled with Anglo-American migrants and the older inhabitants. Santangelo argues that black women were essential to the process of devising coping strategies that enabled themselves and minority males to adjust to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg this difficult aspect of settlement. Central to this strategy were transplanted Southern values, including economic autonomy, hard work, education, worship, family ties, charity, and independent self-help institutions. The hard work of black female migrants resulted in the formation of viable communities that continue to exist today as well as social problems that continue to demand resolution.
In Something in Report Of Directors Report the Soil , Limerick discusses how people around the globe see the American West as a place where one can go to escape complexity. Many individuals, known as tourists, explore the West hoping to find this romanticized and mythologized past still in existence. The reality of the situation, of course, is that the West and its inhabitants are as morally complex as any other region and group of people. This section will explore the ways in which tourism in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg the American West both masks and exemplifies moral complexity. Hal K. Job - Editor - New - Journalism. Rothman sets the tone for the history of tourism in the West by providing a language that gives meaning and coherence to the activities related to tourism. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg. In his book Devil#8217;s Bargains , Rothman argues that the costs of tourism far outweigh the benefits. The zeal of many western civic leaders who have focused on tourism as their salvation from financial collapse belies a truth about tourism, that the industry transforms local culture into something new and Report For Board Of Directors Report, foreign and all the while it may or may not rescue the local economy it was supposed to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg save.  Modern tourism conceals the complex nature of most western states in several ways. First, and this is one of the primary functions of tourism, romanticized visions of the past are created and marketed to Job Resume Sample tourists. Rothman argues that the restrictive building codes in Santa Fe and the romantic imagery of southwestern tribes are examples of how people and places were commodified for Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg the tourist trade at the expense of understanding. Second, the actual costs of tourism are often hidden from tourists who were led to believe that as a region, the West was both unformed and malleable. Therefore, according to Rothman, the West served as a canvas on which the new nation was constructed following the Civil War.
The act of tourism in the West would enable some of the voids regarding the idea of Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, America and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, its institutions to be filled.  Some Western towns have turned to gambling tourism to save themselves from financial collapse, which in itself has been a gamble. In communities that traditionally relied on Associate Editor & Creative, entertaining seasonal tourists with their historic pasts, gambling was seen as a year-round, stable, and dynamic solution to their problems.  The struggle to survive illustrates the complexity of the American West today. Far from being the romanticized West that many tourists envision encountering and exploring, communities throughout the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg region continue to struggle with the Estate Resumes - Resume Help collapse of the industries responsible for their creation, e.g., mining, and the success of tourism, which has greatly added to the complexity of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, existence in tourist towns. Leah Dilworth confronts the romantic mythology of western tourism in her book, Imagining Indians in the Southwest . Dilworth#8217;s work focuses on the idea of ethnic tourism, specifically involving Native Americans from the Template | Selonjoranorgboard Report Southwest and the ways in which these individuals have been commodified and simplified for Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg tourist consumption.  According to Dilworth, the quest encounters with Native Americans during tours of the Southwest is part of the search for simplicity or authenticity that the primitive represents in | Electronic Forms Solutions American culture; however, that simplistic past is unattainable. Tourism constructs a simplified version of history and contemporary life in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg such a way that it is visible but is never attainable. In the search for what she refers to For Board Of Directors Report as the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg #8220;imperialist nostalgia,#8221; in Resume Job Resume other words, the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg search for a simplistic lifestyle that Americans are complicit in destroying, realistic Indians are undetectable. Complexity is difficult to commodify and package for tourist consumption. The history of mining in 10+ Sample Blank Bill | Sample the American West illustrates the theme of continuity in several important ways. First, the volume of minerals extracted in Western mines increased during the 20 th century. Second, communities and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, governmental agencies are still dealing with the environmental impact of 19th and 20th century mining operations. Finally, the mining industry continues to play an important role in communities throughout the American West.
These are some of the key connections in the unbroken historical narrative of the American West. Histories of 19 th century mining usually emphasize several key themes, including the Hipaa Compliance Forms | Electronic Solutions role of technology in the extractive process, economic and political struggles, and the transition miners undergo from gold-seekers to wage-laborers as the placer gold in streams plays out. In his book Mining Frontiers of the Far West , Rodman W. Paul examines both the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg technological and Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, economic aspects of mining rushes in several western states.  Paul examines the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg mining movement in its totality through the identification of two unifying forces that occurred across widely scattered mining settlements. The first of these, the role of miners as they moved from discovery to discovery and in the process bringing with them extractive techniques and social relationships for Report Template | Selonjoranorgboard the creation of new communities. Paul acknowledges the fact that the development of mining communities set the stage for the displacement of indigenous groups, people of color, and whites; however, it was Elliott West who finally added the story of the displaced to Paul#8217;s narrative. Paul continues to develop his theme relating to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg the impact of new technology on the industry in Report Template For Board Of Directors his final book, The Far West and the Great Plains in Transition . In this excellent book, Paul examines the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg era of rapid change in the West ushered in with the mining advance. The impact of new technologies on the mining industry is Associate Editor, illustrated by his analysis of hydraulic mining and the changes it brought to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg placer mining, usually the first stage of mining before more capital intensive hard rock mining begins. Hydraulic mining enabled massive amounts of Real Estate - Resume Help, dirt to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg be worked on a fast scale; however, it brought with it environmental destruction and waste. Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913.  As the surface deposits played out, subsurface deposits were developed; this combination of new technology and the necessity for capital in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg hard rock mining turned gold seekers into wage laborers.  Historians have continued to analyze the impact of the Industrial Revolution not only on the mining industry but also on miners. In his book Hard Rock Epic , Mark Wyman focuses broadly on Western miners as they experienced economic and technological transformations during the Industrial Revolution.  Wyman examines the response of miners to the introduction of a wide range of new technologies, such as the Burleigh drill.  The author reveals that the romanticized image of the miner is completely out of tune with the reality of the situation, which by the late 19 th century was characterized by industrialized techniques and wage-laborers.
Mining corporations developed during the Industrial Revolution in this country and most came to dominate the communities and Compliance Forms | Electronic Forms Solutions, states in which their mines were located. One example of this historical era that straddles the 19 th and 20 th centuries is Butte and the Anaconda Copper Mining Company. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg.  Michael Malone#8217;s narrative focuses on the perspective of competing mine owners within the Butte area as they struggled for control of the Accounting Resume Accounting Sample copper during the late 19 th century. Malone argues that miners benefited tremendously in the four-way struggle for power early on; however, with the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg consolidation of Butte copper mines under the Accounting Sample Resume Job Resume Amalgamated Holding Company in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg 1899, that all changed. Template For Board Of Directors | Selonjoranorgboard Report.  Not only were miners forced to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg adapt to new technologies that rendered their skills unnecessary (e.g., hard rock miners) but they were also forced to adapt to new corporate management structures of concentrated power. In such a relationship, the new face of mining in Butte was one in which the workers and the people themselves, #8220;lay at the mercy of a much more powerful and less sensitive corporation.#8221;  Historians of 20 th century Western mining continued to chart the Editor - Journalism development of the industry and to demonstrate the continuity of the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg historical narrative long after the Compliance Forms Forms Solutions – Cake Intake closing of the frontier in 1890. Historians continue to examine relationships between workers and owners, the influence of both groups in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg terms of economics, politics, and culture, as well as the impact of changing federal policies on mining communities, among others.
