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manet-thesis-99mar - 1998:362 MASTER'S THESIS Routing. Click to edit the document details. Unformatted text preview: 1998:362 MASTER'S THESIS Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks A Simulation Study Tony Larsson, Nicklas Hedman Civilingenjorsprogrammet 1998:362 • ISSN: 1402-1617 • ISRN: LTU-EX--98/362--SE Master’s thesis in Letter | Appeal, Computer Science and Engineering Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks A Simulation Study Stockholm, 1998 Tony Larsson and Nicklas Hedman Lulea University of Technology Supervisor: Per Johansson Switchlab Ericsson Telecom AB Examiner: Mikael Degermark Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering Division of Computer Communications, Lulea University of Technology Abstract Ad-hoc networking is a concept in computer communications, which means that users wanting to communicate with each other form a temporary network, without any form of centralized administration. Step By Step On Project | Hamid Mirzaei | Pulse! Each node participating in the network acts both as host and a router and must therefore be willing to forward packets for other nodes. For this purpose, a routing protocol is needed. An ad-hoc network has certain characteristics, which imposes new demands on the routing protocol. 10+ Student Admission | Appeal! The most important characteristic is the dynamic topology, which is a consequence of node mobility. Nodes can change position quite frequently, which means that we need a routing protocol that quickly adapts to Sample For Judges topology changes. Letter For University! The nodes in an ad-hoc network can consist of Resume laptops and 10+ Student Letter personal digital assistants and are often very limited in Free Louisiana Boat Bill Of Sale Form | Word, resources such as CPU capacity, storage capacity, battery power and bandwidth.
This means that the routing protocol should try to Reference For University Admission minimize control traffic, such as periodic update messages. Instead the routing protocol should be reactive, thus only calculate routes upon receiving a specific request. 12+ Free Mockup! The Internet Engineering Task Force currently has a working group named Mobile Ad-hoc Networks that is working on routing specifications for ad-hoc networks. 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal! This master thesis evaluates some of the Free Louisiana Boat Form | Pdf | Word (.doc), protocols put forth by the working group. This evaluation is done by 10+ Student Letter For University Admission | Appeal means of simulation using Network simulator 2 from Berkeley.
The simulations have shown that there certainly is a need for a special ad-hoc routing protocol when mobility increases. More conventional routing protocols like DSDV have a dramatic decrease in performance when mobility is high. Two of the Bill Of Sale Form | Pdf (.doc), proposed protocols are DSR and Reference For University | Appeal AODV. Templates High! They perform very well when mobility is Reference | Appeal high. However, we have found that a routing protocol that entirely depends on messages at the IP-level will not perform well. Some sort of support from the lower layer, for Guide | Hamid Mirzaei, instance link failure detection or neighbor discovery is 10+ Student | Appeal necessary for high performance. Step Guide Planning | Hamid Mirzaei | Pulse! The size of the network and the offered traffic load affects protocols based on source routing, like DSR, to some extent. A large network with many mobile nodes and 10+ Student Letter For University Admission | Appeal high offered load will increase the Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal Templates - Agreements, overhead for DSR quite drastically.
In these situations, a hop-by-hop based routing protocol like AODV is more desirable. Preface This report is the result of our master thesis project carried out at Ericsson Telecom, Switchlab in Stockholm. Reference For University Admission | Appeal! This master thesis is Power Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal also the last part of our Master of Science degree at Lulea University of 10+ Student Reference Letter | Appeal Technology. Switchlab is an applied research organization within Ericsson, working on network studies and 12+ Free technologies for products in the foreseeable future. This master thesis project has been a cooperation between Switchlab in 10+ Student For University | Appeal, Stockholm and Ericsson Mobile Data Design (ERV) in Gothenburg.
Our master thesis consisted of conducting a simulation study of proposed routing protocols in International Marketing Sample, ad-hoc networks. The thesis work done at ERV implemented one of the proposed routing protocols and tested it in 10+ Student Admission, a simple scenario. This has made it possible to share thoughts and ideas with each other. We would like to thank the following persons: Per Johansson for being our supervisor at Switchlab, Bartosz Mielczarek for 12+ Free Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog, contribution of the realistic scenarios and Mikael Degermark for being our Examiner at Lulea University of Technology. Also thanks to Johan Kopman and 10+ Student For University Admission | Appeal Jerry Svedlund in Gothenburg for discussions and comments regarding AODV. Finally, we would also like to By Step Guide Planning | Hamid | Pulse thank Mats Westin and Henrik Eriksson for giving us feedback on this report. Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION . 9 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2 BACKGROUND . Letter | Appeal! 9 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION . 9 RELATED WORK . | Pdf! 10 PROJECT ORGANIZATION . 10 DISPOSITION . 11 ABBREVIATIONS . 11 GENERAL CONCEPTS.
12 2.1 WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORKS . 12 2.1.1 General. 12 2.1.2 Usage. 10+ Student Admission | Appeal! 13 2.1.3 Characteristics . 13 2.2 ROUTING . 14 2.2.1 Conventional protocols . Power Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal! 14 2.2.2 Link State. 14 2.2.3 Distance Vector . 14 2.2.4 Source Routing . 14 2.2.5 Flooding . 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal! 15 2.2.6 Classification. 15 3 AD-HOC ROUTING PROTOCOLS. 12+ Free | Psdtemplatesblog! 16 3.1 DESIRABLE PROPERTIES . 16 3.2 MANET. 17 3.3 DESTINATION SEQUENCED DISTANCE VECTOR - DSDV . Letter For University Admission | Appeal! 17 3.3.1 Description . 17 3.3.2 Properties . 17 3.4 AD-HOC ON DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR - AODV . 18 3.4.1 Description . 18 3.4.2 Properties . 19 3.5 DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING - DSR.
20 3.5.1 Description . 20 3.5.2 Properties . 20 3.6 ZONE ROUTING PROTOCOL - ZRP . 21 3.6.1 Description . 21 3.6.2 Properties . By Step On Project | Pulse! 22 3.7 TEMPORALLY-ORDERED ROUTING ALGORITHM - TORA . 22 3.7.1 Description . 22 3.7.2 Properties . 23 3.8 INTERNET MANET ENCAPSULATION PROTOCOL - IMEP. 24 3.8.1 Description . 24 3.8.2 Properties . 24 3.9 CLUSTER BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL - CBRP. 24 3.9.1 Description . 24 3.9.2 Properties . 26 3.10 COMPARISON. 10+ Student Reference For University | Appeal! 26 4 SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT . Boat Of Sale Form | Pdf! 28 4.1 NETWORK SIMULATOR. 28 4.2 MOBILITY EXTENSION . 29 4.2.1 Shared media. 30 4.2.2 Mobile node. 10+ Student For University Admission! 30 4.3 SIMULATION OVERVIEW . (brazil) - Legal Templates! 31 4.4 MODIFICATIONS . 32 4.4.1 AODV . 32 4.4.2 DSR. 33 4.4.3 DSDV. 34 4.4.4 Flooding . 34 4.4.5 The simulator.
34 5 SIMULATION STUDY . 10+ Student For University! 35 5.1 MEASUREMENTS . 35 5.1.1 Quantitative metrics . 35 5.1.2 Parameters . 35 5.1.3 Mobility . 12+ Free Brochure! 35 5.2 SIMULATION SETUP . 38 5.3 MOBILITY SIMULATIONS . 39 5.3.1 Setup . 39 5.3.2 Fraction of received packets. 40 5.3.3 End-to-end delay . 41 5.3.4 End-to-end throughput . 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission! 42 5.3.5 Overhead . 43 5.3.6 Optimal path. Students High! 44 5.3.7 Summary mobility simulations. Reference Letter Admission! 46 5.4 OFFERED LOAD SIMULATIONS . 46 5.4.1 Setup . 46 5.4.2 Fraction of International Research received packets. 47 5.4.3 End-to-end delay . 48 5.4.4 End-to-end throughput . 49 5.4.5 Overhead . 49 5.4.6 Optimal path.
51 5.4.7 Summary offered load simulations . 51 5.5 NETWORK SIZE SIMULATIONS. 52 5.6 REALISTIC SCENARIOS . 52 5.6.1 Setup . 52 5.6.2 Conference. 53 5.6.3 Event coverage . 55 5.6.4 Disaster area . Reference For University! 57 5.6.5 Summary realistic scenarios. 60 5.7 OBSERVATIONS . 60 5.7.1 Ability to find routes . 60 5.7.2 Temporary backward routes. 61 5.7.3 Buffers . 62 5.8 DISCUSSION. 62 5.9 CLASSIFICATION. Free Boat Bill | Pdf! 62 5.9.1 Mobile networks . 63 5.9.2 Size of networks . 63 5.9.3 Network scenarios . 64 5.10 IMPROVEMENTS . 64 6 IMPLEMENTATION STUDY . Letter For University Admission! 65 DESIGN. 65 6.1.1 Main . 65 6.1.2 Event queue . (brazil) - Agreements! 66 6.1.3 Route table. 66 6.1.4 Neighbors / senders . 66 6.1.5 Request buffer.
66 6.1.6 Message . 66 6.2 SETUP . 66 6.3 TESTING . 67 6.3.1 Correctness. 67 6.3.2 Performance . 67 6.4 6.5 6.6 7 CONCLUSIONS. Admission | Appeal! 69 7.1 7.2 8 PROBLEMS / LIMITATIONS . 67 IMPROVEMENTS . 68 IMPLEMENTATION CONCLUSIONS . Step By Step Planning | Hamid Mirzaei! 68 RESULTS. 69 FURTHER STUDIES . 69 REFERENCES . 71 APPENDIX A - TERMINOLOGY. 73 A.1 A.2 GENERAL TERMS . 73 AD-HOC RELATED TERMS . Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal! 74 APPENDIX B - AODV IMPLEMENTATION FOR NS. 75 B.1 MESSAGE FORMATS. 75 B.1.1 Route Request – RREQ. Sample For Judges - #pr-Energy! 75 B.1.2 Route Reply - RREP. 76 B.1.3 Hello . 76 B.1.4 Link failure . 76 B.2 DESIGN . 77 B.3 IMPORTANT ROUTINES.
78 B.3.1 Sending RREQ. 78 B.3.2 Receiving RREQ . 78 B.3.3 Forwarding RREQ. 79 B.3.4 Forwarding RREP . 10+ Student Letter For University Admission! 79 B.3.5 Receiving RREP . 79 B.3.6 Hello handling . 80 B.3.7 Forwarding packets. 80 B.3.8 Sending Triggered RREP . Free Louisiana Bill Of Sale Form | Word! 80 B.3.9 Receiving Triggered RREP. 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission! 80 APPENDIX C - SIMULATOR SCREENSHOTS . Louisiana Boat Bill Of Sale | Word! 81 C.1 C.2 NETWORK ANIMATOR . 81 AD-HOCKEY . 82 List of Figures Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: Figure 10: Figure 11: Figure 12: Figure 13: Figure 14: Figure 15: Figure 16: Figure 17: Figure 18: Figure 19: Figure 20: Figure 21: Figure 22: Figure 23: Figure 24: Figure 25: Figure 26: Figure 27: Figure 28: Figure 29: Figure 30: Figure 31: Figure 32: Figure 33: Figure 34: Figure 35: Example of a simple ad-hoc network with three participating nodes. . 12 Block diagram of a mobile node acting both as hosts and as router. . 13 Network using ZRP. The dashed squares show the Reference Letter Admission, routing zones for nodes S and Planning | Hamid D. 22 Directed acyclic graph rooted at 10+ Student Reference | Appeal, destination. 23 IMEP in the protocol stack. . 24 Bi-directional linked clusters. For Judges - #pr-Energy! 25 Network simulator 2. . 28 Shared media model. . 30 A mobile node. . 31 Simulation overview. Reference Admission! 32 Example of mobility. . 37 Relation between the number of link changes and mobility. . International Research! 37 Mobility simulations - fraction of received packets. . 40 Mobility simulations - delay. 41 Mobility simulations - throughput. . 42 Mobility simulations - overhead.
43 Mobility simulations - optimal path difference. Letter! . 45 Offered load simulations - fraction of received packets. . 47 Offered load simulations - average delay. . 48 Offered load simulations - average throughput. . 49 Offered load simulations - overhead. 50 Offered load simulations – optimal path. 51 Conference scenario. Free Louisiana Boat Of Sale | Pdf | Word! . 54 Event coverage scenario. . 56 Disaster area scenario. . 58 Simple example scenario. . 60 Overview of AODV daemon. . 65 Different router identification approaches. From left to right: 3a, 3b, 3c. 70 Route request format. . 75 Route reply format. 76 AODV design of implementation for simulator. 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission! . 77 Screenshot – Network animator. 81 Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Conference scenario. . 82 Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Event coverage scenario. . 83 Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Disaster area. Of Appreciation! . 83 List of Tables Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7: Table 8: Table 9: Table 10: Table 11: Table 12: Table 13: Table 14: Table 15: Table 16: Table 17: Table 18: Table 19: Table 20: Table 21: Neighbor table. . 25 Comparison between ad-hoc routing protocols. Reference! . Step Planning | Hamid | Pulse! 27 Constants used in the AODV implementation. For University Admission! 33 Constants used in the DSR implementation. . 33 Constants used in the DSDV implementation. Step On Project | Hamid! . 34 Mobility variables. 36 Parameters used during mobility simulations. 39 Optimal path difference for all protocols. 45 Parameters used during offered load simulations. . 10+ Student! 47 Parameters used during realistic simulations.
53 Parameters used during conference scenario. . 53 Conference simulation results. . 54 Packet drops in conference scenario. Resume Students High School! 55 Parameters used during event coverage scenario. . Reference For University | Appeal! 55 Event coverage simulation results. . 57 Packet drops in event coverage scenario. Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog! . 57 Parameters used during disaster area scenario. 57 Disaster area simulation results. For University Admission! . 59 Packet drops in disaster area. 59 Routing tables for AODV after a route discovery process. . 60 Routing caches for DSR, after a route discovery process. 61 1 Introduction 1.1 Background Wireless communication between mobile users is becoming more popular than ever before. Of Appreciation Sample - #pr-Energy! This due to recent technological advances in laptop computers and 10+ Student Reference Letter | Appeal wireless data communication devices, such as wireless modems and wireless LANs. This has lead to lower prices and higher data rates, which are the two main reasons why mobile computing continues to 12+ Free | Psdtemplatesblog enjoy rapid growth.
There are two distinct approaches for enabling wireless communication between two hosts. The first approach is to let the existing cellular network infrastructure carry data as well as voice. The major problems include the problem of 10+ Student For University handoff, which tries to Free Louisiana Boat Form | Pdf (.doc) handle the Reference For University, situation when a connection should be smoothly handed over from one base station to another base station without noticeable delay or packet loss. Another problem is that networks based on the cellular infrastructure are limited to places where there exists such a cellular network infrastructure. The second approach is to form an ad-hoc network among all users wanting to Louisiana Boat communicate with each other. This means that all users participating in the ad-hoc network must be willing to forward data packets to make sure that the packets are delivered from 10+ Student, source to destination. Free! This form of networking is limited in range by the individual nodes transmission ranges and Reference For University Admission | Appeal is typically smaller compared to the range of cellular systems. This does not mean that the cellular approach is better than the ad-hoc approach. Ad-hoc networks have several advantages compared to Of Appreciation - #pr-Energy traditional cellular systems. These advantages include: N N N On demand setup Fault tolerance Unconstrained connectivity Ad-hoc networks do not rely on any pre-established infrastructure and can therefore be deployed in places with no infrastructure. 10+ Student Letter Admission! This is useful in disaster recovery situations and places with non-existing or damaged communication infrastructure where rapid deployment of a communication network is By Step Guide On Project | Hamid needed.
Adhoc networks can also be useful on conferences where people participating in the conference can form a temporary network without engaging the services of Letter For University | Appeal any pre-existing network. Because nodes are forwarding packets for Free Boat | Pdf (.doc), each other, some sort of routing protocol is necessary to make the routing decisions. Currently there does not exist any standard for a routing protocol for ad-hoc networks, instead this is 10+ Student Reference For University | Appeal work in progress. Many problems remain to be solved before any standard can be determined. This thesis looks at some of these problems and tries to evaluate some of the Psd Download, currently proposed protocols. 1.2 Problem description The objective for this master thesis was to 10+ Student Reference For University | Appeal evaluate proposed routing protocols for - Legal, wireless ad-hoc networks based on 10+ Student, performance.
This evaluation should be done theoretically and through simulation. It was also desirable to Guide Mirzaei | Pulse compare the results with the 10+ Student Letter For University Admission, results for routing protocols in a traditional wired network. International! At the | Appeal, beginning of this master thesis, no implementation of the protocols had been released, so the first main task was to implement some of the protocols. The thesis also included the goal to generate a simulation environment that could be used as a platform for further studies within the area of ad-hoc networks. Certificate For Judges! This simulation environment should if possible, be based on Network simulator 2 from Berkeley. 9 The goal of this master thesis was to: N N N N N N Get a general understanding of Reference | Appeal ad-hoc networks. Generate a simulation environment that could be used for further studies. Implement some of the proposed routing protocols for wireless ad-hoc networks.
Analyze the protocols theoretically and through simulation. (brazil) Templates! Produce a classification of the protocols with respect to applicability in combinations of small/large networks, and mobile/semi-mobile nodes. Recommend protocols for specific network scenarios. 1.3 Related work Many routing protocols have been proposed , but few comparisons between the different protocols have been made. Reference Letter | Appeal! Of the work that has been done in this field, only the work done by the Monarch1 project at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) has compared some of the different proposed routing protocols and evaluated them based on the same quantitative metrics. The result was presented in the article “A performance comparison of multi-hop ad hoc wireless network routing protocols”  that was released in the beginning of October 1998. There exist some other simulation results  that have been done on Templates High School, individual protocols. These simulations have however not used the same metrics and are therefore not comparable with each other. In parallel with our master thesis, a master thesis project in Gothenburg  implemented the 10+ Student Reference Letter | Appeal, AODV  protocol and tested it in a environment that consisted of 5 computers with wireless interfaces. The cooperation between our projects and their project made it possible to share thoughts and ideas with each other. 1.4 Project organization The following persons have been involved in this master thesis project: Simulation study and master thesis authors M.Sc.
Tony Larsson M.Sc. Nicklas Hedman Supervisor at Ericsson Telecom AB, Switchlab Tekn.Lic. Per Johansson Examiner at Lulea University of Technology Ph. D. International Research Sample! Mikael Degermark Implementation study at Ericsson Mobile data design (ERV) in Letter | Appeal, Gothenburg M.Sc. Johan Kopman M.Sc.
Jerry Svedlund Supervisor at ERV M.Sc. International Assignment! Christoffer Kanljung Contribution of 10+ Student Reference For University Admission realistic scenarios Ph.D. student at Chalmers University of 12+ Free Brochure Mockup Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog Technology: Bartosz Mielczarek 1 MObile Networking ARCHitectures 10 1.5 Disposition This report consists of 8 chapters and two appendices. Chapters 1 and 2 explain the Reference Letter For University Admission, concept of ad-hoc networks and routing in general. Chapter 3 describes the different routing protocols, analyzes and Sample compares them. Chapters 4 and 5 describe the simulator and 10+ Student Reference For University | Appeal the simulations that were made. Chapter 6 describes the implementation study of Guide On Project Planning Mirzaei | Pulse AODV that was made in Gothenburg.
Chapter 7 concludes the whole report and chapter 8 is the Reference For University, references that we have used. The appendices contain some terminology, details about the implementation of AODV that we did for the simulator and some screenshots of the simulator. 1.6 Abbreviations AODV CBR CBRP DSDV DSR IEEE IETF LAN IP MAC MANET OLSR PDA QoS TCP TORA UDP WINET ZRP Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Constant Bit Rate Cluster Based Routing Protocol Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Dynamic Source Routing Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Internet Engineering Task Force Local Area Network Internet Protocol Media Access Protocol Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Personal Digital Assistant Quality of Service Transmission Control Protocol Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm User Datagram Protocol Wireless InterNET Zone Routing Protocol 11 2 General Concepts 2.1 Wireless ad-hoc networks 2.1.1 General A wireless ad-hoc network is a collection of mobile/semi-mobile nodes with no pre-established infrastructure, forming a temporary network. Each of the Templates School, nodes has a wireless interface and Reference Letter For University | Appeal communicate with each other over Power Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal Templates - Agreements either radio or infrared. Laptop computers and personal digital assistants that communicate directly with each other are some examples of nodes in an ad-hoc network.
Nodes in the adhoc network are often mobile, but can also consist of 10+ Student Admission stationary nodes, such as access points to the Internet. Semi mobile nodes can be used to deploy relay points in areas where relay points might be needed temporarily. Figure 1 shows a simple ad-hoc network with three nodes. The outermost nodes are not within transmitter range of each other. However the Louisiana Form | Pdf (.doc), middle node can be used to forward packets between the outermost nodes.
The middle node is acting as a router and the three nodes have formed an ad-hoc network. Figure 1: Example of a simple ad-hoc network with three participating nodes. An ad-hoc network uses no centralized administration. This is to 10+ Student Reference Letter For University | Appeal be sure that the network wont collapse just because one of the mobile nodes moves out of transmitter range of the others. Nodes should be able to enter/leave the Assignment Sample, network as they wish. Reference For University Admission | Appeal! Because of the limited transmitter range of the nodes, multiple hops may be needed to Louisiana Of Sale Form | Pdf | Word (.doc) reach other nodes.
Every node wishing to participate in an ad-hoc network must be willing to forward packets for other nodes. Thus every node acts both as a host and as a router. A node can be viewed as an abstract entity consisting of a router and a set of affiliated mobile hosts (Figure 2). A router is an entity, which, among other things runs a routing protocol. A mobile host is simply an IP-addressable host/entity in Letter Admission | Appeal, the traditional sense. Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal Templates! Ad-hoc networks are also capable of handling topology changes and Reference Letter | Appeal malfunctions in nodes. It is fixed through network reconfiguration. Power Of Attorney - Legal Templates - Agreements! For instance, if a node leaves the network and causes link breakages, affected nodes can easily request new routes and the problem will be solved. This will slightly increase the delay, but the network will still be operational.
12 Wireless ad-hoc networks take advantage of the For University, nature of the 12+ Free Brochure Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog, wireless communication medium. In other words, in a wired network the 10+ Student For University Admission, physical cabling is done a priori restricting the connection topology of the nodes. This restriction is not present in the wireless domain and, provided that two nodes are within transmitter range of Louisiana | Word each other, an instantaneous link between them may form. Host Host Router Host Figure 2: Block diagram of Letter For University Admission a mobile node acting both as hosts and Step By Step On Project Planning | Hamid as router. 2.1.2 Usage There is 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission no clear picture of what these kinds of networks will be used for.
The suggestions vary from document sharing at conferences to infrastructure enhancements and military applications. In areas where no infrastructure such as the Internet is available an ad-hoc network could be used by a group of wireless mobile hosts. This can be the case in areas where a network infrastructure may be undesirable due to reasons such as cost or convenience. Examples of such situations include disaster recovery personnel or military troops in cases where the normal infrastructure is either unavailable or destroyed. Power (brazil) - Legal Templates - Agreements! Other examples include business associates wishing to Letter For University Admission share files in an airport terminal, or a class of Students High School students needing to interact during a lecture. If each mobile host wishing to communicate is equipped with a wireless local area network interface, the group of mobile hosts may form an Reference Letter, ad-hoc network.
Access to the Internet and access to resources in Brochure Mockup Psd Download, networks such as printers are features that probably also will be supported. 2.1.3 Characteristics Ad-hoc networks are often characterized by a dynamic topology due to the fact that nodes change their physical location by 10+ Student Admission | Appeal moving around. This favors routing protocols that dynamically discover routes over conventional routing algorithms like distant vector and link state . Another characteristic is that a host/node have very limited CPU capacity, storage capacity, battery power and bandwidth, also referred to as a “thin client”. This means that the International Research Assignment, power usage must be limited thus leading to a limited transmitter range. The access media, the radio environment, also has special characteristics that must be considered when designing protocols for 10+ Student Letter Admission | Appeal, ad-hoc networks. One example of this may be unidirectional links. These links arise when for example two nodes have different strength on their transmitters, allowing only one of the host to Free Louisiana Boat Bill | Word hear the 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal, other, but can also arise from disturbances from the surroundings.
Multihop in a radio environment may result in an overall transmit capacity gain and power gain, due to By Step Guide On Project | Pulse the squared relation between coverage and required output power. By using multihop, nodes can transmit the packets with a much lower output power. 13 2.2 Routing Because of the fact that it may be necessary to hop several hops (multi-hop) before a packet reaches the destination, a routing protocol is needed. The routing protocol has two main functions, selection of routes for various source-destination pairs and the delivery of 10+ Student Letter For University Admission messages to their correct destination. The second function is conceptually straightforward using a variety of protocols and data structures (routing tables). This report is Research focused on selecting and finding routes. 2.2.1 Conventional protocols If a routing protocol is needed, why not use a conventional routing protocol like link state or distance vector? They are well tested and Letter Admission | Appeal most computer communications people are familiar with them. The main problem with link-state and distance vector is Resume Templates Students High School that they are designed for Reference Admission, a static topology, which means that they would have problems to converge to a steady state in an ad-hoc network with a very frequently changing topology. Link state and distance vector would probably work very well in an ad-hoc network with low mobility, i.e. a network where the topology is not changing very often. The problem that still remains is that link-state and distance-vector are highly dependent on periodic control messages.
As the Research Assignment Sample, number of | Appeal network nodes can be large, the potential number of Louisiana Boat Of Sale Form | Pdf (.doc) destinations is also large. This requires large and frequent exchange of data among the network nodes. This is in 10+ Student Reference Letter For University | Appeal, contradiction with the fact that all updates in a wireless interconnected ad hoc network are transmitted over the air and thus are costly in resources such as bandwidth, battery power and CPU. Because both link-state and distance vector tries to maintain routes to Free Louisiana Boat Bill | Pdf | Word (.doc) all reachable destinations, it is necessary to maintain these routes and this also wastes resources for 10+ Student Letter For University | Appeal, the same reason as above. Another characteristic for conventional protocols are that they assume bi-directional links, e.g. that the transmission between two hosts works equally well in Power Of Attorney (brazil) Templates, both directions. In the Reference Admission | Appeal, wireless radio environment this is not always the case. Because many of the Certificate - #pr-Energy, proposed ad-hoc routing protocols have a traditional routing protocol as underlying algorithm, it is Letter For University Admission | Appeal necessary to Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal understand the basic operation for Reference For University | Appeal, conventional protocols like distance vector, link state and source routing. 2.2.2 Link State In link-state routing , each node maintains a view of the complete topology with a cost for each link. To keep these costs consistent; each node periodically broadcasts the link costs of its outgoing links to all other nodes using flooding. As each node receives this information, it updates its view of the network and applies a shortest path algorithm to choose the next-hop for each destination. Some link costs in a node view can be incorrect because of long propagation delays, partitioned networks, etc.
Such inconsistent network topology views can lead to formation of routing-loops. These loops are however short-lived, because they disappear in the time it takes a message to traverse the Free Louisiana Boat Bill Form (.doc), diameter of the network. 2.2.3 Distance Vector In distance vector  each node only monitors the cost of its outgoing links, but instead of broadcasting this information to all nodes, it periodically broadcasts to each of its neighbors an estimate of the shortest distance to every other node in the network. The receiving nodes then use this information to 10+ Student Reference recalculate the Free Bill Of Sale Form | Pdf | Word, routing tables, by 10+ Student Letter For University using a shortest path algorithm. Compared to Of Attorney - Legal Templates - Agreements link-state, distance vector is more computation efficient, easier to 10+ Student Reference implement and requires much less storage space. However, it is well known that distance vector can cause the formation of both short-lived and 12+ Free Mockup long-lived routing loops. 10+ Student Letter For University Admission! The primary cause for this is that the nodes choose their next-hops in a completely distributed manner based on information that can be stale. 2.2.4 Source Routing Source routing  means that each packet must carry the complete path that the 12+ Free Brochure Mockup, packet should take through the network. Reference For University Admission | Appeal! The routing decision is therefore made at the source. The advantage with this approach is that it is very easy to avoid routing loops.
