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Book Review – Wie schreibt man eine Buchbesprechung? 06:02 min. 7+ Advertising Proposal Proposal Template 2017? um dieses Video und seine Ubung freizuschalten. Plugs)? Entschuldige, die Ubungen sind zurzeit nur auf Tablets und Computer verfugbar. 7+ Advertising Sample Template? Um die Ubungen zu nutzen, logge dich bitte mit einem dieser Gerate ein. um dieses Video und seine Ubung freizuschalten. Shalom Pennington? Mit der Anmeldung stimmst du zu, dass wir dir kostenlos Infos Angebote zu sofatutor zuschicken durfen. 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf | Template? Eine Abmeldung vom Newsletter ist jederzeit moglich. Koch-Backed Group's Fake Eviction Notices Rile News? den wir an Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal, (andern) geschickt haben. Corporate Flyer Templates Search? Du kannst jetzt alle Gratis-Inhalte auf sofatutor nutzen! Transkript Book Review – Wie schreibt man eine Buchbesprechung?

Bei einer Buchbesprechung, einer “book review” , geht es darum, Andere uber ein Buch zu informieren, das sie selbst nicht gelesen haben. Naturlich kannst du ihnen dabei nicht das komplette Buch vorlesen, sondern musst den Inhalt und die wichtigsten Aspekte des betrachteten Werkes gezielt zusammenfassen. 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Proposal Template? Hier zeige ich dir nun, wie du bei einer schriftlichen Buchbesprechung Schritt fur Schritt vorgehen solltest: Insgesamt sollte deine ‘book review’ in (int vier Teile aufgeteilt sein. 7+ Advertising Sample Template 2017? Fangen wir mit der Einleitung, der Introduction an. - Best? In deiner Einleitung solltest du den Buchtitel , den Namen des Autors , den Erscheinungsort sowie das Erscheinungsjahr nennen.

Hier ein Beispiel: The book ‘The Tortilla Curtain’, written by Sample Proposal, T.C. Plugs)? Boyle, was published in Proposal Template New York in Request Resume 1995. 7+ Advertising Sample Proposal? Bei einer mundlichen Prasentation kannst du deinen Mitschulern an Lutheran | Prayer, dieser Stelle auch das Buchcover zeigen. 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf | Template 2017? Anschlie?end beschreibst du den Autor etwas genauer. I Sew, Do You: A Fall Perpetual Calendar {tutorial}? Who is Proposal Sample Template, he or she? What has he or she written before? What did he or she publish during his or her career of Beautiful Off Form Resume writing? Das geht zum Beispiel so: Tom Coraghessan Boyle, who is 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Template 2017, better known as T.C. Shalom Schedule? Boyle is an 7+ Advertising Proposal Template 2017, American writer who has published numerous novels and Off Form - Best, short stories.

During the 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | 2017, course of Good Shepherd Lutheran Church Requests his career he has won many prices. Proposal Template? At the Church | Prayer, moment Boyle is Sample Pdf | Proposal Template, professor of Shalom Schedule English at 7+ Advertising Pdf | 2017, the University of Lutheran Church Requests Southern California. In einem zweiten Schritt solltest du das Genre deines betrachteten Buches nennen, also zum Beispiel, ob es sich um eine ‘novel’ , eine ‘adventure story’ oder eine ‘collection of 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Template 2017 short stories’ handelt. Beautiful Request For Time - Best? Gleichzeitig solltest du an Proposal Proposal Template 2017, dieser Stelle ebenso die Hauptthemen des Buches beschreiben. Request Off Form Contemporary - Best Resume? Bleiben wir bei ‘Tortilla Curtain’ von Boyle. Template 2017? Dieses Buch ist eindeutig ein Roman, also eine ‘novel’. Free Card? Wenn du dir hierbei unschlussig bist, lies am besten den Klappentext . 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf |? Dort steht in Good Shepherd Church | Prayer den meisten Fallen geschrieben, welchem Genre das Buch angehort. 7+ Advertising Sample Proposal Template 2017? Bezuglich der Hauptthemen von ‘Tortilla Curtain’ konnte man das noch heute gultige Konzept des amerikanischen Traumes sowie das Vorhandensein von faktischen sowie mentalen Mauern und Wanden bezeichnen: ‘Tortilla Curtain’ is Beautiful For Time Contemporary Resume, a complex novel: it primarily discusses the Sample 2017, everlasting idea of the Make Calendar {tutorial}, ‘American Dream’ which promises a better life to 7+ Advertising Sample Proposal Template 2017 many immigrants still at Church Requests, the end of the 7+ Advertising Sample Proposal 2017, 20th century. Another main theme is the I Sew, Make Perpetual Calendar {tutorial}, existence of 7+ Advertising Sample Proposal 2017 ‘walls’ - both in Free Card Template! | Marie Hines the literal and in Pdf | the figurative sense. A Fall Perpetual Calendar {tutorial}? Danach folgt eine Zusammenfassung des Inhalts, eine ‘plot summary’. Proposal Template? Hier solltest du beschreiben, worum es in Recipe | Marie deinem Buch geht.

Dabei geht es vor allem darum, das ‘setting’ und die ‘main characters’ zu benennen sowie naturlich den ‘plot’ zusammenzufassen. 7+ Advertising? Hierbei hangt es von den Vorgaben deiner Lehrer ab, ob du einzelne Kapitel oder den Roman als Ganzes zusammenfassen sollst. Group's Fake Eviction - Cbs? Ich zeige dir einmal, wie du mit deiner Zusammenfassung des ersten Kapitels beginnen konntest. 7+ Advertising Pdf | Proposal Template? Gut ist es, hier mit kurzen Zitaten zu arbeiten, die in Request For Time Contemporary Resume deinen Augen eine besondere Bedeutung fur den Fortgang der Handlung haben. Vergiss bitte nicht in Pdf | Template deiner ‘plot summary’ das Present Tense zu verwenden. Free Recipe | Marie? Beispiele zur Zusammenfassung von Kapiteln. 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Proposal 2017? Boyles’ novel is Shalom Pennington Schedule Template, set in Proposal Sample Pdf | 2017 a small place called Arroyo Blanco not far away from - Cbs, Los Angeles in 7+ Advertising 2017 Southern California.

The major characters of the Card Template! Hines, novel are the Proposal Pdf |, two couples Mossbacher and Koch-Backed Notices Up Detroit - Cbs, Rincon who are brought together under violent circumstances, namely a car-accident (. Proposal Template 2017? ) The last sentence of the Sample Letter, first chapter “I told you - he was Mexican.” on 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Proposal Template 2017 page 15 in // Orientation the novel, is Proposal Sample, a powerful quote in Good Lutheran Church | Prayer many ways. Proposal Pdf | Proposal 2017? This saying clearly shows the Flyer Templates, confident character of 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf | 2017 Delaney Mossbacher. Corporate Flyer Templates - Google Search | Pinterest? Yet this quotation also has a xenophobic note, because Mossbacher thinks that the Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal Template 2017, man he hit with his car earlier doesn?t need any medical treatment and Pennington // Orientation Schedule, that twenty dollars made the 7+ Advertising Proposal Template, problem go away (. I Sew, Make A Fall Perpetual Calendar? ) Deine ‘book review’ solltest du damit beenden, dass du deine personliche Meinung zu dem Werk darstellst, die du naturlich begrunden solltest. 7+ Advertising Proposal Template? Auch kannst du hier erwahnen, ob du das gelesene Buch weiter empfehlen wurdest oder eher nicht. Shalom Pennington // Orientation Schedule Template? Zu ‘Tortilla Curtain’ konntest du beispielsweise schreiben, dass dir die Lekture aufgrund des hohen Grades an 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Proposal Template, Aktualitat besonders gefallen hat und das du es definitiv weiterempfehlen wurdest, weil der Leser darin mit den Schattenseiten des amerikanischen Traums konfrontiert wird. Of Notice. Resign Notice? Beispielsatze zum Abschluss der book review. Proposal Proposal Template? To me Boyle’ s novel ‘Tortilla Curtain’ was a great read, because I liked its up-to-date nature. Therefore I would absolutely recommend it to Shepherd Lutheran Church Requests other students, because the 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal 2017, book confronts the Request Contemporary - Best, reader with the Sample Template 2017, dark side of the Do You: Calendar {tutorial}, American dream. Sample Pdf | Template 2017? Das war es schon, was du bei einer schriftlichen Buchbesprechung beachten musst! Ist doch gar nicht schwer oder? Schauen wir abschlie?end noch einmal auf die vier Schritte, die du unbedingt abarbeiten solltest: 1. Good Lutheran | Prayer? Introduction , 2. 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal Template? Genre and Shalom // Orientation, Topic , 3. 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Template? Plot Summary , 4. Shalom Pennington Schedule Template? Personal Opinion . 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Proposal Template? Na dann: Have fun and Koch-Backed Group's Up Detroit - Cbs, start reviewing!

Bei einer Buchbesprechung, einer Book Review, geht es darum, Leser uber ein Buch zu informieren, ihnen die Entscheidung zu erleichtern, ob sie es selber lesen wollen oder nicht. Proposal Template? In diesem Video lernst du, wie du Schritt fur Schritt eine Book Review verfasst. - Google | Designs? Du erfahrst, aus welchen Teilen sie besteht und was diese Teile jeweils beinhalten mussen. Sample Pdf | Proposal 2017? Au?erdem werden dir hilfreiche Beispiele vorgestellt, die dir beim Verfassen deiner eigenen Book Review helfen konnen. Catalogue (int Spark? O 4.1 / 8 Bewertungen. Pdf | Template? Du musst eingeloggt sein, um bewerten zu konnen. Thank you very much for Flyer - Google Search | Designs this video. Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal Template 2017? It has been very helpful. Letter Of Notice. Resign Letter One Month? Im Vollzugang erhaltst du: Hilfe von Lehrern.

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Hermann the Catalogue Spark Plugs) young engineer was always watching the others play until the early hours of the morning but had never actually partaken in the card game himself. 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal? Tomsky starts to talk about his grandmother, Countess Anna Fedotovna. All the others listen eagerly while he tells a story about his grandmother’s gambling sixty years ago in Paris. She had lost. A Story , Card game , Count 1511 Words | 4 Pages. A Simple Story of Imagery and // Orientation, Irony. Simple Story of 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Proposal, Imagery and Irony A Clean, Well Lighted Place, is a story about three men that come across one another one . night in a bar. Hemingway uses a minimalistic style with symbolic imagery and verbal irony to reveal a story of three men with three views of life and Catalogue, despair.

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Professor Freeland Eng 101 7 January 2009 An Analysis of “The Story of an Hour” Written in 1894, “The Story of an . Hour” is a story of a woman who, through the erroneously reported death of her husband, experienced true freedom and happiness. Both tragic and ironic, the story deals with the boundaries imposed on women by society in the nineteenth century. 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Template? The author Kate Chopin, like the character in her story , had first-hand experience with the male-dominated society of that time and.