James W. Byrkit, in Accounting Resume Job Resume Accounting Sample his book Forging the Copper Collar , examines the mining industry in Bisbee, Arizona during the first two decades of the 20 th century.  Bisbee serves as the backdrop to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg his argument regarding the role of eastern power in sponsoring and manipulating economic, political, social and cultural life in the American West. Byrkit#8217;s book details the ways in which Arizona#8217;s early statehood period was dominated politically and economically within a colonizer/colonized relationship. This book represents an excellent narrative bridge between the Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913 Industrial Revolution and the Wagner Act of the New Deal, which gave labor the right to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg organize. Editor Delhi - Journalism. Reflecting the new western history#8217;s desire to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg uncover the history of previously ignored groups, Mary Murphy#8217;s Mining Cultures explores the social clubs, barrooms, sporting life, and other aspects of public leisure within Butte.  Similar to the narrative told by Accounting Resume Sample Byrkit, Murphy argues that during the interwar years, labor lost a great deal of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, their power. They occupied a world in Level Sample which their working lives, political choices, and economic outlooks were constrained by Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg the Anaconda Company. However, Murphy argues that Butte was different from other mining towns in Functional Resumes - Resume Help which the controlling company would build towns and seek to control the morals of the workers. Because of this, a male-centered social landscape developed during the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg late 19 th century in Accounting Sample Level Accounting Sample Butte. The changes to that landscape are the focus of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, this book, as Murphy discusses the re-creation of Job - Associate Editor - New Delhi & Creative, Butte as part of the struggle between women and men to adjust to new gender roles after World War I. 
That Western mining is an example of continuity should be clear by now, especially when the history of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, uranium mining communities are examined and compared to older mining communities. In his book Yellowcake Towns , Michael Amundson analyzes and compares the impact of changing federal policies on Real Estate Resumes - Resume, four uranium mining and milling communities in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg the states of Utah, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Colorado.  As Amundson argues, yellowcake towns are excellent examples of continuity in Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913 the West for several reasons, including the remoteness of the places in which the mining took place and the lack of control those distant communities had on the trade networks that controlled the boom and bust nature of the industry. Similarly, male prospectors often first settled yellowcake town sites and only later would their families join them. In short, Amundson argues, #8220;the persistence of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, continuity suggests that as unique as the Sample Sample history of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, uranium mining and Accounting Sample, yellowcake towns appears, strong undercurrents link them to major themes in the history of the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg American West.#8221;  The theme of conquest includes a wide range of behaviors, including the conquest of the natural environment and extraction of resources. A definition of resources could include animals, crops, and minerals; the cattle, logging, and copper mining industries are examples of the diversity of conquests that have taken place in the American West. Conquest also refers to the colonial dominance of minority groups in the West, including Asians, Mexicans, African Americans, and Native Americans.
The conquest of Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, humans in the American West will be the focus of this section of the essay. In his groundbreaking work of Native American history, The Roots of Dependency , Richard White examines the economic structures of three tribes in order to better understand why their economies eventually failed to meet their basic subsistence needs by the late 19 th century. White studies agricultural systems, hunting methods, as well as their work as ranchers in attempting to explain the economic conquest of the Choctaw, Pawnee, and Navajo.  The conclusion which White draws from his examination of the changing Indian economies is that attempts by whites to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg bring indigenous resources, land and labor into the market was the primary cause of the resulting economic dependency and Template Of Directors | Selonjoranorgboard Report, conquest by the United States. In arriving at Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, this conclusion, White attacks the traditional belief that military supremacy and force were responsible for these changes. Jeffrey Ostler#8217;s work on the history of Lakota-U.S. interactions during the 19 th century, culminating in For Board | Selonjoranorgboard Report the massacre at Wounded Knee in December of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, 1890 provides an excellent example of the new western history#8217;s focus on conquest and indigenous perspectives.  Ostler utilizes colonialism as a lens through which to view Indian agency and resistance at a time when the Lakota were experiencing many political, social, and 10+ Sample Blank Bill Forms, cultural changes. Ostler explains the development of U.S. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg. colonialism among the Lakota while also discussing the Job - - New & Creative ways that the Lakota developed policies and thereby were not simply acted upon by outside influences. An example of Lakota agency was the way the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg tribe reacted to the invasion of their lands by Euro-American settlers using the Oregon Trail beginning in the 1840s. According to Ostler, the Lakota began to feel the | Electronic Forms Solutions – Cake Intake indirect effects of agrarian expansion in the 1840s as settlers and cattle destroyed or consumed the food supply of indigenous animals, especially the buffalo. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg. In retaliation, the Lakota decided to charge settlers for the damage they were doing to their economy; this was a good policy in terms of Job - Associate - New, holding those responsible for the damages responsible for fixing them, but the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg normal reaction of the United States was to call out the cavalry and attack local Lakota villages for #8220;harassing#8221; settlers.
By discussing the various ways in For Board which the Lakota formulated responses to colonialism and attempts to conquer their land, Ostler strips away the myth that their demise as a power on the northern plains was inevitable. Tearing down myths is one of the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg goals of the new western history and Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, this book is an excellent example of how it should be accomplished. Conquest and dispossession also occurred during the early conservation efforts within the American West, but for reasons other than seizing land for agriculture or ranching. In his excellent book, Dispossessing the Wilderness , Mark David Spence states that wilderness preservation went #8220;hand in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg hand with native dispossession#8221;.  Spence#8217;s argument is based on the experiences of a handful of Bill | Sample Forms, Indian tribes that were dispossessed from certain parts of their traditional homelands by the federal government so that national parks (Yellowstone, Yosemite and Glacier) could be established. These tribes include the Bannock, Shoshone, Crow, Yosemite, and Blackfeet. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg. Spence argues that #8220;uninhabited wilderness had to be created before it could be preserved#8221;.  The reason that these tribes were dispossessed had a great deal to do with changing American perceptions about wilderness, including debates on how to define it and how it should be preserved.
According to Spence, in 10+ Sample Blank | Sample the first half of the 19 th century, nascent conservationists such as George Catlin, Washington Irving, Henry David Thoreau, and John Audubon believed that Indians and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, wilderness areas should be set aside from the influence of civilization. Spence explains that antebellum America did not conceive of wilderness and Report Of Directors | Selonjoranorgboard, Indians as separate, but saw them as fundamentally linked.  All of that changed, however, in the years following the Civil War. Spence believes that frontier hostilities between the army and Indian tribes located throughout the Great Plains was one cause for America#8217;s changing perceptions of Indians to the popular belief that they were #8220;evil savages#8221;. No longer seen as living in harmony with nature, due to the fact that they were impeding America#8217;s manifest destiny, setting fires in forests, and hunting game in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg areas intended for protection, conservationists of the second half of the 19 th century began to reconsider the ideas of earlier conservationists, that is, placing Indians in protected wilderness areas. At the same time that Indians were forced off of their traditional homelands onto Accounting Resume Level Job Resume, reservations in order to make the land uninhabited so that it could be preserved, a myth began to circulate that Indians had not inhabited the now-protected wilderness areas located throughout the West for decades. Spence provides evidence linking Indian tribes to each of the three national parks discussed in this book, detailing how that land was used over several centuries and the ways that the various tribes attempted to preserve their treaty rights to practice religious customs and economic tasks in those parks today, long after their ancestors were dispossessed. Paradigm III: World-Systems Analysis. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg. The final paradigm examined in this paper is world-systems analysis.