The disadvantage is Certificate For Judges that each packet requires a slight overhead. Letter Admission | Appeal! 14 2.2.5 Flooding Many routing protocols uses broadcast to distribute control information, that is, send the control information from an origin node to all other nodes. A widely used form of broadcasting is Resume High flooding  and operates as follows. The origin node sends its information to its neighbors (in the wireless case, this means all nodes that are within transmitter range). The neighbors relay it to their neighbors and so on, until the packet has reached all nodes in the network.
A node will only relay a packet once and to Reference Letter ensure this some sort of sequence number can be used. This sequence number is increased for Of Attorney - Agreements, each new packet a node sends. 2.2.6 Classification Routing protocols can be classified  into different categories depending on their properties. N N N Centralized vs. Distributed Static vs.
Adaptive Reactive vs. 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission! Proactive One way to categorize the routing protocols is to divide them into centralized and distributed algorithms. (brazil) - Legal Templates! In centralized algorithms, all route choices are made at a central node, while in distributed algorithms, the computation of routes is shared among the Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal, network nodes. Another classification of routing protocols relates to whether they change routes in response to the traffic input patterns. Louisiana Of Sale (.doc)! In static algorithms, the route used by source-destination pairs is fixed regardless of traffic conditions. It can only 10+ Student Reference For University Admission change in By Step | Pulse, response to a node or link failure. This type of For University Admission | Appeal algorithm cannot achieve high throughput under a broad variety of traffic input patterns. Of Appreciation For Judges! Most major packet networks uses some form of adaptive routing where the routes used to route between source-destination pairs may change in response to congestion A third classification that is more related to ad-hoc networks is to classify the routing algorithms as either proactive or reactive. Proactive protocols attempt to Reference Admission | Appeal continuously evaluate the routes within the network, so that when a packet needs to Templates School be forwarded, the route is Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal already known and can be immediately used. The family of Resume Templates High Distance-Vector protocols is an Admission, example of Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal a proactive scheme.
Reactive protocols, on the other hand, invoke a route determination procedure on 10+ Student Reference For University | Appeal, demand only. Thus, when a route is needed, some sort of global search procedure is employed. Bill | Pdf | Word! The family of classical flooding algorithms belongs to the reactive group. Proactive schemes have the advantage that when a route is 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal needed, the delay before actual packets can be sent is very small. On the other side proactive schemes needs time to Resume Students School converge to a steady state. This can cause problems if the topology is changing frequently. 15 3 Ad-hoc routing protocols This chapter describes the different ad-hoc routing protocols that we have chosen to simulate and analyze.
3.1 Desirable properties If the conventional routing protocols do not meet our demands, we need a new routing protocol. The question is what properties such protocols should have? These are some of the properties  that are desirable: Distributed operation The protocol should of course be distributed. It should not be dependent on a centralized controlling node. This is the case even for stationary networks. The difference is that nodes in Reference | Appeal, an ad-hoc network can enter/leave the network very easily and because of mobility the Power Of Attorney - Agreements, network can be partitioned. Loop free To improve the overall performance, we want the routing protocol to guarantee that the routes supplied are loop-free. This avoids any waste of bandwidth or CPU consumption. Demand based operation To minimize the control overhead in the network and thus not wasting network resources more than necessary, the protocol should be reactive. This means that the protocol should only react when needed and 10+ Student For University | Appeal that the protocol should not periodically broadcast control information. Unidirectional link support The radio environment can cause the | Hamid | Pulse, formation of unidirectional links.
Utilization of these links and not only the Letter For University Admission, bi-directional links improves the routing protocol performance. Security The radio environment is especially vulnerable to impersonation attacks, so to ensure the wanted behavior from the routing protocol, we need some sort of preventive security measures. Authentication and encryption is probably the way to go and the problem here lies within distributing keys among the nodes in the ad-hoc network. There are also discussions about using IP-sec  that uses tunneling to International Marketing Assignment Sample transport all packets. Power conservation The nodes in an ad-hoc network can be laptops and thin clients, such as PDAs that are very limited in battery power and 10+ Student Letter For University | Appeal therefore uses some sort of stand-by mode to save power.
It is therefore important that the 12+ Free Brochure, routing protocol has support for these sleep-modes. Multiple routes To reduce the Reference Letter Admission, number of reactions to topological changes and By Step | Hamid | Pulse congestion multiple routes could be used. Reference Letter! If one route has become invalid, it is possible that another stored route could still be valid and Step By Step Guide Planning | Hamid | Pulse thus saving the routing protocol from initiating another route discovery procedure. Quality of service support Some sort of Quality of Service support is probably necessary to incorporate into the routing protocol. This has a lot to do with what these networks will be used for. It could for instance be real-time traffic support. None of the proposed protocols from 10+ Student Reference | Appeal, MANET have all these properties, but it is necessary to remember that the protocols are still under development and are probably extended with more functionality. Brochure Mockup Psd Download! The primary function is still to Letter For University find a route to the destination, not to find the By Step Guide Mirzaei, best/optimal/shortest-path route. The remainder of this chapter will describe the different routing protocols and analyze them theoretically.
16 3.2 MANET IETF has a working group named MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Networks)  that is working in the field of 10+ Student Letter For University Admission | Appeal adhoc networks. 12+ Free Brochure Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog! They are currently developing routing specifications for ad-hoc IP networks that support scaling to 10+ Student For University | Appeal a couple of Templates School hundred nodes. Their goal is to be finished in the end of year 1999 and then introduce these specifications to the Internet standard tracks. Even if MANET currently is working on 10+ Student Reference For University Admission | Appeal, routing protocols, it also serves as a meeting place and forum, so people can discuss issues concerning ad-hoc networks. Currently they have seven routing protocol drafts: N N N N N N N N AODV - Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector  ZRP - Zone Routing Protocol  TORA / IMEP - Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm / Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol  DSR - Dynamic Source Routing  CBRP - Cluster Based Routing Protocol  CEDAR - Core Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing  AMRoute – Ad-hoc Multicast Routing Protocol  OLSR - Optimized Link State Routing Protocol  Of these proposed protocols we have chosen to analyze AODV, DSR, ZRP, CBRP and Templates High School TORA theoretically. We have also analyzed DSDV, which is a proactive approach, as opposed to the other reactive protocols. We have not analyzed AMRoute because it is a multicast routing protocol, neither CEDAR because it is primary a QoS routing protocol, nor OLSR, because it was submitted as an Internet draft so late. 10+ Student Reference | Appeal! In those cases where a protocol supports both unicast and multicast routing we have only looked at the unicast routing part.
Of the theoretically analyzed protocols we have done simulations on AODV and DSR. 3.3 Destination Sequenced Distance Vector - DSDV 3.3.1 Description DSDV  is a hop-by-hop distance vector routing protocol that in each node has a routing table that for all reachable destinations stores the next-hop and number of hops for Brochure, that destination. Like distance-vector, DSDV requires that each node periodically broadcast routing updates. Letter! The advantage with DSDV over traditional distance vector protocols is Bill | Pdf (.doc) that DSDV guarantees loop-freedom. To guarantee loop-freedom DSDV uses a sequence numbers to tag each route. 10+ Student Reference Letter! The sequence number shows the 12+ Free Brochure Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog, freshness of a route and routes with higher sequence numbers are favorable. Letter Admission | Appeal! A route R is considered more favorable than R' if R has a greater sequence number or, if the For Judges - #pr-Energy, routes have the For University | Appeal, same sequence number but R has lower hop-count. Mockup Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog! The sequence number is Reference Letter Admission increased when a node A detects that a route to a destination D has broken. So the next time node A advertises its routes, it will advertise the route to D with an infinite hop-count and a sequence number that is larger than before. DSDV basically is distance vector with small adjustments to make it better suited for ad-hoc networks.
These adjustments consist of Mockup Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog triggered updates that will take care of topology changes in the time between broadcasts. To reduce the Letter | Appeal, amount of information in Guide On Project Planning Mirzaei, these packets there are two types of update messages defined: full and incremental dump. The full dump carries all available routing information and the incremental dump that only carries the information that has changed since the last dump. 3.3.2 Properties Because DSDV is dependent on periodic broadcasts it needs some time to converge before a route can be used. This converge time can probably be considered negligible in a static wired network, where the Admission | Appeal, topology is not changing so frequently. 12+ Free Psd Download! In an ad-hoc network on the other hand, where the 10+ Student Reference Letter, topology is expected to be very dynamic, this converge time will probably mean a lot of dropped packets before a valid route is detected. The periodic broadcasts also add a large amount of overhead into the network. Of Appreciation Sample For Judges! 17 3.4 Ad-hoc On Demand Distance vector - AODV 3.4.1 Description The Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV)  routing protocol enables multi-hop routing between participating mobile nodes wishing to establish and maintain an ad-hoc network. AODV is based upon the distance vector algorithm. The difference is that AODV is reactive, as opposed to proactive protocols like DV, i.e. AODV only requests a route when needed and Letter For University Admission does not require nodes to maintain routes to destinations that are not actively used in communications.
As long as the endpoints of High a communication connection have valid routes to each other, AODV does not play any role. 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission | Appeal! Features of Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal Templates this protocol include loop freedom and that link breakages cause immediate notifications to be sent to the affected set of nodes, but only that set. Additionally, AODV has support for multicast routing and avoids the Bellman Ford counting to infinity problem . The use of Reference Letter For University | Appeal destination sequence numbers guarantees that a route is fresh. The algorithm uses different messages to discover and maintain links. Mockup! Whenever a node wants to 10+ Student Letter For University try and find a route to another node, it broadcasts a Route Request (RREQ) to all its neighbors. The RREQ propagates through the network until it reaches the destination or a node with a fresh enough route to International Marketing Research the destination. Then the Letter For University | Appeal, route is made available by unicasting a RREP back to Free Boat Form the source. The algorithm uses hello messages (a special RREP) that are broadcasted periodically to 10+ Student Reference Admission the immediate neighbors. By Step Guide On Project Planning | Hamid Mirzaei! These hello messages are local advertisements for the continued presence of the Letter Admission, node and neighbors using routes through the broadcasting node will continue to mark the routes as valid. If hello messages stop coming from Power Templates, a particular node, the neighbor can assume that the node has moved away and mark that link to Letter the node as broken and notify the Louisiana Bill Form | Word (.doc), affected set of nodes by sending a link failure notification (a special RREP) to 10+ Student Reference Admission that set of nodes.
AODV also has a multicast route invalidation message, but because we do not cover multicast in this report we will not discuss this any further. Route table management AODV needs to keep track of the following information for each route table entry: N N N N N N N Destination IP Address: IP address for Of Attorney - Legal Templates, the destination node. Destination Sequence Number: Sequence number for this destination. Hop Count: Number of hops to the destination. Next Hop: The neighbor, which has been designated to forward packets to 10+ Student Reference | Appeal the destination for this route entry. Lifetime: The time for which the route is considered valid. Active neighbor list: Neighbor nodes that are actively using this route entry. Request buffer: Makes sure that a request is only processed once. Route discovery A node broadcasts a RREQ when it needs a route to a destination and does not have one available. This can happen if the route to the destination is Louisiana Boat Form | Word unknown, or if a previously valid route expires. After broadcasting a RREQ, the node waits for a RREP.
If the reply is not received within a certain time, the node may rebroadcast the RREQ or assume that there is 10+ Student For University no route to Marketing Research the destination. 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission | Appeal! Forwarding of RREQs is done when the Resume Templates High School, node receiving a RREQ does not have a route to the destination. It then rebroadcast the RREQ. The node also creates a temporary reverse route to the Source IP Address in its routing table with next hop equal to Reference For University the IP address field of the neighboring node that sent the broadcast RREQ. This is done to 12+ Free Brochure Mockup Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog keep track of a route back to Letter the original node making the request, and might be used for an eventual RREP to By Step Guide On Project | Hamid | Pulse find its way back to the requesting node. The route is temporary in 10+ Student Reference | Appeal, the sense that it is valid for a much shorter time, than an Resume Students, actual route entry. When the RREQ reaches a node that either is the For University Admission | Appeal, destination node or a node with a valid route to For Judges - #pr-Energy the destination, a RREP is generated and unicasted back to the requesting node.
While this RREP is forwarded, a route is created to 10+ Student Letter Admission | Appeal the destination and when the RREP reaches the source node, there exists a route from the Sample - #pr-Energy, source to the destination. 18 Route maintenance When a node detects that a route to a neighbor no longer is valid, it will remove the routing entry and send a link failure message, a triggered route reply message to the neighbors that are actively using the route, informing them that this route no longer is 10+ Student Letter Admission | Appeal valid. Resume Templates Students! For this purpose AODV uses a active neighbor list to keep track of the 10+ Student Letter For University, neighbors that are using a particular route. The nodes that receive this message will repeat this procedure. The message will eventually be received by the affected sources that can chose to either stop sending data or requesting a new route by sending out a new RREQ. 3.4.2 Properties The advantage with AODV compared to For Judges classical routing protocols like distance vector and 10+ Student Letter link-state is International Sample that AODV has greatly reduced the number of routing messages in the network. AODV achieves this by using a reactive approach. This is probably necessary in an ad-hoc network to get reasonably performance when the topology is changing often. AODV is also routing in the more traditional sense compared to for instance source routing based proposals like DSR (see 3.5). The advantage with a more traditional routing protocol in an ad-hoc network is that connections from the ad-hoc network to a wired network like the Internet is most likely easier.
The sequence numbers that AODV uses represents the freshness of a route and is increased when something happens in the surrounding area. The sequence prevents loops from being formed, but can however also be the cause for new problems. What happens for | Appeal, instance when the sequence numbers no longer are synchronized in Marketing, the network? This can happen when the network becomes partitioned, or the sequence numbers wrap around. AODV only support one route for each destination. It should however be fairly easy to modify AODV, so that it supports several routes per destination. Letter | Appeal! Instead of requesting a new route when an old route becomes invalid, the next stored route to that destination could be tried.
The probability for Brochure Mockup Psd Download, that route to still be valid should be rather high. Although the Triggered Route Replies are reduced in 10+ Student, number by only sending the Triggered Route Replies to affected senders, they need to traverse the whole way from the failure to the senders. This distance can be quite high in numbers of hops. AODV sends one Triggered RREP for every active neighbor in the active neighbor list for Brochure Mockup Psd Download, all entries that have been affected of a link failure. This can mean that each active neighbor can receive several triggered RREPs informing about the same link failure, but for 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission, different destinations, if a large fraction of the network traffic is routed through the same node and this node goes down. An aggregated solution would be more appropriate here.
AODV uses hello messages at the IP-level. This means that AODV does not need support from the link layer to work properly. It is however questionable if this kind of protocol can operate with good performance without support from the Brochure Psd Download, link layer. The hello messages adds a significant overhead to the protocol. AODV does not support unidirectional links.
When a node receives a RREQ, it will setup a reverse route to the source by using the node that forwarded the RREQ as nexthop. This means that the route reply, in most cases is 10+ Student Reference | Appeal unicasted back the Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog, same way as the route request used. Unidirectional link support would make it possible to utilize all links and not only the bi-directional links. It is however questionable if unidirectional links are desirable in a real environment. The acknowledgements in the MAC protocol IEEE 802.11 would for 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission, instance not work with unidirectional links. 19 3.5 Dynamic Source Routing - DSR 3.5.1 Description Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)  also belongs to the class of reactive protocols and allows nodes to dynamically discover a route across multiple network hops to any destination. Source routing means that each packet in its header carries the complete ordered list of nodes through which the packet must pass. DSR uses no periodic routing messages (e.g. no router advertisements), thereby reducing network bandwidth overhead, conserving battery power and avoiding large routing updates throughout the ad-hoc network. Instead DSR relies on support from the MAC layer (the MAC layer should inform the High, routing protocol about link failures). Reference Letter Admission | Appeal! The two basic modes of operation in For Judges - #pr-Energy, DSR are route discovery and route maintenance. Route discovery Route discovery is the mechanism whereby a node X wishing to send a packet to Y, obtains the source route to Y. Node X requests a route by broadcasting a Route Request (RREQ) packet.
Every node receiving this RREQ searches through its route cache for a route to the requested destination. DSR stores all known routes in its route cache. If no route is found, it forwards the RREQ further and adds its own address to the recorded hop sequence. Admission | Appeal! This request propagates through the network until either the destination or a node with a route to the destination is Louisiana Boat Bill Form reached. When this happen a Route Reply (RREP) is unicasted back to the originator. This RREP packet contains the sequence of network hops through which it may reach the target. Reference Letter! In Route Discovery, a node first sends a RREQ with the By Step Guide On Project Mirzaei | Pulse, maximum propagation limit (hop limit) set to zero, prohibiting its neighbors from rebroadcasting it.
At the cost of Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal a single broadcast packet, this mechanism allows a node to query the Form | Pdf, route caches of all its neighbors. Nodes can also operate their network interface in promiscuous mode, disabling the interface address filtering and causing the network protocol to receive all packets that the interface overhears. These packets are scanned for useful source routes or route error messages and 10+ Student Reference Letter then discarded. The route back to Power Templates - Agreements the originator can be retrieved in 10+ Student, several ways. The simplest way is to reverse the hop record in the packet. However this assumes symmetrical links. To deal with this, DSR checks the route cache of the replying node. If a route is found, it is used instead.
Another way is to piggyback the Of Sale Form | Word (.doc), reply on a RREQ targeted at the originator. This means that DSR can compute correct routes in the presence of asymmetric (unidirectional) links. Once a route is found, it is stored in Admission | Appeal, the cache with a time stamp and the route maintenance phase begins. Route maintenance Route maintenance is the mechanism by International Assignment which a packet sender S detects if the network topology has changed so that it can no longer use its route to the destination D. This might happen because a host listed in a source route, move out of wireless transmission range or is turned off making the route unusable. A failed link is detected by either actively monitoring acknowledgements or passively by running in promiscuous mode, overhearing that a packet is forwarded by a neighboring node. When route maintenance detects a problem with a route in use, a route error packet is sent back to 10+ Student Reference For University the source node. When this error packet is received, the hop in Free Boat | Pdf | Word, error is removed from this hosts route cache, and all routes that contain this hop are truncated at 10+ Student Letter | Appeal, this point.
3.5.2 Properties DSR uses the key advantage of source routing. Intermediate nodes do not need to Step Planning Mirzaei maintain up-to-date routing information in order to route the For University Admission, packets they forward. There is High School also no need for periodic routing advertisement messages, which will lead to reduce network bandwidth overhead, particularly during periods when little or no significant host movement is taking place. Battery power is also conserved on 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal, the mobile hosts, both by not sending the Of Appreciation - #pr-Energy, advertisements and by not needing to receive them, a host could go down to sleep instead. 10+ Student Letter For University! This protocol has the advantage of learning routes by Certificate - #pr-Energy scanning for information in packets that are received. A route from A to C through B means that A learns the route to C, but also that it will learn the route to Letter Admission B. The source route will also mean that B learns the route to A and C and that C learns the route to Psd Download A and B. This form of active learning is very good and Reference Letter For University | Appeal reduces overhead in the network. 20 However, each packet carries a slight overhead containing the source route of the packet. This overhead grows when the packet has to go through more hops to reach the Templates School, destination. So the packets sent will be slightly bigger, because of the overhead.
Running the interfaces in promiscuous mode is a serious security issue. 10+ Student! Since the address filtering of the Power - Legal Templates - Agreements, interface is turned off and all packets are scanned for information. 10+ Student Letter For University! A potential intruder could listen to all packets and scan them for Step | Hamid | Pulse, useful information such as passwords and credit card numbers. Applications have to provide the security by encrypting their data packets before transmission. The routing protocols are prime targets for impersonation attacks and 10+ Student Reference For University Admission must therefore also be encrypted. One way to achieve this is to use IPsec . DSR also has support for unidirectional links by the use of piggybacking the source route a new request. This can increase the performance in scenarios where we have a lot of unidirectional links.
We must however have a MAC protocol that also supports this. 3.6 Zone Routing Protocol - ZRP 3.6.1 Description Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)  is Free Louisiana Bill Of Sale Form | Pdf | Word a hybrid of a reactive and a proactive protocol. It divides the network into several routing zones and specifies two totally detached protocols that operate inside and between the Reference Letter | Appeal, routing zones. The Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP) operates inside the routing zone and Of Attorney Templates - Agreements learns the minimum distance and routes to | Appeal all the nodes within the zone. The protocol is not defined and Step Guide On Project Planning Mirzaei can include any number of proactive protocols, such as Distance Vector or link-state routing. Different zones may operate with different intrazone protocols as long as the protocols are restricted to those zones. Reference | Appeal! A change in topology means that update information only propagates within the affected routing zones as opposed to 12+ Free | Psdtemplatesblog affecting the entire network. The second protocol, the Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP) is reactive and 10+ Student Reference | Appeal is used for finding routes between different routing zones.
This is useful if the destination node does not lie within the routing zone. The protocol then broadcasts (i.e. bordercasts) a Route REQuest (RREQ) to all border nodes within the routing zone, which in turn forwards the request if the destination node is not found within their routing zone. This procedure is 12+ Free Brochure | Psdtemplatesblog repeated until the requested node is found and a route reply is sent back to the source indicating the For University Admission | Appeal, route. Bill Form | Pdf! IERP uses a Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP)  that is included in 10+ Student Admission, ZRP. BRP provides bordercasting services, which do not exist in IP. Bordercasting is the process of sending IP datagrams from one node to all its peripheral nodes.
BRP keeps track of the 12+ Free | Psdtemplatesblog, peripheral nodes and resolves a border cast address to Reference For University Admission | Appeal the individual IP-addresses of the Step By Step | Pulse, peripheral nodes. The message that was bordercasted is then encapsulated into a BRP packet and sent to each peripheral node. Routing Zone A routing zone is defined as a set of Reference Letter nodes, within a specific minimum distance in number of hops from the 12+ Free Brochure Mockup Psd Download, node in question. The distance is referred to as the zone radius. In the example network (Figure 3), node S, A, F, B, C, G and H, all lie within a radius of two from node F. Even though node B also has a distance of Reference Letter For University 3 hops from International Marketing Assignment, node F, it is included in the zone since the shortest distance is only 2 hops. Border nodes or peripheral nodes are nodes whose minimum distance to the node in question is equal exactly to the zone radius. In Figure 3, nodes B and F are border nodes to S. 10+ Student Reference For University Admission | Appeal! Consider the network in Figure 3. Node S wants to send a packet to node D. Since node D is not in the routing zone of S, a route request is sent to the border nodes B and F. Mockup! Each border node checks to 10+ Student Reference For University Admission see if D is in their routing zone. Neither B nor F finds the requested node in their routing zone; thus the request is Louisiana Bill Of Sale Form | Word (.doc) forwarded to the respectively border nodes. F sends the request to S, B, C and H while B sends the request to 10+ Student For University | Appeal S, F, E and G. Now the requested node D is found within the - #pr-Energy, routing zone of For University Admission both C and E thus a reply is generated and Free Boat Form | Pdf sent back towards the source node S. 10+ Student! 21 B E A Zone for D C S D F Zone for S G H Zone for F Figure 3: Network using ZRP. The dashed squares show the routing zones for nodes S and D. To prevent the requests from Free Louisiana Bill Of Sale | Pdf | Word, going back to previously queried routing zone, a Processed Request List is used. This list stores previously processed requests and if a node receives a request that it already has processed, it is simply dropped.
3.6.2 Properties ZRP is a very interesting protocol and 10+ Student Reference For University can be adjusted of its operation to the current network operational conditions (e.g. change the routing zone diameter). Brochure Mockup! However this is not done dynamically, but instead it is suggested that this zone radius should be set by the administration of the 10+ Student Letter | Appeal, network or with a default value by Power (brazil) - Legal - Agreements the manufacturer. The performance of this protocol depends quite a lot on this decision. Since this is a hybrid between proactive and reactive schemes, this protocol use advantages from both. Routes can be found very fast within the routing zone, while routes outside the zone can be found by Reference Admission | Appeal efficiently querying selected nodes in the network. Free Louisiana Boat Form | Word (.doc)! One problem is Reference For University Admission | Appeal however that the Of Sale Form | Word (.doc), proactive intrazone routing protocol is not specified. 10+ Student Letter Admission! The use of different intrazone routing protocols would mean that the nodes would have to support several different routing protocols. This is not a good idea when dealing with thin clients. Marketing Research Sample! It is better to use the same intrazone routing protocol in the entire network. ZRP also limits propagation of information about For University Admission topological changes to International Marketing Research Assignment Sample the neighborhood of the change only (as opposed to a fully proactive scheme, which would basically flood the entire network when a change in topology occurred).
However, a change in topology can affect several routing zones. 3.7 Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm - TORA 3.7.1 Description Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA)  is a distributed routing protocol. The basic underlying algorithm is 10+ Student Reference Letter For University | Appeal one in a family referred to as link reversal algorithms. TORA is designed to minimize reaction to topological changes. A key concept in its design is that control messages are typically localized to a very small set of nodes. It guarantees that all routes are loop-free (temporary loops may form), and typically provides multiple routes for any source/destination pair.
It provides only the Certificate Of Appreciation Sample, routing mechanism and depends on Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol (IMEP ) for other underlying functions. TORA can be separated into three basic functions: creating routes, maintaining routes, and erasing routes. The creation of routes basically assigns directions to For University | Appeal links in an undirected network or portion of the network, building a directed acyclic graph (DAG) rooted at the destination (See Figure 4). 22 D Figure 4: Directed acyclic graph rooted at destination. TORA associates a height with each node in the network. All messages in the network flow downstream, from a node with higher height to Assignment Sample a node with lower height. Reference For University | Appeal! Routes are discovered using Query (QRY) and Brochure Psd Download Update (UPD) packets. When a node with no downstream links needs a route to a destination, it will broadcast a QRY packet. 10+ Student Letter | Appeal! This QRY packet will propagate through the network until it reaches a node that has a route or the destination itself. Such a node will then broadcast a UPD packet that contains the node height. Every node receiving this UPD packet will set its own height to a larger height than specified in the UPD message.
The node will then broadcast its own UPD packet. This will result in a number of directed links from the originator of the QRY packet to the destination. This process can result in Guide Planning | Hamid, multiple routes. Maintaining routes refers to reacting to topological changes in the network in a manner such that routes to Reference Letter Admission | Appeal the destination are re-established within a finite time, meaning that its directed portions return to a destination-oriented graph within a finite time. Upon detection of Certificate Sample - #pr-Energy a network partition, all links in the portion of the network that has become partitioned from the Reference Letter Admission | Appeal, destination are marked as undirected to erase invalid routes. The erasing of routes is Guide On Project done using clear (CLR) messages.
3.7.2 Properties The protocols underlying link reversal algorithm will react to link changes through a simple localized single pass of the distributed algorithm. This prevents CLR packets to propagate too far in the network. A comparison made by the CMU Monarch project has however shown that the overhead in TORA is quite large because of the use of IMEP. The graph is rooted at the destination, which has the lowest height. However, the source originating the 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission, QRY does not necessarily have the highest height. This can lead to the situation, where multiple routes are possible from the source to Brochure Psd Download the destination, but only one route will be discovered. The reason for this is that the height is initially based on the distance in number of hops from the destination.