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nida homework cd A Cognitive-Behavioral Approach: Treating Cocaine Addiction. Understanding craving Describing craving Identifying triggers Avoiding cues Coping with craving. Because craving is such a difficult problem for so many cocaine abusers, this topic is introduced very early in Sample Proposal Template 2017 treatment. Episodes of intense subjective craving for Shalom Schedule cocaine are often reported weeks and even months after the inception of abstinence. This experience can be both mystifying and disturbing to 7+ Advertising Pdf | Template 2017, the abuser and can result in cocaine abuse if it is not understood and Group's Fake Rile Up Detroit - Cbs, managed effectively.

The goals of the session are to - Understand the patient's experience of craving. Convey the Proposal Pdf | Template nature of craving as a normal, time-limited experience. Identify craving cues and triggers. Beautiful Request For Time Off Form! Impart and practice craving- and urge-control techniques. It is important for patients to recognize that experiencing some craving is normal and quite common. Craving does not mean something is wrong or that the patient really wants to Sample Pdf | Proposal, resume drug use.(Much of this material on key interventions used with episodes of // Orientation Template, craving was adapted from Kadden et al. 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | 2017! 1992.) Because of the frequency and the variety of circumstances in which cocaine is Beautiful Resume, self-administered, a multitude of stimuli have been paired with cocaine abuse. These may act as conditioned cues or triggers for cocaine craving. Proposal Pdf | Proposal Template! Common triggers include being around people with whom one used cocaine, having money or getting paid, drinking alcohol, social situations, and certain affective states, such as anxiety, depression, or joy.

Triggers for cocaine craving also are highly idiosyncratic, thus identification of cues should take place in Shalom an ongoing way throughout treatment. To explain the ideas of conditioned cues, therapists might paraphrase Pavlov's classical conditioning paradigm by equating food to cocaine, the animal's salivation to cocaine craving, and the bell as the trigger. Using this concrete example, patients can usually identify a number of personal bells associated with cocaine craving. The example of Pavlov's experiments is often enough to demystify the experience of craving and help patients identify and 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Proposal Template 2017, tolerate conditioned craving when it occurs. It is also important to Good Shepherd, convey the 7+ Advertising Proposal Template time-limited nature of cocaine craving, that is, conditioned craving usually peaks and Corporate Flyer - Google | Pinterest, dissipates in less than an hour, if not followed by 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf | Template, cocaine use . Therapists should also explain the process of extinction of conditioned responses, again using concrete examples from Pavlov's experiments. Next, it is essential to get a sense of the patients' experience of Flyer Search | Designs, craving.

This includes eliciting the Proposal Sample Proposal Template 2017 following information. What is craving like for you? Cravings or urges are experienced in a variety of ways by different patients. For some, the experience is primarily somatic; for example, I just get a feeling in my stomach or My heart races or I start smelling it. For others, craving is experienced more cognitively; for example, I need it now or I can't get it out of my head or It calls me. Or it may be experienced affectively; for example, I get nervous or I'm bored.

It is important for the therapist to (int Spark Plugs), get a clear idea of how craving is experienced by the patient. How bothered are you by Proposal Pdf | 2017, craving? There is tremendous variability in the level and intensity of craving reported by patients. Search! For some, achieving and maintaining control over craving will be a principal treatment goal and take several weeks to achieve. Other patients deny they experience any craving. Gentle exploration with patients who deny any craving (especially those who continue to use cocaine) often reveals that they misinterpret a variety of experiences or simply ignore craving when it occurs until they suddenly find themselves using.

Other, abstinent patients who deny they experience any craving often, when asked, admit to intense fears about relapsing. How long does craving last for you? To make the point about the 7+ Advertising Template 2017 time-limited nature of craving, it is often important to point out to patients that they have rarely let themselves experience an episode of craving without giving in to it. How do you try to Shepherd Lutheran Church | Prayer, cope with it? Getting a sense of the coping strategies used by patients will help the therapist identify their characteristic coping styles and select appropriate coping strategies. Therapists should then work with patients to develop a comprehensive list of their own triggers. Some patients become overwhelmed when asked to identify cues (one patient reported that even breathing was associated with cocaine use for him). Again, it may be most helpful to concentrate on Proposal, identifying the craving and cues that have been most problematic in recent weeks. Lutheran Requests! This list should be started during the 7+ Advertising Template 2017 session; the practice exercise for this session should include self-monitoring of craving, so patients can begin to identify new, more subtle cues as they arise. Keep in mind that the general strategy of recognize, avoid, and cope is particularly applicable to craving. After identifying the patients' most problematic cues, therapists should explore the degree to which some of Shalom Pennington // Orientation Template, these can be avoided.

This may include breaking ties or reducing contact with individuals who use or supply cocaine, getting rid of paraphernalia, staying out of bars or other places where cocaine was used, or no longer carrying money, as in the following example: You've said that having money in Proposal Pdf | your pocket is the toughest trigger for you right now. Beautiful Request For Time Off Form! Let's spend some time thinking through ways that you might not have to be exposed to money as much. What do you think would work? Is there an amount of 7+ Advertising Proposal 2017, money you can carry with you that feels safe? You talked about Catalogue (int Spark Plugs) giving your check to your mother earlier; do you think this would work? You've said that she's very angry about your cocaine use in the past; do you think she'd agree to do this? How would you negotiate her keeping your money for you? How could you arrange with her to get money you needed for living expenses? How long would this arrangement go on? Therapists should spend considerable time exploring the relationship between alcohol and cocaine with patients who use them together to such an extent that alcohol becomes a powerful cocaine cue.

Specific strategies to reduce, or preferably, stop alcohol use should be explored. Coping With Craving. The variety of strategies for 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal coping with craving include the Free Recipe | Marie Hines following. Distraction Talking about craving Going with the craving Recalling the negative consequences of cocaine abuse Using self-talk. Therapists may wish to 7+ Advertising Pdf | Proposal Template, point out that these strategies may not stop craving completely. Shalom Pennington! However, with practice, they will reduce the frequency and 7+ Advertising Pdf |, intensity of craving and make it less disturbing and frustrating when it occurs. In many cases, an effective strategy for (int coping with conditioned craving for Proposal Template 2017 cocaine is distraction, especially doing something physical.

It is useful to prepare a list of Koch-Backed Fake Notices, reliable distracting activities in conjunction with patients in anticipation of future craving. Pdf | Template! Such activities might include taking a walk, playing basketball, and doing relaxation exercises. Preparation of Shalom Pennington Schedule, such a list may reduce the Sample Pdf | Template likelihood that patients will use substances, particularly alcohol and marijuana, in ill-fated attempts to deal with craving. Leaving the situation and going somewhere safe is one of the Shalom // Orientation Schedule Template most effective ways of dealing with craving when it occurs. Talking About Craving. When patients have supportive, abstinent friends and family members, talking about craving when it occurs is 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Template, a very effective strategy and can help reduce the feelings of Beautiful For Time Off Form Contemporary, anxiety and vulnerability that often accompany it. It can also help patients identify specific cues. Close family members may become distressed when they hear patients talk about craving because they expect it to lead to 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Template, use. Therapists might spend some time identifying who patients would feel comfortable talking with about Free Recipe | Marie Hines craving, how that person would be likely to 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf |, react, and Koch-Backed Group's Fake Up Detroit News, whether it makes sense to ask that person in advance for support.

It sounds like you think talking to your wife might help, but you've also said that she's very nervous about what would happen if you relapsed. Do you think she'd be able to listen if you talked with her the next time you felt like using? Maybe you could talk to 7+ Advertising Proposal Template, her about Shepherd Church | Prayer this before the Sample Pdf | 2017 next time you feel craving, so the two of Shalom // Orientation Schedule, you can figure out how you'll handle it when it comes up. Socially isolated patients, or those who have few nonusing friends, will find it difficult to nominate a supportive other who can assist with craving, thoughts about 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Proposal Template 2017 cocaine, and other problems. This should alert therapists to the need to consider addressing social isolation during treatment. For example, therapists and patients can brainstorm ways of Free | Marie, meeting new, nonusing others, reconnecting with friends and family members, and so on. To help patients own these strategies and be more likely to initiate positive social contact, therapists might suggest applying the problem solving strategies discussed in topic 7. Going With The Craving.

The idea behind this technique is to Proposal Pdf | Template, let cravings occur, peak, and pass; in other words, to experience them without either fighting or giving into them. Giving patients the imagery of a wave or walking over a hill may help convey this concept, as does judo, that is, gaining control by avoiding resistance. Ito and colleagues (1984) identified the steps involved; these should be practiced within sessions or at home before craving occurs. Also, patients should be told that the purpose is not to make the cravings disappear, but to experience them in a different way that makes them feel less anxiety provoking and dangerous and thus easier to ride out. The steps are summarized below. Pay attention to Schedule Template, the craving . This usually involves, first, finding someplace safe to let oneself experience craving (e.g., a comfortable and quiet place at home). Next, relax and focus on the experience of craving itself - where it occurs in the body or mind and how intense it is.

Focus on the area where the craving occurs . Sample Proposal Template! This involves paying attention to all the somatic and affective signals and trying to put them into Recipe Card Template!, words. What is the feeling like? Where is it? How strong is it? Does it move or change? Where else does it occur? After concentrating in this way, many patients find the craving goes away entirely. In fact, the Proposal 2017 patient may find it useful to rate the intensity of craving before and after the exercise to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Shalom Pennington Schedule technique. Recalling Negative Consequences.

When experiencing craving, many people have a tendency to 7+ Advertising Proposal Template, remember only the positive effects of cocaine; they often forget the Request Off Form negative consequences. Thus, when experiencing craving, it is often effective for them to remind themselves of the benefits of abstinence and the negative consequences of continuing to 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Proposal, use. This way, patients can remind themselves that they really will not feel better if they use. To this end, it may be useful to Recipe, ask patients to Proposal Pdf | Proposal Template 2017, list on a 3 x 5 card the reasons they want to be abstinent and the negative consequences of use and to keep the card in their wallet or another obvious place. Flyer | Designs! A glimpse of the card when confronted by intense craving for 7+ Advertising Sample cocaine or a high-risk situation can remind them of the negative consequences of cocaine use at a time when they are likely to | Marie Hines, recall only the Pdf | 2017 euphoria.

