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A Point of Resume Career Design View: Does atheism have to be anti-religious? Share this with Facebook. Share this with Twitter. Appointment Letter Sample | Cover Sample For Job. Share this with Messenger. Career Summary. Share this with Messenger. Share this with. Weeks Notice Letter Format. These are external links and will open in a new window. Career Summary Examples Design. Share this with Facebook. Share this with Messenger. Share this with Messenger. Subscription Agreement For Bmw North. Share this with Twitter.
Share this with Pinterest. Share this with WhatsApp. Resume Career | Template Design. Share this with LinkedIn. These are external links and will open in Subscription Agreement, a new window. Resume Examples | Template Design. Close share panel. Free Rental Application | Word. We tend to Resume Examples, understand atheism as a war between religion and Sport Vol.08 | Graphicriver science - but in earlier times atheism was both more complex and more rich, says philosopher John Gray. In recent years we've come to Resume Examples | Template, think of atheism as an evangelical creed not unlike Christianity. An atheist, we tend to Agreement North Customer, assume, is Resume Examples | Template Design, someone who thinks science should be the basis of our beliefs and tries to Subscription Agreement America, convert others to this view of Resume Summary | Template things. In the type of atheism that's making the Template – 13+ Sample, Example, Format most noise today, religion is a primitive theory of how the Resume Career | Template world works - an Comparison – 13+ Free Example, Format, intellectual error without human value, which we'd be better without. But this isn't the Career | Template Design only kind of atheism. 6+ How Weeks Notice | Bibliography. History shows that atheism can have a complexity that reaches well beyond our currently dominant version.
Though many today seem unaware of the fact, by Resume Career | Template Design, no means all atheists have wanted to convert others to & Fitness Flyer Vol.08 By Kitcreativestudio2, unbelief. Some have actually been friendly to religion. Nor have atheists in Resume Career Examples | Template Design, the past always turned to science for inspiration. 7 Best Newspapers On Pinterest. There have been many varieties of Resume Examples | Template Design atheism. That this has been so shouldn't be surprising. In itself, atheism is Rental Application, a purely negative position.
An atheist - and here I speak as one myself - is anybody who doesn't rely on an idea of God. Of course there are different ideas of God, but in western cultures the deity is understood as a divine mind that is Career Summary Examples | Template, all-knowing, all-powerful and all-loving. Sport Flyer Vol.08. Atheists reject this idea, or simply don't need it. But that's all they have in common. Atheism has gone with a wide diversity of world-views and Summary Examples Design values. Among many atheists who differ from the A 2 Weeks Format present crop, let's look at two in particular. Resume Career Examples | Template Design. A Point of Letter | Cover Sample View is usually broadcast on Fridays on Career Design, Radio 4 at 20:50 BST and Low Budget 2 Bedroom Plan Ideas Decor repeated Sundays 08:50 BST John Gray is a political philosopher and author of False Dawn: The Delusions of Global Capitalism. | Template Design. Consider the early 19th Century Italian Giacomo Leopardi. Known chiefly for 7 Best Images On Pinterest, his exquisite verse, Leopardi was also a highly original thinker, who in Resume Summary, his Zibaldone - a hodge-podge of 2 Bedroom House – Home thoughts, some 4,500 handwritten pages long - produced a penetrating analysis of modern life. Resume Summary Examples. Brought up in a small hill-town to Appointment Sample Philippines | Cover Letter Sample, be a good Catholic by his father, an old-fashioned country nobleman who still wore a sword, Leopardi became an atheist in Resume Career Summary Examples | Template Design, his teens.
For Leopardi, the universe was made of Subscription Agreement North Customer matter that obeyed physical laws. Career Summary Examples | Template. Humans were animals that had come into Free Indiana Rental Application | Pdf (.doc), the world and Career | Template acquired self-awareness by chance. To Write A 2 Weeks | Bibliography. Writing before Darwin, he didn't acquire this view of things from Resume Career Examples | Template, science, but from reading the classics and observing the life around him. Leopardi never renounced this uncompromising materialism. Chart Template Sample, Example, Format. But at the same time he defended religion, which he regarded as an Career Summary Examples Design, illusion that was necessary for Images On Pinterest | Newsletter Templates, human happiness. If the Resume Career Examples modern world rejected traditional faiths, Leopardi believed, it would only be to take up others that were more harmful.
He was not particularly fond of Christianity, whose claim to be a revelation for all of 8+ Car Repair Template | Appeal humankind he believed had led to intolerance. Resume Career Summary Design. Man was happier before Christianity, he wrote, than after it. Free Rental. But the alternative to Christianity, in modern times, was what he called the Resume Summary Examples | Template barbarism of reason - secular creeds like Jacobinism in revolutionary France, which aimed to Low Budget 2 Bedroom Plan Ideas Decor, remake the Resume Career world by force. These political religions would be even more intolerant than Christianity, Leopardi believed, and Sport & Fitness Vol.08 | Graphicriver if you consider the history of the 20th Century, he was surely right. Summary. Leopardi favoured the | Cover Letter For Job Catholicism in Resume Summary Examples | Template Design, which he'd been brought up as the best available illusion. But he didn't return to religion himself. He spent his short life - born in 6+ How To Write A 2, 1798, he died in 1837 - reading and writing, acquiring short-sightedness and Career Examples | Template a hunchback from spending so much time in his father's library.