23 3.8 Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol - IMEP 3.8.1 Description IMEP  is a protocol designed to support the operation of many routing protocols in Ad-hoc networks. The idea is to 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission have a common general protocol that all routing protocols can make use of (see Figure 5). It incorporates many common mechanisms that the upper-layer protocol may need. These include: N N N N N Link status sensing Control message aggregation and encapsulation Broadcast reliability Network-layer address resolution Hooks for interrouter security authentication procedures IMEP also provides an architecture for MANET router identification, interface identification and Free Bill Of Sale Form | Pdf (.doc) addressing. IMEPs purpose is to Reference | Appeal improve overall performance by reducing the Power Of Attorney - Legal Templates - Agreements, number of control messages and to put common functionality into one unified, generic protocol useful to Reference Letter For University | Appeal all upper-level routing protocols. Routing IMEP IP Figure 5: IMEP in the protocol stack. Of the currently purposed protocols, only 12+ Free Brochure Mockup Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog TORA and OLSR use IMEP. It must however be noted that TORA and IMEP where designed by the same author. Reference Letter For University! 3.8.2 Properties The idea to have a general protocol for common basic features is good, but from a performance point of view this is not such a good idea. It adds another layer to Certificate Of Appreciation Sample the protocol stack. As the work by the CMU Monarch projects has shown , IMEP generates a lot of 10+ Student Reference Letter For University | Appeal overhead, mainly because of IMEPs neighbor discovery mechanism that generates at least one hello message per second, but also because of the (brazil) - Legal Templates, reliable in-order delivery of the 10+ Student, packets that IMEP provides.
3.9 Cluster Based Routing Protocol - CBRP 3.9.1 Description The idea behind CBRP  is to divide the nodes of an ad-hoc network into a number of overlapping or disjoint clusters. One node is elected as cluster head for each cluster. This cluster head maintains the membership information for the cluster. Inter-cluster routes (routes within a cluster) are discovered dynamically using the membership information. 24 CBRP is based on source routing, similar to Free Louisiana Boat Of Sale Form (.doc) DSR. This means that intracluster routes (routes between clusters) are found by flooding the network with Route Requests (RREQ). The difference is that the cluster structure generally means that the 10+ Student Letter, number of nodes disturbed are much less. Flat routing protocols, i.e. only one level of hierarchy, might suffer from excessive overhead when scaled up. CBRP is like the other protocols fully distributed. This is necessary because of the very dynamic topology of the ad-hoc network. Furthermore, the International Marketing Research Assignment, protocol takes into consideration the existence of unidirectional links.
Link sensing Each node in CBRP knows its bi-directional links to its neighbors as well as unidirectional links from its neighbors to itself. To handle this, each node must maintain a Neighbor Table (see Table 1). Table 1: Neighbor ID Neighbor 1 Neighbor 2 … Neighbor n Neighbor table. Link status Bi/unidirectional link to me Bi/unidirectional link to Letter For University Admission | Appeal me … Bi/unidirectional link to me Role Is 1 a cluster head or member Is 2 a cluster head or member … Is n a cluster head or member Each node periodically broadcasts its neighbor table in a hello message. The hello message contains the node ID, the nodes role (cluster head, cluster member or undecided) and the neighbor table. The hello messages are used to update the neighbor tables at each node. If no hello message is received from a certain node, that entry will be removed from the Of Appreciation Sample For Judges, table. Clusters The cluster formation algorithm is very simple, the node with lowest node ID is elected as the cluster head. The nodes use the Letter Admission, information in the hello messages to decide whether or not they are the cluster heads. The cluster head regards all nodes it has bi-directinal links to as its member nodes.
A node regards itself as a member node to a particular cluster if it has a bi-directinal link to the cluster head. It is possible for Templates Students School, a node to belong to several clusters. Cluster 1 Cluster 2 3 4 Cluster head Cluster head 1 2 6 Figure 6: 5 Bi-directional linked clusters. 25 Clusters are identified by their respective cluster heads, which means that the cluster head must change as infrequently as possible. The algorithm is Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal therefore not a strict lowest ID clustering algorithm. A noncluster head never challenges the status of an existing cluster head. Marketing Assignment! Only when two cluster-heads move next to each other, will one of them lose the role as cluster head. In Figure 6 node 1 is cluster head for cluster 1 and node 2 is cluster head for cluster 2. Reference Admission! Routing Routing in Brochure Psd Download, CBRP is based on source routing and the route discovery is done, by flooding the 10+ Student Reference For University | Appeal, network with Route Requests (RREQ). The clustering approach however means that fewer nodes are disturbed. This, because only the cluster heads are flooded.
If node X needs a route to node Y, node X will send out a RREQ, with a recorded source route listing only itself initially. Any node forwarding this packet will add its own ID in this RREQ. Each node forwards a RREQ only Free Boat Bill | Pdf | Word once and it never forwards it to node that already appears in the recorded route. 10+ Student Reference For University Admission! In CBRP, a RREQ will always follow a route with the following pattern: Source-Cluster head-Gateway-Cluster head-Gateway- . -Destination A gateway node for a cluster is a node that knows that it has a bi-directional or a unidirectional link to a node in another cluster. In Figure 6, node 6 is Power Of Attorney - Legal Templates - Agreements gateway node for cluster 1 and node 4 is gateway node for cluster 2. The source unicasts the 10+ Student Reference Letter | Appeal, RREQ to its cluster head. Each cluster-head unicasts the RREQ to each of its bidirectionally linked neighbor clusters, which has not already appeared in the recorded route through the corresponding gateway. High School! There does not necessarily have to be an actual bi-directional link to a bi-directional linked neighbor cluster. For instance, in Figure 6 cluster 1 has a unidirectional link to cluster 2 through node 3 and cluster 2 has a unidirectional link to cluster 1 through node 5, and the clusters are therefore bidirectional linked neighbor clusters. This procedure continues until the target is found or another node can supply the route. When the RREQ reaches the target, the target may chose to memorize the reversed route to the source. It then copies the recorded route to a Route Reply packet and sends it back to the source.
3.9.2 Properties This protocol has a lot of common features with the earlier discussed protocols. It has a route discovery and route removal operation that has a lot in common with DSR and For University Admission | Appeal AODV. The clustering approach is probably a very good approach when dealing with large ad-hoc networks. The solution is more scalable than the other protocols, because it uses the clustering approach that limits the number of messages that need to be sent. CBRP also has the advantage that it utilizes unidirectional links.
One remaining question is Power Of Attorney - Agreements however how large each cluster should be. This parameter is Reference critical to how the protocol will behave. Power Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal Templates! 3.10 Comparison So far, the protocols have been analyzed theoretically. Table 2 summarizes and compares the result from these theoretical/qualitative analyses and shows what properties the protocols have and do not have. As it can be seen from 10+ Student Reference Letter For University, Table 2, none of the protocols support power conservation or Quality of Service. This is however work in progress and will probably be added to the protocols. All protocols are distributed, thus none of the protocols is dependent on a centralized node and can therefore easily reconfigure in the event of topology changes.
26 Table 2: Comparison between ad-hoc routing protocols. DSDV AODV DSR ZRP Loop-free Yes Yes Yes Yes Multiple routes Distributed Reactive Unidirectional link support QoS Support Multicast Security Power conservation Periodic broadcasts No Yes No No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes Partially No No No No No Yes Requires reliable or sequenced data No No No No TORA/ IMEP No, short lived loops Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes (IMEP) Yes CBRP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No DSDV is the only proactive protocol in this comparison. It is also the protocol that have most in common with traditional routing protocol in International Marketing, wired networks. The sequence numbers were added to ensure loop-free routes. DSDV will probably be good enough in networks, which allows the protocol to converge in reasonable time. This however means that the Letter For University | Appeal, mobility cannot be too high. The authors of DSDV came to the same conclusions and designed AODV, which is a reactive version of DSDV. They also added multicast capabilities, which will enhance the performance significantly when one node communicates with several nodes.
The reactive approach in AODV has many similarities with the reactive approach of DSR. They both have a route discovery mode that uses request messages to Resume Templates School find new routes. The difference is that DSR is 10+ Student Letter For University based on source routing and will learn more routes than AODV. DSR also has the advantage that it supports unidirectional links. DSR has however one major drawback and it is the source route that must be carried in each packet. This can be quite costly, especially when QoS is Sample going to be used. For University | Appeal! ZRP and CBRP are two very interesting proposals that divide the network into several zones/clusters. This approach is probably a very good solution for large networks. Within the zones/clusters they have a more proactive scheme and between the zones/clusters they have a reactive scheme that have many similarities with the Power Of Attorney - Legal Templates - Agreements, operation of AODV and DSR. They have for Reference For University, instance a route discovery phase that sends request through the network. 12+ Free Brochure Mockup! The difference between ZRP and CBRP is how the network is divided.
In ZRP all zones are overlapping and in CBRP clusters can be both overlapping and disjoint. None of the For University Admission | Appeal, presented protocols are adaptive, meaning that the Templates Students, protocols do not take any smart routing decisions when the traffic load in the network is taken into consideration. 10+ Student Reference Letter For University! As a route selection criteria the 12+ Free Brochure Mockup | Psdtemplatesblog, proposed protocols use metrics such as shortest number of hops and 10+ Student Reference For University | Appeal quickest response time to Resume Templates School a request. This can lead to the situation where all packets are routed through the Letter For University, same node even if there exist better routes where the Of Appreciation For Judges - #pr-Energy, traffic load is not as large. 27 4 Simulation Environment The simulator we have used to simulate the 10+ Student Reference Letter For University, ad-hoc routing protocols in is the | Pulse, Network Simulator 2 (ns)  from Berkeley. To simulate the 10+ Student | Appeal, mobile wireless radio environment we have used a mobility extension to ns that is Research Assignment Sample developed by the CMU Monarch project at Carnegie Mellon University. 4.1 Network Simulator Network simulator 2 is the result of an 10+ Student Reference | Appeal, on-going effort of research and development that is administrated by researchers at By Step Mirzaei, Berkeley. It is a discrete event simulator targeted at networking research. 10+ Student Reference For University Admission! It provides substantial support for simulation of TCP, routing, and multicast protocols. The simulator is written in By Step Guide Planning | Hamid Mirzaei | Pulse, C++ and a script language called OTcl2.
Ns uses an 10+ Student Reference For University Admission | Appeal, Otcl interpreter towards the user. This means that the user writes an OTcl script that defines the network (number of nodes, links), the traffic in the network (sources, destinations, type of traffic) and Certificate Of Appreciation For Judges which protocols it will use. This script is 10+ Student | Appeal then used by ns during the simulations. The result of the simulations is an output trace file that can be used to Power Of Attorney (brazil) - Agreements do data processing (calculate delay, throughput etc) and to Reference Letter Admission | Appeal visualize the simulation with a program called Network Animator (NAM). See Appendix C for a screenshot of NAM. NAM is a very good visualization tool that visualizes the packets as they propagate through the network. An overview of how a simulation is done in ns is shown in Figure 7. Otcl script Network Simulator 2 Output Data processing Network Animator Figure 7: Network simulator 2. The current version3 of the Network simulator does not support mobile wireless environments. The Network simulator alone is Resume Templates High School only intended for stationary networks with wired links. This caused us some problems in 10+ Student For University Admission, the beginning of this master thesis.
We needed mobility and therefore started to design and implement a mobility model that would extend the By Step Guide Planning | Pulse, simulator. We also started to implement the AODV protocol. This implementation of 10+ Student Reference For University AODV is compatible with NAM and therefore gives a good picture of how AODV behaves. It is very easy to follow for instance the route discovery procedure. About two months later, in August 1998, two separate mobility extensions were released. These extensions had everything that we wanted from an extension, so we decided to use one of 12+ Free Mockup | Psdtemplatesblog them. This however meant that the implementation of AODV that we made earlier no longer was compatible and had to be ported. 2 3 Object Tool Command Language Network simulator 2.1b3 28 4.2 Mobility extension There currently exist two mobility extensions to ns.
These are: N N Wireless mobility extension developed by the CMU Monarch projects . Mobility support, mobile IP and wireless channel support developed by C. Perkins at Sun Microsystems . Reference Letter For University | Appeal! The ns group at Power (brazil) - Legal - Agreements, Berkeley has as intention to integrate both these extensions to ns. This work is however not complete yet. We have chosen to 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission use the CMU Monarch extension, because this extension is targeted at ad-hoc networks. Power (brazil) - Legal Templates - Agreements! The version of the extension that we have worked with4 adds the 10+ Student For University, following features5 to the Network simulator.
Node mobility Each mobile node is an independent entity that is responsible for computing its own position and velocity as a function of time. Nodes move around according to Templates School a movement pattern specified at the beginning of the simulation. Realistic physical layers Propagation models are used to decide how far packets can travel in air. 10+ Student Reference Letter! These models also consider propagation delays, capture effects and carrier sense . MAC 802.11 An implementation of the IEEE 802.11 Media Access Protocol (MAC)  protocol was included in the extension. The MAC layer handles collision detection, fragmentation and Resume Students High School acknowledgements. This protocol may also be used to detect transmission errors. 10+ Student For University Admission! 802.11 is a CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) protocol. It avoids collisions by checking the channel before using it. If the channel is Sample free, it can start sending, if not, it must wait a random amount of time before checking again. For each retry an exponential backoff algorithm will be used.
In a wireless environment it cannot be assumed that all stations hear each other. If a station senses the medium, as free, it does not necessarily mean that the Letter | Appeal, medium is free around the receiver area. This problem is known as the Sample For Judges, hidden terminal problem and to overcome these problems the 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission, Collision Avoidance mechanism together with a positive acknowledgement scheme is used. The positive acknowledgement scheme means that the receiver sends an acknowledgement when it receives a packet. The sender will try to retransmit this packet until it receives the acknowledgement or the number of retransmits exceeds the maximum number of retransmits. 802.11 also support power saving and security. By Step | Pulse! Power saving allows packets to be buffered even if the system is 10+ Student asleep. Security is Templates Students High School provided by an algorithm called Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP). It supports authentication and encryption. WEP is a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) and is based on RSAs RC4. One of the most important features of 802.11 is the ad-hoc mode, which allows users to build up Wireless LANs without an For University, infrastructure (without an access point).
Address Resolution Protocol The Address Resolution Protocol, ARP  is implemented. ARP translates IP-addresses to hardware MAC addresses. This takes place before the packets are sent down to the MAC layer. Ad-hockey Ad-hockey is an application that makes it possible to visualize the Sample - #pr-Energy, mobile nodes as they move around and send/receives packets. Ad-hockey can also be used as a scenario generator tool to create the 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal, input files necessary for the simulations. This is done, by positioning nodes in 12+ Free Brochure Mockup Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog, a specified area.
Each node is then given a movement pattern consisting of movement directions at different waypoints, speed, pause times and communication patterns. 10+ Student Letter For University | Appeal! Screenshots of Of Appreciation ad-hockey can be seen in Appendix C. Letter For University Admission! 4 Version 1.0.0-beta, released in the middle of August. At the end of Certificate Of Appreciation For Judges - #pr-Energy November 1998, the CMU Monarch projects released version 1.1.0 of the 10+ Student Reference For University, extension. This new version contains some bug fixes and Step Planning | Hamid | Pulse implementations of the AODV and TORA protocols. 5 29 Radio network interfaces This is a model of the hardware that actually transmits the Letter | Appeal, packet onto the channel with a certain power and modulation scheme .
Transmission power The radius of the Louisiana Of Sale | Pdf | Word (.doc), transmitter with an omni-directional antenna is about 250 meters in this extension. Antenna gain and receiver sensitivity Different antennas are available for simulations. Ad-hoc routing protocols Both DSR and DSDV have been implemented and added to 10+ Student For University this extension. 4.2.1 Shared media The extension is based on a shared media model (Ethernet in the air). This means that all mobile nodes have one or more network interfaces that are connected to For Judges - #pr-Energy a channel (see Figure 8). A channel represents a particular radio frequency with a particular modulation and Reference Letter Admission | Appeal coding scheme. Channels are orthogonal, meaning that packets sent on one channel do not interfere with the transmission and reception of packets on another channel. Mockup! The basic operation is as follows, every packet that is sent / put on Reference Letter For University | Appeal, the channel is received / copied to all mobile nodes connected to Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal the same channel.
When a mobile nodes receive a packet, it first determines if it possible for it to receive the packet. This is determined by 10+ Student Reference | Appeal the radio propagation model, based on Resume High School, the transmitter range, the distance that the packet has traveled and the amount of bit errors. Mobile Node Mobile Node Mobile Node Channel Figure 8: Shared media model. 4.2.2 Mobile node Each mobile node (Figure 9) makes use of a routing agent for the purpose of calculating routes to other nodes in the ad-hoc network. Packets are sent from the application and are received by Letter For University Admission | Appeal the routing agent. The agent decides a path that the packet must travel in order to Power (brazil) reach its destination and stamps it with this information. Reference Letter | Appeal! It then sends the packet down to the link layer. The link layer level uses an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) to decide the hardware addresses of neighboring nodes and By Step Guide | Hamid Mirzaei map IP addresses to their correct interfaces. 10+ Student Letter For University | Appeal! When this information is known, the Step Guide Planning | Pulse, packet is sent down to the interface queue and awaits a signal from the Multiple Access Control (MAC) protocol.
When the MAC layer decides it is ok to 10+ Student Admission | Appeal send it onto the channel, it fetches the Certificate Of Appreciation, packet from the queue and hands it over to the network interface which in Reference For University Admission, turn sends the Sample, packet onto the radio channel. This packet is copied and is delivered to all network interfaces at the time at which the first bit of the packet would begin arriving at the interface in 10+ Student Reference For University Admission | Appeal, a physical system. Each network interface stamps the International Marketing Assignment, packet with the receiving interfaces properties and 10+ Student | Appeal then invokes the propagation model. The propagation model uses the Free Boat Bill Of Sale Form | Word, transmit and receive stamps to determine the power with which the interface will receive the packet. The receiving network interfaces then use their properties to Admission | Appeal determine if they actually successfully received the Boat Of Sale Form (.doc), packet, and sends it to the MAC layer if appropriate. Reference Letter For University Admission! If the MAC layer receives the packet error- and collision- free, it passes the By Step Guide Planning | Hamid | Pulse, packet to the mobiles entry point. From there it reaches a demultiplexer, which decides if the packet should be forwarded again, or if it has reached its destination node. If the destination node is reached, the 10+ Student Letter Admission, packet is sent to International Research Assignment Sample a port demultiplexer, which decides to Reference For University what application the packet should be delivered. If the packet should be forwarded again the routing agent will be called and the procedure will be repeated. 30 Entry point M U X Application Routing Agent Link Layer ARP Queue MAC Propagation model Network Interface Channel Figure 9: A mobile node.
4.3 Simulation overview A typical simulation with ns and the mobility extension is Guide On Project | Pulse shown in Figure 10. Letter For University Admission! Basically it consists of generating the following input files to ns: N N A scenario file that describes the movement pattern of the Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal - Agreements, nodes. 10+ Student Letter For University! A communication file that describes the traffic in the network. These files can be generated by drawing them by hand using the Mockup, visualization tool Ad-hockey (see 4.2) or by generating completely randomized movement and communication patterns with a script. These files are then used for the simulation and as a result from this, a trace file is generated as output. Prior to For University Admission | Appeal the simulation, the Power (brazil) - Legal Templates, parameters that are going to be traced during the simulation must be selected. The trace file can then be scanned and analyzed for the various parameters that we want to measure.
This can be used as data for plots with for instance Gnuplot. For University Admission! The trace file can also be used to visualize the simulation run with either Ad-hockey or Network animator. 31 Scenario generation Scenario file Communication file Mobility extension Network Simulator 2 Output files Data processing Ad-hockey GnuPlot Figure 10: Network animator Simulation overview. 4.4 Modifications To be able to use ns for the simulations, we had to do some modifications. By Step On Project | Hamid! First of all, we did not have the Reference Letter Admission | Appeal, routing protocols we wanted to Certificate Of Appreciation Sample For Judges simulate, so one of the first steps was to implement the protocols. 4.4.1 AODV We have implemented the AODV protocol (for more details, see appendix B). The implementation is done according to the AODV draft  released in August 1998. It must however be noted that a new version of the draft  was released in the end of November 1998. The new draft contains some changes that would enhance the 10+ Student Reference For University Admission, performance. These changes that affect the unicast routing part is primarily: N N Reduced or complete elimination of hello messages. Free Bill Of Sale | Pdf | Word (.doc)! Updates to important parameters to reflect recent simulation experiences.
To be able to 10+ Student Reference Admission | Appeal test how the hello messages and link layer support affects the behavior of the Power Of Attorney (brazil) Templates, protocol we have implemented three versions: N N N AODV with only IP-based hello messages AODV with only Link Layer notification of broken links AODV with both IP-based hello messages and Link layer notification of broken links The implementation of the different versions has some major differences that will affect the performance. First of all AODV with only MAC-layer support will not get the routes to the neighbors installed in the routing table, neither will it update the routes to the neighbor who forwarded a message to you. Both AODV versions that have hello messages will have this neighbor detection process that keeps track of the neighbors. This means that the protocols with this feature will have more information in the 32 routing tables. Without this support, buffering of the packets may be necessary while a request is sent out in search for a node that could be a neighbor. Reference Letter! It must however be noted that the removal of Mockup Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog hello messages somewhat changes the For University Admission, behavior of the AODV protocol. The hello messages add overhead to Free Louisiana Boat Bill | Pdf | Word (.doc) the protocol, but also gives us some prior knowledge of link breakages. Reference Letter Admission | Appeal! Removing the Free Bill Form | Pdf | Word (.doc), hello messages makes the protocol completely on-demand, broken links can only be detected when actually sending something on the broken link. The DSR implementation that was included in the mobility extension used a sendbuffer that buffered all packets that the application sent while the routing protocol searched for 10+ Student Letter For University | Appeal, a route. Brochure Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog! To get a fair comparison of the protocols we implemented the same feature for AODV. This buffer can hold 64 packets and 10+ Student | Appeal packets are allowed to stay in the buffer for 8 seconds.
The parameters that can be adjusted for International Marketing Assignment Sample, AODV and the values we have used is shown in Table 3. Some of these parameters are very important and affects the performance of the protocol in drastic ways. The hello interval is maybe the Reference For University, most important parameter when dealing with AODV that uses hello messages. Of Appreciation For Judges - #pr-Energy! If the interval is 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission too long, link breakages would not be detected fast enough, but if the interval is to short, a great amount of Free Boat Bill extra control overhead would be added. 10+ Student Letter For University Admission! Most of the parameters in Table 3 are obvious. The maximum rate for (brazil) - Legal - Agreements, sending replies prevents a node to do a triggered route reply storm.
This means that AODV in 10+ Student Reference For University Admission, each node is only allowed to send one triggered RREP per second for each broken route. This could for instance happen if a forwarding node receives a lot of Of Sale | Pdf | Word data packets that the node no longer has a route for. In this case the node should only send a triggered RREP, as a response to the first data packet and 10+ Student For University | Appeal if the 12+ Free Brochure Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog, node keeps receiving data packets after that, a triggered RREP is only allowed to 10+ Student Reference Admission | Appeal be sent once per second. Table 3: Constants used in the AODV implementation. Parameter Hello interval Active route timeout Route reply lifetime Allowed hello loss Request retries Time between retransmitted requests Time to hold packets awaiting routes Maximum rate for sending replies for a route Value 1,5 s 300 s 300 s 2 3 3s 8s 1/s 4.4.2 DSR The DSR implementation that came with the Brochure Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog, extension uses promiscuous mode (i.e. eavesdropping), which means that the 10+ Student Reference Admission | Appeal, protocol learns information from packets that it overhears. The question is how realistic this is in a real environment. In a real case scenario we will probably have some sort of encryption, probably IP-Sec that uses IP-Sec tunneling to transport messages. We have made some small change to DSR that makes it possible to turn the eavesdropping feature on and off. The parameters that are configurable for DSR are shown in Free Louisiana Boat Bill Of Sale Form | Pdf (.doc), Table 4. These values are the values specified in the DSR draft and have not been changed. 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal! The nonpropagating timeout is the Templates - Agreements, time a node waits for a reply for a nonpropagating search. A nonpropagating search is a request that first goes to the neighbors.
If the neighbors do not answer in this specified amount of 10+ Student Letter Admission a time, a new request that will be forwarded by the neighbors will be sent. The sendbuffer in the DSR can hold 64 packets and the packets are allowed to stay in the buffer for Resume Students High, 30 seconds Table 4: Constants used in the DSR implementation. Parameter Time between retransmitted requests Size of source route header carrying n addresses Timeout for nonpropagating search Time to Letter hold packets awaiting routes Maximum rate for sending replies for a route 33 Value 500 ms 4n + 4 bytes 30 ms 30 s 1/s 4.4.3 DSDV The extension also included an implementation of the DSDV protocol. Louisiana Boat Bill Form (.doc)! This implementation is actually two implementations that handle the triggered update a little different. In the first version only a new metric for a destination causes a triggered update to be sent. In the second version, a new sequence number for Admission | Appeal, a destination causes a triggered update to 12+ Free be sent. We have modified DSDV so it always uses the version that triggers on new sequence numbers. This is the version that, we feel behaves according to the specification of DSDV. 10+ Student Letter Admission! The parameters for DSDV are shown in Table 5 and are as specified in the DSDV paper .
Table 5: Constants used in | Psdtemplatesblog, the DSDV implementation. Reference Letter For University | Appeal! Parameter Periodic route update interval Periodic updates missed before link declared broken Route advertisement aggregation time Maximum packets buffered per node per destination Value 15 s 3 1s 5 4.4.4 Flooding We have implemented a simple flooding protocol that simply floods all user data packets to all nodes in the network. To have some sort cleverness in this flooding and High avoiding data to bounce back and forth we use a sequence number in each packet. This sequence number is incremented for Reference | Appeal, each new packet. Each node keeps track of Students High (source IP, sequence number) for all destinations and does not process a packet if the packet has a sequence number smaller than the stored sequence number. The idea was to 10+ Student Reference do the simulations on Power Of Attorney - Agreements, the flooding protocol and Reference Letter For University compare the results with the Power Of Attorney (brazil), results for the routing protocols. 10+ Student Reference For University! After some initial simulations on Templates Students School, flooding this plan was abandoned. The simulations took too long to complete.
The reason is Letter For University Admission that flooding generates too many packets (events in the simulator). 4.4.5 The simulator To the actual simulator (ns + extension) we have added some new features to allow us to make the Of Sale | Word, wanted measurements. Obstacles The visualization/scenario generator tool, Ad-hockey, allows the user to place obstacles (lines and boxes) into the scenario. The problem is Letter For University Admission that ns do not use these obstacles for Power (brazil) - Legal Templates, any kind of 10+ Student Letter | Appeal computation. Two nodes can communicate, even through a wall. We wanted to simulate the protocols in a few realistic scenarios, so we added these computations to Step On Project Planning | Hamid Mirzaei ns. 10+ Student For University Admission | Appeal! The calculations consisted of two parts. The first part was to 12+ Free Brochure Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog store all obstacles in a database that we later could use when calculating the Letter | Appeal, intersection points and By Step Guide On Project | Hamid | Pulse the second part was to extend the propagation model with the actual computations. The computations merely consisted of deciding if there existed an intersection point between the Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal, straight line from the sending node to the receiving node and any obstacle in the database.
If such an intersection point exists, the communication is - Agreements simply cut of. No fading of the signal, reflections etc is taken into Reference Letter For University | Appeal consideration. The model is therefore very simple. The problem with these computations is that it adds a lot of overhead in the simulations. 12+ Free Brochure Psd Download! The simulations will take significantly longer time to Admission complete. The extra computation must be done for all packets. Research Sample! In a large scenario with many nodes that are sending a lot of traffic this will increase the 10+ Student Reference Letter | Appeal, simulation time significantly. Version management To allow us to test different versions of Templates one protocol simultaneous, we have added a version control to 10+ Student Reference Letter For University ns. This means that it is possible to give a version number to a protocol when the simulation starts. This version number is Of Appreciation For Judges - #pr-Energy given to 10+ Student | Appeal the specified protocol and it is then up to the programmer to Marketing Research Assignment use it.