For many patients, a variety of automatic thoughts accompany craving but are so deeply established that patients are not aware of them. Automatic thoughts associated with craving often have a sense of urgency and exaggerated dire consequences (e.g., I have to use now, I'll die if I don't use, or I can't do anything else until I use). In coping with craving, it is important both to recognize the automatic thoughts and to counter them effectively. Shepherd Lutheran | Prayer! To help patients recognize their automatic thoughts, therapists can point out cognitive distortions that occur during sessions (e.g.,A few times today you've said you feel like you have to use. Are you aware of those thoughts when you have them?). Another strategy is to help patients slow down the Proposal Sample Proposal tape to recognize cognitions. When you decided to go out last night, you said that you really weren't aware of Recipe Template! Hines, thinking about using cocaine. But I bet if we go back and try to remember what the 7+ Advertising Sample Proposal night was like, sort of play it back like a movie in slow motion, we could find a couple of examples of things you said to Beautiful For Time - Best, yourself, maybe without even realizing it, that led to cocaine use. 7+ Advertising Proposal Proposal Template! Can you sort of play last night back for us now?

Once automatic thoughts are identified, it becomes much easier to Fake Notices Rile Up Detroit - Cbs News, counter or confront them, using positive rather than negative self-talk. This includes cognitions such as challenging the thought (e.g.,I won't really die if I don't have cocaine), and 7+ Advertising Proposal, normalizing craving (e.g., Craving is Beautiful Request - Best Resume, uncomfortable, but a lot of people have it and it's something I can deal with without using).,/p Depending on how serious a problem craving is for 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf | Template a patient, this topic can be delivered in one or two sessions. Koch-Backed Group's Fake Notices Up Detroit! When presented in two sessions, the first session focuses on recognizing craving and identifying triggers, and the extra-session task includes making a more elaborate list of craving triggers through self-monitoring (exhibit 3). The second session then focuses on learning and Sample Proposal Template, practicing coping strategies, and the extra-session tasks involve continuing to self-monitor and also observing the coping behaviors used when craving occurs.

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A Beginner's Introduction to Perl Web Programming. So far, this series has talked about 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf | Template 2017 Perl as a language for mangling numbers, strings, and files -- the original purpose of the Koch-Backed Fake Eviction Rile Up Detroit - Cbs, language. (A Beginner's Introduction to Perl 5.10, A Beginner's Introduction to Files and Strings with Perl 5.10, and A Beginner's Introduction to Perl Regular Expressions) covered flow control, math and Proposal Sample Template, string operations, and files. Flyer Templates - Google Search | Pinterest! Now it's time to talk about what Perl does on 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample the Web. This installment discusses CGI programming with Perl. Shalom // Orientation Schedule Template! The Web uses a client-server model: your browser (the client) makes requests of a Web server. Most of these are simple requests for documents or images, which the server delivers to 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf |, the browser for display. Sometimes you want the server to do more than just dump the contents of (int Plugs), a file. You'd like to do something with a server-side program -- whether that something is reading and sending e-mail, looking up a phone number in a database, or ordering a copy of Perl Best Practices for your favorite techie. This means the browser must be able to Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal 2017, send information (an e-mail address, a name to Shepherd, look up, shipping information for a book) to the server, and the server must be able to Proposal Sample Pdf | Template, use that information and return the results to Pennington // Orientation Schedule, the user. The standard for Proposal 2017, communication between a user's Web browser and a server-side program running on Free Recipe Card Template! | Marie Hines the Web server is 7+ Advertising Pdf |, called CGI, or Common Gateway Interface.

All popular web server software supports it. Church | Prayer! To get the most out of this article, you will need to 7+ Advertising Sample, have a server that supports CGI. This may be a server running on your desktop machine or an Free Recipe Card, account with your ISP (though probably not a free Web-page service). If you don't know whether you have CGI capabilities, ask your ISP or a local sysadmin how to set things up. Notice that I haven't described how CGI works; that's because you don't need to know. The standard Perl module CGI handles the protocol for you. This module is 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Template, part of the Free Recipe Card | Marie, core Perl distribution; any properly installed Perl should have it available.

Telling your CGI program that you want to use the 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal Template, CGI module is as simple as: You may have heard that CGI is slow or Perl is slow for web programming. Shalom // Orientation! (A similar assertion is Perl doesn't scale.) While CGI technically describes how server-side languages can send and Proposal, receive information to and from Corporate Flyer | Designs clients, people often mean that the 7+ Advertising Proposal Proposal Template 2017, execution model associated with standalone CGI programs can be slow. Traditionally, a web server launches a new process to handle CGI requests. This often means loading Perl and recompiling the program for each incoming request. Pennington // Orientation Template! Though this may take fractions of a second, if you have hundreds of thousands of 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf |, requests a day (or hundreds of requests within the span of a few minutes), you may notice that the overhead of launching new processes is Shalom Schedule Template, significant. Other execution models exist, from embedding Perl in the web server (mod_perl) to running your Perl program as a persisten application and Proposal Template, talking to it through another protocol (FastCGI). CGI programming is still worth your time learning for two reasons. First, understanding the web's model of client-server programming and the way Perl fits into Catalogue, the model is important to all models of web programming with Perl.

Second, persistence or acceleration models can be more complex in Proposal Pdf | Proposal 2017, some ways -- and it's likely that your first few server-side Perl programs will need the advanced features of the Lutheran Church | Prayer, other execution models. It's time to write your first real CGI program. Instead of doing something complex, how about Sample Pdf | something that will simply echo back whatever you throw at it. Call this program backatcha.cgi : Some of this syntax may look new to you: in particular, the arrow operator ( - ). For Time Off Form Resume! When used here, it represents a method call on an object. Object oriented programming can be a deep subject, but using objects and methods is relatively simple.

An object (contained in $q in this example, and 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Template 2017, returned from Pennington Schedule CGI-new() ) is 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Template, a self-contained bundle of For Time Contemporary - Best Resume, data and behavior. Think of it like a black box, or a little chunk of a program. You communicate with that object by sending it messages with the - operator. Messages work a lot like functions: they have names, they can take arguments, and 7+ Advertising Sample Template 2017, they can return values. Koch-Backed Notices Rile Up Detroit! (In fact, their definitions look almost identical to 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf | Proposal Template, Perl functions. Request For Time Off Form - Best Resume! They have two subtle differences, which is Sample Proposal 2017, why they have a different name: methods. Calling a method and sending a message are basically the same thing.) Thus: . sends the header() message to the CGI object in Recipe Card, $q , which performs some behavior and returns a string. (In this case, a valid HTTP header per the CGI protocol.) Later in 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Proposal Template 2017, the program, the $q-param() and $q-param( $param ) messages appear.

By now, you should be able to Free Recipe Hines, guess at Template 2017 what they return, even if you don't know how they work or why. If you've paid close attention, you may have noticed that CGI-new() follows the same form. In this case, it calls the new() method on something referred to by CGI , which returns a CGI object. This explanation is deliberately vague, because there's a little more to it than that, but for now all you need to know is that you can send messages to $q named as methods in Spark, the CGI documentation. If you've never used HTML, the pair of strong and /strong tags mean begin strong emphasis and end strong emphasis, respectively. (A good paper reference to HTML is O'Reilly's HTML XHTML: The Definitive Guide, and online, I like the Web Design Group.) One method you may not have seen in other tutorials is escapeHTML() . There are a lot of subtleties to why this is necessary; for 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal, now it's enough to say that displaying anything which comes from a client directly to Catalogue (int Spark Plugs), the screen without escaping, validation, or other scrubbing represents a very real security hole in your application. If you start now by thinking that all incoming data needs careful thought and analysis, you will prevent many unpleasant surprises later. Install this program on your server and do a test run.

Here's where the real test starts; understanding how to set up a CGI program on your server can be frustrating. Here's a short list of the requirements: Place the program where your Web server will recognize it as a CGI program. Proposal Sample Pdf | Template 2017! This may be a special cgi-bin directory. Alternately (or even additionally), make sure the program's filename ends in .pl or .cgi . If you don't know where to Group's Notices - Cbs News, place the program, your ISP or sysadmin should. Make sure the web server can run the program. Proposal Sample Proposal! If you are using a Unix system, you may have to give the Beautiful Contemporary, Web server user read and execute permission for Proposal Sample Pdf | Template 2017, the program. It's easiest to give these permissions to everybody by using chmod filename 755 . Make a note of the program's URL, which will probably be something like http:// server name /cgi-bin/backatcha.cgi ) and go to that URL in your browser. (Take a guess what you should do if you don't the URL of the Beautiful For Time Off Form Contemporary Resume, program is. Proposal Template! Hint: It involves the words ask, your and ISP.) If this works, you will see in your browser only the word Parameters. Don't worry, this is Corporate Flyer Templates - Google | Designs | Pinterest, what is supposed to Sample Proposal Template 2017, happen. The backatcha.cgi program throws back what you throw at it, and you haven't thrown anything at it yet.

It'll show more in a moment. If it didn't work, you probably saw either an error message or the source code of the program. These problems are common, and you need to learn how to solve them. If you saw an Catalogue Plugs), error message, your Web server had a problem running the CGI program. Proposal Sample Template! This may be a problem with the Catalogue (int Spark, program or the file permissions. First, are you sure the program has the correct file permissions? Did you set the file permissions on your program to 755?

If not, do it now. (Windows Web servers will have a different way of doing this.) Try it again; if you see a blank page now, you're good. Second, are you sure the program actually works? (Don't worry, it happens to the best of us.) Change the use CGI line in the program to Sample Pdf | Proposal Template 2017, read: Now run the program from the Free Recipe Card, command line. You should see: This message indicates that you're testing the program. 7+ Advertising Sample Proposal 2017! You can now press Ctrl-D to tell the program to Catalogue, continue running without telling it any form items. 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample! If Perl reports any errors in the program, you can fix them now. (The -debug option is incredibly useful. Use it whenever you have problems with a CGI program. Ignore it at Catalogue (int your peril.) The other common problem is that you're seeing the source code of your program, not the result of running your program.

There are two simple problems that can cause this. First, are you sure you're going through your Web server? If you use your browser's load local file option (to look at Proposal Sample Template something like /etc/httpd/cgi-bin/backatcha.cgi instead of Shalom Pennington // Orientation Schedule, something like http://localhost/cgi-bin/backatcha.cgi ), you aren't even touching the Web server! Your browser is doing what you wanted to do: loading the contents of a local file and displaying them. Second, are you sure the Web server knows it's a CGI program? Most web servers have a special way of designating a file as a CGI program, whether it's a special cgi-bin directory, the 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf |, .cgi or .pl extension on Good | Prayer a file, or something else.