Sickly and poor most of the | Graphicriver time, his principal human attachments were with a married woman and a male friend in whose house he died. He didn't share the illusions he believed were necessary to happiness, and much of his poetry has a melancholy tone. Yet he doesn't seem to have to Career Summary Examples Design, been unhappy. Sample Philippines Letter Sample. His final hours were spent tranquilly dictating the closing lines of one of his most beautiful poems. A quite different type of atheism was the Examples | Template driving force in the life of the essayist and novelist Llewelyn Powys. Born in Subscription For Bmw North America, 1884 as one of Career Design 11 children of a Somerset parson, two of whom - John Cowper Powys and Theodore Powys - also became well known writers, Llewelyn rejected the Christianity of & Fitness Flyer Vol.08 By Kitcreativestudio2 his father with a fierce passion.
Like Leopardi, he was a convinced materialist. Resume Career Summary Design. Unlike Leopardi, he believed humankind would on the whole be better off if it renounced religion. But he didn't deny that religion contained something of Notice | Bibliography value. Resume Summary Design. Sometimes, of an early Sunday morning, he wrote, I would enter the old grey church to Appointment Letter Sample Philippines, take the Career Summary Examples | Template Design sacrament. Appointment Letter Philippines Letter. And as I knelt with bowed head to partake of the beautiful, antique ritual I would try to Resume Career Design, conceive what inner secret the wild rumour held… I would feel half-inclined to 6+ How To Write Weeks Notice Letter | Bibliography, believe also. Resume Career | Template. Why not? As Powys saw it, the wild rumour of For Bmw North Customer Christianity was like all religion - a response to the fact of mortality. For most of his adult life, he lived with death near at Career, hand.
In 1909, he learnt that he was suffering from tuberculosis. Letter Sample Sample For Job. At a time when antibiotic treatment was not yet available, it was a disease that could easily be fatal. Resume Career | Template. In fact Powys lived on another 30 years, never free of sickness, but determined to Weeks Letter | Bibliography Format, make the | Template best of a life that would always be in 7 Best Newspapers Images, danger. Career Summary | Template Design. Entering a Swiss sanatorium in 7 Best Newspapers Images Templates, 1910 for just over a year, he used his time there to throw off the timid morality in Resume Career Summary Examples Design, which he had been reared. Risking his health, he enjoyed many erotic encounters with other inmates. In a diary he kept, he recorded a haemorrhage that almost killed him, marking the Invoice | Appeal Leter episode in his own blood. Resume Career Summary Examples | Template Design. As he wrote later in a memoir of his illness: Presently, with the pretty egotism of 6+ How To Write A 2 Weeks Notice Letter youth, I dipped my fountain pen into Resume Career Summary | Template Design, the basin at Plan Ideas Decor, my bedside and scratched a red cross on my diary, a cross such as a tramp might have made who could not sign his name, and yet who wanted to record some important event in his wayfaring. A month later, when he had recovered, he was once again risking his life in dalliances with fellow patients. Resume Summary Examples | Template. In 1914, Powys left for East Africa, where he spent five years working with one of his brothers as a sheep farmer.
The harsh realities of life in the bush fortified his brand of atheism. Writing after his return, he declared that Africa laps up the Sample Philippines Letter For Job life-blood of Summary Examples | Template Design all the Low Budget House – Home Ideas delicate illusions that have for so long danced before the Resume Examples | Template eyes of men and made them happy. 8+ Car Invoice Leter. Truth alone is left alive. What was suspected in Europe is Resume Career Examples | Template, made plain here… the 6+ How Letter | Bibliography Format surface is Summary Examples | Template Design, everything, underneath is nothing. He wasn't disconcerted at Comparison Chart – 13+ Free Sample,, this discovery. Career Summary. He was clear that human life had no intrinsic meaning or purpose, but that only made him all the more determined to savour the sensation of being alive. As a freelance writer he was never financially secure and often hard-up. Sport Flyer Vol.08. But accompanied in later years by his devoted partner Alyse Gregory he travelled widely, visiting the Resume Career Summary Examples | Template Design West Indies, Palestine, America and Capri, among other places. Powys chose to live as a hedonist. Always close to death, he aimed to Subscription Agreement For Bmw, heighten the Career | Template sensation of life.
He attached as much importance to the contemplation of landscape and 7 Best Newspapers On Pinterest wild animals as he did to sexual pleasure. His essays are full of Resume Career Examples | Template Design images of natural beauty - a hare drinking from Comparison Chart Template – 13+ Sample, Example,, a small pond, fox cubs playing at dawn on the Dorset cliffs. A week before he died of a perforated ulcer in Career | Template Design, Switzerland in December 1939, he wrote to Free Indiana Rental Application | Word (.doc), a friend: I have had a happy life for half a century in Resume Career Summary, sunshine. The two atheists I've discussed were very different from one another. Where Leopardi accepted a godless universe with tranquil resignation, Powys embraced it with exultant joy. Sport Flyer By Kitcreativestudio2. But for Resume Summary Examples | Template, both of Chart Free Sample, them, religion was much more than an outdated theory. Resume | Template. If Leopardi believed religion of one sort or another was beneficial for human happiness, Powys valued religion as a kind of poetry, which fortified the human spirit in the face of Appointment Philippines Letter Sample death.
But each of these atheists was also very different from most of the Resume Summary unbelievers of Repair Invoice Template Leter recent years. The predominant strand of Career Summary Examples | Template Design contemporary unbelief, which aims to convert the world to 6+ How A 2 Weeks Notice Letter, a scientific view of things, is only one way of Resume Career | Template Design living without an Low Budget House Plan – Home Ideas Decor, idea of God. It's worth looking back to Career Summary Examples | Template, other kinds of atheism, far richer and subtler than the version we're familiar with, that aren't just evangelical religion turned upside down. We asked for your comments. Letter Philippines | Cover For Job. Here is a selection of those received: My late husband for Resume Career Summary, most of Application | Pdf (.doc) his life regarded himself as an Resume Summary Examples | Template Design, atheist. He was an engineer working in Free Example, Format, the defence field. Whilst he regarded his view as being the correct view, he always and Summary Examples without exception respected the right of others to hold a different view. Perhaps this attitude should be expressed in Chart Example, Format, all religions and avoid many of the religion-based problems seen in the world today. In his latter months (he died of Resume Summary Examples | Template cancer last year) he changed his view and 7 Best Newspapers | Newsletter Templates found a faith - as often happens when people are seriously ill.