We currently use this feature with both AODV and | Appeal DSR. The different versions are: N N N N N AODV 1 = AODV with only hello messages. AODV 2 = AODV with only MAC-layer feedback. Louisiana Boat Of Sale Form | Pdf (.doc)! AODV 3 = AODV with both hello messages and MAC-layer feedback. DSR 1 = DSR with eavesdropping. DSR 2 = DSR without eavesdropping. 10+ Student Letter! 34 5 Simulation study The protocols that we have simulated are DSDV, AODV and DSR. DSDV is only used to 12+ Free Brochure Psd Download get a comparison of how much better/worse the MANET protocols are than an ordinary proactive protocol. Reference Letter | Appeal! The simulations were conducted on an Intel PC with a Pentium-2 processor at 400 MHz, 128 Mbytes of RAM running FreeBSD6. 5.1 Measurements Before we go into the actual simulations, we will discuss which parameters  that are interesting to measure when studying routing protocols in By Step Guide On Project Planning | Pulse, an ad-hoc network.
There are two main performance measures that are substantially affected by the routing algorithm, the average end-to-end throughput (quantity of service) and the average end-to-end delay (quality of service). 5.1.1 Quantitative metrics The measurements that we have conducted can be seen from two angels: externally and internally. The external view is what the application/user sees and the internal view is how the routing protocol behaves. The external measurements are basically the end-to-end throughput and delay. The internal behavior can further be divided into routing accuracy and routing efficiency. N N Routing Efficiency: How much of the 10+ Student Letter For University, sent data is actually delivered to the destination? How much routing overhead is required to find routes? Routing Accuracy: How accurate, measured in Templates High, number of Reference Letter Admission hops are the supplied routes compared to the optimal shortest path.
5.1.2 Parameters The metrics has to be measured against some parameter that describes the characteristic behavior of an adhoc network and 12+ Free Brochure Mockup can be varied in a controlled way. The parameters that we have chosen to simulate with are: N N N Mobility, which probably is Reference For University Admission one of the Marketing Assignment Sample, most important characteristics of an ad-hoc network. This will affect the dynamic topology, links will go up and down. Offered network load. Reference Letter! The load that we actually offer the network. This can be characterized by By Step On Project | Hamid Mirzaei | Pulse three parameters: packet size, number of connections and the rate that we are sending the 10+ Student Reference Letter, packets with. Network size (number of Certificate Of Appreciation Sample For Judges - #pr-Energy nodes, the size of the area that the nodes are moving within). The network size basically determines the connectivity. Fewer nodes in the same area mean fewer neighbors to send requests to, but also smaller probability for collisions.
5.1.3 Mobility Because mobility is an important metric when evaluating ad-hoc networks we need some definition of mobility. There exist many definitions of mobility. The CMU Monarch project  has for instance used the pause time in Reference Letter | Appeal, the waypoints as a definition of mobility. By Step On Project | Hamid Mirzaei | Pulse! If a node has a low pause time, it will almost constantly be moving, which would mean a high mobility. If a node has a large pause time it will stand still most of the time and have a low mobility. We did not think that this mobility definition was good enough, because even if the 10+ Student Reference Letter For University | Appeal, pause time is low and all nodes are constantly moving, they could all be moving with a very slow speed in the same area. We have defined mobility a little differently. Our definition is based on Step By Step On Project Planning Mirzaei, the relative movement of the nodes. This definition gives a very good picture of how the 10+ Student Reference Admission, nodes are moving relatively to each other. The definition is as follows: 6 FreeBSD 2.2.6 35 If several nodes move for Sample - #pr-Energy, a certain time, then the 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission, mobility is the average change in distance between all nodes over that period of time.
This time is the simulation time T. Mobility is a function of both the speed and Boat | Pdf (.doc) the movement pattern. Reference For University! It is calculated with a certain sampling rate. During the Certificate Of Appreciation For Judges - #pr-Energy, simulations, we have used 0.1 seconds as sampling rate. This is the default time when logging the 10+ Student Reference, movement in the simulations, so it was appropriate to use the same value when calculating the mobility. Table 6 shows all variables that are used in the equations for the mobility factor. Table 6: Variable name dist(nx, ny)t n i Ax(t) Mx T t Mob Mobility variables.
Description the distance between node x and Of Appreciation Sample node y at time t number of nodes Index Average distance for node x to all other nodes at Reference Letter For University, time t Average mobility for node x relative to all other nodes during the entire simulation time Simulation time Granularity, simulation step Mobility for entire scenario First of Power all, the average distance from each node to all other nodes has to be calculated. This has to be done at times t = 0, t = 0+X, t = 0+2X, . t = simulation time. For the node x at time t the formula is: n ¦ dist (n , n ) x Ax(t) = i i1 (5.1) n 1 After that, with the use of 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission (5.1), the average mobility for that particular node has to be calculated. This is the Free Boat | Pdf | Word (.doc), average change in 10+ Student Reference For University | Appeal, distance during a whole simulation. The mobility for node x is: T t ¦ A (t ) A (t 't ) x Mx = x t0 (5.2) T 't Finally, the mobility for the whole scenario is the sum of the mobility for all nodes (5.2) divided with the number of nodes: n ¦M Mob = i i1 (5.3) n The unit for Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal - Agreements, the mobility factor (5.3) is m/s.
The mobility factor therefore gives a picture of the average speed of the distance change between the nodes. Reference Letter! Figure 11 shows some basic examples of how this mobility factor will reflect the actual movement. If the nodes are standing still, this will of course lead to a mobility of Marketing Assignment Sample 0, but this would also be the 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission | Appeal, case when the nodes relative movement is zero, for example when the nodes are moving in parallel with the same speed. It is Boat Form | Pdf only when the nodes have a movement relative to each other that the mobility factor will be greater than zero. 36 Our mobility definition reflects how the mobility affects the dynamic topology, without considering obstacles or surroundings. Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal! Standing still 0.0 Parallel movement 0.0 Figure 11: Relative movement 0.0 Example of Guide On Project Planning Mirzaei mobility. 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission! The reason for choosing mobility as a parameter in the simulations is first of Templates Students High School all that the mobility is one of the most important characteristics of an 10+ Student Reference For University Admission, ad-hoc network. But also because mobility is Students High a parameter that is easy to grasp for people in general. Everyone has a rather good picture of 10+ Student Letter what it means if the International Research Assignment Sample, mobility is increased.
We have tested the Admission | Appeal, mobility factor to see how it affects the dynamic topology. As it can be seen in Figure 12, the number of link changes is Of Appreciation For Judges - #pr-Energy directly proportional to the mobility factor. A link change basically means that a link changes state from Letter, either up/down to down/up. The plot is the average values for all simulations that we have done using 50 nodes and an environment size of 1000x1000 meters. 3500 3000 Avg nr of link changes 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 0.5 Figure 12: 1 1.5 2 Mobility 2.5 3 3.5 Relation between the number of link changes and mobility. 37 4 5.2 Simulation setup In this chapter we will describe how the simulations were done. We have done 4 different types of Power (brazil) Templates - Agreements simulations: N N N N Mobility simulations: We vary the mobility to see how it affects the Reference Letter Admission, different metrics that we are measuring. Marketing Assignment Sample! Offered load simulations: We vary the load that we offer the network, to see how the protocols behave when for 10+ Student Reference Letter For University, instance the load is Free Boat (.doc) high. Network size simulations: We vary the number of nodes in the network. Realistic simulations: A few realistic scenarios were designed.
These simulations do not give a general view of the protocol, but instead tests certain characteristics of the protocols. Because we had different versions of both AODV and DSR we decided to first compare the different versions of the same protocol. After that we did a more general comparison where we used one version of each protocol and compared them against DSDV. Reference Letter For University Admission! The comparisons made are therefore: N N N Comparison of AODV with only Certificate Sample - #pr-Energy hello messages, AODV with only 10+ Student Reference Letter For University link layer support and ADOV with both hello messages and link layer support. Comparison of DSR with and without eavesdropping. Comparison of Certificate For Judges - #pr-Energy DSDV, AODV with both hello messages and link layer support and DSR without eavesdropping. The reason for choosing DSR without eavesdropping in the last comparison, is as mentioned earlier that this is more realistic. Security features like encryption will prohibit eavesdropping in the future. The choice of AODV with both link layer support and hello messages was made because first of all, link layer support is 10+ Student Letter probably a necessity to achieve a performance that is good enough and secondly because the removal of hello messages somewhat changes the overall functionality of AODV. Removal of hello messages would of course save us from the overhead of the Bill Of Sale Form | Pdf, hello messages, but also makes the protocol completely on-demand. A broken link could only be detected when a packet needs to be sent on the link.
In all simulations, except the realistic scenario simulations, we have used a randomized scenario. Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal! The randomized scenarios have different parameters that affect the movement patterns. The parameters that can be changed are: N N N N N Maximum speed: Every time a speed is going to be randomized it is randomized in the interval [0,maximum speed]. 12+ Free! Number of Letter For University nodes: This was constant during the simulations. Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal - Agreements! We used 50 nodes for all simulation except the size simulation where we varied the number of nodes.
Environment size: Determines the size of the environment. Letter! We have used a size of 1000 x 1000 meters for all simulations except the realistic simulations where we have used 1500 x 900. Simulation time: The time for which the | Psdtemplatesblog, simulations will be run at. We have used a simulation time of 250 seconds for all simulations except the realistic simulations where we used 900 seconds. 10+ Student Reference Admission | Appeal! Pause time: Pause time is the time for Planning, which a node stands still before randomizing a new destination and the speed that will be used to reach this destination.
We have used a pause time for 1 second in all simulations. The randomizing of scenarios works like this: first of all every node stands still for pause time seconds. After that each node selects a random destination, a waypoint somewhere in the environment space. Each node also randomizes a speed that will be used when moving to the waypoint. This speed is randomized uniformly in Admission | Appeal, the interval 0 to maximum speed. Every time a node reaches a waypoint, this procedure will be repeated. Louisiana Boat Bill Form | Word (.doc)! A factor that we have not taken into consideration with the scenarios is the fact that a real person is not likely to stand on the same place if the connection goes down. A real person is Reference For University Admission | Appeal more likely to find a place where the reception is good enough. The system would be to complex if this factor were included also. We have assumed bi-directional links during all our simulations, i.e. the links work equally well in International Marketing Research, both directions.
It is questionable if unidirectional links are desirable when using the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol, because bi-directional links are necessary if 802.11 acknowledgements are supposed to be used. Reference For University Admission! 38 5.3 Mobility simulations 5.3.1 Setup The simulations where we varied the mobility where done by randomizing scenario files. This method is Free Louisiana Boat Bill Of Sale Form | Pdf very hard to perform, because we cannot prior a scenario generation say that we want a mobility factor of 10+ Student For University exactly X. Instead we used the maximum speed parameter to Marketing Research Assignment control the scenario. The simulation parameters that have been used for For University | Appeal, the mobility simulations are shown in Table 7. Table 7: Parameters used during mobility simulations. Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of International Marketing Sample nodes Pause time Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Number of flows Value 250 m 2 Mbit 250 s 50 1s 1000x1000 m Constant Bit Rate 5 packets/s 64 byte 15 The scenario is a very crucial part of the simulation. We have therefore collected 10 measurements for each wanted mobility factor. Reference Letter For University | Appeal! The mobility factors that we simulated on are: 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5.
Because of the hard part of getting scenarios that are precise we have used an International Marketing Research Assignment Sample, interval of r0.1 for the above mentioned mobility factors. The scenarios that where created where then analyzed in terms of 10+ Student Reference For University unreachable hosts. We did not want to investigate network partition at this stage, so all scenarios with extremely high degree of unreachable hosts where discarded. By increasing the maximum speed in the scenario generation, the Louisiana Boat Bill Form | Pdf, mobility will also increase. A mobility factor of 3.5 approximately corresponds to a maximum speed of 20 m/s. 10+ Student Letter For University Admission | Appeal! For the Resume Templates, randomized simulations we have varied the maximum speed in For University | Appeal, the interval 0 to 20 m/s. A speed of 20 m/s corresponds the speed of a vehicle, which will lead to a high mobility. Mockup | Psdtemplatesblog! We used the same communication pattern for Reference | Appeal, all mobility simulations. The traffic pattern consisted of 15 CBR sources that started at different times. We did not use TCP for the simulations, because we did not want to investigate TCP, which uses flow control, retransmit features and so on. We wanted to get a general view of how the routing protocol behaves.
The communication pattern was randomly created. The parameters that was specified when randomizing the communication pattern were the number of wanted sources, the packet size, the rate at which they were sending and the simulation time. In these simulations, we wanted to investigate how the mobility affected the Students High, protocols, so the load that we offer is very low. We only use 15 CBR sources sending 64 bytes large packets with a rate of 5 packets/s. The bandwidth of the links are 2 Mbit. 39 5.3.2 Fraction of received packets 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO DSR-eaves dropping DSR 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 1 Fraction received packets 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Figure 13: 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility simulations - fraction of received packets. Reference Admission! How many of the sent data packets are actually received and why have the dropped packets been dropped?
Of the (brazil) - Legal - Agreements, different AODV versions, it can been seen in Figure 13 that both AODV versions that have MAClayer support are almost receiving all packets that are sent. AODV with both hello messages and For University | Appeal MAC-layer support is International Research Assignment Sample slightly better than the version with only MAC-layer support. Reference For University | Appeal! The reason for this is the same as mentioned earlier, the hello messages gets some prior knowledge of link breakages. By Step Planning Mirzaei! AODV with only hello messages is however dropping a very large portion of the 10+ Student Reference Admission, packets when the mobility increases. This large fraction of Templates High dropped packets is of course not acceptable and the reason for these drops has to Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal do with the interval of the hello messages. The interval between the hello messages and the number of allowed hello message losses are crucial for detection of Free Bill Form | Pdf | Word link breakages. If the interval is decreased, link breakages are detected earlier, but it would also mean that the control overhead in Reference For University, the network increases. The issue here is to try to find optimal values for these parameters. The choice of these parameters is also very dependent on the behavior that is desired; a higher fraction of received packets, a high throughput, low delay or a low overhead. Free Louisiana Of Sale Form | Pdf | Word (.doc)! The fraction of Reference For University Admission received packets for Assignment, the DSR versions is very large even for high mobility.
The DSR version without eavesdropping has a slightly smaller fraction of received packets. This difference is however so small that it is negligible. DSR with eavesdropping gets better result for For University, the simple reason that it has a little more information when calculating the Bill Of Sale Form | Pdf, routes. A reason for the higher fraction received packets for DSR compared to AODV is that DSR allows packets to stay in the send buffer for as long as 30 seconds, AODV only 8 seconds (our implementation). It must however be noted that the AODV draft  does not specify how long a packet is 10+ Student Letter For University | Appeal allowed to stay in Certificate Of Appreciation Sample, the sendbuffer. When comparing these results with the results for DSDV it can clearly be seen that a proactive approach is not acceptable at all when the mobility increases. The fraction received packets drastically goes down to 56-57 %. This value is however for a very large mobility factor (vehicles).
But the fraction of Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal received packets is not even 100 % when the mobility is Certificate 0, as for all other protocols. The reason for this is that packets are sent before the routing tables have had enough time to converge and the packets are dropped. 40 The main reasons for dropping packets are that the protocol is sending packets on a broken route that it thinks is valid and 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission that packet in By Step On Project Mirzaei, the buffers are dropped because of congestion and 10+ Student Reference Letter For University | Appeal timeouts. At this low load we only Step On Project Mirzaei | Pulse have a small fraction of the packets that have been dropped because of 10+ Student For University | Appeal collision. 12+ Free! It can also be seen that IP-based hello messages as only 10+ Student link breakage detection mechanism is not a good idea. The results are very poor, even DSDV have slightly better results. Link layer feedback of link breakages informs the upper layer routing protocol is much quicker and it can therefore react immediately. 5.3.3 End-to-end delay AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 0.14 0.12 Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.12 Avg packet delay (seconds) DSR-eaves dropping DSR 0.14 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 3.5 Mobility (m/s) AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 0.14 Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Figure 14: Mobility simulations - delay. As seen in Figure 14, of the different AODV versions AODV with only hello messages has lowest delay on the data packets that are received. Free Louisiana Boat Bill | Word (.doc)! The reason for this is not that it finds routes faster or that the routes are shorter or more optimal, instead AODV with only hello messages is the AODV version that gets significantly fewest packets through the network. The packets that it successfully gets through the network have approximately the same low delay as for the other AODV versions.
The difference is that the other AODV versions have a portion of packets that have a higher delay (has been in a buffer a long time and still gets the packets through the 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission, network). This affects the average delay, which becomes larger. Guide Mirzaei! In AODV with only hello messages, packets in the buffers that have been there for a long time are dropped. The reason is that ADOV does not successfully find a new route for Letter For University Admission | Appeal, those packets and because broken links are not detected fast enough, resulting in that a source can keep sending packets on a broken link believing that it is still working properly. AODV with both hello messages and MAC layer support has a slightly lower delay than AODV with only MAC-layer support. The reason for this is that as mentioned earlier, AODV with only MAC-layer support makes the protocol completely on-demand, it only detects link breakages when actually trying to send packets. Packets that are sent after this breakage is detected will have a higher delay, because they are buffered during the time it takes to find a new route.
AODV with both hello messages and Mac-layer support on the other hand will get some prior knowledge of the link breakage and has a chance to find a new route before any new packets are sent. 41 Both DSR versions show a tendency to get higher delay when mobility is increased. The turning point comes at a mobility factor of approximately 1.0. DSR without eavesdropping has a negligible higher delay compared to Power (brazil) - Legal Templates - Agreements DSR with eavesdropping. DSDV is the protocol that seems to have lowest delay in these results. The results are however somewhat misleading because DSDV drops so many packets that it cannot said to be valid. The packets that are dropped in DSDV will successfully get through when using for instance DSR, but has a slightly higher delay, because of Letter Admission longer times in buffers etc.
These higher delay packets will make the Power Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal Templates - Agreements, average delay higher for DSR. The same can be said for AODV with only hello messages. 10+ Student Letter For University Admission! The other two AODV versions have a slightly higher delay than the DSR versions. This has probably to do with the source routing concept of DSR. DSR gains so much information by the source routes that it will learn routes to many more destinations than a distance vector protocol like AODV.
This will mean that while DSR already has a route for a certain destination, AODV would have to send a specific request for that destination. The packets would in the meanwhile stay in a buffer until a valid route is found. This will take some time and Free Boat will therefore increase the average delay. In a packet based radio network without Quality of Service, the delays of the packets will vary much. The packets that do not have a route will be buffered until a route is found. A critical parameter here is how long a packet should be allowed to stay in the buffer before it is thrown away. If the packets are allowed to be in the buffer for a long time, the following situation could happen: A packet is sent, but there does not exist any route to that destination so the Reference Letter Admission | Appeal, packet is buffered and a route request is Mockup | Psdtemplatesblog sent. The destination node is however unreachable so no route reply is returned to the sending node.
After a long time, the destination node suddenly becomes reachable and the packet is sent. This packet will have a very large delay. Should this situation be allowed to happen? Should the packet be dropped from the buffer at a much earlier stage or do we want all packets to Letter | Appeal get through the Of Attorney - Legal Templates, network, even though the delay can be very large. Reference Letter For University | Appeal! In the case where we are using TCP, the retransmit operation will probably retransmit the packet at an earlier stage anyway, because no acknowledgement was received.
The allowed time for Research Assignment Sample, packets to stay in the sendbuffer in DSR is 30 seconds and Admission | Appeal only 8 seconds for AODV. Power (brazil) - Legal! If a packet is received 30 seconds after it was sent, this will increase the average delay to some degree. 5.3.4 End-to-end throughput 2.4 2.2 2.2 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.6 2.4 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.6 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO DSR-eaves dropping DSR 1 1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 0 0.5 1 1.5 Mobility (m/s) 2.6 2.4 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.2 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 15: Mobility simulations - throughput. 42 2 2.5 3 3.5 Figure 15 shows the throughput curves for the different protocols with a packet size of 64 bytes. 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission! It must however be mentioned that the curves in this case are only interesting from a relative view, as a comparison between the protocols. We have not tried to maximize the throughput, we have only Free Boat Bill Form tried to determine the relative difference in Reference For University, throughput for Boat Bill Form | Word (.doc), the different protocols with respect to the mobility factor and the specific load that we have used. The throughput curves for all protocols are very similar to the fraction received packet curves. This is logical because large packet drops will of course mean lower throughput. Both DSR versions and the AODV versions with link layer support have almost identical throughput. This throughput is also approximately constant, it decreases somewhat when mobility is as high as 2.5-3.5. AODV with only hello messages and 10+ Student Reference Letter | Appeal DSDV have a throughput that drastically decreases when mobility increases.
AODV with only hello show a very poor result. The throughput curve drops almost immediately to half of what it is when mobility is International Marketing Assignment Sample 0. 5.3.5 Overhead 25000 1.8e+06 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 20000 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 1.6e+06 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 0 25000 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1.5 2.5 3 3.5 2.5 3 3.5 1.8e+06 DSR-eaves dropping DSR DSR-eaves dropping DSR 1.6e+06 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 20000 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 Mobility (m/s) 25000 1.8e+06 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 1.6e+06 20000 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 2 Mobility (m/s) 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 Figure 16: 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Mobility simulations - overhead. Because the routing protocol need to send control information to achieve the 10+ Student For University, task of International Marketing Assignment finding routes, it is interesting to see how much control information that is actually sent for each protocol. There exists some sort of tradeoff between the byte overhead and the number of control information packets sent. A large byte 43 overhead would of course mean a larger part of wasted bandwidth. Many small control information packets would however mean that the radio medium on which packets are sent is acquired more frequently. This can be quite costly in terms of power and network utilization. The values that we have plotted do not include any physical layer framing or MAC layer overhead. We have only 10+ Student Reference Letter For University | Appeal looked at the overhead at the IP-level. A completely fair comparison would also include the above mentioned overheads. We have chosen not to include these for the simple reason that the MAC layer can be different in Power (brazil) - Legal, a real life implementation.
We wanted to investigate the overhead generally, not the overhead that is dependent on particularly the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol. Reference Letter! The results are shown in Figure 16. The first column is overhead calculated in number of packets and the second column is the byte overhead. The number of control packets and byte overhead is For Judges - #pr-Energy a total for all simulations done where we have varied mobility. Reference Admission! Of the different AODV versions, it can be seen that the curves for the AODV versions that have link layer support are similar in appearance. The difference of Free Boat Bill (.doc) about 8000-9000 packets and 270000-290000 bytes that can be seen corresponds to 10+ Student the hello packets. The AODV version with only hello messages has a much more stable form of the By Step | Hamid Mirzaei, curve. The small rise that is Reference Letter visible is the triggered route replies that are sent when a link goes down and the new requests that are sent to find a new route during route failures.
A route failure therefore triggers both triggered replies and new requests. This rise is much larger for Free Louisiana Of Sale | Pdf | Word (.doc), the AODV versions with link layer support for the simple reason that it detects link failure much faster, which will lead to much more messages. DSR does not include the 10+ Student Letter For University Admission | Appeal, data packets in the number of Of Attorney - Legal - Agreements control packet calculations, only the extra byte overhead from these packets is included. Worth noting when observing the DSR versions is that the DSR version that does not use eavesdropping has approximately the double amount of 10+ Student Reference For University Admission control overhead counted in number of messages and about 400000 bytes more of Free Louisiana Boat Bill Form (.doc) byte overhead than the DSR version with eavesdropping at the highest mobility 3.5. The somewhat strange behavior of the byte overhead for DSR can be explained as a sum of both the sent packets and the sent control messages.
As mobility increases, fewer packets will get through the network. 10+ Student For University! Fewer packets mean less byte overhead in the source route of the packets. Increased mobility also means more topology changes, which will increase the number of update messages. The byte overhead is Step Guide Planning | Hamid Mirzaei therefore decreasing and at approximately mobility 1.5 the increase of control messages will cause the byte overhead to 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal increase. By Step On Project Planning Mirzaei | Pulse! The number of control messages in DSDV is fairly constant, even when the Reference For University, mobility is extremely high. This is the nature of a proactive protocol that is dependent on periodic broadcasts. The byte overhead on Of Attorney (brazil) - Agreements, the other hand, will increase as mobility increases. Reference Admission! The reason for Free Louisiana Of Sale | Pdf | Word (.doc), this is that the Reference Letter Admission, amount of Of Appreciation For Judges information sent in each update message will be larger as the amount of link changes increases. 5.3.6 Optimal path One internal aspect of the routing protocol is the routing accuracy, e.g. how good the actual routes are compared to the optimal routes. To illustrate this we have compared the actual hop count with the optimal shortest route for all received packets. We have then, for Admission, each protocol, calculated how large fraction the received packets that have been routed through the optimal route, a route with hopcount that is one larger than the optimal, a route with hopcount that is two larger than the optimal and so on.
The result is shown in Table 8. The results are the total results for all simulations done with varying mobility. Templates High! To better illustrate the 10+ Student Reference Letter For University | Appeal, difference between some of the protocols, we have also plotted the results for one AODV version, one DSR version and Brochure | Psdtemplatesblog compared it with the only proactive protocol DSDV. It can clearly be seen in Figure 17 that DSDV is the protocol that has the Reference Letter For University Admission, highest degree of optimality, almost 90 % of the received packets have been routed with optimal hop count. The AODV and DSR versions are almost identical. AODV is slightly better. This difference is however so small that it can neglected. Certificate Of Appreciation For Judges - #pr-Energy! The difference between the different DSR versions is quite large and can be explained with the extra information that DSR with eavesdropping has when calculating routes. This extra information is apparently very informative when calculating shortest possible routes. AODV with only hello messages has best results of the different AODV versions. These due to 10+ Student Letter For University Admission | Appeal the similarities with a proactive protocol like DSDV that is highly dependent on periodic broadcasts.
Because of the periodic updates DSDV needs some time before it converges to a steady state. This happens when we have high movement with a lot of topology changes. Most of the packets that are sent during this time are dropped and the rest of them get a little higher hopcount. All packets that are sent after the routing tables have converged to a steady state do however most likely have the optimal shortest path. Guide | Hamid | Pulse! AODV with only hello messages have a similar behavior. Link breakages are dependent on the hello messages. This will mean that high movement and frequent topology changes will lead to many packet 44 drops during this time.
The packet that successfully gets through the For University Admission, network have done this during times when the network is For Judges somewhat stabile 1 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV Packets (%) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 2 Figure 17: 4 6 Nr of hops from optimal 8 10 Mobility simulations - optimal path difference. Because both DSR versions and the AODV versions with link layer support gets significantly more packets through the network when the number of topology changes is large, they will have a little lower fraction of packets that have a optimal route. In times of frequent movement it is easy to get a route that at 10+ Student Reference Letter, first is optimal and Bill Of Sale | Word then the moment later is 1-2 hops longer than another route that become the optimal route. The protocols will keep sending packets on Letter, the route that at first was optimal. A good relative comparison is to look at the average hop count difference for all packets received. DSDV has the smallest average with a hopcount at only 0.13 hops from the optimal path. Table 8: Protocol AODV 1 AODV 2 AODV 3 DSR 1 DSR 2 DSDV 0 79.1% 55.9% 68.4% 81.1% 63.2% 88.7% Optimal path difference for Resume Templates Students High, all protocols.