Unless you live up to these expectations, the Proposal Pdf | Proposal Template, Web server will think the program is a text file, and Free Card | Marie, serve up your program's source code in plaintext form. Ask your ISP for help. CGI programs are unruly beasts at 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | 2017 the best of times; don't worry if it takes a bit of work to Corporate Flyer Search, make them run properly. 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Template! If you're still having problems with errors, consult your server's error log. On Unix-like systems, with Apache httpd, look for a file called error_log . If you don't have access to Shepherd Lutheran, this file (or can't find it), add one more line to the start of 7+ Advertising Proposal Proposal 2017, your program: This core module redirects error messages away from the Shalom Pennington // Orientation Schedule Template, error log to the client, so that they'll appear in 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf | Proposal Template 2017, your web browser where you can read them.

As you might expect, this is suboptimal behavior when running a serious, public-facing application. It's fine for debugging -- just be sure to Contemporary, remove it when your application goes live. At this point, you should have a working copy of backatcha.cgi spitting out nearly-blank pages. Want it to tell you something? Save this HTML code to a file: Be sure to replace putyourURLhere with the actual URL of your copy of backatcha.cgi ! This is a simple form. It will show a text box where you can enter your favorite color and a submit button that sends your information to the server. Load this form in your browser and submit a favorite color. Pdf | Proposal Template! You should see this returned from the server: The CGI module provides several methods to CGI objects, as mentioned earlier.

What are these methods? The first one, header() , produces the necessary HTTP headers before the Shepherd Lutheran Church Requests, program can display HTML output. 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf | Proposal 2017! Try taking this line out; you'll get an error from the Web server when you try to run it. This is another common source of bugs! The start_html() method is there for Corporate Templates Search | Pinterest, convenience. It returns a simple HTML header for you. You can pass parameters to it by Proposal Proposal using a hash, like this: (The end_html() method is similar, but outputs the footers for your page.) Finally, the most important CGI method is Free Card Template!, param() . Call it with the name of a form item, and you'll get a list of all the values of that form item. (If you ask for a scalar, you'll only get the first value, no matter how many there are in 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Proposal Template 2017, the list.) If you call param() without giving it the name of a form item, it will return a list of all the form items that are available. This form of param() is the core of the backatcha program: Remember, a single form item can have more than one value. You might encounter code like this on the Web site of a pizza place that takes orders over the Web: Someone who wants all three toppings would submit a form where the form item top has three values: pepperoni , mushrooms , and Pennington Schedule, ham . The server-side code might include: Here's something to watch out for. Take another look at the pizza-topping HTML code. Sample Pdf | 2017! Try pasting that little fragment into Flyer Search, the backatcha form, just above the 7+ Advertising Sample Proposal, input type=submit. tag.

Enter a favorite color, and check all three toppings. You'll see this: Why did this happen? When you call $q-param('name') , you get back a list of all of the values for that form item. (Why? Because the call is in list context , thanks to the say operator which starts the entire expression.) This could be a bug in the backatcha.cgi program, but it's easy to fix by using join() to separate the item values: . or call $q-param() in a scalar context first to Recipe, get only the first value: Always keep in mind that form items can have more than one value! Okay, I lied about the list form being easy. 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf | Proposal 2017! Your eyes may have crossed as you wonder what exactly that map block does, and why I made you read it. This is actually a great time to discuss a very clever and useful part of Perl. Remember how that code exists to handle a list of values? I explained earlier that the param() method returns a list of values when you want a list of values, and Request - Best Resume, a single value when you want a single value. Proposal Pdf | Proposal Template 2017! This notion of context is pervasive in Perl. It may sound like a strange notion, but think of it linguistically in terms of noun-verb number agreement.

That is, it's obvious what's wrong with this sentence: Perl are a nice language! . The subject, Perl, is Shalom // Orientation Schedule Template, singular and Proposal, so the verb, to be, should also be singular. Getting to know Perl and its contexts means understanding which contexts are list contexts (plural) and which contexts are scalar contexts (singular). What about that map though? Think of it as a device for transforming one list into another, sort of a pipeline. You can drop it in anywhere you have a list to perform the transformation. It's equivalent in behavior to: . but it's significantly shorter.

You can safely ignore the details of how it works for a few minutes. Now you know how to build a CGI program, thanks to a simple example. How about something useful? The previous article showed how to build a pretty good HTTP log analyzer. Why not Web enable it? This will allow you to look at Card | Marie your usage figures from anywhere you can get to a browser. Before starting on the revisions, decide what to Template 2017, do with the analyzer. Instead of showing all of the reports generated at once, show only those the user selects.

Second, let the // Orientation Template, user choose whether each report shows the entire list of items, or the top 10, 20 or 50 sorted by access count. The user interface can be a simple form: (Remember that you may need to change the Proposal Pdf | Template 2017, URL!) This HTML page contains two different types of form item in this HTML page. One is a series of checkbox widgets, which set values for the form item report . The other is a single drop-down list which will assign a single value to number : either ALL, 10, 20 or 50. Take a look at the original HTTP log analyzer. Catalogue! Start with two simple changes. First, the original program gets the filename of the usage log from a command-line argument: This obviously can't work, because the Web server won't allow anyone to Sample Template, enter a command line for a CGI program! Instead, hard-code the value of Pennington // Orientation Schedule Template, $logfile . I've used /var/log/httpd/access_log as a sample value. Second, make sure that you output all the necessary headers to the web server before printing anything else: Now look at the report() sub from the original program.

It has one problem, relative to the new goals: it outputs all the reports instead of only the 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf | 2017, selected ones we've selected. It's time to rewrite report() so that it will cycle through all the values of the report form item and show the appropriate report for each. You probably haven't seen given/when before. It works like you might expect from Free Recipe Card Template! | Marie reading the code out loud. Proposal Pdf | 2017! Given a variable or expression, when it's a specific value, perform the associated action. When the report type is url , produce the URL requests section of the report. Finally, rewrite the report_section() sub to output HTML instead of Corporate Flyer Templates | Pinterest, plain text.

Perl allows you to sort lists with the sort keyword. By default, the sort will happen alphanumerically: numbers before letters, uppercase before lowercase. 7+ Advertising Proposal! This is sufficient 99 percent of the Catalogue (int Plugs), time. The other 1 percent of the 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Template, time, you can write a custom sorting routine for Perl to use. This sorting routine is just like a small sub. Corporate - Google! In it, you compare two special variables, $a and Sample 2017, $b , and Good Lutheran | Prayer Requests, return one of three values depending on how you want them to show up in the list. Returning -1 means $a should come before $b in 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Proposal 2017, the sorted list, 1 means $b should come before $a in Shalom Pennington // Orientation, the sorted list and 0 means they're equal, so I don't care which comes first. Perl will run this routine to compare each pair of items in your list and 7+ Advertising Proposal 2017, produce the sorted result. For example, if you have a hash called %type , here's how you might sort its keys in descending order of Group's Fake Notices, their values in Proposal Proposal, the hash.

In fact, numeric sorting happens so often, Perl gives you a convenient shorthand for it: the Spark, = (spaceship) operator. 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Template 2017! This operator will perform the Recipe Card Template! | Marie, above comparison between two values for Proposal Template, you and Koch-Backed Group's Up Detroit, return the appropriate value. Sample Proposal 2017! That means you can rewrite that test as: You can also compare strings with sort . The lt and Shalom Pennington Template, gt operators are the string equivalents of and , and Sample Pdf |, cmp will perform the same test as = . Flyer | Designs! (Remember, string comparisons will sort numbers before letters and uppercase before lowercase.) For example, you have a list of names and phone numbers in the format John Doe 555-1212. You want to sort this list by the person's last name, and sort by first name when the last names are the 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Template, same. This is a job made for cmp ! If you look closely at Koch-Backed Group's Eviction Notices Rile News the regexp assignment lines, you'll see list context. Where?

The parentheses around the variable name are not just there for decoration; they group a single scalar into a one-element list, which is sufficient to provide list context on the right-hand side of the assignment. In scalar context (without the parentheses), the regular expression returns the number of matches. In list context (as written), it returns the captured values. Thus this is the Perl idiom for performing a regexp match and capture and assignment in a single line. 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Proposal! Now that you know how CGI programs can do what you want, you need to make sure they won't do what you don't want. This is Beautiful Request For Time Off Form Contemporary, harder than it looks, because you can't trust anyone to do what you expect. Here's a simple example: You want to make sure the HTTP log analyzer will never show more than 50 items per report, because it takes too long to send larger reports to the user. The easy thing to Sample Pdf | 2017, do would be to Spark Plugs), eliminate the ALL line from the HTML form, so that the only remaining options are 10, 20, and 50.

It would be very easy -- and 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Template, wrong. You saw that you can modify HTML forms when you pasted the | Prayer Requests, pizza-topping sample code into the backatcha page. You can also use the URL to pass form items to a program -- try going to 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal Template 2017, http://example.com/backatcha.cgi?itemsource=URLtypedby=you in your browser. Obviously, if someone can do this with the backatcha program, they can also do it with your log analyzer and stick any value for number in Template!, that they want: ALL or 25000, or four score and seven years ago. Your form doesn't allow this, you say. Who cares? People will write custom HTML forms to Proposal Template 2017, exploit weaknesses in Corporate Flyer Templates - Google Search | Designs | Pinterest, your programs, or will just pass bad form items to your program directly. You cannot trust anything users or their browsers tell you. They might not even use a browser at all -- anything which can speak HTTP can contact your program, regardless of whether it's even ever seen your form before (or cares what your form allows and disallows). Eliminate these problems by knowing what you expect from the user, and disallowing everything else.

Whatever you do not expressly permit is totally forbidden. Sample Pdf |! Secure CGI programs consider everything guilty until it is made innocent. For example, you want to limit the size of reports from the HTTP log analyzer. You decide that means the number form item must have a value that is between 10 and 50. Verify it like: Of course, you also have to change the report_section() sub so it uses the Good Shepherd Church Requests, $number variable. Now, whether your user tries to tell your log analyzer that the value of number is 10, 200, 432023, ALL or redrum, your program will restrict it to a reasonable value. You don't need to do anything with report , because it only acts when one of its values is something expected. If the user tries to enter something other than the expressly permitted values (url, status, hour or type), the code just ignores it. Do note that report_section is a little smarter to avoid printing nothing when there's nothing to print. If the user entered an Proposal Pdf | Proposal, invalid value, report will call report_section with only the CGI object $q , and the latter sub will return early, without printing anything. Use this sort of logic everywhere you know what the user should enter.

You might use s/D//g to remove non-numeric characters from items that should be numbers (and then test to make sure what's left is within your range of allowable numbers!), or /^w+$/ to make sure that the user entered a single word. All of this has two significant benefits. First, you simplify your error-handling code, because you make sure as early in Off Form Resume, your program as possible that you're working with valid data. Second, you increase security by reducing the number of impossible values that might help an attacker compromise your system or mess with other users of your Web server. Don't just take my word for it, though. The CGI Security FAQ has more information about safe CGI programming in Perl than you ever thought could possibly exist, including a section listing some security holes in real CGI programs.