Immanuel Wallerstein developed this mode of analysis during the 1970s; however, within the Real Functional Resumes - Resume Help discipline of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, history, William Robbins has been one of the most vocal advocates for its use and acceptance. Estate Functional - Resume. According to Wallerstein, at Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, its most basic level, world-systems analysis characterizes the global world-system in which we live as a set of mechanisms which redistributes resources from the periphery to the core. In his terminology, Wallerstein describes a #8216;core#8217; as a developed, industrialized part of the world and a #8216;periphery#8217; as an underdeveloped, raw materials exporting, poor part of the world. Core regions exploit periphery regions through the functions of the market.  In a series of books and Template For Board | Selonjoranorgboard, articles, Robbins has built an interpretive model of history which states that the best way to understand change and interactions in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg the American West is through a capitalist framework. The key is his definition of capitalism, which he defines as a system of social relations expressed in Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913 characteristic class structures, modes of consciousness, patterns of authority, and relations of power.  Robbins#8217; work bears some similarities and shares some intersections with both old and new western historians. Like new western historians, Robbins rejects the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg idea of Of Directors Report, American exceptionalism.  Robbins sees the region as a unique arena for scholarly endeavor, insisting that the American West can be seen as a prototype for modern capitalism.  In his emphasis on the association between capitalism and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, its revolutionary consequences for a particular place, Robbins#8217; work can be seen to closely resemble that of Donald Worster, ( Dust Bowl , Rivers of Empire ); William Cronon, ( Changes in the Land , Nature#8217;s Metropolis ); and Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, Richard White, ( Roots of Dependency ). However, Robbins pursues a global perspective on events in the American West by advancing two interrelated themes throughout much of his work. First, the history of the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg West should be examined as a part of the worldwide expansion of Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, corporate capitalism. Second, outside managers, financiers, and capitalists often dictated the fates of western communities and determined the fortunes of western residents. In short, Robbins is Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, arguing that the development of the West is the story of the region#8217;s integration into a global economic system. As Robbins explains, the fur trade, settler movement, mineral rushes, and the transportation revolution were all manifestations of the influence of global capitalism. In seeking to break from the exceptionalist narrative of western history, Robbins again finds common ground with new western historians.
Like Limerick and White, Robbins discovers a West characterized by relationships of power and Report Of Directors | Selonjoranorgboard, dependency. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg. The celebrated freedom and Accounting Level Sample, autonomy of the West, if it existed, was the province of the few, of those individuals with power, influence, and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, especially capital. The adoption and use of world-systems analysis in the writing of western history has produced several admirable volumes, two of which will be discussed in this section. The first, William G. Robbins#8217; Colony and Empire has already been briefly mentioned. Robbins#8217; analysis stretches from the mid-nineteenth century to the present, and takes on the entire West, from the 98th meridian to the Pacific, exclusive of Functional - Resume Help, Alaska and Hawaii, but inclusive of the Mexican and Canadian borderlands. This is a macrocosmic study divided into four parts in which the author makes his case by outlining the complexity of capitalist networks in the West, the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg relationship of hinterlands to metropolises, and of eastern and foreign capital to Accounting Sample Job Resume Accounting Sample western development.
As Robbins makes clear, part of his rationale for writing this book is that scholars have yet to forge an analytical tool to explain the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg transformation of the American West from an area dominated by pre-industrial societies to a region that is an integrated segment of a modern world capitalist system.  The basic, broad framework advanced by Robbins reads as follows: the penetration of market forces in the late 18 th and early 19 th centuries, the subjugation and colonization of native people between 1840 and 1890, the re-peopling of the western landscape during that same period, and the progressive integration of the West into Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, national and international exchange relationships.  In his book, Capitalism on the Frontier , Carroll Van West provides a microcosmic analysis of the Clark#8217;s Fork Bottom region of the Yellowstone River Valley; a 25 mile long region including the city of Billings, Montana. The focus of Van West#8217;s study are the revolutionary impacts of capitalism in transforming the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg landscape from Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, a pre-industrial site of economic activity to its absorption into the mainstream of American capitalism.  There are parallels between the works of Robbins and Van West, including their examination of the impact of outside capital on the West. Also, both authors chronicle boom-bust cycles and document the late 19 th century transition from an individualistic capitalism to an impersonal corporate capitalism by the turn of the 20 th century. However, Van West#8217;s narrative actively seeks out the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg human element, the people, institutions, and economic forces that guided the Compliance Solutions Intake settlement and development of Billings through the end of the century.  When Frederick Jackson Turner wrote his famous essay in 1893, he was seeking to explain the development of American institutions and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, history, not the American West specifically. Such a lofty goal, broad historical synthesis, omitted some groups and Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, privileged others. The work of new social historians during the 1960s can be seen as an attempt to broaden the focus of historians by increasing the number of research lenses to include topics such as race, gender, and class. While new social history theories were brought to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg the field of western history only in Sample Job Resume the 1980s, well after other regional specialists began using them, the impact was widely and immediately felt. The final paradigm discussed in this essay, world-systems analysis, provides a further conceptual tool for western historians, capitalism. Supporters of this model argue that the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg margins and peripheries of our stories lack coherence because they lack an interpretive synthesis to Real - Resume unify them.  Both new western historians and supporters of world-systems analysis argue that we need to move beyond American exceptionalism as a form of interpretive synthesis. The frontier thesis encourages triumphalist narratives and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, obscures the connections between regions and Hipaa Forms Forms Solutions, nations. The theoretical lenses used in new western history and world-systems analysis for the production of historical narratives should provide a powerful new synthetic model to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg challenge American exceptionalism.  Gerald D. Nash, Creating the Delhi - Journalism & Creative West: Historical Interpretations, 1890-1990 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991), 6-7.  Ray Allen Billington, ed., The Frontier Thesis: Valid Interpretation of American History? (Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company, 1977), 9-20. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg.  William Cronon, #8220;Revisiting the Vanishing Frontier: The Legacy of Frederick Jackson Turner,#8221; The Western Historical Quarterly 18 (Apr., 1987): 157-176.  Patricia Nelson Limerick, Something in Job - Editor - New - Journalism the Soil: Legacies and Reckonings in the New West (New York: W.W.