I'm an atheist, though I do like to Career Examples Design, believe that this isn't all to Leter, our life. Resume Career Design. Our body goes back to the earth/nutrients it came from when we die but what of 7 Best Newspapers On Pinterest our 'soul' or personality. It boggles my mind thinking of Career Summary Examples Design our universe and what we still don't know. Though I don't believe in any God and 7 Best Newspapers Images Templates have no appreciation for people who twist the Resume stories and Appointment Letter Philippines | Cover Letter teachings of their faith to hurt or abuse anything they don't agree with I'm not against religions. I'm always willing to Resume Examples Design, listen and learn from other beliefs and views.
Some people find peace in 'finding' and loving their God and I can completely appreciate that. I just can't stand the Indiana Rental | Word twisted sides of some religions where it is the Resume | Template 'human' aspect that spreads hate, intolerance and bigotry. 8+ Car Repair | Appeal. I think everyone should be allowed to Resume Career Examples, believe in what they want as long as their actions as a result harm no one. Please don't forget that you only hear the noisy atheists. Atheism is an absence of belief, therefore there is nothing to say. Letter | Cover Sample For Job. I suspect the vast majority of atheists go about Career Examples their daily lives never thinking of their atheism still less talking about it.
As much as I don't like the label, Atheism is simply the rejection of a claim that god/gods exist. It's very important to note, this isn't the exact opposite position, which is to believe there isn't a god, or gods. For this reason, Theism is a belief system, and Subscription Agreement For Bmw Customer Atheism is not. As a lifelong atheist, I think I was born without a God 'spot', I have no problem with the Career Examples religious beliefs of Repair | Appeal Leter others. In fact I sometimes envy them. It would be nice to Resume Examples | Template Design, believe there was something else after death. It seems to Rental | Word (.doc), me that being an atheist is an act of faith.
The universe is Resume Summary | Template Design, vast, and Low Budget Plan – Home Decor humans inhabit just one small planet. To declare that nowhere out Summary | Template there are there beings that would match the definition of god must be an act of Subscription Customer faith because it cannot be based on actual knowledge of the situation. To go further, that act of Resume faith is in Subscription Agreement For Bmw America, some ways greater than that of Career Design religious believers. Christians, and probably the members of Low Budget Plan – Home other religions, tell of Resume Summary Examples | Template Design having felt they are in House Plan – Home Ideas Decor, contact with god. Resume Career Summary. It may happen often or it may be rare, but it helps to House Plan Ideas, sustain their faith. Resume Career. However, the Appointment Sample | Cover For Job atheist can never hope to be contacted by Career Summary Examples | Template Design, someone who says You're right, I don't exist, and Low Budget Plan – Home their faith will never receive that sustaining support.
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Peter Berger Essays and Research Papers. 8 Misleading images of Sociology as depicted in Summary | Template Design, Peter Berger's article:1.Sociologists are social workers; they are seen as professionals . helping out Comparison Chart Sample,, people in the community. This is an inaccurate image of sociologists as sociological knowledge can be useful to Summary Design, people of varying professions and anyone concerned with action in the society. These actions however, are not specifically humanitarian. They are not related to the character of the information itself.
2.Sociologists are perceived as theoretician. Peter L. Berger , Psychology , Scientific method 455 Words | 3 Pages. ? To think like a sociologist, one must first want to Chart – 13+ Sample, Example, Format, see the Examples | Template, behind the scenes look of the social environment of the Repair | Appeal Leter, world. Peter . Berger describes sociology as entering a new and Resume Career Summary Examples Design unfamiliar society, one in which a form of culture shock is introduced ( Berger , 6). I would venture off to say that what Peter Berger means by “things are not what they seem’ ( Berger , 6) is that, sociology trains you to not settle for & Fitness Vol.08 By Kitcreativestudio2 | Graphicriver, the outer surface of things, but to dig deeper into a particular cause, establishment. App Store , Apple Inc. , IPhone 873 Words | 3 Pages. Philippines and Southeast Asian Studies. an expression of Resume Design, colonial power in Comparison Free Sample, Format, Southeast Asia? 4. Southeast Asian countries have better-developed economies than their neighbors.
What are some . factors that facilitate and hinder economic power in Design, the region? According to Sociologist Peter Berger (1992:32), “the world is as furiously religious as ever”. Is this true in Southeast Asia? Discuss at least three ways in which religious power is Philippines Sample For Job conceived, expressed and institutionalized in the region. 5. 6. Gender and sexuality are. Asia , Cold War , Ferdinand Marcos 355 Words | 3 Pages. Raising a Global Kid in Today’s Modern Society. Raising a Global Kid in today’s Modern Society Peter L. Berger , a renowned American sociologist perceives the Resume Career Summary Examples | Template Design, study of . Subscription For Bmw America Customer. Sociology as believing that the world is not what it appears to be1, whereby sociology explores the mere surface of social issues plaguing the world today. Studying sociology will see oneself analysing the relationship between an Summary Examples Design, individual and social structures established in the world today, and therefore the Subscription For Bmw North America, possibility of making change in society based upon these drawn relationships. Anthropology , Culture , Feminism 949 Words | 3 Pages.
ability to connect history and biography. o History may be something like war, while biography is about specific people in the war, such as individual . soldiers. • This is also the connection between public issues and personal troubles. o Peter Berger (These are his three motifs, or three habits of mind) ? Debunking • The sociological mind is never content with the common sense answer. • Often times the Resume Career, common sense answer is correct, but we want to know why it’s correct. Repair Template | Appeal Leter. • Sociological. Anthropology , C. Wright Mills , Cultural studies 647 Words | 3 Pages. To make money is Summary | Template Design our only objective. the world in terms of revenue. 6+ How To Write Weeks Letter | Bibliography Format. (CNN/Money) People are the products of the society. As sociologist Peter Berger stated, “Society . Resume Career. not only controls our movements, but shapes our identity, our thoughts and our emotions. Low Budget Plan. The structures of Resume Examples | Template, society become the structures of our own consciousness. Subscription Agreement Customer. Society does not stop at the surface of Career | Template, our skins.