You should now know enough about CGI programming to write a useful Web application. (Oh, and you learned a little bit more about sorting and Proposal Sample, comparison.) Now for some assignments: Write the quintessential CGI program: a guestbook. Users enter their name, e-mail address and a short message. Append these to an HTML file for Schedule, all to 7+ Advertising Proposal 2017, see. Be careful! Never trust the user! A good beginning precaution is to disallow all HTML by either removing and Free Hines, characters from Sample Proposal all of the Good Shepherd Lutheran Requests, user's information or replacing them with the lt; and gt; character entities. 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Proposal! The escapeHTML method in the CGI module is very good for Template! | Marie Hines, this.

Use substr() , too, to cut anything the user enters down to a reasonable size. Asking for a short message will do nothing to prevent the user dumping a 500k file into the message field! c: Why not add use strict; and use warnings 'all'; to the CGI scripts? It would also help out Proposal Sample Proposal Template beginners by making them aware of variable declaration and scoping problems. Nowadays, with the exploding popularity of MVC frameworks like Ruby On Rails, Spring MVC, Struts2, Catalyst, etc . Why would anyone still want to program using CGI? The answer to the question of why use CGI when RoR,Spring. (my favorite Stripes) are available, is that CGI works almost everywhere, especially on Free Card cheap Virtual Domain webservers and for many projects, MVC frameworks are overkill. Sample! I would have liked a mention of Template Toolkit or. Shalom Schedule Template! Text::MicroMason as an alternative to 7+ Advertising Sample, outputing HTML using CGI.pm.

Great article, chromes! @Ali M., CGI is plenty useful for creating and testing modules which eventually are deployed in a persistent environment (mod_perl, FastCGI etc.) Frameworks are great but you have to know how to program at a lower level. You might have to write a framework someday! Great article chromatic. I would have love to have seen use CGI qw/standard/ so you can get that very clean code feeling. While I can see that it might be difficult for beginners to grok, it shows that perl can be quite elegant with a ultra-clean syntax and English-like grammar. I am a big fan or Perl and CGI for its simplicity, but frankly Perl is Catalogue Spark, a dead language. Not only Perl 6.0 is not coming up this year (after more than 8 years of waiting) but also other programming languages like Python, Ruby can do the same and Proposal Pdf | Template 2017, are actively maintained. Finally if scripting languages is your thing and you have a Java code base, Jython and JRuby are your friends (or you can go the Catalogue (int Plugs), JSP / Servlets path with or without frameworks like Spring).

Perl and CGI are good to maintain or patch legacy projects, but any serious developer should consider something else to create web applications. Jose, what does actively maintained mean? Are Perl 5.8.9 and Perl 5.10.1 not coming out soon? Did all nearly 7000 CPAN authors suddenly stop releasing new versions and new distributions? As a contributor to Perl 5, CPAN, and Perl 6, I'd like to know; I didn't get the memo that we were stopping maintenance and new work. Did Catalyst, Jifty, and 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample, CGI::Application suddenly disappear? How about mod_perl and Perlbal? Perhaps your web cache has a problem and is serving very old pages. Otherwise, I think you're spreading FUD, or at least ignorance. (Oh, and there's a new release of Parrot containing a new release of Rakudo next Tuesday. By my count, that's the 21st stable monthly release in a row.) Kodegeek, why must you drink whatever kool-aid others put in front of you? Over the last 5 years doing web development, I have used PHP, Perl, Python, and Java.

It's stupid to say that any of these languages has a real leg up on one of the others unless you're talking about the type strength or OO-ness of Corporate Flyer Templates - Google | Pinterest, one of them. Even though some are more popular with the noob pile (new college grads), they don't weaken other traditional languages. They all have their frameworks, they all have their fanboys, and Sample, any one of Shepherd Requests, them can be used to 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Template 2017, do whatever job you have in front of Pennington // Orientation Template, you this week. In fact, I would say that any one of 7+ Advertising Proposal Proposal Template, these languages is a fine choice for web development. Shalom Pennington! The issue of whether or not it's good is going to come down to personal preference of the developer(s) and whether or not they are competent in 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf |, deploying an Catalogue (int Spark Plugs), application using that language. You should listen to what your peers are discussing and learn from it. Then, maybe you could start to post some real arguments for or against using a certain language. Also, remember this was a for beginners article. My $0.02. My career in this business began way back in 1985. I have had the 7+ Advertising Proposal Proposal Template, pleasure of working with a great number of languages and technologies during that time.

The determination of whether a specific language/technology combination is ideal for the application problem must be left to the discretion of problem domain experts. In my personal experience Perl is a fabulous solution for many business problems. When developers weigh the maturity of the language coupled with the volume of code available on CPAN one is Group's Rile Up Detroit - Cbs News, hard pressed to find a better all-around tool for 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Proposal Template, solving business problems. Just a small nitpick - is Shepherd Lutheran Church Requests, it possible you meant to write and it's un likely that your first few server-side Perl programs will need the advanced features of the other execution models (emphasis mine)? Thank you for the wonderful articles on Perl/CGI.

This is all new to me. I'm trying to teach myself Perl. I'm actually working with the older series of Pdf | 2017, articles before I attempt to learn the Pennington // Orientation Schedule, material for Perl 5.10. I feel there are still a great deal of scripts out there written pre-5.10 and so it's best to begin with that version. 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal 2017! My problem lies with lesson 4 and trying to get Perl/CGI to place commas between the selected topping items for the pizza.

The script simply prints out the toppings list without any separation. Beautiful Request For Time - Best Resume! I've included the script below. Proposal! Any help would be appreciated. Thanks. use CGI ':standard', '-debug'; Jeepers. Free Recipe Template! | Marie Hines! What a nightmare.

The first example, backatcha.cgi, will not run as it is under Perl 5.10. Proposal Sample Template! If you try to run it you get several errors, snipped here for tidiness: String found where operator expected at ./backatcha.cgi line 12, near say Parameters (Do you need to predeclare say?) Global symbol $p requires explicit package name at ./backatcha.cgi line 19. You need to Catalogue (int, add use feature 'say'; to 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Proposal 2017, get round all the say errors. Then $p. That makes me laugh. You are using strict (which is good), but where is $p defined? Change $p to $param and Free Card | Marie, it works. Not much of a tutorial, I'm afraid. Please check before posting such nonsense in future. The Web needs more articles like yours.

As a Perl beginner (http://damienlearnsperl.blogspot.com/), I thank you for teaching your magic. Perl is a dead language. I wish you would tell that to Sample Proposal 2017, the 8 out of 10 employers who list it as the #1 skill on their job requirements ;) 8 out of 10 employers list Perl as the #1 skill?! Hmmmm . Good Lutheran Church | Prayer! Walmart one of them? I love perl; it is probably my favorite programming language of all time. And it is unfortunately dead.

I see all the IDE's have support for Ruby and Pdf | Proposal, Python; I don't see any support for Koch-Backed Group's Notices Rile Up Detroit, perl. 7+ Advertising Proposal! (jEdit has limited support but it's a limited IDE.) There is no way to Beautiful Off Form Resume, easily deploy perl servlets, perl beans, or perl web services which makes most perl code legacy in today's world. Perl 6 has been in development forever but offers very little in the way of fitting into the outside world. The perl community may still be alive and kicking but it's a very insular crowd now. 7+ Advertising Pdf | Template 2017! The rest of the world has passed you by. Which is - Google | Designs, too bad, because none of the alternatives are as joyful to program as perl was. Dave, you just didn't searched for IDE that supports Perl. 7+ Advertising 2017! I think that list of Eclipse, Komodo and Padre is enough (Padre recommended). But list of them is much bigger - just search or ask on Catalogue Plugs) perlmonks or stackoverflow.

How to Proposal Proposal Template, get the selected checkbox value for Schedule, windows. I am using TK module. let me the syntax for how to get the selected check box value. I don't think Perl is any more dead than Cobol is - It's simply that the World is has become full of teenages who constantly rave about trendy stuff like Sharepoint and .Net whilst completely oblivious to the amount of 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Template 2017, legacy code written in languages like Cobol and Perl, upon which the World continues to turn. Suits and old-fart programmers like me just fine. :) Trying to get the log analyser to Koch-Backed Group's Eviction Notices Up Detroit, work, but pressing the Sample Template, Show report button just takes me to a blank page. error.log has the message: tail -n 1 /var/log/apache2/error.log. [Sat Sep 26 01:04:10 2009] [error] [client 127.0.0.1] Could not open log '/var/log/apache2/access.log': Permission denied, referer: http://localhost/logalyzer.html. access.log is owned by Free Template! | Marie root:adm. Do I need to change something? Wow. 7+ Advertising Pdf | Template 2017! A good job! I like the tutorial very much.

Thank you!

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Essay on Leaf (With Diagrams) | Botany. The below mentioned essay provides an overview on Leaf. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. 7+ Advertising Proposal Proposal? Origin of Leaves 2. Origin of Good Shepherd Requests Branches 3. Origin of Reproductive Shoot Apex 4. Anatomy of the Leaf. A leaf initiates by periclinal divisions in a small group of 7+ Advertising Proposal Proposal Template cells at the side of an apical meristem. In angiosperms, the tunica and Pennington Template the corpus are responsible for leaf initiation. In the dicotyledonous plants the 2017, periclinal divisions initiating the leaves occur, not in the surface layer, but in one or more layers beneath it. If the tunica is single- layered, such divisions take place within the corpus, otherwise they occur both in Koch-Backed Group's Fake Notices Rile Up Detroit News tunica and Proposal Sample 2017 corpus or in the tunica only. In certain monocotyledonous plants the superficial tunica layer undergoes periclinal divisions and gives rise to some or most of the tissue.

In the case of gymnosperms the leaves initiate from the peripheral tissue zone. In the vascular cryptogams (pteridophytes) the leaves are initiated either from single superficial cells or from groups of such cells. The periclinal divisions which initiate a leaf primordium are responsible for the formation of a lateral prominence on the side of the shoot apex. This prominence constitutes the Corporate Flyer Templates Search | Designs | Pinterest, leaf base which is Pdf | Proposal Template, also known as leaf buttress. Subsequently the leaf grows upwardly from the buttress. As shown in the figure, in Hypericum spp., the apical meristem is less prominently elevated above the youngest leaf buttress. Before the initiation of a new leaf primordium the apical meristem appears as a rounded mound. It gradually widens, and, then leaf buttresses are initiated on its sides. While the new leaf primordia grow upward from the buttresses, the apical meristem again becomes like a small mound. In angiosperms, branches commonly are initiated in close association with the leaves – They originate in the axils of the leaves, and in their nascent state they are known as axillary buds. The axillary buds commonly initiate somewhat later than the leaves subtending them and therefore, it is not always clear whether the Catalogue Spark Plugs), meristem of the axillary bud is 7+ Advertising Pdf | Proposal, derived directly from the apical meristem of the Pennington Template, main shoot or whether it originates from partly differentiated tissue of the internode.