Norton and Company, 2000).  Cronon, #8220;Revisiting the Vanishing Frontier: The Legacy of Frederick Jackson Turner,#8221; 171.  William R. Jacobs, John W. Caughey, and Joe B. Frantz, Turner, Bolton, and Webb: Three Historians of the American Frontier (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1965), vi 83-85.  Walter Prescott Webb, The Great Plains (New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1931), 273-280.  Richard Etulain, ed., Writing Western History: Essays on Major Western Historians (Albuquerque: University of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, New Mexico Press, 1991), 320.  Gene M. Gressley, ed., Old West/New West: Quo Vadis? (Worland, Wyoming: High Plains Publishing Company, 1994), 3-4.  William Cronon, et al., ed., Under An Open Sky: Rethinking America#8217;s Western Past (New York: W. W. Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913. Norton and Company, 1992), 6.  Michael Steiner, #8220;From Frontier to Region: Frederick Jackson Turner and the New Western History,#8221; The Pacific Historical Revew 64 (Nov., 1995): 500.  Patricia Nelson Limerick, Clyde A. Milner II, and Charles E. Rankin, eds., Trails: Toward A New Western History (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1991), 27.  Richard White, #8216; It#8217;s Your Misfortune and None of My Own#8217;: A New History of the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg American West (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991).  Donald Worster, Under Western Skies: Nature and History in the American West (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).  See, for Template For Board | Selonjoranorgboard Report example, her books, The Legacy of Conquest and Something in the Soil .  Richard White, #8216; It#8217;s Your Misfortune and None of My Own#8217; , 183-211.  Susan Lee Johnson, Roaring Camp: The Social World of the California Gold Rush (New York: W.W. Norton and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, Company, 2000), 58-59.  Nell Irvin Painter, Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas after Reconstruction (New York: W.W.
Norton and Company, 1979), 258-260.  David M. Emmons, #8220;Irish Miners: From the Emerald Isle to Copper Butte,#8221; in European Immigrants in the American West: Community Histories , ed. Frederick C. Luebke (Albuquerque: University of Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, New Mexico Press, 1998), 49-64.  Josef J. Barton, #8220;Czech Farmers and Mexican Laborers in South Texas,#8221; in Ethnicity on the Great Plains , ed. Frederick C. Luebke (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1980), 190-209. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg.  Marilynn S. Johnson, The Second Gold Rush: Oakland and Forms, the East Bay in World War II (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996) .  Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo, Abiding Courage: African American Migrant Women and the East Bay Community (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996).  Hal K. Rothman, Devil#8217;s Bargains: Tourism in the Twentieth-Century American West (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998), 10.  Katherine Jensen and Audie Blevins, The Last Gamble: Betting on the Future in Four Rocky Mountain Mining Towns (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1998), 72.  Leah Dilworth, Imagining Indians in the Southwest: Persistent Visions of a Primitive Past (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996), 78-82.  Rodman W. Paul and Elliott West, Mining Frontiers of the Far West, 1848-1880 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2001).  Rodman W. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg. Paul, The Far West and the Great Plains in Job - - New Transition, 1859-1900 (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), 35-38.  Patricia Nelson Limerick, The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1988), 106.  Mark Wyman, Hard Rock Epic: Western Miners and the Industrial Revolution, 1860-1910 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979).  Michael P. Malone, The Battle for Butte: Mining and Politics on the Northern Frontier, 1864-1906 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1981).  James W. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg. Byrkit, Forging the Copper Collar: Arizona#8217;s Labor-Management War of 1901-1921 (Tucson: University of Functional Resumes - Resume Help, Arizona Press, 1982).  Mary Murphy, Mining Cultures: Men, Women, and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, Leisure in Real Resumes Butte, 1914-1941 (Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1997).  Michael Amundson, Yellowcake Towns: Uranium Mining Communities in the American West (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2002).  Richard White, The Roots of Dependency: Subsistence, Environment, and Social Change among the Choctaws, Pawnees, and Navajos (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983).  Jeffrey Ostler, The Plains Sioux and U.S. Colonialism From Lewis and Clark to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg Wounded Knee (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).  Mark David Spence, Dispossessing the Wilderness: Indian Removal and the Making of the National Parks (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 3. Template For Board Of Directors Report.  Immanuel Wallerstein, World-Systems Analysis: An Introduction (Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2004).  William G. Robbins, Colony and Empire: The Capitalist Transformation of the American West (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1994). Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg.  William G. Robbins, #8220;Western History: A Dialectic on the Modern Condition,#8221; The Western Historical Quarterly 20 (Nov., 1989): 429-449.  Robbins, Colony and Empire , 19.  Robbins, Colony and Empire , 11-12. 10+ Sample Blank.  Robbins, #8220;Western History: A Dialectic on the Modern Condition,#8221; 434. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg.  Carroll Van West, Capitalism on the Frontier: Billings and the Yellowstone Valley in the Nineteenth Century (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993), 2.
 William G. Robbins, #8220;In Pursuit of Historical Explanation: Capitalism as a Conceptual Tool for Real Functional Knowing the American West,#8221; The Western Historical Quarterly 30 (Autumn, 1999): 277-293.
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essay child abuse Note, children of families who live at or below the poverty level are at an increased risk for child abuse (HHS).Infants who are premature, cognitively impaired, or have physical handicaps are more likely to provoke abuse from their caregiver, over infants without such problems. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg? Also, non-handicapped infants who have uneven sleep and eating patterns are more likely to be abused (ECH). Physical assessment may involve alterations in skin, bone and the CNS. - New Delhi - Journalism? Examples such as bruising and abrasions of. Child Abuse and Maltreatment Essay. abused (Echlin, 1995). Studies have revealed that exposure to abuse may affect an individual and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, result in internalizing behavioral problems such as depression, low self esteem and Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, extraction and externalizing behavior problems such as rebelling, hyperactivity, and criminal behavior (Echlin, 1995). Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg? In the book Children of Battered Women the Real Functional, authors Wolfe and Wilson describe the distressing effect that witnessing or experiencing abuse can have on a child's cognitive, emotional, social, and physical. strike a child other than with your open hand is wrong. That includes belts, paddles, sticks, or any other object.
Child neglect in any form, when it concerns a child's welfare, is generally considered to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, be criminal behavior. Resume Job Resume Accounting? Child neglect is Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg considered as a possible diagnosis for children who are poorly cared for, not fed properly, improperly clothed, denied basic safety or necessities, denied proper medical care, or treated with indifference to a degree that appears to cause or put the child at risk. They help heal the traumatized victims of the different aspects of Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, abuse such as; emotional, physical, sexual and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, even neglect. Not only does this organization support victims but they also bring awareness to Associate Delhi & Creative, children and adults as well and to educate them on how child abuse can be prevented and to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, show them the different signs of a child that is being abused. They believe that every child should be loved equally and be taken care of by their family and Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, also by their community. A quote that relates. Emotional abuse cuts to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, the very core of a person, creating scars that may be far deeper and more lasting that physical ones. Emotional abuse victims can become so convinced that they are worthless that they believe that no one else could want them. They stay in abusive situations because they believe they have nowhere else to Of Sale | Sample, go.
Their ultimate fear is being all alone. Emotional abuse is like brain washing in that it systematically wears away at the victim's self-confidence, sense of self-worth. violence, and abuse” (p. 4). Today the laws defining child abuse are quite strong. According to the Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), Physical abuse is generally defined as “any non-accidental physical injury to the child” and can include striking, kicking, burning, or biting the child, or any action that results in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, a physical impairment of the child. The state of Oregon further defines physical abuse as: An assault on a child and physical injury to a child that has been. nonsense. The boy was traumatized for a very long period of time. To summarize, the act of child abuse lead a 7 year old child to Estate Resumes, think about committing suicide. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg? It is so sad to know the amount of people that are on drugs due to Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, child abuse.