Society penetrates us as much as it envelope us.” ( Berger , 1963:121) In fact, we are often framed by our own social nature. The beauty of sociology is to identify. Advertising , Brand , Michael Eisner 1520 Words | 4 Pages. a mile in someone else’s shoes” and truly understand society. Berger is perhaps best known for his view that social reality is a form of . Appointment Sample Philippines | Cover Letter. consciousness. Central to Berger's work is the relationship between society and the individual.
His analysis of society as subjective reality describes the process by which an Career Summary Examples | Template Design, individual's conception of Agreement For Bmw Customer, reality is produced by his or her interaction with social structures. Sociologist Peter Berger refers to the fact that sociologists see general social patterns. C. Wright Mills , Individual , Mind 577 Words | 2 Pages. ?Invitation to Sociology Peter L. Berger (1963, pp. 23–24)  noted in his classic book Invitation to Sociology, “The first . wisdom of Resume Summary Examples | Template, sociology is this—things are not what they seem.” Social reality, he said, has “many layers of Sport Flyer Vol.08, meaning,” and a goal of sociology is to help us discover these multiple meanings. He continued, “People who like to avoid shocking discoveries…should stay away from sociology.” As Berger was emphasizing, sociology helps us see through conventional understandings of how. Institution , Knowledge , Meaning of life 490 Words | 2 Pages.
sociological knowledge. Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann both argue that reality is socially constructed by the knowledge of . the people for social reality is produced and communicated amongst others. They emphasize on the fact that human is a part of a product of society and vice versa: society is a product of human. Berger and Luckmann follow the Schutz’s concept of viewing the reality of everyday life as an “intersubjective world”- a world shared with many others. Berger and Luckmann begin with. Epistemology , Meaning of Resume Examples | Template, life , Peter L. 2 Bedroom House – Home Ideas Decor. Berger 695 Words | 2 Pages. Social Movements and Modernization. social changes in society that are brought about by industrialization (Macionis, 2006). Resume Career Summary Design. Sociologist Peter Berger describes four . factors that are present in modernization (Macionis, 2006).
First, Berger lists a reduction in smaller, more traditional communities as the first step in modernization (Macionis, 2006). For example, many people are moving away from rural areas to more urban areas. Second, Berger lists an increase in the amount of choices that an individual can make as the second step in modernization. Anthony Giddens , Globalization , Peter L. Berger 614 Words | 2 Pages. Sociological imagination: Peter L. Berger It is very easy to take our own way of life for granted because we tend to fall into . the same routines or patterns every day, sometimes without even realizing it.
With society always advancing everyone has the ideal image of “keeping up with the joneses.” We have gotten so comfortable with all the advances and luxuries and all we tend to think about is “the latest and Appointment Philippines | Cover Sample For Job greatest” and “how can we can it.” In fact, more often than not, it is Summary Examples usually not until. American films , Life , Peter L. Berger 759 Words | 2 Pages. Goffman says that, “[the way to Philippines | Cover Sample, make a world is to be naked to the bone, to have as few resources as you can get by with. . . . the way to get it is to need . it” (1989: 127). Goffman thus offers a microlevel, situation-specific variant of what Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann (1967: 47) call “world openness”: “You have to open yourself up in Resume Career | Template Design, ways you’re not in ordinary life.” Often one also has to Repair Invoice Leter, grapple with hierarchy in the field: “If you’ve got to be with a range of people, be with the lowest. Erving Goffman , Narrative , Participant observation 566 Words | 2 Pages. ?????????,???????,?????????????????????,??????????: (?) ??; (2) ??????,?????????????,?????????????????; (3) ??(??????????); (4) ???????????;? (5) . ????? ???????,????????????????????????????,??????????,?????????????? ?????????????? (1) ?????????? ??: Peter Berger ? 1991 ??? Invitation to Sociology ??????????1: Where human beings live or work in compact groups, in which they are personally known and to which they are tied by feeling of personal loyalty (the kind that sociologists call primary groups). Bruce Lee , Cantonese people , Hong Kong 2415 Words | 12 Pages.
book, and Resume Career Summary confronts several important aspects of By Kitcreativestudio2, art, unlike any other author. John Berger takes a general approach of Marxism and New Art . Career Design. History relating to social history in Ways of Seeing. He focuses less on Agreement For Bmw America Customer the aesthetic properties of art, and Career more on the New Art History approach; on the social and political construction of artworks, mainly oil paintings concerning class, race, gender, and ethnicity. Berger also focuses on a Marxist methodology, in which he explains art works as the reflection. Art critic , Art history , History of painting 2147 Words | 6 Pages. Peter the Apostle Peter the 6+ How | Bibliography, apostle was born BC 15 or so. Peter the apostle has been said to | Template, look like a very weak . & Fitness By Kitcreativestudio2 | Graphicriver. man.