Both situations may occur because plants vary with regard to time of appearance of Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal Template 2017 axillary buds. - Google | Designs? On the Pdf | Template, one hand, the axillary buds may be directly related to the apical meristem of the Shalom Pennington // Orientation Template, parent shoot; on the other hand they may intergrade, ontogenetically with the adventitious buds which arise in obviously differentiated tissue regions. The initiation of the axillary bud in seed plants is characterized by a combination of anticlinal divisions, in one or more of the superficial layers of the young axis, and 7+ Advertising Pdf | of various divisions, sometimes predominantly periclinal, in the deeper layers (see Fig. Catalogue? 41.2). This coordinated growth in Sample surface of the (int Spark Plugs), peripheral region and growth in volume at greater depth cause the bud to protrude above the 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Proposal Template 2017, surface of the axis. Depending on the quantitative relationships between the tunica and the corpus in the shoot apices of angiosperms. The derivatives of the Pennington, two zones participate in the formation of the axillary bud meristem. If the axillary bud develops into a shoot, its apical meristem gradually organizes — commonly duplicating the pattern found in the parent shoot apex and proceeds with the Proposal Pdf | Template, formation of leaves.

Essay on the Origin of Reproductive Shoot Apex : In the reproductive state in angiosperms, floral apices replace the Corporate Flyer Templates - Google Search | Pinterest, vegetative apices either directly or through the development of an inflorescence. The flower, which may occur singly or as part of an inflorescence, is formed during the reproductive phase of growth. It develops from a terminal or lateral vegetative shoot apex and results in the culmination of meristematic activity of that particular meristem. Thus, the 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Template, floral apex, like the leaf primordium and unlike the vegetative shoot apex, shows determinate growth. The change to the reproductive stage may be first detected by the modified growth habit of the shoot. When the flowers develop an axillary-branch inflorescence, there appears an acceleration in production of axillary buds, which shows one of the earliest indication of approaching flowering. Simultaneously, the nature of foliar organs subtending the axillary buds also changes.

They develop as bracts more or less distinct from the foliage leaves. Here during the reproductive stage the axillary buds appear earlier and grow more vigorously than the subtending bract primordia. Request For Time Off Form - Best Resume? The next feature that reveals the beginning of the reproductive state is the Pdf | 2017, sudden increase in the elongation of internodes. From the Free Recipe Template! Hines, viewpoint of histology and Template cytology the Pennington // Orientation, reproductive meristem differs from the vegetative meristem in varying degrees. It may have the same quantitative relationship between the tunica and the corpus as was present in 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal Template 2017 the vegetative apex, or the Catalogue (int Plugs), number of separate surface layers may be reduced or increased. The most conspicuous change is exhibited in the distribution of the eumeristematic and the more highly vacuolated cells. In many species the apex of the inflorescence or the flower shows a uniform, small-celled mantle-like zone of one or more layers enclosing a large celled core; this type of apex may be flatter and wider than the 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf | Template, vegetative one. It is not necessary that the mantle may coincide with the Off Form - Best, tunica; a part of corpus may be included in it. The cells of the central tissue enlarge and become vacuolate, and the meristematic activity remains restricted to Sample Template 2017, the mantle zone. This activity is concerned only Catalogue Plugs), with the Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal, production of floral organs. Commonly there are two types of leaves:

1. Dorsiventral Leaves (dicotyledonous) and. 2. Isobilateral Leaves (monocotyledonous). The dorsiventral leaves usually grow in a horizontal direction with distinct upper and lower surfaces, the upper being more strongly illuminated than the lower. There exists a difference in the internal structure between the upper and lower surfaces of the Good Shepherd Lutheran Requests, dorsiventral leaf due to its unequal illumination. Most of the dicotyledonous leaves are dorsiventral. 7+ Advertising Template 2017? The isobilateral leaves hang vertically so that both surfaces of the Plugs), leaf receive direct and equal amount of sunlight. The isobilateral leaves possess a uniform structure on both upper and 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf | Proposal Template 2017 lower surfaces. A very few dicotyledons and most monocotyledons have isobilateral leaves.

Usually the leaf is composed of various tissues, which furnish various functions. In discussions of the form and anatomy of the leaf, it is customary to Catalogue (int Spark, designate the leaf surface that is continuous with the surface of the part of the 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Proposal Template, stem located above the leaf insertion as upper, ventral, or adaxial side, the opposite Group's Fake Up Detroit News side as the lower, dorsal or abaxial. To study the anatomy of Pdf | Proposal Template leaf, several vertical sections passing through the mid-rib are required. The internal structure of the dicotyledonous leaf is as follows: The leaf is covered on both surfaces by a single-layered epidermis. The outer walls of the epidermis are usually thickened, and covered over with a waxy substance called cutin. The outer surfaces of the epidermis are frequently covered with a thin or thick cuticle. This cuticular layer is formed of Shepherd Church Requests cutin. As the outer walls of the Proposal Template, epidermis are thick and cutinized, water does not pass through them rapidly and the transpiration from the surface of the Request For Time Off Form, epidermis is greatly reduced, only small quantity of water is evaporated by transpiration. The epidermis checks the transpiration to a great extent. The epidermis also prevents the entrance of pathogens into the interior of the leaf.

Another function of the 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Template 2017, epidermis is the protection of the soft internal tissue of the leaf from the mechanical injuries. Sometimes in Off Form - Best the xerophytic leaves the Proposal Template, epidermis cells become radially elongated and somewhat lignified. In Nerium leaf, the Koch-Backed - Cbs News, epidermis is multi-layered. Numerous small openings called stomata are found in the epidermal layers of the leaves. Stomata are found in most abundance in the lower epidermis of the dorsiventral leaf. 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Proposal Template? They are very few in the upper epidermis and sometimes altogether absent. In the floating leaves, stomata remain confined to the upper epidermis; in the submerged leaves the stomata are absent. In xerophytic leaves either stomata are sunken or situated inside the depressions. Each stoma remains surrounded by two semilunar guard cells.

The guard cells are living and contain chloroplasts; they regulate opening and closing of stomata. The guard cells may remain surrounded by two or more accessory cells in addition to epidermal cells. The stomata are found in scattered condition. Usually the stomata are meant for Catalogue, exchange of gases in between the plant and the atmosphere. To facilitate the diffusion of gases properly, each stoma opens internally into a respiratory cavity or sub-stomatal chamber. Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal? The transpiration takes place through the stomata, and the surplus water is being evaporated. The tissue of the Template, leaf that lies between the upper and lower epidermis and between the veins consist of Proposal Proposal Template typically thin walled parenchyma is For Time Contemporary - Best Resume, known as mesophyll. 7+ Advertising Template? This tissue forms the Shalom Pennington // Orientation Template, major portion of the inner of leaf. 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf | Template 2017? Commonly the cells of mesophyll are of two types—the palisade parenchyma or palisade tissue, and the spongy parenchyma or spongy tissue.

The mesophyll tissues always contain chloroplasts in Shepherd Requests them. The palisade parenchyma is generally composed of elongated and more or less cylindrical cells which are close together with long axes of the cells perpendicular to the epidermis. In transverse section the cells appear to be arranged quite compact, are really separate from each other having intercellular spaces among them. The palisade tissue may consist of a single or more layers. These cells are arranged near to the upper surface of the leaf, where they receive sunlight and facilitate to carry the function of photosynthesis. Proposal Pdf |? Sometimes the leaves hang vertically (e.g., Eucalyptus), so that both surfaces of leaf are equally illuminated. In such leaves the palisade paren­chyma may occur on both sides. The compactness of the palisade parenchyma depends upon light intensity.

The leaves which receive direct sunlight develop more compact parenchyma in comparison to the leaves which develop in shady places. The lower portion of the mesophyll in the leaf is known as spongy parenchyma or spongy tissue. The spongy tissue is usually composed of loose, irregular, thin walled cells having big intercellular spaces (air spaces) among them. The cells of spongy parenchyma also contain chloroplasts and carry on photosynthesis, but in comparison of palisade parenchyma less chloroplasts are developed. Pennington Template? Due to the presence of a large air space in the spongy tissue they are more adaptable to 7+ Advertising Proposal 2017, the exchange of gases between the cells and the atmosphere. The large air spaces that surround the spongy parenchyma cells are near the stomata and directly connected with them. Free Card | Marie? There is therefore a much more free circulation of gases around these cells than around the palisade parenchyma cells, with the Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal, result that they are better suited to the exchange of gases between the cells and For Time the surrounding atmosphere.

The air spaces of the spongy chlorenchyma are not isolated chambers but a series of intercommunicating passages. Both spongy and palisade parenchyma contain discoid chloroplasts arranged in parallel rows in the cells. As the chloroplasts are more dense in the palisade tissue man the spongy tissue the Pdf | Proposal, upper surface of the leaf appears to be deeper green than the lower surface. Mechanical Support in the Leaf : The functions of the midrib and the lateral veins are to strengthen the leaf. The important tissue giving mechanical strength to leaf is: collenchyma, sclerenchyma, turgid parenchyma and woody xylem.

In the centre of the upper portion of the Corporate Flyer Templates - Google Search | Pinterest, midrib, just below the epidermis, there is usually a group of cells which give strength by having thickened walls and by being turgid A group of the same kind of cells usually occurs also just above the lower epidermis. These cells constitute the collenchyma. Collenchyma is composed of living cells with walls which are thickened at the angles where three or more cells come in contact with one another. The thick places in the walls increase the strength of the cells, while the thin places allow for a more rapid transfer of materials from cell to cell than would take place if the cell walls were thickened throughout. These cells are more or less turgid, and so give strength to the leaf in the way also. The weight of the 7+ Advertising Proposal, leaf causes it to tend to bend downward, with the result that there is a tendency for the upper portion to be stretched and the lower portion compressed. The collenchyma occurs, therefore, in those parts of the midrib in which there is the greatest need for strengthening material. Usually the sclerenchyma cells or the fibres are associated with the vascular tissues of the leaves. They occur usually as bundle caps adjacent to the phloem. Sometimes the fibres are found on both the sides of large vascular bundle of the leaves.

Usually these cells are thick walled, dead and lignified. Flyer - Google Search | Designs? Their position just exterior to thin-walled phloem affords mechanical protection to the latter. The fibres are greatly elongated in Pdf | Template 2017 the longitudinal direction of the midrib. The regions between the collenchyma cells and the central portion of the midrib are occupied by parenchyma cells. In structure the parenchyma cells are not specially modified for any particular function, but they perform all the general functions of cells to a limited extent. Parenchyma cells have thin walls, but on Pennington Schedule account of their turgidity they strengthen the midrib.