Treatment of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, drug use is a complex problem, however within time it can be resolved. Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913? Did you know that as many as two-thirds of all people in treatment for drug abuse report that they were physically, sexually, or emotionally abused during childhood, research. health and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, a reduction in parent’s stress levels, therefore reducing the Sample Resume Level Job Resume Sample, amount of child abuse and neglect. Article 2 Falconer, Clark, and Paris (2010) evaluated a research program used to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, prevent child abuse and neglect; their article is called Validity in an evaluation of Healthy Families Florida. Health Families Florida is Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913 a volunteer-run home visiting organization that helps out families assessed with high child abuse and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, neglect. Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913? The subjects of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, this experiment were split up into three groups: the. mostly for Hipaa Forms | Electronic – Cake law related issues, and I received a lot of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, other valuable pieces of information along the way. Accounting Sample Level Accounting Sample? I pieced the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, information together in a way that I felt would make sense to Associate Editor - New - Journalism & Creative, a reader who was trying to get a good general understanding about child abuse laws. One valuable source of information pertained to the American Bar Association Center on Children and the Law (established in 1978). Its mission was to try to help improve children's lives through advances in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, law, justice, knowledge, practice. Essay about Child Abuse and Revictimization.
violence including physical violence. Compliance | Electronic Forms – Cake? “Child Physical Abuse (CPA) was defined in this study as any endorsement of serious physical violence at the hands of family members or a caretaker on the physical abuse subscale” (Fiorillo, Papa Follette, 2013). The results of this study show those women with a history of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, childhood physical abuse had experienced dating violence as well. “One hundred thirteen women (36.7%) reported a history of Forms | Electronic Solutions, child physical abuse (see Table 1), and 82 (26.6%) women reported. Attorney investigators, inspectors and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, family support officers Public or Private Day Camp, Youth Center, Recreation Program or Organization Administrators Administrators and Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, employees of child day care facilities Headstart Teachers Licensing Workers Public Assistance Workers Foster Parents Employees of Child Care Institutions: Group Homes Residential Care Facilities Health Practitioners Physician Surgeons Psychiatrist Psychologist Psychological Assistants Mental Health and. Essay on Diagnosing and Reporting Child Abuse. communities. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg? Child abuse has been a problem for many centuries, and Real Functional Help, there have been studies of how people have lived that show a constant pattern o The following information will show people the history of child abuse, warning signs, statistics of the abused, the different reporting processes, and the ethical importance of reporting child abuse and neglect. To begin this discussion, the readers will be introduced to the history of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, child abuse. According to a book titled Little Immigrants, child abuse.
Essay on Child Abuse and the Feeling of Helplessness. Parents might feel embarrassed to have a child who has some kind of Template For Board Report, problem. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg? So to alleviate their mortification, parents will take it out on their children. However, there are so many other children who experience child abuse and Bill | Sample, do not fall under the category of high-risk children. Physical abuse is defined as inflicting physical pain on a child. Physical pain can include hitting, punching, slapping, or any other violent act that may or may not leave a mark on the body. Children who have been.
Sexual Assault and Child Abuse Essay. partner and with multiple children. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg? Physically abuse is also typically seen, and this is usually where disciplinary actions get out of hand and bruises and Real Resumes - Resume Help, marks are left on Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, the child. In serious cases the parent or guardian is Blank Forms Forms removed and the child is placed with a family member or foster care for the time being. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg? After a child is placed into Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, the system there are services provided to families that need assistance with the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, protection and care of their child. 10+ Sample Of Sale Forms Forms? The system arranges for reunification, adoption.
Ignorance Concerning Child Abuse Essay. Domestic violence can be related to child abuse in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, many ways. Resume Job Resume? Forty five to seventy percent of women in battered women shelters say that their abusers have also abused children at some point. It has also been found that the chance of a mother committing child abuse doubles when she herself has been abused. This seems hard to rationalize to someone standing on the outside. One would think that a mother would be pre-disposed not to inflict harm on her child if she herself is Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg a victim. That instead.
Child Abuse and Neglect Essay example. (Crosson-Tower, 2002; Williams, 2009) Often parents use physical punishments to correct unwanted behavior, however, sometimes those punishments are seen by others as abuse. One form of punishment that is often seen as abuse is corporal punishment. Corporal punishment includes but is not limited to pulling ears and hair, slapping, smacking, spanking, and shaking. On February 22, 2007, a legislation to ban the use of corporal punishment with children less than four years of age was introduced, sparking. Essay about Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, Child Abuse and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, Neglect. and neglected children receive poorer quality parenting than non maltreated children. There are other factors relating to poverty associated with child abuse and neglect. Stress and economic hardship resulting from unemployment have been linked to child maltreatment. “Parenting characteristics potentially mediate the relationship between poverty and child neglect. Past research on poverty and parenting suggests that economic stress is linked to more hostile parenting.” (Slack, Holl, McDaniel, Yoo.
Toddlers and Tiaras: Child Abuse? Essay. daughter wear fake teeth and forcing them to be perfect and living vicariously through their daughter. This is not a way for children to live their childhood just based on beauty competitions and to just go from diapers to tiaras. Often emotional abuse can do far worse damage than physical, and I strongly believe that some of this beauty pageant hinges on that mentally and will take a toll on them in ten to twenty years from now. I believe that these mothers are living vicariously through their. Essay on Child Abuse and Social Work. Social workers took up an interest in Hipaa Forms – Cake, child abuse during the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, “House of Refugees” movement. In 1825, in New York city, a home was built for troubled children, where kids would be sent to live in a controlled environment and grow up (Pfohl).
These are kind of similar to shelters around today that take in Hipaa | Electronic Forms – Cake, delinquents and try to change them for better. Social workers were at the basis of this movement. The social work relationship with this problem is that these social workers are here to help save kids. Child Abuse - Definitions, Reasons, Preventions Essay. Child abuse also makes a lot of invisible hurts to child’s emotion. Although painfulness of physical wounds can be healed over Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, time, but abused damages deep inside child’s heart and mind are so difficult to relief that it can remain for a lifetime.
Some of Report For Board Of Directors Report, abused child might easily get psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and become drug abuse. There are also cases where the abused children commit suicide because they did not want to suffer any longer. To prevent. Child Sexual Abuse in India Essay example. Child Sexual Abuse in India is governed by ‘Protection of children from Sexual Offences Act 2012’. Instead of having a strong law for Child Sexual Abuse, due to the lack of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, awareness among people and old mentality of harm to reputation of families in society, they avoid to register complaints. Through this research paper I will discuss about the socio-legal issues of Child Sexual Abuse and its remedy.
INTRODUCTION: According to Medem, child sexual abuse as “any sexual act with a child performed. Child Abuse Versus Discipline and Their Respective Consequences. Library of Medicine makes clear the “controversy” that has grown as a response to the proper way to Hipaa Forms – Cake, discipline a child and the fact that there are set boundaries as to how to go about the discipline (“Effective discipline for Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg children”, 2004). Once a parent disregards those boundaries, there is Compliance | Electronic – Cake Intake a high probability that the parent will consequently be an abuser of his or her child. Child abuse is recognized by the federal government and, due to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, the immense amount of cases, has federal legislation in play. Essay about Diagnosing and Reporting Child Abuse. for our communities. Child abuse has been a problem for many centuries, and there have been studies of how people have lived that show a constant pattern of child abuse and neglect.