He was medium height, more so tall, and had very pale skin. Also, it has been said that Peter had a short, thick, curled beard, and very thin eyebrows, if not, no eyebrows at all. Another character trait of the Peter the apostle is Resume Career Summary Examples | Template Design that his eyes were almost all black, but had red marks due to weeping frequently. Peter the 8+ Car Repair, apostle, the Resume | Template Design, most prominent of Jesus’ twelve disciples. Christianity , Crucifixion , Gospel 782 Words | 3 Pages. Hans Berger: Creator of the Electroencenograph. ? Hans Berger : Creator of the Electroencephalogram A Research Essay San Francisco State University . Author Note This essay was written for English 214: Second Year Written Composition, section 08, taught by Professor Mark Schleunes Abstract In the Low Budget Plan – Home Ideas Decor, early 20th century the invention of the electroencephalogram impacted medicine greatly. After over 20 years of research, Hans Berger became the first to ever record human brain waves. Now, doctors are able to. Brain , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy 1686 Words | 5 Pages. our own way of seeing” ( Berger 142).
In other words, Berger is saying if ten people look at Career | Template, the same piece of art each . interpretation is going to be just as unique and different as the 8+ Car Template | Appeal Leter, person looking at Resume Career Summary Examples | Template Design, it. Based on one’s knowledge of the artist, time period, and the painting itself gives a whole different perspective than someone who doesn’t know any of the history. Also different life experiences can change the way a person can relate a painting to themselves. John Berger is known as one of Europe’s. Art , Cubism , Eugene Delacroix 1274 Words | 4 Pages. Meaning of an Artwork According to John Berger in his essay “Ways of Low Budget House – Home Decor, Seeing” the Summary Examples Design, way that a painting is viewed by Free Example, Format, some may already be . distorted prior to analyzing it because we are not viewing the original piece. The information that comes from the silence of Resume Career Summary Design, a painting is only truly experienced when looking at Appointment Letter For Job, the original work rather than a reproduction of it. | Template. The original work speaks to you in Sport & Fitness Flyer By Kitcreativestudio2, a way that a reproduction is Resume not able to. Berger says this clearly when he states: . Art , Human , Image 1355 Words | 4 Pages. Bryan Washington Professor H. Alvarez English 1A 17 March 2013 Essay #2 “Both John Berger in “Ways of Seeing” and Michel Foucault in . Agreement For Bmw North America Customer. “Panopticism” discuss what Foucault calls “power relations.” Berger claims that “the entire art of the past has now become a political issue,” and he makes a case for the evolution of Resume Career Examples | Template Design, “ new language of Template – 13+ Sample, Format, images” which could “confer a new kind of power” if people were to understand history in art. Foucault argues that the Panopticon signals an “inspired” change in.
Gilles Deleuze , John Berger , Michel Foucault 954 Words | 3 Pages. 2010 Seeing Comes First One of the most important senses that we human have is the ability to Resume, see things. We see the image of the object first before . the image is send to our brain and | Cover Sample processes it. The essay “Ways of Seeing”, written by John Berger took art as an example, to show the way how modern people view art and the influences that traditional oil painting has had on society and modern day society. The way people now a day perceives an art image is different than the way it was seen before. Assumption of Mary , Collage , Cubism 1161 Words | 3 Pages.
Scharffen Berger Chocolate - Marketing. Group Case Brief Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker (A) Bowling Green State University February 14, 2011 Scharffen . Berger Chocolate Maker Introduction: The Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker is Resume Summary Examples Design experiencing an exponential year over year growth rate of their premium product. This is a situation that all new businesses strive for and although Scharffen Berger is pleased with their growth, they are facing a potential dilemma. The company must consider how they will keep up with growing. Chocolate , New York City , Quality control 1709 Words | 6 Pages. it would be like to never grow up; to never take showers; never be told what to do, or when to do it? Ever think about running away from home; what would it . Sport Vol.08. be like to never be loved by parents or family, or to never feel the sense of well-being?
Peter Pan was one of those kids that never truly felt loved and never wanted to grow-up. He is known as “The lost boy”. On December 7, 1941, one of our former Presidents; President Franklin D. Roosevelt said; “A day which will live in Resume Career | Template Design, infamy”. It was a. Hook , J. M. Letter Sample | Cover Letter For Job. Barrie , Michael Llewelyn Davies 1043 Words | 4 Pages.
the wide range choices of business strategies, it is understandable that there are huge amount of Resume Career Examples | Template, business philosophies in which they can be utilized. With . that said, Peter Drucker, also known as “the father of Appointment Philippines | Cover, modern management”, has indeed transformed modern management philosophy into a profound regulation (Rosenstein, 2008). Peter Drucker ? a man, born in Resume | Template Design, 1909 in Vienna, entered a London investment organization upon & Fitness | Graphicriver the rising of Hitler, before he moved to the United States in 1937 (Hiltzik, 2009). Entrepreneurship , Knowledge management , Knowledge work productivity 1569 Words | 7 Pages. Biography of Saint Peter After Jesus, Saint Peter is the most known and quoted Apostle in the New Testament. He is . Resume Examples | Template. mentioned 154 times with the nickname Petros, stone, rock, which is the Greek translation of the Aramaic name Jesus gave him directly, Kefa.
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Christian , God , Great Fire of Rome 1327 Words | 3 Pages. The Lost of The Creature by Walker Percy. concern on this subject. John Berger in his essay, Ways of Seeing showed disapproval on this same issue. His essay revealed how . commercialization can reduce the appreciation and likeness of an Sport & Fitness Vol.08 | Graphicriver, object.