Number of hops from optimal path (% packets) 1 2 3 4 5 6 14.8% 3.68% 1.08% 0.30% 0.55% 0.06% 29.9% 9.04% 2.62% 1.09% 0.56% 0.20% 23.0% 5.37% 1.48% 0.84% 0.47% 0.14% 15.3% 2.73% 0.54% 0.13% 0.08% 0.01% 26.6% 7.21% 2.21% 0.56% 0.13% 0.05% 10.6% 0.59% 0.06% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 45 7 0.06% 0.38% 0.04% 0.02% 0.03% 0.00% Average 0.292170 0.682837 0.459423 0.234429 0.512004 0.126577 5.3.7 Summary mobility simulations The protocols that have link layer support for link breakage detection will be much more stable. 10+ Student Reference Admission! The fraction of For Judges - #pr-Energy packets received for these protocols is almost constant at 95 % even when mobility increases. This result indicates that these kinds of protocols will get the job done even when mobility increases. These protocols include both DSR versions and the two AODV versions that have this link layer support. Protocols that are highly dependent on 10+ Student Admission | Appeal, periodic broadcast show a rather poor result, only little more than 50 % of the packet are received when mobility is increased. Because DSR is a source routing protocol it is always interesting to see how much overhead this kind of protocol will have. The byte overhead is Templates Students larger than for instance the 10+ Student Reference Letter, AODV version that uses both hello messages and link layer support for Marketing Research Assignment, link breakage detection. The interesting thing with this is that the number of control messages is much smaller for DSR than any other protocol. This is interesting because this means that an 10+ Student Reference Admission | Appeal, approach that uses a source routing based approach to find routes combined with a destination vector approach for sending data packets could be desirable. 5.4 Offered load simulations We have used these protocols for these simulations: N N N AODV with both hello messages and 12+ Free Psd Download MAC link layer support. DSR without eavesdropping DSDV We only used the more realistic version of both AODV and DSR, for the same reason as mentioned in the previous section.
5.4.1 Setup The offered load simulations where done by varying the load that we offer the network. We had mainly three parameters to adjust the offered load: N N N Packet size Number of CBR flows Rate at which the flows are sending The mobility simulations that we have done used a packet size of 64 bytes, a rate of 5 packets/s and 15 CBR flows. This is a fairly moderate offered load, so for 10+ Student Reference, the offered load simulations, we wanted to investigate how the protocols behave when the By Step On Project Planning, load was increased. We could increase the packet size or the 10+ Student Letter For University | Appeal, number of CBR flows, but the parameter that best describes the load is the rate at which we are sending. Resume High! By only increasing the rate for the CBR flows, the load for 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal, each flow will increase. This also gives some hints of how large the throughput can be. We have used four different offered load cases: N N N N 5 packets / second (same as the Mockup, mobility simulations) 10 packets / second 15 packets / second 20 packets / second The packet size was held constant at 64 bytes and Reference Letter For University the number of flows at 15.
We used the same randomized scenario files as in the mobility simulations. The same communication file was also used, with the exception that we changed the Of Appreciation For Judges, rate for the CBR sources. The parameters that we used during the Reference Letter Admission | Appeal, offered load simulation are shown in 12+ Free Brochure Mockup Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog, Table 9. 46 Table 9: Parameters used during offered load simulations. Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of nodes Pause time Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Number of flows Value 250 m 2 Mbit 250 s 50 1s 1000x1000 m Constant Bit Rate 5 packets/s 64 byte 15 5.4.2 Fraction of received packets 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1 Fraction received packets 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 0 0 0.5 Figure 18: Offered load simulations - fraction of received packets. At only 5 packets/s both AODV and DSR are rather constant, the fraction of received packets is only decreasing slightly when mobility increases (Figure 18). At 10 packet/s we can see that the fraction received packets is decreasing much faster when the mobility factor is greater than 2. At 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s both AODV and Reference For University Admission | Appeal DSR are dropping a large fraction of the packets. At the highest mobility and a rate of 20 packets/s, only Guide On Project Mirzaei | Pulse 50-60 % of the sent packets are received. The reason is 10+ Student Letter Admission more collisions in the air and congestion in Power Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal, buffers.
The results for AODV and DSR are fairly similar at a packet rate of 5 packets/s and Letter For University Admission 10 packets/s. At data rates of 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s, AODV shows a better result than DSR. At these rates the protocols are however dropping a large fraction of the packets, even at International Research, a mobility factor of 0. DSR will have a much larger byte overhead than AODV at higher data rates (Figure 21). The reason for this is the source route in each data packet. This also increases the For University | Appeal, load on the network and causes more packets to be dropped; thus AODV will get more packets through the network.
47 DSDV is dropping a large fraction of the packets already at the lowest data rate 5 packets/s. It must however be noted that the increase in dropped packets is not as large for Sample For Judges, DSDV as for AODV and 10+ Student Letter DSR. At the highest data rate, DSDV is almost as good as DSR. 5.4.3 End-to-end delay 0.7 0.7 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 0.6 0.5 Avg packet delay (seconds) Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.6 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Mobility (m/s) 0.7 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 19: Offered load simulations - average delay. 12+ Free Brochure Mockup Psd Download! The delay is also affected by high rate of Letter Admission CBR packets (Figure 19). The buffers becomes full much quicker, so the packets have to stay in | Psdtemplatesblog, the buffers a much longer period of time before they are sent. This can clearly be seen at the highest rate 20 packets/s. 10+ Student For University Admission | Appeal! The high degree of Research Sample packet drops, even at mobility 0 makes the delay high already from the start.
DSR has a much lower delay compared to AODV. The difference between AODV and DSR is most apparent at rate 10 packets/s. DSDV has the lowest delay of them all. This is however an effect from the Reference For University Admission, large fraction of Certificate For Judges packet drops that DSDV has, compared to DSR and AODV. The increase in 10+ Student, delay for DSDV also comes from the increased time that the packets must stay in the buffers. Certificate Sample For Judges! The high delay at a mobility factor of 0-1 and a data rate of 20 packets/s that can be seen for all protocols is a result of the 10+ Student Reference Letter For University | Appeal, extremely high data rate and Guide On Project | Hamid | Pulse the low mobility. The high data rate will fill up the buffers very quickly. The low mobility will mean that already found routes are valid for a much longer time period. This means that found routes can be used for For University Admission, more packets.
Even the packets that have stayed in the buffer for a long time have a chance to get through. When mobility increases, more routes will become invalid and 12+ Free new requests are necessary. While the requests are propagating the network in search for a new route, buffers will get full and packets are dropped. These packets are the packets that have stayed in the buffers for the longest time and therefore the delay will decrease. The increase in 10+ Student Reference Letter For University, mobility actually results in a load balancing of the traffic between the nodes; hot spots are “removed” due to mobility. For DSDV, the average delay at highest data rate will actually be lower than at the rate of 15 packets/s. This is Assignment a little strange but has probably something to do with the | Appeal, fact that DSDV only uses a buffer that only has room for Certificate Sample - #pr-Energy, 5 packets per flow.
At the rate of 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s, when mobility starts to get so high that the topology changes frequently, only 40-60 % of the packets gets through the network. These 48 topology changes means that the Letter For University, protocol needs more time to Students converge before the 10+ Student Letter For University Admission, packets can be sent. Step Guide On Project | Hamid | Pulse! The buffers will therefore be congested almost all the time so the packets that actually get through have approximately the same the delay. 5.4.4 End-to-end throughput 8 8 6 Throughput (Kbit/s) 7 6 Throughput (Kbit/s) 7 5 4 3 5 4 3 2 2 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 1 0 0 0 0.5 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 1 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 1.5 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 8 7 Throughput (Kbit/s) 6 5 4 3 2 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 1 0 0 0.5 1 2 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 20: Offered load simulations - average throughput. For University | Appeal! At low CBR rates the throughput of DSR and Templates Students School AODV is 10+ Student Reference Letter For University | Appeal unaffected of the mobility (Figure 20), it stays constant at 2,5 Kbit/s. At higher CBR rates, the throughput will decrease when the mobility increases. Of Appreciation! This can already be seen at CBR rate 10 packet/s.
The decrease at CBR rate 10 packets/s is however very small. At rate 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s the throughput decreases very much for all protocols. Reference Letter Admission! This is however an effect from the large fraction of dropped packets. The result for AODV is Free Louisiana Boat Bill Of Sale | Pdf | Word (.doc) slightly better than for Letter For University Admission, DSR. It must however be noted that the offered load definition that we use only includes the rate at Free Of Sale | Pdf (.doc), which we are sending packets with; no control packets are included in this definition. The same applies for Letter For University Admission | Appeal, the throughput, only the data packets are included in the calculations of throughput. Step By Step Guide On Project Planning | Hamid Mirzaei! DSR have a much larger byte overhead than AODV at higher data rates (Figure 21). This also increases the load on 10+ Student Reference For University | Appeal, the network and Free Louisiana Bill Of Sale Form | Pdf | Word (.doc) causes more packets to be dropped; thus AODV will have a better throughput at higher data rate.
DSDV drops a large fraction of the packets already at a rate of 5 packets/s. This can be seen in the small decrease in the throughput at rate 5 packets/s. The throughput decreases more and Reference Letter For University more as the Marketing Research, rate increases. 5.4.5 Overhead In Figure 21, the difference between distance vector and source routing can clearly be seen. The byte overhead for DSR is much larger than AODV even at low data rates and the difference becomes larger when the CBR rate increases. Letter For University! At CBR rate 20 packets/s, the byte overhead for DSR is more than the double than for AODV. The reason for the larger byte overhead for By Step Guide Planning | Hamid | Pulse, DSR is of course the source route in each packet. The 49 number of control messages is though smaller for Letter Admission, DSR. This is the other characteristic for source routing, it learns all routes in the source route and therefore does not need to send as many route requests. International Marketing Sample! The reason for the increase in number of control packets is the MAC-layer support. The increase in rate means that the MAC-layer will detects link failures much faster.
This means that the triggered RREPs are sent much earlier also causing the source node to send out a new request much earlier. Letter For University | Appeal! All link failures are detected earlier with increased rate; thus there will be time for more RREQs, RREPs and 12+ Free Mockup | Psdtemplatesblog triggered RREPs. 4e+06 35000 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 30000 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 3.5e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 25000 20000 15000 10000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 0 3.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 35000 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 30000 4e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) 25000 Control overhead (packets) DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 3.5e+06 20000 15000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 10000 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 3.5 0 0.5 1 Mobility (m/s) 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 4e+06 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 35000 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 30000 3.5e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 25000 20000 15000 10000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 Figure 21: 3 0 3.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Offered load simulations - overhead. The amount of control information in DSDV is not affected to any great extent by the data rate for 10+ Student For University Admission | Appeal, the CBR packets. Power (brazil) - Legal! By looking at Figure 21 it looks like the number of 10+ Student control packets is exactly the same for all data rates, but there is actually a small difference. The number of control packets is actually a little smaller when the rate is Certificate - #pr-Energy 20 packets/s. Letter For University Admission! This difference is about 80 packets.
The reason for this difference is that the high data rate causes more collisions, which means that some of the update messages are dropped. These lost update messages will not be received by any node, and cannot therefore trigger new update messages. This means that when the - #pr-Energy, next update message actually is received a much larger update message has to be sent, thus we can see a slight increase of byte overhead when the rate increases. But when the mobility increases more and more packets will be dropped. At the highest data rate, many of the update messages are dropped, 50 even the packets with a little more information. This causes the byte overhead for Letter For University Admission | Appeal, DSDV at higher data rates not to increase to International Assignment the same extent as for DSDV with lower data rates. 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission! 5.4.6 Optimal path Figure 22 illustrates the difference in hopcount from the optimal hopcount at a CBR rate of 20 packets/s. Research! It is the result for all simulations done at Reference For University | Appeal, this rate. If we compare this figure with Figure 17, which illustrates the Brochure Mockup, hopcount difference for the CBR rate 5 packets/s, we can clearly see that they are almost identical.
The rate does not affect the number of hops that the 10+ Student For University Admission | Appeal, packets actually need to travel from source to Power Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal - Agreements destination. 1 AODV 20 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s Packets (%) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 2 Figure 22: 4 6 Nr of hops from optimal 8 10 Offered load simulations – optimal path. 5.4.7 Summary offered load simulations The performance of the protocols differs slightly during different network loads. The most apparent difference is the 10+ Student Reference For University | Appeal, byte overhead. Power Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal! While DSDV has a rather unaffected overhead, it increases both for AODV and DSR during higher loads.
A higher sending rate causes the protocol to detect broken links faster, thus reacting faster. This leads to 10+ Student For University Admission a slight increase in control packets, which also affects the byte overhead. The most apparent is the increase in DSRs overhead as we increase the Power Of Attorney (brazil) - Agreements, send rate. Since each data packet contains a source route, the byte overhead increases dramatically. The increased send rate also set demands on the send buffer of the routing protocol.
Congestion occurs and Reference Letter Admission | Appeal packets are dropped. The faster a routing protocol can find a route, the Planning | Hamid, less time the packets have to spend in buffers, meaning a smaller probability of packet drops. 51 5.5 Network size simulations We did simulations on some of the protocols and varied the number of 10+ Student Reference nodes that participated in the network. We decreased the number of nodes to 35 and 25 nodes. 12+ Free Brochure Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog! The decrease in number of nodes basically meant that the connectivity also decreased; each node had fewer neighbors.
The results from these simulations did not give any new information regarding the performance of the protocols. The relative difference between the protocols was the Reference Letter, same. Decreased connectivity meant of course that we did not get as many packets through the network as in the mobility simulations, but it must however be noted that the dependency between the scenarios and results are much larger in the network size simulations. Of Attorney Templates! The worst results for each protocol happened when the For University Admission, mobility was 0. This may sound strange, but the reason for the bad result when the nodes is standing still is the randomized scenarios. If a randomized scenario has poor connectivity, this connectivity will be same during the whole simulation if the nodes are standing still. The nodes are not moving and cannot therefore affect the connectivity. In a scenario with moving nodes however, the Of Appreciation For Judges, connectivity will vary during the whole simulation. So even if a node is unreachable from the beginning, there is still a chance that it will be reachable some time later. 5.6 Realistic scenarios 5.6.1 Setup The randomized simulations we have done, gives a very good general picture of For University how the International Marketing Research Assignment, protocols behaves in 10+ Student For University | Appeal, respect to certain parameters, such as mobility, size and Certificate Of Appreciation Sample For Judges network load. This kind of simulations also has some problems: N N N It is hard to identify situations in which the protocols fail or have problems It has no connection to a real life situation. It may favor complex protocols, while in real life scenarios simpler protocols can find the routes almost as effectively.
It is therefore also very interesting to see how the protocols behave in 10+ Student For University Admission, a more realistic scenario. We have therefore done simulations on some scenarios believed to Resume Students be realistic. The realistic scenarios do not give a full picture of how the protocols behave generally. Instead they give some sense of weak points in the protocols. Reference Letter Admission | Appeal! The three basic types of scenarios that we have done simulations on are: N N N Conference type, with low movement factor.
Event coverage type, with fairly large movement factor. Could for instance be reporters trying to interview politicians. Disaster area, with some relatively slow nodes and some very fast nodes (mounted on By Step Guide | Pulse, a car or a helicopter). The environment size is 1500 x 900 meters for all realistic scenarios. This size is scaled according to the range of the transmitters. In a real life conference scenario, the environment size would be significantly smaller and so would also the transmitter range.
The same thing would apply for the speed of the 10+ Student Reference Admission, people moving around. The speed is Power - Legal Templates - Agreements also scaled to 10 m/s. All parameters used during the realistic simulations are shown in Table 10. 52 Table 10: Parameters used during realistic simulations. Letter Admission! Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of nodes Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Speed of a human Speed of International Marketing Assignment a mobile node mounted on a vehicle Value 250 m 2 Mbit 900 s 50 1500x900 m Constant Bit Rate 4 packets/s 512 byte 1 m/s 20 m/s 5.6.2 Conference This scenario simulates 50 people that are attending a conference, seminar session or some similar activity. It involves communication between some of the Reference For University Admission | Appeal, people. Parameters specific for the conference scenario are shown in Table 11 Table 11: Parameters used during conference scenario.
Parameter Number of By Step Guide On Project Planning | Hamid | Pulse CBR sources Number of receivers Number of flows Value 2 6 6 The scenario is characterized by: N N N N N Low mobility factor, 10 % of the nodes are moving during any period of time. Links are long lasting and involves many hops. The traffic is concentrated to a few nodes, typically only the speaker. Few obstacles which are far apart. Typically only one large obstacle, a wall with doors and windows that can be used for communication. Relatively large interference from 10+ Student Letter For University | Appeal, other nodes, due to the concentration of (brazil) - Legal transmitting nodes. Reference! This can in some cases lead to local congestion. The scenario basically tests the Boat Bill Form | Pdf | Word, protocols: N N N Ability to respond to local changes for long links. Reference For University! Ability to cope with large concentration of traffic.
Message overhead with low mobility factor. Figure 23 shows how the scenario was designed and created with ad-hockey. The scenario is divided into three zones that have their certain characteristics. N N N Zone 1 - Speaker zone: The speaker moves back and forth. This changes the closest neighbor in the audience.
Zone 2 - Audience zone: Static audience that is sitting still most of the Research Sample, time. Very seldom does a node go outside to return a certain amount of time later. 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission! This will probably result in a link breakage of a longlasting link. Zone 3 - Outsider zone: Outsiders behind a wall that are trying to establish a connection between the speaker and each other. 53 Transmitter range Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 = Node = Obstacle = Movement Figure 23: Conference scenario. The results for this scenario are shown in Table 12 and Psd Download Table 13.
It must however be noted that we do not distinguish the results for nodes that are in zone 2 or zone 3. 10+ Student Letter Admission | Appeal! The calculated mobility factor for - #pr-Energy, this scenario is very low. All protocols except DSDV and the AODV version that only uses hello messages show quite good performance, delivering between 92-99% of the packets with an average throughput between 14.8 – 15.7 Kbit/s. DSDV delivers only Reference Letter For University 75.6% of the By Step | Hamid Mirzaei | Pulse, packets with an average throughput of 12.1 Kbit/s and the AODV version with only hello messages delivers 89.3 % of the packets, with a throughput of 14.3 Kbit/s. Reference Letter | Appeal! This shows that an ad-hoc routing protocol must quickly adapt to link changes even for long lasting routes as in International Research Sample, this case where mobility is 10+ Student Letter For University Admission | Appeal very low. Table 12: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 0.0439350 75.6% 12.1 Kbit/s 21510 0.052 s 5250 16260 44054 6406036 5.32 Conference simulation results. DSR - 1 0.0439350 97.1% 15.55 Kbit/s 21510 0.210 s 614 20896 3129 3689865 5.73 DSR - 2 0.0439350 98.0% 15.7 Kbit/s 21510 0.23 s 422 21088 4109 4093220 5.79 54 AODV - 1 0.0439350 89.3% 14.30 Kbit/s 21510 0.26 s 2298 19212 43881 1660020 6.62 AODV - 2 0.0439350 92.3% 14.79 Kbit/s 21510 0.29 s 1644 19866 14537 610884 6.53 AODV - 3 0.0439350 94.0% 15.00 Kbit/s 21510 0.39 s 1376 20134 54677 2112716 6.45 Both versions of DSR have the lowest packet overhead in High, this scenario, while all versions of AODV show the 10+ Student Letter, lowest byte overhead. The large byte overhead for DSR has to do with the fairly large amount of traffic and that the routes have an average hopcount that is as large as 5-6 hops.
As can be seen in Table 13. DSDV fails to deliver 3599 packets because of route failures. This is due to Research Assignment the slow response time when links go down and the time it takes to find new routes. For University! A lot of packets will be sent using a route that the Free Boat Bill | Word, protocol thinks is valid, while in fact the route is broken and the packets are dropped. Also a lot of packets are dropped in the interface queue. AODV using only 10+ Student Letter Admission hello messages show the same tendency, dropping 1364 packets because of the Certificate Sample For Judges, same reasons. 10+ Student Letter For University Admission | Appeal! It is however fewer packets than for DSDV. Step On Project Planning! This has to do with the 10+ Student For University Admission | Appeal, time between the HELLO messages. The less time between the messages, the faster can the protocol react to Step broken links and 10+ Student For University Admission avoid dropping the packets. Louisiana Boat Bill Form | Pdf | Word (.doc)! In general, most of the packets are dropped in For University Admission | Appeal, the sendbuffer. Retransmission of these dropped packets could of course be handled by Students School upper layer protocols, such as TCP.
Table 13: Cause for drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of simulation DSDV 3599 74 1567 10 Packet drops in conference scenario. 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission! DSR – 1 519 30 34 18 13 DSR – 2 303 98 4 0 17 AODV –1 894 1348 22 4 30 AODV – 2 1364 201 21 10 48 AODV -3 1096 202 14 0 64 5.6.3 Event coverage This scenario simulates a group of 50 highly mobile people that are changing position quite frequently. It could for instance represent a group of reporters that are covering a political event, music concert or a sport contest. In real life it would be nearly impossible to establish a wired network between the Certificate Of Appreciation Sample For Judges - #pr-Energy, reporters, but they must be in constant communication with each other, enabling a fast reaction. Parameters that are specific for the event coverage scenario are shown in Table 14. Table 14: Parameters used during event coverage scenario. Parameter Number of CBR sources Number of receivers Number of flows Value 9 45 45 The scenario is characterized by: N N N N N Rather high mobility factor. Typically 50 % of the nodes are constantly changing their position during any time of period.
Every now and then the nodes tend to Reference For University Admission cluster. Links involve a few hops and relatively short-lasting. Traffic is Sample spread all over the place. Many obstacles. Reference Letter Admission! Nodes can usually only communicate with a few nodes. Students High School! This will lead to 10+ Student Letter a low interference from the - Legal Templates - Agreements, other nodes, except for the moments of clustering. 55 The scenario tests the protocols: N N Ability to respond to Letter For University fast link changes and fluctuating traffic. Message overhead with constant topology updates. Figure 24 shows how the scenario was designed. 50 % of the nodes are moving randomly with a constant speed of 1 m/s. Every now and By Step On Project Planning | Pulse then a temporary cluster contain approximately 10 nodes will form.
These clusters remain static for a certain amount of time. Temporary clusters = Node = Obstacle Figure 24: = Movement Event coverage scenario. Reference! The results for the event coverage scenario are shown in Table 15 and Table 16. As Table 15 shows, the two protocols that has the lowest fraction of packets received are DSDV and the AODV version that entirely relies on feedback from link-layer. These protocols only Bill Of Sale | Pdf | Word have a fraction of packets received that lies around 91-92 %. For all other protocols/versions this value is at least 94 %. The mobility factor for 10+ Student Letter, the scenario is 0.72, which is quite low even though considering we have about 50 % of the nodes in Louisiana Boat Of Sale Form | Pdf, movement. The nodes are however only moving with a speed of 1 m/s. 10+ Student Reference For University Admission! DSDV has the highest overhead of all the Boat Of Sale Form | Pdf (.doc), protocols, counted in Reference For University, both number of control packets and bytes. DSR both with and without eavesdropping have a very low overhead. It must however be noted that the traffic load in this scenario is very low and Bill Of Sale Form | Pdf | Word most of the communication is taking place in a very small area, thus leading to a very low average hopcount of approximately 1.5 for all protocols. In this scenario, AODV with only Reference For University hello message shows better results than AODV with only link-layer support and the reason is that the hello messages makes it possible to keep track of neighbors. Most of the communication is taking place within clusters, so to know the (brazil) Templates - Agreements, neighbors will probably mean that we will not have to 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal make as many requests.
The topology of the Mockup, network is changing quite frequently. This causes a protocol like DSDV to have a very large overhead. The communication however, take mostly place within the Reference Letter For University Admission, clusters. Guide Mirzaei | Pulse! This makes the job for the on-demand-based protocols much easier. The hopcount from source to destination is very small so the protocols will find a route very quickly. The protocols which are entirely on-demand will have a slightly 56 higher delay and the protocols that uses some sort of periodic messages (DSDV and the ADOV version that use hello messages) will have lower delay.
Table 15: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 0.721611 91.4% 14.75 Kbit/s 4500 0.075 s 385 4115 42415 10578764 1.46 hops Event coverage simulation results. DSR – 1 0.721611 97.5% 15.68 Kbit/s 4500 0.138 s 111 4389 1056 141196 1.53 hops DSR – 2 0.721611 97.7% 15.71 Kbit/s 4500 0.140 s 102 4398 1354 158420 1.57 hops AODV – 1 0.721611 94.5% 15.33 Kbit/s 4500 0.024 s 245 4255 31342 1137752 1.55 hops AODV – 2 0.721611 92.2% 14.89 Kbit/s 4500 0.214 s 352 4148 2722 117904 1.75 hops AODV – 3 0.721611 95.1% 15.36 Kbit/s 4500 0.015 s 219 4281 31443 1142180 1,55 hops Table 16 shows that most of the packets are dropped due to Reference Letter For University route failures and in those cases where there exists a sendbuffer, congestion/time-out in Brochure Psd Download, the sendbuffer. AODV that only uses link-layer support (AODV 2) has most of the dropped packets due to failed ARP requests and DSDV drops most of its packets at the interface queue. Table 16: Cause for drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of 10+ Student Letter For University simulation DSDV Packet drops in event coverage scenario. 12+ Free Mockup Psd Download! DSR - 2 81 19 1 AODV - 1 100 83 61 1 102 48 235 DSR – 1 81 21 9 9 AODV - 2 131 32 178 10 1 AODV - 3 100 15 104 5.6.4 Disaster area This scenario represents some sort of 10+ Student Letter | Appeal disaster area in a region that lacks any sort of telecommunication infrastructure. It could for instance represent a natural disaster or a large rescue operation. Every rescue team member could have a personal communicator with ad-hoc network capability. These personal communicators are capable of communicating with each other and with relay nodes that are mounted on International Research Sample, a vehicle, like a helicopter, car or boat.
The parameters that are specific for the disaster area scenario are shown in Table 17. Table 17: Parameters used during disaster area scenario. For University Admission | Appeal! Parameter Number of CBR sources Number of receivers Number of flows 57 Value 38 87 87 The scenario is characterized by: N N N N N N A node movement, where approximately 95 % of the nodes are moving slightly, while the remaining 5 % are changing their position very often. Network partitioning now and Louisiana Bill Of Sale | Pdf | Word (.doc) then. Long and short lasting links that only are a few hops.
Traffic that is spread all over the nodes. Many obstacles. Reference Admission | Appeal! Low interference from the other nodes. The scenario tests the protocol: N N Ability to work with both slow and fast changing network topologies. Ability to cope with network partitioning. Figure 25 shows how the scenario was designed. There are two highly mobile nodes moving at the speed 20 m/s back and forth. Sample! There are also three separate subnetworks that can connect to each other through the relays mounted on the highly mobile nodes. Within each subnetwork, the movement is randomized at speed 1 m/s.
Subnetwork 2 Subnetwork 1 Vehicle 1 = Node Subnetwork 3 = Obstacle Figure 25: Vehicle 2 = Movement Disaster area scenario. 10+ Student Letter | Appeal! The results for the disaster area scenario are shown in Table 18 and Table 19. The calculated mobility factor for this scenario is quite high. Many of the nodes are moving slightly (people), and some nodes are moving very fast (vehicles). The protocols that show the best results in this scenario are the 12+ Free, purely reactive approaches, that is AODV using both hello messages and Reference For University Admission MAC support and DSR with eavesdropping. They have a delivery ratio between 54–58 % of the 12+ Free Mockup Psd Download, packets with an average throughput of 14.1 – 14.8 Kbit/s. 10+ Student For University Admission! DSDV has the worst performance, delivering only 29,5% of the packets with an Brochure Psd Download, average throughput of 10+ Student Reference | Appeal 12.42 Kbit/s. A delivery ratio of only 58 % for the best protocol may sound like a terrible ratio, but because of network partitioning, it is hard for any protocol to 12+ Free Brochure successfully deliver more packets than that. 58 DSDV show the lowest delay, but this is due to the low delivery ratio. All versions of AODV keep an average delay between 0.89 – 1.05 seconds, while the DSR versions lie between 1.19 – 1.25 seconds. Both DSR versions keep a low packet overhead compared to the other protocols.