The following information will show people the history of child abuse, warning signs, statistics of the abused, the different reporting processes, and the ethical importance of reporting child abuse and neglect. To begin this discussion, the readers will be introduced to the history of child abuse. According to. Parents of Obese Children and Resume Level Job Resume Sample, Charges of Child Abuse Essay. The bases for overweight, obesity and morbid obesity have been set by researchers. The researchers discuss at what level of body mass index (BMI) a child should be at to be considered obese and morbidly obese.
The minimum level for a child being overweight is being in the 85th percentile of BMI, in the 95th percentile of BMI to be considered obese, and over the 99th percentile to be morbidly obese. The researchers are putting forth a standardized definition of obesity in the medical community. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg? Having. attending to their emotional needs. Physical abuse in children occurs after striking a child with an object that cause bruises, fractures or even death.
Sometimes parent or caretakers in an effort to discipline a misbehaving child shakes them to reduce deviance, with no intention of hurting them. This constitutes child abuse because a child should not be shaken. Shaking can harm a child leading to physical and psychological health consequences. |Effects of Child |Examples of Related Direct Effects. Relationship Between Child Abuse and Associate Editor, Delinquency Essay. trauma and the more a child is abused on a regular basis the more effects will be placed on the child. If a child is being abused at Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, a young age it will leave more of an impact on them. It will also show a bigger impression as they continue to age. As for the abuser, it is usually someone the child knows and has a close relationship with such as a parent. When being close to Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, the abuser it makes it harder for the child to betray their trust in telling others what is occurring.
A child may even fear the. Child Abuse Prevention Programs Essay example. evidence has found that the programs only reduce the risk factors for Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg a child to Level Job Resume, be maltreated but that it may not reduce the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, incidences of child maltreatment (Mikton Butchart, 2009). One program, The Nurse Family Partnership, is the only program that has randomized controlled trails that show that it does decrease the Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, incidences of child maltreatment. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg? One author reports that the program has shown a reduction in rates of Sample Resume, abuse, neglect, injury in children, and number of pregnancies in mothers (Dawley.
Drug Abuse Correlation to Child Abusee Essay. loss, which may explain why many abused children forget their abuse soon after it happens (Panzer, 2008). Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg? The amygdala’s primary job is to filter and interpret incoming sensory information in Blank, relation to the individual’s survival and emotional need and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, then help initiate the proper response. The amygdala assists us in being able to take quick action when faced with a dangerous or threatening situation (Glaser, 2000). Ongoing abuse causes the amygdala to alert us to danger even when a threat does. Child Abuse and Violence Against Females Essay. tension, abuse, relief; tension, abuse, relief has periods in which optimism is rewarded. Hope for the ending of battering is realized and the relief experienced in the periods of peace is strong. We know there is nothing as powerful as relief from torture as a positive reward for desired behavior. For some battered women the thin thread of hope and the brief experience of relief reinforces her decision to stay. Child abuse can be physical -- shaking, hitting, beating, burning, or biting a child; emotional.
Child Abuse: Frank and Ileana Fuster Essay. 'Miami Method' of Prosecuting. NP). The medical test in which Janet Reno and her team used as evidence against the Fusters' was that of Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, Frank and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, Ileana's own son, Noel. Accounting Resume Level Job Resume Accounting Sample? Noel was the only child that physically showed signs of abuse.
The other children than had come forth showed no signs of sexual abuse. Noel, however, when tested, tested positiv for gonorrhea of the throat. The test has been questioned, because the evidence was destroyed three days after the test and the ability to retest. Child Abuse Prevention and Control; Can Physical, Sexual or Psychological Abuse Be Controlled Within the Household? who simply witness abuse within the family are just as negatively affected as the subject of the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, abuse, further demonstrating the scope and gravity of this type of situation, and Hipaa | Electronic Forms, the importance of early intervention. Preventing child abuse The following are some ways that we can attempt to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, prevent the Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, abuse before it even starts. If you are a parent, be sure you are able to de-stress in a healthy way instead of directing your frustrations toward your child. Physical activity. Essay about Our Ethical Duty to Prevent Child Abuse. 1).
Without the funding to stop the abuse or to take the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, child out of the home, they have no choice but to send the child home until the unfortunate happens, the child is killed. America, who used to Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, be about family values, is now about being the biggest and best economic power in the world. Causing the everyday working person is struggle. Today two parents must work to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, make the living that one parent could provide thirty years ago. As capitalists increasingly organize their enterprises on. Essay on When Does Discipline Cross the Line to Child Abuse? and cite biblical passages that refer to a rod being used to discipline a child (www.religioustolerance.org) Some adults, who remember spankings they received as children from their own parents, advocate spanking the next generation as well, rationalizing that since they turned out fine, so should their children. The pro-spanking category also includes people who believe spanking is more effective than words for a young child, so he or she realizes what he or she did was wrong and unacceptable.
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The activites may involve physical contact,including penetrative(e.g rape or buggery) and non-penetrative acts. They may also include non-contact activites such as involving children in looking at or in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, the production of pornographic material,or watching sexual activites or encouraging children to. Argument Paper About Sexual Abuse. It is important that we are aware of Resumes Help, everyone that is around our children. I understand that we cannot be there all day every day, but as a parent providing a safe and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, comfortable environment for a child can play a major role in prevention. Being that child abuse is so powerful it has many negative effects on the growth of children. Psychological, emotional, and physical effects negatively tarnish the development of a child’s growth.
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II.THE FOCUS OF THIS ARTICLE The population of 10+ Sample | Sample Forms, elderly is growing and with that the need for long-term care facilities in which to place the elderly is also growing. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg? As stated one of the Hipaa Forms – Cake Intake, most popular long-term care facilities within the United States are nursing homes. Due to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, contributing. Safeguarding Theories of Abuse Essay. and said his wife deferred to him in any decision-making. This gives proof to the idea that, being the main bread winner of the family, Fritzl had the Report Template Of Directors | Selonjoranorgboard, right to the decision making in his family.
On the other hand, there are also many cases of child abuse where the mother is the abuser. For example, the case of Khyra Ishaq. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg? Khyra was starved to the point of emaciation by her mother and her mother’s boyfriend. It is reported that Khyra was refused food and was prevented from going into the kitchen. a consequence of Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, child marriage. Child brides usually have lower levels of education than girls who get married at an older age.
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Since the Real Estate Functional, breathing of the child is weakened, sleep apnea is another common complication and requires the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, child to be monitored to make sure the Compliance Forms Solutions – Cake Intake, child is breathing accurately during sleep. Finally, obesity can cause a hormone imbalance in the child. This imbalance may cause puberty or menstruation to begin ahead or later than schedule causing other complications. Not only physical problems may occur. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg? An obese child may suffer from Accounting Level Accounting Sample psychological issues as well. Due to the child’s excess weight. are identified easily; this is not true because some of the molesters may be considered, to others, as outstanding citizens and unidentifiable through psychological testing.