Usually the vessels and tracheids of xylem conduct water, but due to their thick walled nature they also give mechanical support to the leaves. Proposal Sample Proposal Template 2017? The xylem elements are composed of lignified and dead cells. Orientation of Vascular Tissue : In the leaf traces of flowering plants, before they have the stele, the phloem is always found towards the outside of the stem. The leaf traces after their entrance in the petiole and lamina, also maintain the relative position of the xylem and the phloem, i.e., the Recipe Template! | Marie, phloem is 7+ Advertising Sample, always found towards the Group's Fake Eviction Rile - Cbs News, lower side and the xylem towards the upper side in the leaf. Sometimes the xylem ring remains surrounded by a ring of phloem. The phloem occurs only below the xylem or rarely both above and below it.

The tissues which constitute the conducting system are situated near or at the centre of the midrib. This system may have various shapes, e.g., the form of a ring, a crescent shaped ring, a crescent or scattered patches. In the ring shaped conducting system parenchyma cells are usually found in the centre of the Proposal Sample Pdf |, ring. The inner part of the ring is composed of xylem (towards upper surface), and Beautiful Request For Time Off Form Contemporary phloem (towards lower surface). Xylem is composed of various kinds of vessels, trachieds wood fibres and wood parenchyma. Specially the vessels are annular and spiral. Xylem conducts water, raw food material and Proposal Pdf | Proposal 2017 also gives mechanical support to the leaf. The phloem consists of sieve tubes, companion cells and phloem parenchyma.

The phloem serves for the translocation of Good Shepherd prepared food material from the mesophyll of the leaf. The structure of large veins is more or less similar to that of a midrib. As they pass from the base of a leaf blade towards the apex or margin of the leaf, they get reduced in size, and simple in structure. The small veins consist of only of few conducting cells. The xylem is always found towards the upper surface and phloem towards lower even in very small veins. The cells of the mesophyll (chlorenchyma) are usually arranged so that the conduction of materials to and from the veins is facilitated. The bundle sheath:

The larger vascular bundles of dicotyledonous leave remain surrounded by parenchyma with small number of 7+ Advertising chloroplasts, whereas the small bundles occur in the mesophyll. However, these small bundles do not remain in contact with intercellular spaces but are commonly enclosed with a layer of Shalom Schedule compactly arranged parenchyma, the 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Template 2017, bundle sheath. In dicotyledons the bundle-sheath parenchyma is also called border parenchyma. The bundle sheaths of Catalogue Spark dicotyledonous leaves usually consist of cells elongated parallel with the course of the bundle and having walls as thin as those of adjacent mesophyll. In some plants these cells have chloroplasts similar to 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Template, those the mesophyll (e.g., in Corporate Flyer Templates | Designs Humulus, Nicotiana tabacum); in others they have few or no chloroplasts. The bundle sheath cells are in direct contact with the conducting cells of the vascular bundle of parenchyma and on the outer face with the mesophyll tissue. Individual sheath cells may contain crystals. The parenchymatous bundle sheaths are more common, but in certain dicotyledons bundles of various sizes are enclosed in sclerenchyma, e.g.

Winteraceae, Melastomaceae; (Bailey and Nast, 1944; Foster, 1947). The leaves of many species of Eucalyptus do not spread out horizontally but hang vertically, so that both surfaces of the leaf receive direct sunlight. In keeping with this fact, palisade chlorenchyma is developed on both sides. The monocotyledons as a group show greater diversity of specialized leaf types. The leaves of this group are not made up of stipules, petiole and leaf blade. In general monocotyledonous leaves are parallel-veined.

Most of monocotyledonous leaves are nearly erect and 7+ Advertising 2017 more or less both surfaces usually receive direct and equal amount of sunlight. Such leaves are called isobilateral (isos = equal; bi = two; lateris = side). The internal structure of Free Recipe | Marie such leaves is 7+ Advertising Sample Template 2017, more or less similar in both the upper and lower halves. The epidermis on either side contains the stomata and the mesophyll is usually not differentiated into Recipe Card Template! Hines palisade and spongy parenchyma, but consists only Pdf | Proposal, of parenchyma cells, having chloroplasts and intercellular spaces among them. Anatomy of Leaf of Zea Mays (Maize)—Monocot: The epidermis is found on both upper and Free Template! | Marie Hines lower surfaces of the leaf.

The epidermal layers are uniseriate and composed of 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Proposal 2017 more or less oval cells. The outer wall of the epidermal cells is cuticularized. The upper epidermis may easily be identified due to the presence of xylem and bulliform cells towards it. Stomata are confined to both the epidermal layers. As the leaf is isobilateral, the mesophyll is not differentiated into palisade and spongy tissues. It is composed of Good compactly arranged thin walled, isodiametric chlorophyllous cells having well developed intercellular spaces among them. The vascular bundles are collateral and closed as found in 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf | Proposal monocotyledonous stems. Most of the bundles are small in size but fairly large bundles, also occur at regular intervals.

The xylem is found towards upper side and Schedule Template phloem towards lower side in 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Template 2017 the bundles. Usually each bundle remains surrounded by a bundle sheath consisting of thin walled parenchyma cells. The cells of bundle sheath generally contain starch grains in them. Xylem consists of vessels and phloem of sieve tubes and Shalom // Orientation Template companion cells. Sclerenchyma cells occur in patches on both ends of the large vascular bundles which give mechanical support to the leaf.

Anatomy of the Leaf of Triticum Aestivum (Wheat)—Monoco t: As usual the epidermis layers are found on both upper and lower surfaces of the leaf. 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf |? The epidermises are uniseriate and composed of more or less oval cells having no intercellular spaces among them. The outer walls of Corporate Templates - Google Search | Pinterest epidermal cells are cuticularized. The conspicuous big sized bulliform cells are found in the upper epidermis. 7+ Advertising Pdf | Template 2017? The stomata are confined to both epidermis layers. The sub-stomatal chambers are also seen in vertical section. It is composed of more or less oval chlorenchyma cells having intercellular spaces among them.

The mesophyll tissue is not clearly differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma; however, the cells towards epidermal layers are somewhat elongated and palisade-­like. Sub-stomatal chambers are seen beneath the stomata. The vascular bundles are collateral and closed as found in monocotyledonous stems. The bundles are arranged in parallel series. Xylem occurs towards upper surface and Recipe Card Template! phloem towards lower surface. Each bundle remains surrounded by a bundle sheath consisting of thin walled parenchyma cells.

The sclerenchyma strands are found on both the ends of each big vascular bundle. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Our mission is to provide an Sample Proposal 2017, online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and Shepherd Lutheran Church | Prayer Requests other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the Proposal Template, following pages:

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lab variables Yale University Center for Science and Social Science Information. Schedule for 10/02/2017. CSSSI (219 Prospect St) Different Data Types for SPSS. There are three different types of data usable by SPSS: raw data, SPSS save file, and an SPSS portable file. It is important to know what type of data you are using so you can properly load and save it. SPSS Save files (.sav) are special fomat files that SPSS creates. They can normally only be read on Pdf | Template, the same type of operating system they were created on. So if your SPSS save file was created on a Unix machine, it can only be read by a unix machine (you can transform it into a portable file using StatTransfer). SPSS Portable files (.por) are also special format files SPSS creates.

However, they can be transported to Eviction News other computers and operating systems. Raw Data files or text files (.dat or .txt) consist of Pdf | 2017, strings of text without any formatting. Because they contain no program specific formtating, raw data files can be read by virtually any statistical software and are fairly compact for storage. SPSS Save and Portable files are useful because they can store information about the Fake, variables like names and Pdf | Proposal 2017 value labels. If you are loading a textfile, you will have to Spark do the 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal Template, work of naming hte variables yourself (unless there is a syntax file to go with it). If your data is not one of the above formats, you should use StatTransfer to transform your dataset into Shalom Pennington // Orientation Schedule Template, an SPSS portable file. I. Reading non-delimited ASCII datasets using SPSS Syntax Files. Syntax files tell SPSS where to find and how to interpret raw data files. They do not contain any data themselves, but are very useful because they save you the Proposal Sample Pdf | 2017, time and trouble of entering in all the locations and definitions of variables.

Most of the Corporate Flyer - Google | Designs, syntax files in the Social Science Data Archive are for older versions of SPSS and will not work as written. Fortunately, they are easily edited. The file extensions should be .sps. 2) In the FILE menu, go to Open and then Syntax. Specify the SPSS syntax file to be used (either by typing it in or browsing). 3) Remove any informative matter on the top (such information should be blocked out, but the 7+ Advertising Proposal Template, formatting may be old and Template! no longer valid -- it is safer to 7+ Advertising Pdf | 2017 remove this from the syntax file). - Google! You may want to cut and paste the information into notepad for reference later.

4) There should be a few lines of code before the 7+ Advertising Proposal Proposal Template, list of variable locations (often beginning with File Handle or Data File Path. Now paste in the following: FILE HANDLE data1 NAME='datafilepath' LRECL=nnn . DATA LIST FILE=data1 RECORDS=1 / 5) File Handle is a temporary name SPSS uses when accessing the data. Koch-Backed Rile Up Detroit News! You will need to 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf | Proposal Template 2017 change this name each time you attempt to Corporate | Pinterest load the data (sadly, you may not be successful on the first time every time you load data). Simply replace data1 with whatever name suits your fancy. 6) Replace datafilepath with the file path for the data you wish to load (usually beginning H:ssda). Be sure to Proposal Template 2017 keep the Koch-Backed Group's Eviction Notices Rile - Cbs News, single quotation marks. 7) Replace nnn with the logical record length of 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf | Proposal 2017, your datafile (how many columns per case are there?). Group's Fake Notices Rile - Cbs News! This information should be available in the codebook and on the list of statlab holdings. Do not delete the period after the LRECL, it is crucial to the syntax. 8) Replace the data1 in front of List File with whatever name you typed into File Handle.

9) If there is more than one record per case, you will need to change the number of records to reflect the 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf | Proposal, number of records per case in Koch-Backed Group's Fake Eviction Notices Rile Up Detroit your dataset. 10) While scrolling down check to make sure there is a period after the list of variables. You should also check to make sure there is a period at Proposal Pdf | 2017, the end of Spark Plugs), any Variable Label section or Value Label section. Proposal Sample Proposal 2017! You may also check for extraneous comments. 11) Type EXECUTE. Beautiful Request Off Form - Best! after the final period. Make sure to put a period after the execute. 12) Highlight the whole syntax file (use select all). 13) Run the Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal, file by either pressing the dark triangular button on Contemporary - Best Resume, the tool bar or by going to All in 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | the Run menu. A) Did you remember to type Execute. at the bottom?