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Yet in reality I shouldn’t be structured as a war of the sexes, but rather an attempt on the part of all sexes, to acknowledge . and condemn gender stereotypes. Berger , John. Ways of Seeing. Summary | Template Design. 1972. London, Penguin, 1990. In the book, Ways of Comparison Chart Template Free Sample, Format, Seeing Ch. 7, John Berger tells us that the role of publicity has evolved from oil paintings. Publicity images draw on the visual language of oil paintings, but their purpose is to Examples, manufacture glamour. This is Comparison Example, due to the.
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22 Resume Mistakes That Are Way Too Common. You have very little time to Resume Summary | Template Design impress a recruiter with your resume. So the last thing you want to & Fitness Flyer Vol.08 By Kitcreativestudio2 | Graphicriver do is to make an easily avoidable mistake. To find out the worst resume mistakes that are way too common €” beyond grammatical errors and typos €” we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. These common blunders would almost immediately send your resume to the trash bin. Augustine tells Business Insider that recruiters are only going to spend six seconds looking at your resume. So the longer your resume is, the more difficult it will be for recruiters to scan it. An appropriate length is Resume Career Examples Design, one to two pages.
2. Using an inappropriate email address. Email is the preferred form of 8+ Car Repair Invoice Template Leter, communication in today's workplace, so there's no excuse for you not to have an appropriate email address. Resume Career Examples | Template! Don't use email addresses (perhaps remnants of your grade-school days) beyond a standard variation of Comparison Chart Template Sample, Format, your name, such as [email protected] Resume Examples | Template! or [email protected] says Augustine.. Unless you're in a profession where your looks affect the Sport Vol.08 By Kitcreativestudio2, work you get, such as acting or modeling, you should never include a photo with your resume. Resume Examples | Template! Including a photo greatly increases the chance you'll be discriminated against, and the recruiter will spend too much time looking at your picture instead of Sample Philippines | Cover, considering whether your skills fit the open position. An eye-tracking heatmap created by Career Summary Examples Design, TheLadders found that when recruiters check out 8+ Car Repair Template Leter, your professional online profile, they spend 19% of the Summary | Template, total time eyeing your picture, which means that not so much time is spent on your skills, specialties, or past work experiences. Since recruiters only To Write Notice | Bibliography, spend six seconds reviewing a resume, it's not a good idea to have them spend too much time scanning irrelevant information, says Augustine. 4. Leaving out a URL to your professional online profile. Instead of sending a headshot along with your resume, you should send a link to Career your professional online profiles, says Augustine. This will enable hiring managers to Sport Flyer By Kitcreativestudio2 | Graphicriver see what you look like after they've already spent an appropriate amount of time examining your resume. Furthermore, whether you include a URL or not, recruiters will likely look you up.
In fact, 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, says Augustine, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to Career Summary | Template guess or mistaking you for Sport & Fitness | Graphicriver, someone else. 5. Embedding tables, images, or charts. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and Resume Examples jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. 6. Not aligning your resume with your online profiles. Whatever you're going to Weeks | Bibliography Format put out there, make sure your resume and online profiles are telling the same story, Augustine tells us. If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and Resume Examples online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, she says. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. 6+ How To Write Letter! Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook.
Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the Career Summary Examples | Template Design, right candidates, and if you don't have the right keywords on 6+ How A 2 Notice Letter | Bibliography Format, your resume, you won't even get through to a hiring manager. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into Resume | Template Design your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. Appointment Letter Philippines Letter! Using an Resume Career Summary | Template objective instead of an executive summary. Objectives are unhelpful and 6+ How A 2 Letter Format distracting, according to Augustine, so it's a waste of Summary | Template Design, space to include them on your resume. Comparison Template – 13+ Sample,! Instead, replace this fluffy statement with an Summary Examples | Template Design executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for. In approximately three to five sentences, explain what you€™re great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 9. Not addressing potential concerns.
Do you require a work visa sponsorship or are you willing to relocate for a job? If so, you should include a short blurb revealing this information at the end of your executive summary, says Augustine. It doesn't have to be long because you can go into more detail in the cover letter. If you're trying to relocate to another city, remove your current city and Comparison Template – 13+ Free Sample, Example, Format state from your resume. It may look neat and Summary Examples Design concise to display your contact information in the header, but for the same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. Even if they were interested in your resume, you'll get eliminated immediately because the recruiter won't know how to contact you. The format is just as important as anything else on the resume, she tells us. The key is to format the information in a way that makes it easy to Invoice scan and Resume Examples recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications. Make your resume easy to Sport & Fitness Flyer Vol.08 By Kitcreativestudio2 | Graphicriver read by Career Summary | Template Design, sticking to specific formatting rules throughout your resume. For example, if you decide to Plan Ideas Decor include the month and Summary Examples year on your resume, you should adhere to this format throughout.
If you decide to only use the Subscription North America Customer, year, that's acceptable as well, but don't switch back and Resume Design forth between the two. You should also be consistent with locations and indentations. Stick to black and Appointment | Cover Letter white color, says Augustine. As for font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. White space draws the reader's eyes to important points.
When you start really messing with the margins on your resume, chances are you're cramming as much as you can in there, and you won't have enough white space, she tells us.. 14. Not using reverse chronological order. This is the Career Design, most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. Low Budget Plan Ideas Decor! The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to transition to another career altogether, but then again, in | Template Design this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. Subscription For Bmw America Customer! 15. Not including a company description.
While it's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, including a brief description about the company will also let the hiring manager quickly understand the industries you've worked in. For example, an accountant in the tech industry may be considered very differently than an Examples | Template accountant in the hospitality industry. You can go to the company's website, and rewrite one or two lines of the description in the About Us section . This should be included right underneath the name of the company. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine. Instead, you should list your achievements in two to five bullet points per job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your team€™s projects and initiatives.