Certain individuals think child molestation occurs only in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, poor uneducated groups, but no relationship has been made between child molestation and any certain group. “However, stepdaughters are six times more likely to Editor - New Delhi - Journalism & Creative, be sexually abused than daughters who live with a natural father” (Elders 2). Girls also have a higher chance. They suffer from hearing loss, skin infection, lung problems, and finger deformities. When children work in hospitality like jobs they’re exposed to physical violence, mental trauma, and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, sexual abuse. They are trying to stop child labor in India and continue to fund their national child labor project. When we look into sweatshops we see the Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, many different age groups of children that are forced, abducted, or born into this working life style. In the developing countries in “today’s day and age. A Relationship Between Bipolar Disorder and Childhood Sexual Abuse. sexually abused as child. I did not perceived that any adult had taken advantage of her, sexually or of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, any other form. While sexual abuse can be hard to Hipaa Forms Solutions Intake, detect, especially in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, children because the abuse often occurs in secrecy and there is not always any physical evidence of the abuse, some child sexual abuse survivors may show symptoms of Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
They may behave in a nervous, upset way and may have nightmares. Another symptom many be reenactment of the abuse in their play.
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IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Structures. Knowing how to structure your IELTS Writing Task 2 essay is an essential skill that can make the difference between the getting and not getting the band score you deserve. With that in mind, we have outlined the most common IELTS Writing Task 2 structures below. Nearly all of my Task 2 essay follow this basic structure: The sentences you put in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, each paragraph will depend on Estate Functional Resumes - Resume, what type of question you get. The five most common IELTS Writing Task 2 questions are:
Below I will outline examples and a structure approved by experienced IELTS teachers and examiners for each type of question. This will help you write a clear, coherent answer and hopefully boost your IELTS band score. I also include an Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, example answer for each type of question so you can see what the Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913 structure looks like in a real essay. Please note that these are general structures and they may vary slightly depending on the particular question. Please also note that there is Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, no ‘one’ structure that will get you a high score. There are many types of structures that can get you a high score. 10+ Sample Blank Forms! These are just the ones I think are most effective and easiest to learn. For more detailed guidance on each type of question please visit the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg lessons below. I have provided a link at Bill Forms Forms the end of each section.
Opinion Questions (Agree or Disagree) What is your opinion? Do you agree or disagree? To what extent do you agree or disagree? Some people believe that unpaid community service should be a compulsory part of high school programmes (for example working for a charity, improving the neighborhood or teaching sports to younger children). To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Thesis Statement (It is agreed…/It is disagreed…/This essay agrees/disagrees…) Sentence 3- Outline Sentence (This essay will discuss….) Sentence 1- Topic Sentence. Sentence 2- Explain Topic Sentence. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 1- Topic Sentence.
Sentence 2- Explain Topic Sentence. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 1- Summary and opinion. t is argued that volunteering should be made part of the school curriculum. This essay agrees with that suggestion completely because of the benefits it brings to pupils. The essay will first look at Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg how voluntary work can help students develop soft skills and - Resume Help then discuss how these extracurricular activities are valued by universities and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg employers. Education should not be limited to strictly academic pursuits and those in education should also develop life skills, such as teamwork, empathy and self-discipline, and one of the best ways to hone these aptitudes is through community service. Serving those less fortunate than ourselves teaches us many lessons including how to work with people from other backgrounds and | Electronic Solutions – Cake Intake the value of hard work. For example, I personally volunteered to spend 6 weeks in Africa teaching disadvantaged children and this led to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg a much higher work ethic when I returned to my studies. Many colleges and companies are also increasingly looking for this type of experience. Blank Forms | Sample Forms! Most school leavers have the same grades and charitable works can help set you apart from the herd.
For example, Cambridge and Oxford receive thousands of applications from straight-A students every year and can only accept a small percentage of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, applicants. What you have done outside the classroom is often the Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913 thing that differentiates you from everyone else and gets you that coveted spot. In conclusion, teenagers should be made to partake in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, unpaid work as part of their schooling because it will help them learn things they wouldn’t ordinarily learn from their teachers and it will also boost their chances of getting into third level education. For more detail on how to answer agree or disagree questions please visit our opinion essay lesson. Advantages and Disadvantages Questions. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages and give your own opinion. Computers are being used more and more in education. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages and Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913 give your own opinion. Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Outline Sentence.
Sentence 1- State One Advantage. Sentence 2- Expand/Explain Advantage. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 4- Result. Sentence 1- State One Disadvantage. Sentence 2- Expand/Explain Disadvantage. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 4- Result. Sentence 1- Summary. Sentence 2- Opinion. It is Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, argued that technology is playing an every increasing role in Report For Board Of Directors | Selonjoranorgboard, schools and universities.
This essay will firstly, discuss student freedom as one of the main advantages of this and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg secondly, outline decreasing levels of Sample Job Resume Accounting, face to face contact as one of the main disadvantages. One of the principle advantages of an increase in the use electronic devices in education is the autonomy it provides students. Students have the freedom to focus on Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, whatever topic or subject they want and study it in depth through the internet. A prime example of this is the amount of online university courses available to students, covering a myriad of subjects, that up until recently were unavailable to most learners. This has resulted in more people studying third level degrees than ever before, at a pace and schedule that suits them. The main disadvantage associated with increasing use of technology in education is the Hipaa | Electronic Solutions – Cake Intake decrease in face to face interaction between students. Students spend more time looking at computer screens by themselves than interacting with each other. For instance, the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg recent explosion in smartphone use has been at the expense of genuine human interaction. Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913! This results in soft skills, such as verbal communication and empathy, being affected. In conclusion, the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg benefits technology brings to education, such as student autonomy, must be weighed against Template Of Directors the drawbacks, such as negative effects on Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, human interaction.
Overall, the educational benefits outweigh the disadvantages because human beings will always want human contact and most people will not solely use IT for education. For more detail on how to answer advantage and Solutions – Cake disadvantage questions please visit our advantage and disadvantage lesson. Discuss Both Views Question (Discussion Essay) Discuss both points of view and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg give your opinion. Computers are being used more and more in education. Some people say that this is a positive trend, while others argue that it is leading to negative consequences.
Discuss both sides of this argument and then give your own opinion. Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question and/or state both viewpoints. Sentence 2- Thesis Statement. Sentence 3- Outline Sentence. Sentence 1- State first viewpoint. Sentence 2- Discuss first viewpoint.
Sentence 3- Reason why you agree or disagree with viewpoint. Sentence 4- Example to Hipaa Compliance Forms Solutions – Cake support your view. Sentence 1- State second viewpoint. Sentence 2- Discuss second viewpoint. Sentence 3- Reason why you agree or disagree with viewpoint. Sentence 4- Example to support your view. Sentence 1- Summary.
Sentence 2- State which one is better or more important. There is an ever increasing use of technology, such as tablets and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg laptops, in Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, the classroom. It is often argued that this is a positive development, whilst others disagree and think it will lead to adverse ramifications. This essay agrees that an increase in technology is beneficial to students and teachers. This essay will discuss both points of Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, view. It is clear that the Internet has provided students with access to more information than ever before.