The byte overhead is however twice as large for DSR compared to Admission | Appeal AODV. As expected, DSDV uses the 12+ Free Mockup, shortest paths with an average of 10+ Student Reference Letter 3.42 hops. The other protocols has an average hopcount of 5.0-5.2 hops. Table 18: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 1.154619 29.5% 12.42 Kbit/s 29616 0.196 s 20867 8749 41402 6497476 3.42 hops Disaster area simulation results. DSR – 1 1.154619 58.0% 14.79 Kbit/s 29616 1.252 s 12440 17176 27048 4880992 5.01 hops DSR – 2 1.154619 54.50% 14.43 Kbit/s 29616 1.187s 13464 16152 30692 5137148 5.16 hops AODV – 1 1.154619 48.0% 13.07 Kbit/s 29616 0.888 s 15382 14234 61557 2426164 5.23 hops AODV – 2 1.154619 52.2% 13.49 Kbit/s 29616 1.052 s 14161 15455 50686 2426164 5.24 hops AODV – 3 1.154619 54.0% 14.09 Kbit/s 29616 0.988 s 13635 15981 77311 3096228 5.26 hops DSDV drops a lot of packets because of route failures. In this scenario, DSDV also drops a large amount of packets in the interface queue.
One large cause for drops in the other protocols, lies in the sendbuffer. If routes are not found within time, packets in the buffer are dropped because of Templates Students High timeouts or congestion. Another large cause for packet drops is route failures. Reference Letter! This scenario is very interesting and should be investigated further, especially for the AODV protocol. We discovered when running the simulations that AODV tend to form short lived routing loops. Since the author claim that this protocol should be loop free at all times, one possible cause for this might be invalid use of the sequence numbers or the Step On Project Planning | Pulse, fact that sequence numbers are unsynchronized during network partitioning. Very few packets were dropped because of this (less than 5). Another interesting thing with this scenario is that all main nodes send traffic both ways to each other.
This causes AODV to respond to requests with temporary routes set up by other requests. Since it is unclear from the 10+ Student Reference, draft whether the temporary routes should be regarded as a normal route in the routing table or not, we decided to try both in this scenario. By only Free Bill Of Sale Form | Pdf | Word (.doc) allowing RREPs to use the 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission | Appeal, temporary routes, and by not allowing a node to respond to Of Attorney - Legal Templates - Agreements a RREQ with a temporary route, the routing loops could be avoided. However, the Letter For University | Appeal, performance of the protocol decreased. Free Louisiana Bill! We therefore used simulations where we considered the temporary routes as a normal route.
Table 19: Cause for drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of Admission | Appeal simulation DSDV 15853 479 4528 7 DSR – 1 10033 1990 35 3 1 Packet drops in disaster area. DSR - 2 10277 2960 64 159 9 59 AODV – 1 9836 5047 292 34 2 AODV - 2 10693 3046 241 20 1 AODV - 3 10941 2470 64 44 116 5.6.5 Summary realistic scenarios The realistic scenarios show how the Louisiana Bill Of Sale Form | Pdf, protocols behave in certain situations. Letter Admission! For this purpose, three scenarios were designed and simulated with different versions of the protocols DSDV, DSR and AODV. DSR show the best performance results overall. If source routing is undesirable, another good candidate is AODV with only MAC layer support.
It has a slightly higher packet overhead, but an Free Louisiana Of Sale | Pdf, overall good delivery ratio. 5.7 Observations The protocols that we have worked with most are AODV and DSR, thus we have observed some important differences for these protocols, that in some way affect the 10+ Student Letter, performance of the 12+ Free Brochure Mockup | Psdtemplatesblog, protocols. 5.7.1 Ability to find routes AODV To illustrate AODVs ability to find routes, we use a simple scenario (see Figure 26). 10+ Student Letter! The scenario consists of four nodes A, B, C and D connected to each other. A C D B Figure 26: Simple example scenario. Node A needs a route to Power Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal node D. No data has been sent earlier, thus the only routes known to the AODV protocol are the different neighbors in the scenario. This is Reference Admission because AODV uses hello messages to keep track of the Brochure Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog, neighbors of a node. A RREQ is generated by node A and broadcasted to its neighbors. The RREQ propagates through the network until it reaches node C. Since node C has a route to node D it can comply with the Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal, RREQ and generate a RREP.
During the propagation of the Power Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal Templates, RREQ, a reverse path is set up to node A. The RREP is Reference For University Admission | Appeal unicasted back to A. It uses the By Step On Project Mirzaei, temporarily backward route set up by the RREQ. During the propagation of the reply, a forward route is set up to node D by all intermediate nodes, resulting in Letter | Appeal, the routing table shown in Table 20, thus all temporary routes are updated to active routes. Table 20: Node A Destination Nexthop B B D B Routing tables for AODV after a route discovery process. 12+ Free Brochure! Node B Destination A C D Nexthop A C C Node C Destination B D A Nexthop B D B Node D Destination C Nexthop C After the route discovery process, only Letter For University Admission | Appeal B and C have routes to all other nodes in the scenario. Node A does not know that there is a route to Resume High School node C, nor does node D know of the route to A and B. Thus AODV has to go through the 10+ Student Reference For University Admission | Appeal, route discovery process several times to discover all the routes. This leads to 12+ Free Brochure Psd Download more control traffic and Admission higher delays.
On the other hand, it saves memory by not having to keep information about routes that might not be used. 60 DSR The ability to find routes differs slightly between the DSR and AODV protocol. DSR can make use of the 12+ Free Brochure | Psdtemplatesblog, source route carried in each packet header to discover routes to 10+ Student Reference Admission nodes by which the packet has traveled through. If new routes are found, DSR can take advantage of this without having to go through a new route discovery phase, thus reducing the number of control packets and decreasing the delay. The memory usage of a node is instead increased by having to store more routes.
We consider the same scenario as for the AODV protocol (Figure 26). Node A needs a route to node D. No data has been sent earlier, thus DSR has no knowledge of any routes. Since no routes are known, the RREQ propagates until it reaches node D. During the Free Boat | Pdf (.doc), propagation of the RREQ, every node in its path learn a route back to all the nodes by which the RREQ has passed through. The RREP is unicasted back to A, using the routes learned during the propagation of the RREQ. 10+ Student Reference | Appeal! As the RREP propagates, each node also learns the By Step Planning | Hamid Mirzaei, routes to all nodes for which the RREP has passed through, resulting in the routing tables shown in 10+ Student Reference Letter For University | Appeal, Table 21. By Step Guide Planning | Hamid Mirzaei! After the route discovery phase, each node has a route to every other node in this example. 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission! Table 21: Node A Destinatio n B C D Path B B-C B-C-D Routing caches for DSR, after a route discovery process. Node B Destinatio n A C D Path A C C-D Node C Destinatio n A B D Path B-A B D Node D Destinatio n A B C Path C-B-A C-B C 5.7.2 Temporary backward routes When a RREQ propagates in search for Guide Planning | Hamid | Pulse, a route in AODV, a temporary backward route is set up towards the requesting node.
A RREP might use this backward route. 10+ Student Reference Letter! This route is normally set to expire after 3 seconds if it is not used. It is not clear from the draft if this route may be used by application data as well. Using this route for data affects the Students, behavior of the protocol in some way and it is Reference not described how the protocol should handle this. 12+ Free Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog! One of the problems with this temporary route is with the way it is set up. When the For University, RREQ propagates, we do not know who will be using the backward route, so no active neighbors can be put into the active neighbor list. If during this time, a link failure or an expired route entry somewhere breaks the route, the rest of the nodes in the route are not informed of Guide On Project | Hamid | Pulse this and therefore have redundant routes in 10+ Student Reference For University | Appeal, their tables.
When the route is used again, the application data will come to a node in the route that does not have a valid entry for the destination and will therefore be dropped while a triggered RREP tries to inform the nodes in the route that it is broken. This problem will become more apparent in a network with a higher load. Another problem is the short lifetime if temporary routes are installed into the routing table. Lets say node A sets up a temporary route to D. Node A can then respond with the Power Of Attorney - Legal Templates - Agreements, temporary route to another request searching for a route to D. Since the temporary route has a short lifetime, it might expire before the actual data has a chance to use it. This results in unnecessary control overhead and packet drops. To deal with this, the routing agent could chose to only allow RREP to 10+ Student Admission use the temporary route. Also a check of the expire time before responding with a RREP could be used to assure that the route wont timeout shortly after the node has responded with the information.
A question about this was directed to Marketing Assignment the author of the 10+ Student Reference Admission, protocol with the Step By Step Guide | Hamid Mirzaei | Pulse, response that this check should not be done, instead the protocol should rely on For University | Appeal, the sequence numbers to provide the freshness of a route. We implemented a version of the AODV protocol that used the temporary route for all packets since it showed a slightly better performance result then if not allowing data packets to use the 12+ Free Mockup | Psdtemplatesblog, temporary route. Reference Admission | Appeal! The implementation done in Gothenburg used the temporary route only for route replies. International Marketing Research Assignment Sample! So we have a small difference in our implementations. 61 5.7.3 Buffers The use of send buffers in Letter Admission | Appeal, the routing protocol also affects the performance of the routing protocol; especially the size of the buffers and the time a packet is allowed to stay there before it is dropped. The send buffer buffers data packets while the routing protocol requests a route to the destination. In our simulations, AODV used a buffer capable of holding 64 packets and allowing them to 12+ Free Mockup stay in the buffer for maximum 8 seconds. Reference Letter For University | Appeal! Allowing the packets to stay in Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal - Agreements, the buffer for longer period of times will of course increase the amount of 10+ Student For University | Appeal successfully routed packets, but also increase the average delay. Also the choice of queuing discipline will affect the measured performance.
If the buffer is full, there must be some smart algorithm to decide which packets should be dropped. The routing protocol could decide not to International Marketing Research Sample buffer any packets at all and depend on higher layer protocols such as TCP to retransmit lost packets. Letter For University Admission | Appeal! This would however affect the measured performance in the simulations and give unfair results for the protocol. 5.8 Discussion If we compare the work that we have done against the work that was done by Step On Project Planning the CMU Monarch project , many similarities can be seen. Their conclusion was that both DSR and Letter Admission | Appeal AODV performs well at all mobility rates and movement speeds.
We have come to the same conclusion, but we feel however that their definition of mobility (pause time) does not represent the dynamic topology to the same extent as our mobility factor that is based on the actual relative movement pattern. The only node speeds that they have tested are 1 m/s and 20 m/s, which are not showing the complete range. Our mobility factor has a speed range from 0 m/s up to 20 m/s and shows how the Step By Step | Hamid Mirzaei, protocols behave in the complete range. They have also only shown the 10+ Student For University | Appeal, result for one DSR version and one AODV version. The DSR version that they show the results for is using eavesdropping, which we regard as being unrealistic, because of the 12+ Free Brochure Mockup | Psdtemplatesblog, security issuses discussed earlier. The AODV version that they have used is not using hello messages, which changes the 10+ Student Reference Letter | Appeal, behavior of AODV. We have tested different versions and Marketing Assignment Sample shown that DSR with eavesdropping has a slightly better performance than DSR without eavesdropping. We have also shown that AODV with MAC-layer support and 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission hello messages has better performance than AODV with only MAC-layer support. Our results also show that it is necessary to use some support from the MAC-layer to achieve a performance that is good even at high mobility factors. Of Attorney (brazil) - Agreements! The CMU Monarch project, have used the number of sources as a definition of the load that is offered the network. Their simulations with the different number of sources are almost identical to each other.
The only protocols that showed a significantly difference was TORA, that only delivered 40 % of the packets with the lowest pause time and highest number of sources. Our definition of 10+ Student Reference For University | Appeal load was based on Certificate For Judges - #pr-Energy, the rate that the sources are sending packets with. Even DSR that had the best results in the CMU paper fails to 10+ Student Admission | Appeal deliver a large fraction of the packets when the rate is increased. 12+ Free Mockup Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog! The increase of the rate also very clearly shows how much the Reference For University | Appeal, overhead for DSR increases compared to for instance AODV. 5.9 Classification Why is Templates High School there any need for classification of routing protocols? If one routing protocol is superior than the Letter, other routing protocols for instance in very high mobile environments, why not always use that routing protocol? If it handles high mobile environments, it should also be good at low mobile environments. In real life, many parameters affect the behavior of the Certificate Of Appreciation For Judges - #pr-Energy, routing protocol.
It is also important to recognize the need that is required in a particular scenario. In one scenario, there is maybe more need for high throughput than there is for low delay. 10+ Student Reference Letter For University | Appeal! In another scenario there is maybe more need for low delay etc. This is Marketing Assignment Sample becoming more and more important now, in particular when active networks  is becoming an interesting issue in networking. Letter For University! Active networking means that you add user controllable capabilities to the network. The network is Marketing no longer viewed a passive mover of bits, but rather as a more general computation engine. This makes it possible for instance to adjust the routing protocol depending on the scenario. You could basically send the routing protocol and let it install itself into 10+ Student For University Admission | Appeal the nodes. 62 5.9.1 Mobile networks As the simulation results show, the mobility of the network greatly affects the performance of the protocols. It is crucial that the protocol ability to detect broken routes is fast enough and that they also react to these changes.
DSDV Since DSDV is International Research Assignment Sample dependent of its periodic updates, its ability to deal with a dynamic topology is Reference Admission very poor. Free Louisiana Bill Of Sale Form | Pdf (.doc)! It has a poor ability to 10+ Student Reference Letter For University | Appeal fast detect broken links and Certificate For Judges - #pr-Energy takes time to Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal converge. This protocol should really be avoided for Resume Templates High, use in Letter Admission | Appeal, ad-hoc networks where it is crucial to Free Boat | Pdf deal with frequent changing topology. This protocol could however be an option for networks that are static during long periods of times. AODV The original AODV protocol using only HELLO messages as link breakage detection shows poor results as mobility increases. This protocol needs better link breakage detection. Using lower layers such as MAC to detect transmission errors can achieve this. Admission | Appeal! If this is Of Appreciation Sample For Judges used, the 10+ Student Reference Letter | Appeal, protocol actually shows a very good performance. This protocol is a definite choice for highly mobile networks. DSR This protocol is highly optimized and Sample For Judges also shows good results in the simulations.
The protocol could definitely be used in highly mobile networks as well as static networks. 10+ Student Reference For University Admission! 5.9.2 Size of (brazil) Templates networks When talking about the Reference Letter For University, size of a network, it is not only the number of nodes in Brochure Mockup Psd Download, the network that is of interest. The area that the nodes are spread out over is also interesting. This basically decides the connectivity of the network. A large area with many nodes may mean longer routes then for a smaller area with the same number of nodes.
At the same time, many nodes close to each other means a higher collision probability. DSDV This protocol does not scale well. Its use of 10+ Student Reference For University periodic broadcasts limits the Certificate Of Appreciation Sample For Judges, protocol to small networks. If the protocol would be used in Reference For University | Appeal, large networks, the converge time to a steady state would increase when routes go up and down. The reason is Marketing Research Sample that updates must propagate from one end of the network to the other. AODV This protocol scales well, and could be used in both small and medium sized networks. The combination of on-demand and distance vector makes this protocol suitable for large networks as well. The information that each node must store for each wanted destination is rather small compared to for instance DSR that has to store whole source routes. In large networks however, the 10+ Student Letter, propagation of requests to all nodes is a waste of resources. A better solution is probably to divide the network into clusters or zones, like for instance ZRP and CBRP have done. DSR This protocol has some limitations when it comes to the size of the network.
A larger network often means longer routes and longer routes means that the source overhead in Sample For Judges - #pr-Energy, each packet grows. Reference For University | Appeal! The current implementation limits each packet to carry a source route of maximal 16 hops. This can of course be adjusted, but one should keep in mind the large overhead this causes. Of Appreciation - #pr-Energy! One could imagine a network with 20 nodes connected in a straight line. 10+ Student For University Admission! Then this implementation would not manage to route to all nodes. We therefore recommend this protocol for small and medium sized networks.
63 5.9.3 Network scenarios Conference For low mobility scenarios, like the conference scenario that we did simulations on, DSR is the best protocol to use if the Power Of Attorney - Agreements, hopcount is 10+ Student Reference Admission small (fewer than 5 hops). The reasons are high delivery rate, low delay and low message overhead in terms of packets and byte overhead. If the number of hops increases and get as many as 10 hops, each packet must carry a very large byte overhead, which can be very costly, when the load increases. Another good candidate for this scenario when the number of Step By Step | Hamid Mirzaei hopcount increases is one of the AODV versions that use MAC-layer support. AODV has also a very high delivery ratio, but the number of control packets is somewhat larger.
Event coverage In average mobile scenarios, like the event coverage scenario, where nodes tends to cluster and almost all communication is within the 10+ Student Reference Letter For University, clusters, DSR is by all means the best protocol. It has a very large delivery ratio and the overhead is very small, even counted in bytes, because of the few hops required to reach the destination. The AODV versions show a very good result also, but the overhead is larger. So for these type sort of networks DSR it the best protocol. 12+ Free Psd Download! Disaster In networks that become partitioned, DSR with eavesdropping show the best results in this scenario. It has a high delivery ratio, high throughput, a delay around 1.2 seconds and 10+ Student Reference Letter For University low packet overhead.
It also uses only 5 hops in Mockup | Psdtemplatesblog, average to reach a destination. This protocol is therefore recommended in this type of Reference For University scenario. Eavesdropping might however be undesirable because of security issues. One other candidate for (brazil) - Agreements, this scenario is AODV with MAC support. It has almost as high delivery ratio as DSR and also a lower delay. Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal! The packet overhead is High twice as high but the byte overhead is smaller. 5.10 Improvements The simulations have shown that DSR with and Letter For University Admission | Appeal without eavesdropping and the AODV versions that use linklayer support has the overall best result in almost all simulations. DSR has as mentioned earlier the advantage that it learns more information for each request it sends out. Power - Agreements! If a request goes from S to D and the reply from D to S, S will learn the route to all intermediate routes between S and D. This means that it is not necessary to send out as many requests as for example AODV.
The source routing approach is therefore very good in the route discovery and route maintenance cases. 10+ Student Letter Admission | Appeal! However, source routing is not desirable to use for Certificate Sample, data packets. Reference! First of all, it adds a lot of overhead. Certificate Sample! Secondly it is not as traditional as for instance distance vector or link-state that are widely used in wired networks. Our proposal is therefore to implement a protocol that is 10+ Student Admission a combination of source routing and distance vector. Source routing should be used in route discovery and route maintenance phases. These phases would also include that the routing tables where set up accordingly during the propagation of the 12+ Free Brochure Mockup Psd Download, requests and 10+ Student Admission | Appeal replies. When the data packets are forwarded a distance vector algorithm should be used. The packets are simply forwarded to Certificate Of Appreciation For Judges the nexthop according to the routing table. This in combination with that the protocol stores several routes for each destination would probably mean a protocol with a performance that is even better than the 10+ Student Reference Letter | Appeal, protocols that have been simulated in Research, this master thesis.
64 6 Implementation study The implementation study that was conducted at Ericsson Mobile Data Design in Gothenburg  has implemented the AODV protocol. 10+ Student Reference For University Admission! The goal was to Free Louisiana | Pdf | Word (.doc) deliver a working routing protocol as specified in the original AODV draft . 10+ Student Letter | Appeal! 6.1 Design Main Event Queue Route Table Send Hello Send Request Check Neighb Check sender Remove route Neighbors / Senders Lookup Add Delete Update Need route? Add Delete Update time Is member? Host unreachable Lookup failed Message Request buffer Send request Send reply Send hello Receive msg Add Delete Is member? Rreq Rrep Hello Route add Route del User space /dev/route Iotcl() Icmp.c UDP FIB Kernel Table Kernel route.c Other daemons Figure 27: Overview of AODV daemon. The implementation that has been done should only be considered as a prototype to confirm the usefulness of 12+ Free Mockup Psd Download AODV. It is implemented as a daemon in user space. The advantage with this is that debugging and Reference Letter | Appeal testing is By Step Guide | Hamid | Pulse much easier to Reference | Appeal do.
A final implementation should be made in Of Attorney - Legal Templates, kernel space with more optimized design. | Appeal! Thus abandon the modular design and International Marketing Sample optimize the Letter For University | Appeal, code to go really fast. Figure 27 shows the design of the user space daemon and how it interacts with the kernel code. The different modules will be explained in the following chapters. 6.1.1 Main Main ties together all other modules of the Louisiana Form (.doc), user space daemon. It is also in main that the AODV specific code lies. 65 6.1.2 Event queue Queue for events that are supposed to be performed at certain times. These events include: N N N N Periodic hello messages Send / retransmit route requests Timeouts of route entries Hello timeout 6.1.3 Route table This module is an interface against the submodules Daemon Table and Kernel Table. It takes care of Admission | Appeal these two, so when you want to lookup or change a route from International Marketing, Main, you only have to do one call to this module instead of two to the both submodules.
The entries in Daemon Table module have all the fields that is required for AODV, sequence number, list of active neighbors and 10+ Student Reference For University | Appeal so on. The operations supported are Lookup, Add and Delete. The Kernel Table is not a table in the sense Daemon Table is, instead this submodule just communicates with the kernel, sending messages about adding and deleting entries and receives netlink need-route messages. 6.1.4 Neighbors / senders Keeps track of the 12+ Free Mockup | Psdtemplatesblog, neighbors of 10+ Student Reference Admission | Appeal a node. A neighbor is a host that sends/receives hello messages that is directly received/sent by 12+ Free Brochure Mockup Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog another node. This demands that the For University, links are bi-directional. International Marketing! At first it was thought that the WaveLAN cards would take care of Reference | Appeal this, but it was not the case. International Marketing Assignment Sample! The signal strength and the range was different between the hosts. To be able to guarantee bi-directional link, the concept Sender was added. A host is classified as a sender if it can be heard by at least one other node. When sending hello messages a node sends the list of current Senders and if the receiver of the Hello messages is in this list, it is a Neighbor and can start act as one 6.1.5 Request buffer This buffer prevents the network of being flooded by multiple request for the same address.
This buffer stores already processed requests. 6.1.6 Message Handles the different types of 10+ Student Letter | Appeal messages that the Marketing Assignment, daemon can send and receive. These messages are: N N N Hello Route Request Route Reply. 6.2 Setup The computers used for Reference For University Admission | Appeal, this implementation study was: N N 2 stationary computers with Lucent WaveLAN ISA cards. 3 laptops with Lucent WaveLAN PCMCIA cards.
The implementation started first with the Step Guide On Project | Hamid Mirzaei | Pulse, 2 stationary computers running FreeBSD7. The choice of FreeBSD was primarily made because FreeBSD offers the best documentation of its kernel source. It was later discovered when the laptops arrived that FreeBSD was incompatible with the 10+ Student Reference Admission, Lucent WaveLAN PCMIA cards in the laptops. Linux8 however has support for both variants of the LucentWaveLAN cards and Linux was therefore chosen as development operating system. It is not very hard to port the code to FreeBSD in the future if so desired. 7 8 FreeBSD 2.2.6 Linux Red Hat 5.1 66 6.3 Testing The purpose of testing the implementation is to verify that the implementation works correctly and to see if the performance is suitable for real life applications. 6.3.1 Correctness To verify that the implementation of AODV behaved correctly, computers were placed in different scenarios to test the different parts of the protocol. The following tests where made: N N N N N N N Bi-directional links and neighbors: Tests that two nodes can send hello messages to each other and Of Appreciation For Judges registry the counterpart as a neighbor. Unidirectional links and 10+ Student Reference For University Admission | Appeal neighbors: It tests the same as above, but with the difference that we only have an uni-directional link, so only one of the nodes can hear the other and registry him as a neighbor. International Assignment Sample! Neighbor link down: Tests that neighbors moving away from each other causes the link between them to go down. 10+ Student Reference Letter For University | Appeal! Zero hop route requests: Tests that a request to a neighbor that also is the requested destination generates a reply that is Of Sale | Pdf (.doc) correctly received.
This is not the normal operation of the protocol, but could happen if two nodes are in range but have not accepted each other as neighbors. Single hop route request: Tests the situation where node S searches the route to D and we have one node B in between. S broadcasts a request that is caught by B, which knows the route to D and 10+ Student Reference Letter sends a reply back to S. Multihop route request: Almost the same situation as the single hop route request. The difference is that we have two nodes between the requesting source and the destination. The route request must therefore be forwarded one hop before a reply can be generated.
Triggered route reply: Tests that the triggered route reply is generated whenever a route goes down. 6.3.2 Performance No actual performance tests were done. The results for so few nodes would be misleading. Instead tests with real applications like Netscape and Boat Bill Of Sale Form | Pdf | Word Telnet were done. The problems that occurred with these tests were related to Reference For University | Appeal the on-demand nature of Resume Templates High School AODV. Telnet for Admission | Appeal, instance returns host-unreachable when trying to telnet to Templates Students a computer on the first attempt. The second attempt however is successful. The reason is that when Telnet makes its first attempt, no route to the destination exists.
This will result in an error message from the Letter, kernel to Telnet, at Power (brazil) - Legal - Agreements, the same time as a new request is 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission sent to Templates Students High School the neighbors. This request will eventually find a route to the destination and it is installed in the routing table. When Telnet makes a second attempt connect to the same host, a route will already exist in the routing table and telnet will successfully reach the destination host. The solution to Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal this problem is simply to Step On Project Planning | Hamid Mirzaei take care of the error messages that the kernel sends to the application. The error message should be buffered and if a route is 10+ Student not found in a certain amount of time, the error message should be sent to the application, but if a route is actually found the error message can be discarded. Certificate! 6.4 Problems / Limitations Problems that occurred during the implementation include: N N N FreeBSD incompatibilities: As mentioned before, lack of functional drivers to FreeBSD forced the Reference Letter Admission, implementation study to be done under Linux. Address: The current prototype requires that each node participating in the network have a predefined unique IP-address. There is a great need for a dynamic assigned IP-address architecture, which assigns nodes IP-addresses as they enter the Resume High School, network. Admission | Appeal! IPv6 holds such functionality. This prototype is however done for IPv4 so no consideration has been done to implement such functionality. - Legal Templates! Three-way handshake: To guarantee bi-directional links, a three way handshake was necessary for the hello messages before two nodes can be certain of the 10+ Student Reference Letter For University | Appeal, other nodes existence.
The handshake uses piggybacking. It concatenates a list of all nodes it receives hello messages from to the hello messages it sends. When a node receives a hello message and finds its own address in the concatenated list it will add the sending node to its own list of neighbors which it has bi-directional links to. Three hello 67 N messages instead of Resume one wastes bandwidth, but could also in a worst case scenario mean that it could take as long as two full hello intervals before two nodes in range of each other accepts the bi-directional links. Temporary routes: When a request is broadcasted from a node, it will propagate through the network and at the same time install a temporary route back to 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission the source.
The problem with this temporary route is first of (brazil) Templates - Agreements all that the request is unaware of if the route ever will be used and secondly who will use it. 10+ Student Reference Admission | Appeal! This means that it does not know the active neighbors that are using this entry and can therefore not inform these neighbors if a link should go down on this route. The solution that was implemented differs somewhat of what was done in the simulation study. The solution is to store the temporary routes separately and only install them in the routing table when the route reply is propagating back through the network. Sample! 6.5 Improvements Possible features that could be added to this prototype: N N N N Link layer hellos: The addition of link layer feedback from 802.11 would significantly increase the performance as the simulation study has shown. Redundant routes: Store all routes to a destination, not only the one we are currently using. If a route goes down due to a link failure, the next stored route would be tried before a new request is to be sent. This saves a lot of overhead a and makes the delay somewhat smaller. Dynamic IP-addresses: As mention under limitations, dynamic address assignment is a requirement for these kind of networks.
Multicast: Multicast groups within a ad-hoc network could be added. The latest AODV draft has support for this. 6.6 Implementation conclusions The implementation of the AODV protocol has shown that it is possible to get these protocols to work in real-life. Letter | Appeal! It must however be noted that real-life in 12+ Free Mockup Psd Download, this case only consisted of 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission five computers. The AODV prototype has also given some insight into the problems that arise when trying to Of Attorney (brazil) Templates run real applications on 10+ Student, an ad-hoc network. Applications like Netscape and Telnet get host unreachable in the first attempt. The second attempt finds the route successfully. This has to do with the on-demand feature of the AODV protocol.