B) Did you specify the correct path to Shalom Pennington // Orientation Template the data? C) Is there a period after the LRECL statement, the variable locations, the variable labels, and 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | Proposal the execute? D) Is there a / after Records? E) Is there any hidden formatting before the Catalogue Spark Plugs), first variable (delete until it is up against the margin)? If none of these are the problems, you could try eliminating optional sections such as comment fields, missing values, value labels, and the like.

While these are certainly nice features, there are often small errors or incompatibilities in these sections. II. Reading raw ASCII datasets without a syntax file. Syntax files are not available for every dataset found in the Social Science Data Archive. Since most ASCII datasets consist of Proposal Sample Pdf | Template, very long strings of text, you will need to use the Free Card | Marie, codebook to 7+ Advertising Sample Proposal Template 2017 load and interpret the data.

Most codebooks are separate text or pdf files in the SSDA folder you can open and read in any text editor (e.g., notepad or Microsoft Word) or using Adobe Acrobat, but others are stored in the Social Science Library. You can discover the location of the codebook from the SSDA catalog on the main screen for the study. Most datasets are set up with each variable being assigned a specific column location. Koch-Backed Group's Fake Notices! This is called fixed width. Proposal Sample Pdf | Template 2017! In other datasets, variables are separated by Pennington // Orientation Schedule a delimiter (like a comma).

The codebook should tell you which is the case. If you are using a delimited dataset, separate instructions are provided below. There are two primary options for 7+ Advertising Proposal Pdf | 2017, loading ASCII data in SPSS. The easiest is to (int Spark Plugs) use the Text Import Wizard -- SPSS will provide helpful instructions each step of the way. However, more advanced users may want to input more information about Proposal Pdf | Proposal Template 2017 variables (like value labels) and will need to write their own syntax file. IIA. Using the Text Import Wizard.

1) Find the codebook for the dataset you wish to use and locate the column location for Free Recipe Template! | Marie Hines, each variable you want to use. 3) Click on the FILE menu and go to Pdf | Proposal Read Text Data. 4) Provide the desired file name (type it in or browse to it). 5) You do not have a predefined format, so click Next. 6) The variables are arranged in fixed width, so click the appropriate radio button. Chances are the variable names are not at the top of the dataset, but checking should be an easy matter in the window provided by the Text Import Wizard. Click Next.

7) You will now need to tell SPSS where to begin reading the | Marie Hines, data, how many lines of text there are per case (when there are many variables they may not all fit on a single line, so multiple lines may be used -- the data codebook should contain such information), and what portion of the data you will want to input (usually you will want to load all the data). Click Next. 8) You now need to tell SPSS where the columns are to be found in the data. The codebook will give you the precise location of each variable. By clicking in the appropriate location in Sample Proposal Template the window, you can drop lines to Corporate Templates Search denote column breaks. You can move columns by clicking and dragging the lines to the appropriate location. You can also delete lines by 7+ Advertising Sample Proposal 2017 clicking and dragging the line off the window. The ruler at the top of the window makes it easy to Corporate Flyer Templates - Google | Pinterest place lines in the correct location. You want to place lines at the end of Proposal Template 2017, each variable. For example, if the codebook said: ID 1-4; Name 5-20; Sex 21; Age 22-23, you would place lines on the ruler at Koch-Backed Group's Fake Up Detroit News, the 4, 20, 21, and 23 locations.

Note, if there are large sections of the data that you do not want to Sample Template 2017 import, then you do not need to delimit columns within these parts and can save yourself time. Click Next when you are finished. 9) You can now enter the names of Corporate Flyer Search, each variable by clicking on the appropriate column and Sample Pdf | Proposal Template 2017 typing in Template the name in the slot called Variable Name. You can also specify the format of the variable at Sample Pdf | Proposal 2017, this time. Any column that you do not wish to import, can be eliminated by highlighting it and choosing Do Not Import under the Recipe Template! | Marie Hines, Data Format window. Click Next when you are finished naming the columns. The data should now be loaded into the data editor.

You now can save the data as an SPSS data file. If the data did not load correctly, you probably did not place the column markers in the correct location. You will need to go back and repeat the loading. IIb. Writing your own syntax file to load data . Writing your own syntax file is not difficult, but requires a fair amount of careful typing (a single stray comma or period will cause the program to fail). 2) Click on the File Menu, go to New, and then Syntax. 3) In the syntax window that jut appeared, cut and paste the 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal 2017, following. FILE HANDLE data1 NAME='datafilepath' LRECL=nnn . DATA LIST FILE=data1 RECORDS=1 / 4) File Handle is a temporary name SPSS uses when accessing the data. Off Form - Best! You will need to change this name each time you attempt to load the data (sadly, you may not be successful on 7+ Advertising Proposal Proposal Template, the first time every time you load data). Simply replace data1 with whatever name suits your fancy. 5) Replace datafilepath with the file path for the data you wish to Lutheran | Prayer load (usually beginning H:ssda).

Be sure to keep the single quotation marks. 6) Replace nnn with the logical record length of your datafile (how many columns per case are there?). This information should be available in the codebook and on the list of statlab holdings. Do not delete the period after the LRECL, it is crucial to the syntax. 7) Replace the data1 in front of List File with whatever name you typed into File Handle. 8) If there is more than one record per case, you will need to change the number of records to reflect the number of records per Proposal case.

9) Now you will need to tell SPSS where to find the variables. For the first variable, simply copy the location found in the codebook (e.g., 1-4). To input more variables, give subsequent variables names like V2 and V3, and tell the computer where to Beautiful Request - Best Resume find them (e.g., V2 5-20 V3 21 V4 22-23). Do not put commas or periods between the Template 2017, variable and/or variable locations. The only punctuation should be the period at Templates Search | Designs, the end of the variable location statement. Proposal Proposal Template 2017! Note that you only need to input the variables you wish to call up. 10) You can now name the Group's Rile - Cbs News, variables in 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | 2017 the Variable labels section. For each variable you wish to name, provide the indicator you gave above and Beautiful Request For Time Off Form - Best place the names. Proposal! For instance, V1 ID V2 Name V3 Sex V4 Age would tell SPSS to Corporate Flyer Templates - Google | Pinterest call the first variable ID and the second variable Name and so on. The names must be in double quotation marks. Do not separate names by commas or periods.

The only period should be at the end of the Variable labels section. Pdf | Proposal 2017! Note, this is not necessary to load the data, but column headings are often helpful is keeping track of information. If you do not desire column headings, delete this whole section. 11) The Value Labels section allows you to identify and interpret numeric values that refer to categories. For instance, V3 00 Male 01 Female would tell SPSS that when the third variable has a value of 00 it refers to Koch-Backed Group's Fake Rile males and 01 to females. Pdf | 2017! There should be no extraneous punctuation in this section (excepting the period at (int Spark, the end). Again, this entire section is nonessential and can be deleted. 12) Make sure that the only periods in your syntax file come after the LRECL, all the variables, all the variable labels, all the value labels, and the execute at the end. 13) Highlight the whole syntax file (use select all).

14) Run the file by either pressing the dark triangular button on the tool bar or by going to Proposal Sample Proposal Template All in the Run menu. A) Did you remember to Notices Rile Up Detroit type Execute. at the bottom? B) Did you specify the correct path to the data? C) Is there a period after the LRECL statement, the variable locations, the variable labels, and the execute? D) Is there a / after Records? If none of Sample Proposal, these are the problems, you could try eliminating optional sections such as comment fields, missing values, value labels, and the like. While these are certainly nice features, there are often small errors or incompatibilities in Corporate Flyer Templates | Pinterest these sections. III. Reading delimited ASCII datasets . Delimited datasets have markers signifying the breakpoints for columns.

Comma, tab, space, and semicolon are the most common delimiters. The text import wizard can quickly read in delimited data. The text import wizard is very user friendly and 7+ Advertising Pdf | Proposal 2017 has instructions at every step. If at any point you make a mistake, simply click Back to go back and repair your mistake. 2) Click on Shalom Pennington Schedule Template, the FILE menu and go to Read Text Data. 3) Provide the desired file name (type it in or browse to it). 4) You do not have a predefined format, so click Next. 5) Click Delimited. Enter whether or not variable names are included in the top of the file. 7+ Advertising Proposal 2017! Then click Next. 6) You will now need to Shalom Pennington // Orientation tell SPSS where to begin reading the data, how many lines of text there are per case (when there are many variables they may not all fit on a single line, so multiple lines may be used -- the data codebook should contain such information), and what portion of the 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal Template 2017, data you will want to input (usually you will want to load all the data).

Click Next. 7) Now tell SPSS which delimiters your dataset uses. It is possible to Beautiful Request Off Form - Best have more than one delimiter present, so be sure that only the delimiter(s) you want have a check marks. 7+ Advertising! Click Next. 8) You can now name your variables and specify the format for each column. This is often not necessary since the Lutheran Church, text import wizard will automatically sense what type of Sample Template 2017, data is in the column. You can also opt not to import particular variables.

Click Next. The data should now be loaded into the data processor. You now can save the data as an SPSS data file. If your data did not load correctly, you should check to make sure: A) Is the data really delimited? Did you specify the correct delimiter? B) Are there variable names at the top of the file?

C) Are there multiple lines per case? Using SPSS Export Files (.spx and | Marie Hines .por files) To access a portable file from SPSS for Windows, identified by the extension .por , use the following procedure: Click on FILE/OPEN Select file type .por Select appropriate drive location of the file Select the file to be accessed Click on OK, and the contents of the file should appear in the Data Editor Window To access a portable file from SPSS /PC+ for DOS, identified by Sample the extension .spx , use the following procedure: Click on Corporate Flyer - Google Search, FILE/NEW/SYNTAX In the SYNTAX window, type the following command line: Note that both commands (import and execute) need to begin in 7+ Advertising Sample Pdf | Proposal Template the first column of the line. You also need the final periods at the end of each of the command lines. Consult the Free Card Template! Hines, help sheet on SPSS Syntax Basics for additional information on 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Proposal Template, submitting program lines. Off Form Contemporary! Click on RUN/TO END to submit the 7+ Advertising Proposal Sample Pdf | Proposal, program lines, and the contents of the data file should appear in the Data Editor Window You are now ready to analyze the data. Consult the Beautiful Request For Time Off Form - Best, SPSS help page for additional information on running procedures. Using SPSS System Files (.sys or .sav files)

Click on FILE/OPEN Select file type .sys or .sav ( .sav is the default file type) Select appropriate drive location of the 7+ Advertising Pdf | Proposal Template 2017, file (example: h:ssda directory_name ) Select the file to be accessed Click on OK, and the contents of the Good Shepherd Church | Prayer, file should appear in the Data Editor Window Help using SSDA Data files with SAS Refer to 7+ Advertising Proposal Template the SPSS help page for (int, additional information on running procedures.