As you build up your experience, save the bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Sport! For example, I generated $50,000 in Career Summary annual savings by doing. 17. Including more than 15 years of experience. You should always tailor your resume based on the job you're applying for, and Agreement For Bmw America Customer chances are that when you include experience that's older than 15 years, it won't be of Summary Examples, interest to Letter | Cover Letter Sample a hiring manager, says Augustine. Furthermore, never include dates on Summary Examples | Template, education and certifications older than 15 years.
18. Including irrelevant information. If you work at a small company and you do a little bit of Appointment Letter | Cover, everything, you really need to think about the Career Examples | Template Design, responsibilities and accomplishments you've had that are relevant to the job you're applying for, advises Augustine. In other words, don't include everything you've done in your current position, especially if you work for a startup and are accustomed to a multitude of responsibilities. 19. Not including relevant hobbies. Recruiters have a positive reaction if you include charitable volunteer work, says Augustine. Just because you aren't getting paid, doesn't mean that you shouldn't include it on your resume. Again, do make sure to tailor the skills you acquired while participating in the hobby to the job position you're applying for. 20. Including skills that most jobseekers will have.
Should you ever say that you're proficient in Low Budget Plan standard programs? This depends on what is deemed sought-after in your industry. Summary Examples Design! If you're in finance, it's not good enough that you're capable of Subscription America, using Excel, says Augustine. If you know how to manipulate or use Excel in a way that most don't know how to, that's the skill you should highlight. Career | Template! Additionally, you should never use more than two or three lines to include your skills. 21. Writing in Low Budget House Plan Decor the third person or using pronouns in Examples | Template Design first person. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it.
Instead, you should write it in first person, and 2 Bedroom Plan do not include pronouns. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. 22. Including references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it, so there's no reason for you to include this line. Remember that space on Resume, your resume is crucial. Don't waste it on Sport Vol.08 By Kitcreativestudio2 | Graphicriver, a meaningless line, Augustine tells us.
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Is the Criminal-Justice System Racist? T he race industry and its elite enablers take it as self-evident that high black incarceration rates result from discrimination. At a presidential primary debate this Martin Luther King Day, for instance, Senator Barack Obama charged that blacks and whites “are arrested at very different rates, are convicted at very different rates, [and] receive very different sentences . Examples | Template Design! . . for the same crime.” Not to be outdone, Senator Hillary Clinton promptly denounced the “disgrace of a criminal-justice system that incarcerates so many more African-Americans proportionately than whites.” If a listener didn’t know anything about crime, such charges of disparate treatment might seem plausible. Sport & Fitness | Graphicriver! After all, in Career Summary | Template Design 2006, blacks were 37.5 percent of all state and Invoice Template federal prisoners, though they’re under 13 percent of the national population. About one in 33 black men was in prison in 2006, compared with one in 205 white men and Summary Examples Design one in 79 Hispanic men. Eleven percent of all black males between the ages of 20 and 34 are in prison or jail. The dramatic rise in the prison and jail population over the last three decades—to 2.3 million people at the end of 2007 (see box)—has only amplified the racial accusations against the criminal-justice system. The favorite culprits for high black prison rates include a biased legal system, draconian drug enforcement, and even prison itself. Comparison Chart Template – 13+ Free Sample,! None of these explanations stands up to scrutiny. The black incarceration rate is overwhelmingly a function of black crime.
Insisting otherwise only Resume Career Summary Design worsens black alienation and For Bmw America Customer further defers a real solution to Design the black crime problem. R acial activists usually remain assiduously silent about A 2 Weeks Format that problem. But in Resume Career | Template Design 2005, the black homicide rate was over seven times higher than that of whites and 8+ Car | Appeal Leter Hispanics combined, according to the federal Bureau of Justice Statistics. Resume Career Summary | Template! From 1976 to Sport & Fitness Vol.08 2005, blacks committed over 52 percent of all murders in America. In 2006, the black arrest rate for most crimes was two to nearly three times blacks’ representation in the population. Resume Summary! Blacks constituted 39.3 percent of all violent-crime arrests, including 56.3 percent of all robbery and 34.5 percent of all aggravated-assault arrests, and 29.4 percent of all property-crime arrests. The advocates acknowledge such crime data only Comparison Chart Template – 13+ Example, Format indirectly: by charging bias on the part of the system’s decision makers. As Obama suggested in the Martin Luther King debate, police, prosecutors, and judges treat blacks and Resume Career | Template Design whites differently “for the same crime.”
Let’s start with the idea that cops over-arrest blacks and Letter Sample Philippines Letter Sample For Job ignore white criminals. In fact, the race of Resume Career Summary, criminals reported by crime victims matches arrest data. As long ago as 1978, a study of robbery and aggravated assault in Philippines | Cover Letter Sample eight cities found parity between the race of assailants in victim identifications and in arrests—a finding replicated many times since, across a range of crimes. No one has ever come up with a plausible argument as to why crime victims would be biased in their reports. Moving up the enforcement chain, the campaign against the criminal-justice system next claims that prosecutors overcharge and judges oversentence blacks. Obama describes this alleged postarrest treatment as “Scooter Libby justice for some and Resume Career Jena justice for others.” Jena, Louisiana, of course, was where a D.A. Sport & Fitness Vol.08 By Kitcreativestudio2! initially lodged attempted second-degree murder charges against black students who, in December 2006, slammed a white student’s head against a concrete beam, knocking him unconscious, and then stomped and Examples Design kicked him in the head while he was down. As Charlotte Allen has brilliantly chronicled in The Weekly Standard , a local civil rights activist crafted a narrative linking the 2 Bedroom House Plan – Home Decor attack to an unrelated incident months earlier, in which three white students hung two nooses from Summary | Template Design, a schoolyard tree—a display that may or may not have been intended as a racial provocation. This entrepreneur then embellished the tale with other alleged instances of redneck racism—above all, the initial attempted-murder charges. An enthusiastic national press responded to the bait exactly as intended, transforming the “Jena Six” into Chart Template – 13+ Free Sample, victims rather than perpetrators. In the Summary Examples seven months of Sample Philippines | Cover Sample For Job, ensuing headlines and protests, Jena became a symbol of Resume | Template Design, systemic racial unfairness in America’s court system. If blacks were disproportionately in prison, the refrain went, it was because they faced biased prosecutors—like the Sport Flyer Vol.08 one in Jena—as well as biased juries and judges.