68 7 Conclusions 7.1 Results The simulations have shown that there certainly is a need for Step Guide, a special ad-hoc routing protocol when the 10+ Student For University | Appeal, mobility increases. It is however necessary to have some sort of Brochure Mockup feedback from the link-layer protocol like IEEE MAC 802.11 when links go up and down or for neighbor discovery. To only be dependent on periodic messages at the IP-level will result in Reference Letter For University | Appeal, a very high degree of packet losses even when mobility increases a little. The simulations have also shown that more conventional types of protocols like DSDV have a drastic decrease in performance when mobility increases and are therefore not suitable for mobile ad-hoc networks. AODV and DSR have overall exhibited a good performance also when mobility is high.
DSR is however based on source routing, which means that the byte overhead in each packet can affect the total byte overhead in the network quite drastically when the offered load to the network and the size of the network increases. In these situations, a hop-by-hop based routing protocol like AODV is more desirable. One advantage with the source routing approach is however that in its route discovery operation it learns more routes. Source routing is however not desirable in Guide On Project | Hamid, ordinary forwarding of For University | Appeal data packets because of the large byte overhead. - Legal - Agreements! A combination of AODV and 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission DSR could therefore be a solution with even better performance than AODV and DSR. Another key aspect when evaluating these protocols is to Free Boat Bill Of Sale (.doc) test them in realistic scenarios. We have tested them in three types of scenarios. DSR had the Letter For University Admission | Appeal, best performance, but the large byte overhead caused by International Research Assignment Sample the source route in 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission, each packet makes AODV a good alternate candidate.
It has almost as good performance. The implementation study conducted at ERV in Gothenburg has shown that it is possible to Free Boat Bill Form | Pdf (.doc) get a real ad-hoc network up and running. The main problems that did occur were related to the testing of the protocol with real applications. 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal! When a route was needed by Boat Bill Of Sale Form | Pdf the application and the route did not exist in the routing table, the 10+ Student Admission, kernel informed the applications of a connection error before giving the routing protocol enough time to find a route. 7.2 Further studies Ad-hoc networking is a rather hot concept in Sample, computer communications.
This means that there is much research going on and many issues that remains to 10+ Student Reference be solved. Due to limited time, we have only focused on Power Of Attorney - Legal, the routing protocols. However there are many issues that could be subject to further studies. First of all, the simulator environment could be improved. For University! These are just some of the Of Attorney - Legal Templates, improvements that could be made: N N More routing protocols, for instance TORA, ZRP and CBRP. Measurement of Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal computing complexity.
Secondly, there are many issues related to ad-hoc networks that could be subject to further studies: N N N Simulations which take unidirectional links into Resume Templates Students consideration. Some sort of analysis of whether many small control messages are more costly to send in terms of resources than fewer large control messages. Security: A very important issue that has to be considered is the security in an ad-hoc network. Routing protocols are prime targets for impersonation attacks. Because ad-hoc networks are formed without centralized control, security must be handled in a distributed fashion.
This will probably mean that IP- 69 N N N N N N Sec  authentication headers will be deployed, as well as the necessary key management to distribute keys to the members of the ad-hoc network. Quality of Service (QoS): What needs are there for Quality of Service in an ad-hoc network? This is related to what the networks actually will be used for. Hand-over of 10+ Student Reference For University Admission | Appeal real-time traffic between nodes. How should real-time traffic smoothly be handed over to another node when a route goes down? Should flooding be used before a route is found? Multicast: We have only Free Louisiana Boat Form (.doc) looked at unicast routing. 10+ Student! Multicast routing is also an High School, interesting issue that has to be considered.
Connecting ad-hoc networks to the Internet through access points: How do you connect an Reference For University, ad-hoc network to the Internet? It is Power Of Attorney - Agreements not possible to just add the 10+ Student Letter, access point as default in the routing tables. This would mean that nodes without a route to a certain destination would be routed to Free Boat Of Sale | Pdf | Word (.doc) the Internet. Mobile IP: Integration of mobile IP into 10+ Student Admission ad-hoc networks. Templates! Addressing of hosts: How should the hosts in an ad-hoc network be addressed? What happens if one adhoc network is partitioned in to two separate networks or two ad-hoc networks are merged into 10+ Student Reference For University Admission | Appeal one new larger ad-hoc network? IP Index Router IP Router (IP) Index Index Figure 28: Router (RID) IP IP Different router identification approaches. From left to right: 3a, 3b, 3c. There are basically three types of identifiers to consider (Figure 28): 1) Interface identifiers: Interfaces are present on both routers and hosts.
In the For Judges, Internet addressing architecture, interfaces are identified by IP addresses. Reference Letter Admission! 2) Host identifiers: Can either be a permanent identifier or a temporary identifier. 3) Router identifiers: Is unspecified and generally depends on International Marketing Assignment Sample, the routing policy. There are three approaches to MANET router identification and 10+ Student Letter For University Admission addressing currently being considered: a) Single IP address (AODV): Identifies a MANET node (both the router and the host) with a single IP address. This approach leaves several issues open: N How to support sets or subnets of hosts attached to a MANET router?
N How to Free Bill Of Sale | Pdf support the use of multiple wireless interfaces? b) Single IP address with interface indexes (DSR): Identifies a MANET router with a single IP address and each interface with a single-byte interface index. This makes it possible to enable simultaneous support for multiple wireless technologies, with the Letter Admission | Appeal, IP address acting as router identifier. The problem with this scheme is that it is not IP in the classical sense where interfaces are identified by IP addresses. The use of a non-standard addressing architecture will likely complicate interoperability. c) Router identifier and IP interface addresses (IMEP): Identifies a MANET router with a router Identifier (RID) and identifies each interface with an IP address. This approach can support sets or subsets of attached hosts and Templates Students simultaneous use of Reference For University Admission | Appeal multiple wireless technologies.
Approach a) and b) seem tailored to support a mobile host that acts like a router. International Research Assignment! Approach c) is intended to support a mobile router platform to 10+ Student Reference For University Admission which one or more host-like devices may be permanently or temporally affiliated. These approaches say nothing about how IP addresses are assigned to Certificate Of Appreciation For Judges - #pr-Energy interfaces (on hosts or routers), or what the 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission | Appeal, RID is and how it is assigned. This is a separate problem, although one which is related to routing. Louisiana Boat Bill Of Sale (.doc)! 70 8 References  Dimitri Bertsekas and 10+ Student Reference Letter For University | Appeal Robert Gallager, “Data Networks - 2nd ed”. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, ISBN 013-200916-1.  Bommaiah, McAuley and Of Attorney (brazil) Templates - Agreements Talpade. Letter! AMRoute, “Adhoc Multicast Routing Protocol”, Internet draft, drafttalpade-manet-amroute-00.txt, August 1998. Work in progress.  Josh Broch, David A. Louisiana Bill | Pdf | Word! Maltz, David B. Johnson, Yih-Chun Hu and Jorjeta Jetcheva, “A performance Comparison of Multi-hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols”. Mobicom'98, Dallas Texas, 25–30 October, 1998. Letter Admission!  Josh Broch, David B. Johnsson, David A. Maltz, “The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”. Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-dsr-00.txt, March 1998. Work in progress.  Scott Corson and Joseph Macker, “ Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues and Evaluation Considerations”.
Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-manet-issues-01.txt, March 1998. Work in progress.  M.Scott Corson, S. Papademetriou, Philip Papadopolous, Vincent D. Park and Amir Qayyum, “An Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol (IMEP) Specification”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-imepspec01.txt, August 1998. Work in progress.  Kevin Fall and Kannan Varadhan, “ns notes and documentation”. The VINT project, UC Berkeley, LBL, USC/ISI, and Xerox PARC, May 1998. Of Appreciation Sample! Work in progress. Reference For University!  Zygmunt J. Haas and Marc R. Pearlman, “The Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) for Ad Hoc Networks”, Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-zone-zrp-01.txt, August 1998.
Work in progress.  IEEE Computer Society LAN MAN Standards Committee, “Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications”, IEEE Std 802.11-1997. The Institute of Electrical and Students High Electronics Engineers, New York.  Philippe Jacquet, Paul Muhlethaler and Amir Qayyum, “Optimized Link State Routing Protocol”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-olsr-00.txt, November 1998. Work in progress.  Mingliang Jiang, Jinyang Li and Yong Chiang Tay, “Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) Functional specification”. 10+ Student! Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-cbrp-spec-00.txt, August 1998. Marketing Sample! Work in progress. Reference Letter Admission!  David B. Johnson and David A.Maltz, “Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks”. In Mobile Computing, edited by Tomasz Imielinski and Hank Korth, chapter 5, pages 153-181. Kluwer Academic Publishers.  David B. Johnson and David A. Maltz, “Protocols for adaptive wireless and mobile computing”. Louisiana Of Sale! In IEEE Personal Communications, 3(1), February 1996.  Stephen Kent and Randall Atkinson, “Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol”, Internet draft, draft-ietf-ipsec-arch-sec-07.txt, July 1998.
Work in progress.  Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET). URL: http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/manet-charter.html. Reference | Appeal! (1998-11-29). Work in progress. 71  Vincent D. Park and M. Scott Corson, “Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) Version 1: Functional specification”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-tora-spec-01.txt, August 1998. Work in progress.  Vincent D. Park and M. Scott Corson, “A performance comparison of the Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm and Ideal Link-state routing”. In Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication ’98, June 1998.  Charles E. Perkins, “Mobility support, Mobile IP and Brochure Mockup Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog Wireless Channel Support for ns-2”, presentation slides. URL: http://www.svrloc.org/ charliep/mobins2/, (1998-11-29). Work in progress.  Charles E. Perkins, “Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing”. Internet draft, draft-ietfmanet-aodv-01.txt, August 1998.
Work in progress.  Charles E. Perkins, “Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing”. Internet draft, draft-ietfmanet-aodv-02.txt, November 1998. 10+ Student Reference Letter For University | Appeal! Work in progress.  Charles E. Perkins, “Mobile Ad Hoc Networking Terminology”. Assignment Sample! Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-term00.txt, October 1997. Work in progress.  Charles E. Perkins and Pravin Bhagwat, “Highly dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers”. Letter For University | Appeal! In Proceedings of the SIGCOM '94 Conference on Communications Architecture, protocols and Applications, pages234-244, August 1994. A revised version of the paper is International Marketing Research available from For University | Appeal, http://www.cs.umd.edu/projects/mcml/papers/Sigcomm94.ps. Marketing Research! (1998-11-29)  Larry L. Peterson and Bruce S. Davie, “Computer Networks - A Systems Approach”. San Francisco, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc. 10+ Student Reference Admission | Appeal! ISBN 1-55860-368-9.  Plummer, D., An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol - or - Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet Address for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware, RFC-826, MIT, November 1982.  Theodore S. Rappaport, “Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice”. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-375536-3.  Raghupathy Sivakumar, Prasun Sinha and Vaduvur Bharghavan, “Core Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing (CEDAR) Specification”, Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-cedar-spec-00.txt, October 1998.
Work in International Marketing Research Assignment, progress. 10+ Student!  Martha Steenstrup, “Routing in communication networks”. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13010752-2.  Jerry Svedlund and Johan Kopman, “Routing protocols in wireless ad-hoc networks - An implementation study”. Uppsala: Uppsala University. Master thesis.  D. L. Tennenhouse and D. Wetherall, “Towards an active network architecture”. In Multimedia Computing and Networking 96, San Jose, CA, Jan 1996.  The CMU Monarch Project. “The CMU Monarch Projects Wireless and Mobility Extensions to ns”. URL: http://www.monarch.cs.cmu.edu/. (1998-11-29).
Work in 12+ Free Brochure | Psdtemplatesblog, progress. 72 Appendix A -Terminology This appendix contains some terminology  that is Letter Admission | Appeal related to ad-hoc networks. A.1 General terms Bandwidth: Total link capacity of a link to carry information (typically bits). Channel: The physical medium is divided into logical channel, allowing possibly shared uses of the medium. Channels may be made available by subdividing the medium into distinct time slots, distinct spectral bands, or decorrelated coding sequences. Convergence: The process of approaching a state of equilibrium in which all nodes in the network agree on a consistent state about the topology of the network.
Flooding: The process of Certificate Of Appreciation Sample For Judges - #pr-Energy delivering data or control messages to 10+ Student Letter For University every node within the any data network. Host: Any node that is not a router. Interface: A nodes attachment to Boat Bill Of Sale Form a link. Link: A communication facility or medium over which nodes can communicate at the link layer. Loop free: A path taken by a packet never transits the Letter Admission, same intermediate node twice before arrival at the destination. MAC-layer address: An address (sometimes called the link address) associated with the Templates High School, link interface of a node on 10+ Student Letter | Appeal, a physical link. Power Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal Templates - Agreements! Next hop: A neighbor, which has been designated to forward packets along the way to 10+ Student Letter | Appeal a particular destination. Neighbor: A node that is within transmitter range from another node on the same channel. Node: A device that implements IP.
Node ID: Unique identifier that identifies a particular node. Router: A node that forwards IP packets not explicitly addressed to itself. In case of Resume Templates Students High School ad-hoc networks, all nodes are at least unicast routers. Routing table: The table where the routing protocols keep routing information for various destinations. This information can include nexthop and the number of Admission hops to the destination. Scalability: A protocol is scalable if it is applicable to large as well as small populations. Source route: A route from the source to the destination made available by Free (.doc) the source. Throughput: The amount of data from a source to a destination processed by the protocol for which throughput is to Reference Letter Admission | Appeal be measured for instance, IP, TCP, or the MAC protocol. 73 A.2 Ad-hoc related terms Ad-hoc: For this special or temporary purpose or a special case without generic support. 12+ Free Brochure Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog! AODV: Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector.
Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. Asymmetric: A link with transmission characteristics that are different of the transmitter and receiver. Letter For University Admission! For instance, the range of one transmitter may be much higher than the - Legal - Agreements, range of another transmitter on the same medium. The transmission between the 10+ Student Reference For University, two hosts will therefore not work equally well in both directions. See also symmetric. Beacon: Control message issued by a node informing other nodes in its neighborhood of its continuing presence. 12+ Free Mockup Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog! Bi-directional: see symmetric. CBRP: Cluster Based Routing Protocol. Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks.
Cluster: A group of nodes typically in 10+ Student Reference | Appeal, range of each other, where one of the nodes is elected as the cluster head. The cluster head ID identifies the 12+ Free | Psdtemplatesblog, cluster. Each node in the network knows its corresponding cluster head(s) and therefore knows which cluster(s) it belongs to. DSDV: Dynamic Sequenced Distance Vector. Routing protocol for wireless Ad Hoc networks. DSR: Dynamic Source Routing. Routing protocol for wireless Ad Hoc networks. Proactive: Tries to maintain the Letter For University Admission, routing map for the whole network all the time.
See also reactive. Reactive: Calculates route only upon receiving a specific request. See also proactive RREQ: Routing Request. A message used by Of Appreciation Sample - #pr-Energy AODV for 10+ Student For University Admission | Appeal, the purpose of discovering new routes to a destination node. RREP: Route Reply. A message used by AODV to reply to route requests. Symmetric: Transmission between two hosts works equally well in International Research Sample, both directions.
See also asymmetric. | Appeal! TORA: Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm. Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. Unidirectional: see asymmetric. ZRP: Zone Routing Protocol. Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. 74 Appendix B - AODV implementation for ns This appendix contains a little more details about the Resume Templates Students, implementation of AODV that we did for For University | Appeal, ns. The implementation of AODV is International Marketing Sample done according to the draft  released in August 1998. B.1 Message formats AODV have four different messages that it uses for route discovery and Reference | Appeal route maintenance.
All messages are sent using UDP. B.1.1 Route Request – RREQ The format of the route request message is shown in Figure 29. 0 1 2 31 01234567890123456789012345678901 Type Reserved Hop count Broadcast ID Destination IP address Destination Sequence Number Source IP address Source Sequence Number Figure 29: N N N N N N N N Route request format. Type: Type of High School message. Reserved: Reserved for future use. Currently sent as 0 and ignored on reception. Hop count: Number of hops from the 10+ Student Letter For University Admission, source IP address to the node handling the Power Of Attorney (brazil) Templates, request. Broadcast ID: A sequence number identifying the particular request uniquely when taken in conjunction with the source nodes IP address.
Destination IP address: IP address of the Reference Admission | Appeal, destination for Templates Students High, which a route is 10+ Student Letter | Appeal required. Destination sequence number: The last sequence number received in the past by the source for Mockup, any route towards the destination. Source IP address: IP address of the node that originated the request. Source sequence number: Current sequence number for route information generated by the source of the route request. 10+ Student Letter! 75 B.1.2 Route Reply - RREP The format of the route reply message is shown in Figure 30. 0 1 2 31 01234567890123456789012345678901 Type L Reserved Hop count Destination IP address Destination Sequence Number Lifetime Figure 30: N N N N N N N Route reply format. Type: Type of message. L: If the L-bit is set the message is a hello message and contains a list of the nodes neighbors. Reserved: Reserved for future use. Currently sent as 0 and ignored on reception. Resume Templates! Hop count: Number of hops from the source IP address to the destination IP address.
Destination IP address: IP address of the destination for which a route is supplied. Destination sequence number: The destination sequence number associated to the route. Lifetime: Time for which nodes receiving the Reply consider the route to be valid. B.1.3 Hello Hello messages are a special case of Route reply messages. The difference is that a hello message always supplies the route to Reference Letter itself. This means that the hop count field is set to By Step On Project Planning | Hamid | Pulse 0, the destination address set to the nodes IP address and 10+ Student the destination sequence number set to the nodes latest sequence number.
B.1.4 Link failure Link failure messages are also special Route reply messages, but in this case the destination reflects the route that has broken. The broken route is assigned an Of Appreciation Sample For Judges, infinite hop count and a sequence number that is increased with one. 76 B.2 Design Figure 31 shows how AODV was designed when implemented for ns. AODV OTcl C++ AODV_Agent Hdr_AODV Request Buffer Figure 31: AODV_RTable AODVConstants AODV design of implementation for simulator. AODV The tcl script that starts the AODV routing agent and creates all mobile nodes that are using AODV as routing protocol. Reference Letter Admission | Appeal! AODV_Agent Implements all AODV specific parts.
Handles RREQ, RREP, Hello and Triggered RREP. It also has a send buffer that buffers packets while a route is searched for. The timers that handles timeouts on International Marketing Sample, route entries and Admission | Appeal the send buffer are also implemented here. Hdr_AODV Defines the message format for all messages that AODV uses. Request Buffer Implements the Free Louisiana Boat Form | Word (.doc), request buffer that prevents a node to process the same RREQ multiple times. AODV_RTable The routing table that AODV uses. The routing table also implements the active neighbor list for each route entry. AODVConstants All AODV constants are defined here, which makes it easy to modify for instance the 10+ Student Reference Letter For University | Appeal, hello interval. International Marketing Research Assignment! 77 B.3 Important routines B.3.1 Sending RREQ RREQ will only be sent by the source nodes (no intermediate nodes sends RREQs), if there does not exist any route for the destination. Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Templates Students High School! 11.
12. B.3.2 if ( no route exists ) else Receiving RREQ When a node receives a RREQ, it must first of all decide if it already has processed the RREQ. The RREQ is discarded if it has been processed. Otherwise the source address and Reference Letter | Appeal the broadcast ID from RREQ will be buffered to prevent it from being processed again. 1. 2. 3. 4. Brochure Mockup! 5. if ( (source addr, broadcast ID) in request buffer ) else The next step is to create or update the route entry in the routing table. Reference | Appeal! This route can be used by the RREP when a route is found.
1. 2. 3. Power Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal - Agreements! 4. 10+ Student Reference Letter For University! 5. 6. 7. 8. if ( no route to source addr ) elseif ( source seqno in RREQ source seqno in route entry ) elseif ((source seqno in RREQ = source seqno in route entry) AND ( hop count in RREQ hop count in route entry )) Then, the node must check if it knows the Of Attorney (brazil) - Agreements, route to the wanted destination. If the node knows the route it will unicast a RREP to the source. Otherwise it will forward the Reference Letter | Appeal, RREQ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. if ( you are destination of RREQ ) elseif (( have route to destination ) AND (destination seqno in route entry = destination seqno in RREQ)) else 78 B.3.3 Forwarding RREQ When a node receiving a RREQ that it has not processed yet does not have a route, it will forward the RREQ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. create a RREQ packet: copy all fields from received RREQ into new packet increment hop count field locally broadcast new RREQ packet discard received RREQ B.3.4 Forwarding RREP When a node receives a RREP that is not addressed for Templates High School, the node, it will set up the forward route by updating the routing table and forward the RREP back to Reference Admission the requesting source. This part is International Marketing Research Assignment however not explicit specified in For University Admission | Appeal, the AODV draft. 1. 2. 3. 4. Certificate Sample - #pr-Energy! 5. 6. 7. 10+ Student Letter For University! 8. 9. 10. (brazil) Templates! 11. 12.
13. Reference Admission | Appeal! if ( route to requested destination does not exist ) elseif(destination seqno in RREP destination seqno in route entry) elseif ((destination seqno in Mockup Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog, RREP = destination seqno in route entry ) AND ( hop count in RREP hop count in entry )) if (route to requesting source exists) B.3.5 Receiving RREP When the originating source receives the RREP it will update the routing table. 1. 2. 3. Reference Admission | Appeal! 4. Power Of Attorney (brazil) - Agreements! 5. 5. 6. 10+ Student Letter Admission! 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. if (route to destination does not exist) elseif (destination seqno in Marketing Research, RREP destination seqno in route entry) elseif (( destination seqno in RREP = destination seqno in 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission, route entry ) AND (hop count in RREP hop count in entry )) else 79 B.3.6 Hello handling Each node periodically broadcasts a hello message to all neighbors. When a node receives a hello message it knows that the Power - Legal Templates - Agreements, sending node is Reference Letter For University | Appeal a neighbor and will update the Guide On Project | Hamid Mirzaei, routing table. 1. 2. 10+ Student Letter | Appeal! 3. 4. Of Appreciation - #pr-Energy! 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Reference Letter | Appeal! B.3.7 if (route entry for Power Of Attorney - Legal - Agreements, HELLO source exists) else Forwarding packets AODV uses a active neighbor list to For University keep track of which neighbors that are using a particular route. These lists are used when sending triggered route replies. The neighbor lists are updated every time a packet is Of Appreciation - #pr-Energy forwarded. 1. Reference Letter For University | Appeal! 2. Resume School! 3. Admission | Appeal! 4. Of Appreciation Sample! 5. 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission! 6. B.3.8 if (route entry to International Marketing Research destination exists) Sending Triggered RREP Link breakages are detected by either the link layer which notifies the routing agent or by Reference Admission using hello messages. If a node has not received hello messages from a node for Of Appreciation Sample - #pr-Energy, a certain amount of time it will assume that the link is down. Every time a link is detected as down, AODV will send a Triggered RREP to inform the affected sources. 1. 2. 3. 4. B.3.9 for (each address in the active neighbor list for a route entry) Receiving Triggered RREP Every time a Triggered RREP is 10+ Student For University | Appeal received informing about a broken link, the International Research, affected route entry must be deleted and Reference Letter Admission | Appeal neighbors using this entry must be informed.
1. 2. 3. 4. if (have active neighbors for broken route) delete route entry for Templates Students High, broken route 80 Appendix C -Simulator screenshots This appendix shows some screenshots of Letter For University | Appeal Network animator and Ad-hockey. School! Network animator is the visualization tool for ns and Ad-hockey is the visualization for the mobility extension developed by the CMU Monarch project. 10+ Student Letter Admission! C.1 Network animator Figure 32 shows a screenshot of Network animator. The scenario contains 19 nodes in a wired network. Some of the Power Of Attorney - Legal Templates, nodes are sending packets, which also can be seen in the figure. With this tool it is very easy to Letter For University Admission trace packets as they propagate through the network. The circles represent the Research Assignment Sample, nodes and Reference Admission the lines between the circles are the Marketing Research, physical wired links that connect the nodes with each other. | Appeal! Figure 32: Screenshot – Network animator. 81 C.2 Ad-hockey The screenshots of Ad-hockey that can be seen in Resume Students School, Figure 33, Figure 34 and Reference Letter Admission Figure 35 shows the playback trace of the realistic scenarios that with did simulations on.
The big white rectangle in the middle is the movement area. The different colored circles are the nodes. The colors of the nodes represent what action the Marketing Research Assignment, nodes are performing at the moment. 10+ Student Letter For University! It could for instance be that the node is sending, forwarding or receiving a packet. The lines between the nodes do not represent wired links. The lines are actually packets that propagate from node to Marketing Sample node. The detached rectangles and lines that also can be seen within the movement area are obstacles. Figure 33: Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Conference scenario. For University | Appeal! 82 Figure 34: Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Event coverage scenario. Figure 35: Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Disaster area. 83 . TERM Spring #039;00 PROFESSOR Hesham TAGS Computer network, . Power Of Attorney (brazil) Templates! routing protocol, ad-hoc network.
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07 Adhoc Networks. Nodes J and K both broadcast RREQ to Psd Download node D Since nodes J and K are hidden from Reference Letter For University | Appeal, Vietnamese-German University, Binh Duong Province EEIT 28 - Winter 2016 Lecture (11-14) -On-Demand-Driven Reactive Routing protocols Chandra Prakash Assistan. Copyright © 2017. Course Hero, Inc. Privacy Terms.
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31 must-read celebrity biographies. Updated May 30, 2013 11:44 AM. It's hard to resist a juicy celebrity biography. Counting down to No. 1, here are 31 top picks, some informative and inspirational, some trashy and totally outrageous. In other words, something for everybody.
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By Albert Goldman (Chicago Review Press) This 1988 unauthorized bio by an academic and music critic is as hefty (720 pages, 1,200 interviews and written over the course of six years) as it is controversial (it's been called a hatchet job by Brochure Mockup Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog, ardent Lennon fans and condemned by Yoko Ono). The book paints Lennon as a dark, conflicted figure (duh) and sifts through little-known facts about his youth, life with Yoko and post-Beatles years. Startling allegations include how Lennon took LSD daily, had a gay relationship with Brian Epstein and may have killed a man. There isn't a lot of music analysis but, what -- you're looking for Reference Letter Admission a book that's longer than 720 pages? 4. International Marketing Research Assignment Sample? MY WICKED, WICKED WAYS: The Autobiography of 10+ Student For University Admission | Appeal Errol Flynn. It's all here -- obsessions, addictions, divorces and brawls from the greatest of Hollywood swashbucklers. The big question of this 1959 autobiography: How much is Free Boat Bill | Word (.doc) true? Some anecdotes have been disputed, but with plot twists that include his pre-Hollywood life as a mercenary, his 1943 trial for rape (he was cleared of the charges) and all that action with the ladies (he spawned the phrase in like Flynn), it's one rollicking ride. 3. HIS WAY: An Unauthorized Biography of Frank Sinatra. Sinatra sued Kelley to stop publication of this unauthorized 1986 biography, which dug up the dirt on his abusive marriages, womanizing, hair-trigger temper and ties to organized crime.
He ultimately withdrew the lawsuit, and the book went on to become a huge bestseller, forever changing our perception of Ol? Blue Eyes. 2. DIANA: Her True Story. By Andrew Morton (Pocket Books) Morton's 1992 bio of Princess Diana exposed her scarily unhappy marriage to Prince Charles and Reference For University | Appeal the dysfunctions of the royal family, giving Elizabeth her unshakable rep as an Ice Queen. Free Louisiana Of Sale Form (.doc)? It was later revealed that Diana was Morton's principal (and anonymous) source. 1. MOMMIE DEAREST.
By Christina Crawford (Seven Springs Press) The Mother's Day card to end all Mother's Day cards. This how-to of maternal dysfunction set the benchmark for tell-all tomes written by 10+ Student Letter | Appeal, the offended offspring of freaky celebrities. Written by Joan Crawford's adopted daughter (who Mommie disinherited before she died), this 1978 bestseller told a Hollywood horror story of a tempestuous megastar and the psychological and physical abuse she heaped on Power Of Attorney - Legal Templates - Agreements her kids. Grab the 20th Anniversary Seven Springs edition, which includes 100 pages of 10+ Student Reference For University Admission dirt cut from the original. The 1981 film starred an irrepressibly campy Faye Dunaway. C'mon, let's all say it together: No!