Moreover, learners have the ability to research and Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913 learn about Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, any subject at the touch of Functional - Resume Help, a button. It is Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, therefore agreed that technology is a very worthwhile tool for education. Wikipedia is Real Functional Resumes - Resume Help, a prime example, where students can simply type in any keyword and gain access to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg in-depth knowledge quickly and easily. However, many disagree and feel that technology deprives people of real human interaction. Human interaction teaches people valuable skills such as discourse, debate and empathy. Despite this, human interaction is still possible through the internet and this essay disagrees technology should be dismissed for this reason. Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913! For instance, Skype and Facebook make it possible for Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, people to interact in ways that were never before possible. While the Estate Resumes - Resume benefits of technology, particularly the internet, allow students to tap into Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, limitless sources of information, some still feel that people should be wary of Report Template For Board Of Directors | Selonjoranorgboard, this new phenomena and not allow it to curb face to face interaction. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg! However, as long as we are careful to keep in Hipaa Compliance Forms, mind the importance of human interaction in education, the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg educational benefits are clearly positive.
For more detail on Functional Resumes Help, how to answer discussion questions please visit our discussion essay lesson. Problem and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg solution. Cause and solution. Students are becoming more and Report Of Directors more reliant on Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, computers. What are some of the Blank Of Sale Forms | Sample Forms problems associated with reliance on computers, and what are some of the possible solutions? Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Outline Sentence. Sentence 1- State Problem.
Sentence 2- Explain problem. Sentence 3- Result. Sentence 4- Example. Sentence 1- State Solution. Sentence 2- Explain Solution. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 1- Summary. Sentence 2- Recommendation or Prediction. Learners are becoming ever more dependent on Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, technology, such as the Internet and Hipaa Compliance Forms Solutions – Cake mobile devices. This essay will discuss one of the main problems associated with dependence on computers and suggest a viable solution.
The principal problem with over-reliance on technology, such as tablets and computers, is plagiarism. Students often use search engines to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg answer a question and simply copy the text from a website, rather than thinking about the Functional Help question. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg! This practice is not only prohibited in schools and universities but also stunts a student’s intellectual development. For example, many teachers complain that students copy web pages straight from Wikipedia word for word rather than giving a reasoned answer to their questions. A solution to this worrying problem is asking students to email their answers to teachers and teachers using anti-plagiarism software to detect copying. Moreover, students would be made aware of this practice and this would inspire them to answer questions using their own words, rather than someone else’s.
For instance, many universities already use this kind software to scan course work for plagiarism and it could be extended to include all homework, by learners in both secondary and tertiary education. In summary, one of the main problems with over-use of technology in education is Hipaa Compliance Forms | Electronic Forms Intake, plagiarism and this can be solved through the use of plagiarism detection software. It is predicted that more and more students’ will email their work to their teacher and this work will be scrutinised for plagiarism. For more detail on Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, how to Editor - New & Creative answer problem and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg solution questions please visit our problem and solution lesson. There will normally be a statement and they will then ask you to answer to separate questions. As most people spend a major part of their adult life at work, job satisfaction is an important element of Resume Level Job Resume Accounting, individual wellbeing. What factors contribute to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg job satisfaction? How realistic is the expectation of job satisfaction for all workers? Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Outline Sentence (mention both questions) Sentence 1- Answer first question directly.
Sentence 2- Explain why. Sentence 3- Further explain. Sentence 4- Example. Sentence 1- Answer second question directly. Sentence 2- Explain why. Sentence 3- Further explain. Sentence 4- Example. Sentence 1- Summary. As the Blank Forms majority of adults spend most of their time at Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg work, being content with your career is a crucial part of a person’s health and happiness.
This essay will first discuss which elements lead to job satisfaction and it will then address the Bill Forms Forms question of how likely it is that everyone can be happy with their job. The two most important things that lead to someone being satisfied at work are being treated with respect by Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg managers and Template | Selonjoranorgboard being compensated fairly. If those more senior than you respect you as a person and the job you are doing then you feel like you are valued. A fair salary and benefits are also important considerations because if you feel you are being underpaid you will either resent your bosses or look for another job. There two factors came top of a recent job satisfaction survey conducted by Monster.com, that found that 72% of people were pleased with their current role if their superiors regularly told them they were appreciated. With regards to the question of happiness for all workers, I think this is and always will be highly unlikely. The vast majority of people fail to reach their goals and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg end up working in a post they don’t really care about in return for a salary. This money is just enough to pay their living expenses which often means they are trapped in a cycle of disenchantment. For example, The Times recently reported that 89% of office workers would leave their jobs if they did not need the money. In conclusion, being satisfied with your trade or profession is an Real Estate Functional Help, important part of one’s well-being and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg respect from Job - Editor Delhi, one’s colleagues and fair pay can improve your level of happiness, however, job satisfaction of all workers is an Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, unrealistic prospect. Can I get a band 8 or 9 following these structures?
Nobody can give you a structure that guarantees you a high score. You score is dependent on Report For Board Of Directors | Selonjoranorgboard, how good your grammar and vocabulary is and how well you answer the question. A good structure will help you answer the question to some extent and boost your score for Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, coherence and cohesion, but you must use relevant ideas and use these ideas well to answer the question. Looking for 10+ Sample Blank Of Sale Forms Forms, some sample questions? Here are over 100 sample questions from past exam papers.
I hope you found this article useful. Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg! Now that you know the structures you should check out our task 2 sample answers to see how they have been used in Sample Job Resume Accounting Sample, practice. Would you like me to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg check your essay and tell you how to improve? Check out our essay correction service. The best way to keep up to date with more great posts like this and to access loads of practice exercises is to like us on Facebook. For more help with IELTS please check out Top12tipsforwritinganeffectivefirefightercoverletter-140404003752-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1396571913, IELTS Preparation– The Ultimate Guide. 62 Comments on Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Structures Thank you so much for your studies.
I really like a sentence from the introduction: “This essay agrees with that suggestion completely because of the benefits it brings to pupils”. But how should I rephrase it in Job - Associate Editor - New Delhi & Creative, cace I disagree with the statement? Is OK to write: “This essay DISAGREES with that suggestion completely because of the benefits it brings to pupils”. I would be very thankful if you can provide us with an example for the question type “Two-part Question” the same as you did in Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg, the other types. This is Compliance Forms – Cake, a very good essay. This is great! Very simple and easy to Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg understand. I hope to do some more practice using the Job - Editor - New Delhi & Creative tips here. Thank you! Hi Chris, thank you for creating such a great site. I like your way of structuring essay, but I am concerned about conccesion statements, especially for agree and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg disagree essays.
Could you please suggest where can I fit coccesion statements in these structures. Thank you. Don’t worry about concessions in opinion essays. Home » Writing Task 2 » IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Structures. Check your email for Job - Associate Editor Delhi - Journalism & Creative, the link. Advantage Exam Preparation Limited.
4 Castleglen Park, Dundrum, County Down, BT33 0WL United Kingdom. The information on this site is for information purposes only. IELTS is a registered trademark of University of Cambridge, the British Council, and Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg IDP Education Australia. This site and it's owners are not affiliated, approved or endorsed by 10+ Sample Blank Forms | Sample the University of Cambridge ESOL, the Baby-Shower-Messages-Unborn-Baby.jpg British Council, and IDP Education Australia. For full information please refer to our terms and conditions and disclaimer.