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conclusion ww2 essay WW2 swords may or may not have a tang stamp. Some of these tang stamps may represent traditionally made swords. This issue is however hotly debated, and some of the arguments below may be considered controversial by some. There are those that argue that all tang stamps indicate a non-traditional sword. However, this argument does not stand up to analysis. Not all tang stamps are equal. Reference For University? The star stamp, for example, was used to indicate blades made by smiths of the Rikugun Jumei Tosho (Army approved swordsmiths). Similarly, the Minatogawa Kikusui mon indicates the Assignment blade was made at the Minatogawa Shrine. The Minatogawa Shrine forged traditionally made blades, i.e. Reference | Appeal? gendaito, for the Navy. Minatogawa swords are relatively rare as only a few hundred were made, and they are avidly sought by collectors.
The same applies to | Hamid Mirzaei | Pulse the Yasukuni Shrine swords, which were made for the Japanese Army. Only 8,100 of these blades were made, and they are also considered rare. Any sword made at 10+ Student Letter For University Admission the Yasukuni Shrine forge by Power Of Attorney (brazil) Templates a Shrine smith is, by definition, a gendaito. These blades are considered to Reference For University be among the Step By Step On Project Planning Mirzaei best quality traditionally made blades of the 10+ Student Letter Admission WW II era. A list of Yasukuni Shrine swordsmiths is available at Chris Bowen's Tokyo Kindai Tosho Index. Swords of the WW2 period which have received origami (authentification papers) from the Nihon Bijutsu Token Hozon Kai (NBTHK) or Nihon Token Hozon Kai (NTHK) are also considered gendaito.
However, not all of a smith's blades are gendaito simply because one blade amongst many has received origami. It was not uncommon for smiths to make both gendaito and showato during the war. Students High? Again, each blade must be judged on its own merits, and not just on the signature of the swordsmith. Which brings us to 10+ Student Letter the common tang stamps, such as Showa, Seki and Mukden stamps. There is a popular view that these swords are all (a) machine made (b) rubbish. Sample? Whilst there is some truth in this argument, it is far too much of an over-generalisation. I first came across this argument thirty years ago. I had a sword with a Showa stamp, and there was a Japanese togishi in London. I, being the very new to the field, took my sword to see the togishi, to see if he would polish it.
He wouldn't. He took a cursory glance and handed it back. 10+ Student? Rubbish! he said, machine made from a single piece of steel. No hamon! So I asked him about sharpening it. His advice was that I could safely sharpen it the same way as a western knife or sword, since it was made the same way. So I got out Resume Templates Students my whetstone and 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal oilstones and sharpened it up - and sharpened straight through the skin metal.
One screwed Japanese sword. You see, the International Marketing Research Assignment Sample problem was that it wasn't made of a single piece of steel. It had core and skin steel. Etching subsequently demonstrated that it had a gunome hamon, although it had been obscured by 10+ Student Reference the wartime polish; I never had a chance to find out if it was water tempered. For all I know, it may have been laminated. The togishi had relied upon the assumption - unfortunately incorrect - that showato were all machine-made rubbish. That after all was – and often still is – the received wisdom. I for my part assumed that he was correct because he was the | Psdtemplatesblog authority on For University Admission, swords. Step Guide Planning? As a result, I have learned that I should never believe in authorities, no matter how well established or revered.
With hindsight, the togishi’s reaction was unsurprising. Most Japanese, togishi included, have never seen such swords because they are illegal in 10+ Student Letter | Appeal Japan. They therefore know little about them, apart from assumptions and received wisdom. In fact most of the research in these swords has been conducted in the UK. Nevertheless, the argument is still influential and widely accepted. However, as my old academic mentor once remarked, if data disagrees with theory, then theory is wrong, no matter how attractive the Of Attorney - Legal theory is. 10+ Student Reference For University | Appeal? In this case there is evidence to Resume High contradict the theory as a general case, and none - apart from assumptions - to support it. If someone feels the need to justify the received wisdom, they are going to 10+ Student Reference For University have back up their argument with statistical data from a statistically significant sample. The practice of saying that it is so because a certain authority said it was so should have gone out with the medieval period.
Tang stamps are found on some of the Power - Legal Templates - Agreements poorest blades the Japanese ever made. However, the 10+ Student Letter For University Admission | Appeal purpose of tang stamps was only indicate that the Step By Step Mirzaei | Pulse sword’s manufacture was non-traditional in some way. For University | Appeal? To be considered traditional, the starting material must be tamahagane, and the sword must be forged in the traditional manner, and Students School differentially tempered using yakire and water as a quenching agent. If only one of those things is non-traditional, then the sword as a whole is not considered traditional. If, for example, the starting point is not tamahagane, but foreign imported steel, then the sword is not traditional; it is not a nihonto. From 1933 onwards, swords that were not traditional were required to be stamped with a tang stamp. Since the war swords with a tang stamp have been regarded as poor swords by virtue of 10+ Student Letter For University | Appeal being non-traditional. As we shall see, there are serious problems in Resume Templates Students School applying this argument in all cases. For now it should be noted that the use of 10+ Student Letter | Appeal non-traditional materials is neither new, nor is the result necessarily inferior to a traditionally made sword. To argue otherwise is simply evidence of prejudice. Tamahagane is not the most ideal starting material for a sword; the Power (brazil) - Agreements perfection of the Japanese sword is down to the ability of generations of 10+ Student Reference For University Admission Japanese smiths to overcome the limitations of their starting material.
Japanese smiths were, like any perfectionists, always on the lookout for anything to improve their swords. The Edo period smith, Yasutsugu, was the first to use foreign steel rather than tamahagane, and proudly marked this fact on his tangs. It meant a better sword. By today's rules, Yasutsugu’s swords would not be considered traditional because of the Power inclusion or use of foreign iron. If they had been made during WW2, the law would have required them to bear a tang stamp. These days they would be classified as showato and regarded as inferior. They are however considered traditional because they are antique and 10+ Student For University | Appeal are regarded as superior examples of Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog nihonto. Spot the 10+ Student Reference Letter illogic. To enquire further into the issue of tang stamps, we must first understand the methods of Free Louisiana Form | Pdf sword manufacture used in Japan prior to 10+ Student Letter For University Admission | Appeal the end of WW2. Richard Fuller describes nine manufacturing methods: 1. Tamahagane gendaito.
Fully hand forged and differentially hardened in the traditional manner using water as a quenching agent. Possesses an active hamon and hada. 2. Mill-steel gendaito. Fully hand forged from Free Louisiana Boat Bill Form | Pdf | Word (.doc), mill steel or (more often) 19th century railway tracks made from Swedish steel. Differentially hardened in the traditional manner using water as a quenching agent. Possesses an Reference Admission | Appeal, active hamon and hada. 3. Koa-isshin Mantetsu-to. Made from Manchurian steel by a special process. Partly forged, partly engineered, and differentially hardened in Free Form the traditional manner using water as a quenching agent. Possesses an active hamon and hada.
4. 10+ Student Reference For University Admission | Appeal? Han-tanren abura yaki-ire-to. Power Of Attorney (brazil) - Legal - Agreements? Partially forged from 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission, mill stock, some folding, differentially hardened using oil. Does have a hamon although it is nowhere near as active as a water-quenched sword, but lacks hada. 5. Sunobe abura yaki-ire-to. Drawn down, forged to shape, not folded. Differential hardened using oil, may have a fairly inactive hamon, but no hada. 6. Mantetsu-to. Rolled from Manchurian railway tracks. Differential hardening using oil, may have a fairly inactive hamon, but no hada. 7. Murata-to. Rolled or drawn, oil hardened but not differentially hardened.
Yakiba but no visible hamon and no hada. 8. Tai-sabi-ko. Stainless steel, oil-hardened, no grain, no hamon, possible yakiba. Made for the Imperial Japanese Navy to resist salt corrosion. 9. Machine made. Serial number in Mockup the blade. No forging; stamped out and quenched in oil without differential hardening, assuming that they are hardened at all. No hada and no hamon. Some may in fact be plated, and in the worst cases the hamon may be acid etched onto the steel.
The classic example is the NCO swords. On a par with Chinese fakes, and Reference the most commonly faked sword. Only the tamahagane gendaito is considered traditional, i.e. a nihonto. All the Certificate - #pr-Energy rest, including the ‘mill steel’ gendaito, would have to bear a tang stamp. Whilst ‘mill steel’ gendaito can be very, very good indeed, the non-traditional group includes some pretty awful examples of swordmaking. As a result, the 10+ Student Letter For University Admission whole group tends to On Project Planning Mirzaei | Pulse be known by the worst examples. This is probably unsurprising; the bulk of this group consist of oil-hardened blades (abura yaki-ire-to). That doesn’t mean that the entire group followed this pattern. The ‘mill steel’ gendaito radically differ from the abura yaki-ire-to; they are like chalk and cheese. The 'mill steel' gendaito could be regarded as following the Reference Letter For University precedent set by Yasutsugu and his use of namban-tetsu.
The best ‘mill steel’ gendaito are made from mid-19th century railway tracks that were manufactured from Swedish steel and exported to Japan. Swedish steel has been highly prized for Marketing, its excellence and purity for centuries. In the 19th century it was ‘puddled’ to produce sponge iron of exceptional quality. The sponge steel was then forged into bars and subsequently baked for Reference Letter For University | Appeal, weeks with an Sample, appropriate quantity of charcoal. This resulted in blister steel. The carbon content of blister steel was very unequal, so the bars of blister steel were broken up, forgewelded together, and the block then folded and repeatedly welded to Reference Letter Admission | Appeal produce a consistent carbon content of about 0.7%. The block was then rolled and heat treated to produce pearlitic railway tracks. The metal also contained some manganese, which made the tracks tougher and harder than straight carbon steel. As a result of the manufacturing processes, the rails had an inherent grain. Resume High School? This was due to the forgewelding process, and the steel having slight variations in its carbon content.
As a result, a polished rail of the 10+ Student Reference Letter Admission period has a grain resembling a coarse hada, for exactly the same reasons that a tamahagane sword has a hada. In short, the process of making the tracks was analogous to the earliest stages in Templates Students High making a sword from tamahagane. Letter For University? However, the average Japanese sword has a carbon content of 0.5%. Free Boat Bill Of Sale Form | Pdf | Word? Some particularly vicious cutters have a carbon content of 0.7%, but these are unusual, and are probably Koto blades. The use of good Swedish steel therefore meant that the 10+ Student Reference Letter | Appeal smith could make a blade that was potentially in the same category as the Templates High highest performing traditional blades.
Furthermore, the presence of manganese means that the Letter Admission metal is tougher than straight carbon steel. Resume Students School? Add traditional hand forging and 10+ Student Reference For University | Appeal construction techniques, plus decarburisation of the steel forming the core, and you have a blade that would be likely to outperform all other WW2 blades except, possibly, a Koa Isshin blade. However, even a Koa Isshin blade would have a run for its money. All it requires is the Power - Legal Templates smith having the ability to Reference Admission | Appeal realise the full potential of International Marketing Research Assignment Sample this material. I have a sword made this way. It is 10+ Student Reference For University, a work of art.
It has a lovely skilful hamon and a hada. It is also beautifully balanced and in Of Appreciation Sample For Judges - #pr-Energy full polish. Oddly enough, the smith has used the sugata of a Koto blade, rather than the 10+ Student standard WW2 design. Anyway, I had it out the other day, and set the Power (brazil) - Agreements bare blade down to study it. It slipped a couple of inches, and sliced cleanly through a canvas bag it encountered on the way as if the bag were not there. In skilled hands it could easily take off a leg, and arm or a head without noticing. Similarly good results may be achieved by forgewelding together a lamination of differing grades of mill steel. This method has been perfected in the post-war period by Reference Letter | Appeal American smiths, and Mockup Psd Download | Psdtemplatesblog has also resulted in 10+ Student Reference For University blades of prodigious performance. Such swords have a hada and an active hamon, although they are usually more easily distinguished from nihonto.
I am, however, unaware of any WW2 Japanese smiths doing this, although it should be said that most smiths never documented their methods, and refused to talk about their wartime work in the post-war period. Some perceived, rightly or wrongly, that there might be some repercussions for being part of the Japanese war machine. Manchurian steel was highly esteemed by Free Louisiana Of Sale | Pdf (.doc) WW2 swordsmiths. In fact the Dairen Manchurian Railroad Factory (Mantetsu) thoroughly analysed the 10+ Student Reference For University Admission Japanese sword with a view to improving it, including reducing its susceptibility to cold fracture in extreme climactic conditions. The resulting protype subjected to an appraised cutting test. The prototype was, as a result, appraised in error as a Koto sword forged by Tadayoshi of Research Assignment Sample Hizen, on the grounds that only a Tadayoshi sword could cut like that (more preconceptions!). Encouraged by this, in 1937 Mantetsu went on to manufacture the Koa Isshin sword, turning out 10+ Student some 400 a month. Koa Isshin swords are not traditionally made swords, and are therefore not ‘art swords’. However they are, from an engineering point of view, superbly made. The cutting edge has a hardness of Rc 72 (far in excess of all western blades and many Japanese swords), whilst the construction is far more consistent than many traditionally forged Japanese blades. The result is not an inferior sword at all, but a superb, high quality, cutting instrument that exceeds all but the By Step Guide On Project | Pulse very best Koto ‘art swords’ for effectiveness.
Koa Isshin swords are therefore highly valued by 10+ Student Reference For University martial artists. Or to put it another way for Power Of Attorney (brazil) Templates, my re-enactment friends, practical tests indicate that a sword edge of mid-Rc 60s hardness will cut chainmail. A Koa Isshin sword at Rc72 would, in 10+ Student For University Admission | Appeal all probability, make mincemeat of chainmail and would probably seriously damage modern plate armour. I doubt that it would affect medieval tempered plate to a serious degree though. I might note in passing the Power Of Attorney (brazil) Templates similarities in steel manufacture between the Koa Isshin swords and 10+ Student Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal the swords made from Swedish steel.
Both start with extremely pure sponge iron. The former, and Marketing Research possibly the Reference Letter latter, cut as well as the best Koto ‘art’ swords. The secret of making Koto swords has been lost for centuries, and Japanese smiths have spent generations trying to recover it. Louisiana Boat | Pdf? It would be ironic if the Japanese had rediscovered the secret without knowing it. 10+ Student Letter For University | Appeal? You see, the Step On Project Planning | Hamid | Pulse Chinese had puddling furnaces (chaolu) by the 1st century AD at For University Admission | Appeal the latest, and tamahagane would be an ideal feedstock for such a furnace. The Chinese had also discovered how to accurately control the carbon content of steel. Perhaps the secret of Koto blades lies in the method of steel manufacture, rather than in the subsequent forging of that steel. Both Koa Isshin swords and International Marketing Assignment Sample ‘mill steel’ gendaito are therefore superb cutting implements despite – or rather because of – their non-traditional elements. Are they however ‘quality’ swords? Well, it depends upon 10+ Student Reference Letter For University, what we mean by ‘quality’.
The quality of Of Attorney Templates - Agreements a Japanese sword is Reference Letter, judged, not on its cutting ability, but on the evidence of craftsmanship that it shows. Performance and quality are however usually related; as a general rule (and bearing in mind the exceptions), the Power Of Attorney (brazil) - Agreements lower the craftsmanship, the poorer the sword, and the poorer it performs. This is true regardless of whether the sword is made from tamahagane or not. It is a bit like judging breeds of dogs; points are awarded for the craftsmanship shown in 10+ Student Letter For University Admission creating the shape of the By Step Guide Planning Mirzaei sword, the hamon, the hada and all the other bits that go to make up a traditional sword. By definition, oil tempered swords, which make up the Reference bulk of the non-traditional swords, will lack essential elements. The more elements they lack, the poorer they are. A Koa Isshin sword is By Step Guide Planning | Hamid Mirzaei | Pulse, a simple, workmanlike piece that was designed to function as an effective cutting tool. Ideas of 10+ Student Reference Admission artistry were very secondary. ‘Mill steel’ gendaito were however crafted by skilled smiths who brought all their skill and artistry to bear in making them. Fuller’s list is Templates High School, organised in terms of descending quality. Koa Isshin swords and Letter For University Admission ‘mill steel’ gendaito probably perform equally well, although the latter has a marked edge when it comes to evidence of craftsmanship. Fuller also places ‘mill steel’ gendaito lower than tamahagane gendaito as far as quality is concerned, although the former can probably, as a general rule, outcut the latter.
In fact the Sample difference in quality between tamahagane and ‘mill steel’ gendaito probably isn’t that high. True, tamahagane gendaito generally show greater quality when taken as a whole . However, the tamahagane gendaito class includes the 10+ Student Letter For University Admission work of Japan’s top smiths, who had an uninterrupted supply of International Marketing Assignment tamahagane, and therefore did not experiment with ‘mill steel’ gendaito. No doubt they could have done so, but tradition was against Letter For University, it. The smiths who made mill steel gendaito did not work in such a rarefied atmosphere. There was probably little difference in quality between the gendaito produced by an individual smith, regardless of the By Step Mirzaei starting material. In swords, as in statistics, one should compare like with like. The proof of the pudding is, in this case, in Admission the legislation. Tang stamps were introduced precisely because swordsmiths and Of Attorney collectors could not distinguish the 10+ Student For University best quality non-traditional swords (i.e. ‘mill steel’ gendaito) from traditionally made swords.
It was discovered that, as a result, some smiths were forging replicas of older swords, giving them false signatures (gimei), and passing them off as the real thing. Several smiths were subsequently arrested. Amidst mounting concern, the government passed a law in 1933 requiring all swords that were non-traditional in any way to be marked with a tang stamp, although the actual stamp used was left to the manufacturer. These stamps should not however be confused with the smith’s personal seal or ‘kokuin’. The system was not fully implemented until 1940. Free Boat Bill Of Sale Form | Pdf (.doc)? That means that there could be a fair number of swords of non-traditional manufacture not bearing tang stamps, of which some will be ‘mill steel’ gendaito. It would be fairly easy to differentiate between an 10+ Student, oil-hardened sword and a traditionally made sword, even if the former lacked a tang stamp. However, there would probably be little or no chance of differentiating between a ‘mill steel’ gendaito and a tamahagane gendaito. It is not impossible that some examples have since received origami.
Again, a togishi can remove a tang stamp so that it looks as if one was never there. Some smiths stamped their tangs very lightly, thus complying with the Brochure law, but making it easier for their customers to 10+ Student Admission | Appeal remove the stamp. The legislation produced a profusion of stamps, ranging from International Marketing Sample, sword factory stamps, to the stamps of sword sellers. The commonest are illustrated at the beginning of this essay. The best known of these is the well known Showa stamp. This is a general army stamp; contrary to received wisdom, it is not an Letter Admission, arsenal mark. The earliest known example dates from Louisiana Bill Of Sale Form, May 1940. The Showa stamp seems to have been restricted to swords that were sold off-the-peg through the Army Officers Club (Kaikosha). Reference Admission | Appeal? Here we already have a potential element of Step By Step Planning Mirzaei | Pulse confusion; does a Showa stamp necessarily indicate a non-traditional sword, or did it simply indicate a sword that was sold ‘off-the-peg’ via a certain organisation, the bulk of the swords sold being non-traditional in some way?
In short, were the swords stamped because they were ‘off-the-peg, regardless of method of 10+ Student Admission | Appeal manufacture, or were off-the-peg swords limited to non-traditional swords. If the former is true, then some swords with a Showa stamp may indeed by traditional swords. More research is needed. The Showa stamps were superseded in late 1941-early 1942 by Marketing Research Assignment Sample the various arsenal marks. 10+ Student Letter For University? Japan had moved to 12+ Free Mockup a war footing following Pearl Harbour, and now needed to supply its army and navy with as many swords as possible as quickly as possible.
As a result, swords with arsenal marks are almost certainly always oil tempered, because it was the quickest method of Reference Admission | Appeal manufacture. Step By Step Guide Planning | Hamid Mirzaei | Pulse? I qualify the preceding remark however, because you can almost always find an Reference Letter Admission, exception to the rule with Japanese swords. However, you are highly unlikely to Of Appreciation Sample - #pr-Energy find a good sword amongst them, and the quality drops as the Reference For University | Appeal war goes on. Resume High? The machine-made swords, and the end of war swords are possibly the worst swords ever made in Japan, and are pretty much overlong butter knives. The former can be recognised by For University the serial number near the Louisiana Of Sale Form | Pdf | Word (.doc) habaki. WW2 tang stamps are thus a far more complex subject than they might appear to be at first sight. Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal? Each WW2 sword needs to be closely examined on its own merits, with assumptions put aside. There is however one important consideration to bear in mind. If a blade with tang stamp is International Sample, shipped into Japan it will be seized, and it may be destroyed. This is because Japanese law classifies it as a weapon, rather than as a work of art.
A gendaito on the other hand is a cultural asset. As a result, one may occasionally find swords in which the | Appeal Showa stamp has been obliterated in order to send it to Louisiana Boat Of Sale Form | Word (.doc) Japan for polishing or assessment. The distinction between the Reference Admission | Appeal traditionally made sword as art, and the non-traditional sword as weapon was originally enshrined in law by General MacArthur. Whilst there is Step Guide Mirzaei | Pulse, a long history of the Japanese sword being considered art, in my opinion its primary function as a weapon often gets overlooked. As a bottom line, the samurai weren’t too fussed about a sword being pretty. They were far more concerned about Reference For University Admission its effectiveness; their lives depended upon International Research Assignment Sample, it throughout much of Japanese history.
Generally ‘prettiness’ indicated a high quality sword that was also extremely effective. As a result, and given the lack of Reference Letter For University Admission | Appeal Rockwell testing equipment in medieval Japan, signs of Marketing Sample craftsmanship became revered as an indication of blade quality. Mind you, the Japanese of that period were also pragmatic; test cutting was also a good indication - preferably on criminals condemned to Reference Letter Admission be executed. The problem is that, in Certificate For Judges the more peaceful Edo period, prettiness was sometimes elevated for its own sake, without reference to the primary function. For example, some people admire large nie inclusions. However, nie is the visible evidence of a enlarged grain structure at the transitional zone of the hamon. It means that the Letter For University Admission steel was held for too long at critical heat, and the grains enlarged. The larger the grain is, the Bill | Pdf | Word (.doc) weaker the sword. That’s basic metallurgy, and For University Admission | Appeal is the reason stainless steel blades snap unexpectedly in use. Step By Step Planning | Hamid Mirzaei | Pulse? However, the Reference Letter For University Admission end result looks very pretty, particularly in the ji, and some people like it.
Nevertheless, swords exhibiting strong, large nie should probably not be used for tameshigiri. The view of the Japanese sword as art has become somewhat entrenched since WW2, particularly following MacArthur's intervention. From my point of view however the Of Attorney - Legal - Agreements sword cannot be separated from its primary function as a weapon. Reference Letter Admission? Form follows function, not the other way about. The modern Japanese smith is also further constrained. Templates Students High School? Legislation has locked him into using materials and methods that have remained unchanged since the 16th century. 10+ Student Reference Letter For University? There is also a limit on the number of swords that can be made each month.
Any departure from the traditional is forbidden since the Mockup Psd Download smith would then be making a weapon and not a cultural artefact. As a result, Japanese smiths cannot follow Yasutsugu’s example and use ‘foreign’ steel. It should however be noted that some add ‘old steel’ to 10+ Student Reference For University their mix, and this ‘old steel’ may well be of foreign manufacture. Technically speaking, that makes such swords non-traditional. As for the prevalence of Certificate Of Appreciation - #pr-Energy this practice – well it has been observed that many Japanese swords are harder than they were a generation or two ago. American swordsmiths do not operate not under such constraints. ‘Mill steel’ gendaito produced by 10+ Student American mastersmiths such as Walter Sorrels are amongst some of the most formidable blades ever produced, and they are still improving. The quality of their work, as defined by Step By Step Guide On Project Planning | Hamid | Pulse Japanese standards, is also high and 10+ Student Reference | Appeal improving all the time – there have been occasions when a sword made by an American smith has been mistaken by a Japanese expert for a nihonto. - Legal - Agreements? Swords made by the American smiths are, however, not cheap; they may set you back £2,000-£3,000. 10+ Student For University Admission? They are not however Japanese swords, because those have to be made in Japan, by a Japanese smith, and by traditional methods.
If you want a sword for collecting, then it also comes down to whether or not you care about whether it is classed as a true nihonto or not. Collectors of nihonto find the question absolutely central and will ignore swords bearing tang stamps. - #pr-Energy? On the other hand, the question is completely irrelevant as far as collectors of militaria and students of gunto are concerned. And as far as martial artists are concerned, all swords exist to 10+ Student Reference For University | Appeal be used; the only question is, how good is the sword as a cutting tool, and what sort of balance does it have? Whilst I think it unlikely that any martial artist would turn down a gift of a nihonto, they would probably be equally happy to receive a ‘mill steel’ gendaito or a Koa Isshin blade. To recap, if there is a hada, an active hamon, and no evidence of a tang stamp being removed, then you almost certainly have a tamahagane gendaito. Psd Download? Almost - but not quite. Reference? You see, before the 1933 law was brought in, it was not necessary to stamp the tangs to indicate a non-traditional sword. International Marketing Research Assignment Sample? A very high grade early 'mill steel' gendaito (the sort the government was worried about) may not be marked. That's why I'm often very cautious in describing something as a nihonto unless I have definitive evidence and 10+ Student Reference | Appeal opinions that it is not an early ‘mill steel’ gendaito.
OK, so this is Marketing Assignment, being picky, and other people would rightly point that if it hasn't got a tang stamp, and it has got a hada and Reference Letter For University Admission active hamon, then its a gendaito by Free Louisiana Boat | Word definition, and thus a nihonto. Ah, but there are those pesky very early non-traditional swords that lack tang stamps to take into Reference For University Admission, account, some of which will be ‘mill steel’ gendaito. Unfortunately there's no way to distinguish these from the tamahagane versions that I know of. The only thing I would suggest is to By Step Guide Planning | Hamid examine each sword minutely and judge it on its merits. Even that may not suffice. Of course, you could do a metallurgical analysis for manganese, but I suspect that some people might not go for this, since they might not like the results. It is not impossible that a few papered WW2 gendaito from the 1930s were actually made from Swedish steel and Letter Admission | Appeal not tamahagane. Resume School? Yes, ‘mill steel’ gendaito can be considered that good if you remove the tang stamp, or if they were made before the law required them to have a tang stamp. To put it another way, imagine a cutting ability comparable to the Koa Isshin allied with the craftsmanship of the tamahagane gendaito. If you have an active hamon but can't see a hada (not uncommon given wartime polish and a very tight hada), and there's no tang stamp, chances are reasonably high that you may have a gendaito, although see the arguments above. If you have very high class mounts as well, it is Letter For University, pretty certain.
However. you need a window polish to clear things up. It should however be recalled that some traditionally made swords are forged with such a tight hada that they are muji - there is no visible grain. That's not the same as saying that there is no grain. If you have got a tang stamp, work on the assumption that the blade is Resume High, non-traditional in some way. If you've got a tang stamp, a hada and Letter Admission | Appeal a water tempered hada - ah well now you've got a mild puzzle. Which is where this little essay started. Finally, if a hada is not present, the hamon seems a little dead and there is 12+ Free Mockup | Psdtemplatesblog, a tang stamp, then you’ve got a bog standard, oil-hardened gunto. Admission? However, these swords are good for training, as long as you don’t attempt tameshigiri.
Japanese swords are one of those areas where it is unwise to be dogmatic. The best advice therefore is to study each individual sword in its own right, assess its quality, keep in mind your purpose for buying one, and Of Attorney - Legal - Agreements take your time in making up your mind.
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