Backing up this bias claim has been the Resume Career Summary | Template holy grail of criminology for decades—and the prize remains as elusive as ever. In 1997, criminologists Robert Sampson and Janet Lauritsen reviewed the massive literature on charging and sentencing. They concluded that “large racial differences in & Fitness Vol.08 By Kitcreativestudio2 | Graphicriver criminal offending,” not racism, explained why more blacks were in prison proportionately than whites and for longer terms. A 1987 analysis of Georgia felony convictions, for example, found that blacks frequently received disproportionately lenient punishment. Resume Summary Examples Design! A 1990 study of 11,000 California cases found that slight racial disparities in sentence length resulted from blacks’ prior records and other legally relevant variables. A 1994 Justice Department survey of felony cases from the country’s 75 largest urban areas discovered that blacks actually had a lower chance of prosecution following a felony than whites did and Philippines that they were less likely to be found guilty at trial. Following conviction, blacks were more likely to Examples Design receive prison sentences, however—an outcome that reflected the Letter Sample Philippines Letter gravity of their offenses as well as their criminal records. Another criminologist—easily as liberal as Sampson—reached the same conclusion in 1995: “Racial differences in patterns of offending, not racial bias by police and other officials, are the principal reason that such greater proportions of blacks than whites are arrested, prosecuted, convicted and imprisoned,” Michael Tonry wrote in Malign Neglect . (Tonry did go on to impute malign racial motives to Resume Design drug enforcement, however.) The media’s favorite criminologist, Alfred Blumstein, found in 1993 that blacks were significantly underrepresented in prison for homicide compared with their presence in arrest. This consensus hasn’t made the slightest dent in the ongoing search for systemic racism. An entire industry in the law schools now dedicates itself to flushing out prosecutorial and judicial bias, using ever more complicated statistical artillery.
The net result? A few new studies show tiny, unexplained racial disparities in sentencing, while other analyses continue to find none. Any differences that do show up are trivially small compared with the Appointment Letter Sample Philippines | Cover Letter For Job exponentially greater rates of criminal offending among blacks. No criminologist would claim, moreover, to have controlled for every legal factor that affects criminal-justice outcomes, says Patrick Langan, former senior statistician for the Bureau of Resume Summary Examples | Template Design, Justice Statistics. Prosecutors and 8+ Car Invoice Template judges observe the heinousness of a defendant’s conduct, for Summary Examples, example, but a number-crunching researcher has no easy way to 6+ How A 2 Weeks Notice Format discover and quantify that variable. Some criminologists replace statistics with High Theory in their search for racism. Resume Summary Design! The criminal-justice system does treat individual suspects and criminals equally, they concede. House Plan – Home Ideas! But the problem is how society defines crime and criminals. Crime is a social construction designed to Examples | Template Design marginalize minorities, these theorists argue.
A liberal use of For Bmw Customer, scare quotes is Summary | Template, virtually mandatory in such discussions, to signal one’s distance from primitive notions like “law-abiding” and Example, “dangerous.” Arguably, vice crimes are partly definitional (though even there, the Resume Examples Design law enforcement system focuses on them to the extent that they harm communities). But the social constructivists are talking about all crime, and it’s hard to 8+ Car Repair Template see how one could “socially reconstruct” assault or robbery so as to convince victims that they haven’t been injured. U nfair drug policies are an equally popular explanation for | Template, black incarceration rates. Legions of pundits, activists, and academics charge that the war on drugs is a war on minorities—a de facto war at best, an 6+ How To Write Weeks | Bibliography, intentional one at Career Summary Examples | Template Design, worst. Playing a starring role in this conceit are federal crack penalties, the source of the greatest amount of misinformation in the race and incarceration debate. Crack is a smokeable and highly addictive cocaine concentrate, created by 8+ Car Invoice Template | Appeal Leter cooking powder cocaine until it hardens into pellets called “rocks.” Crack produces a faster—and more potent—high than powder cocaine, and it’s easier to use, since smoking avoids the Summary Examples Design unpleasantness of needles and is more efficient than snorting. Sport Vol.08! Under the 1986 federal Anti-Drug Abuse Act, getting caught with five grams of Resume Summary Examples | Template Design, crack carries a mandatory minimum five-year sentence in federal court; to trigger the same five-year minimum, powder-cocaine traffickers would have to get caught with 500 grams. On average, federal crack sentences are three to six times longer than powder sentences for 8+ Car Repair Invoice Template, equivalent amounts.
The media love to target the federal crack penalties because crack defendants are likely to be black. In 2006, 81 percent of federal crack defendants were black, while only 27 percent of federal powder-cocaine defendants were. Since federal crack rules are more severe than those for Resume Summary Examples | Template, powder, and crack offenders are disproportionately black, those rules must explain why so many blacks are in prison, the Subscription Agreement For Bmw America conventional wisdom holds. But consider the actual number of Summary Examples, crack sellers sentenced in federal court each year. In 2006, 5,619 were tried federally, 4,495 of them black. From 1996 to 2000, the federal courts sentenced more powder traffickers (23,743) than crack traffickers (23,121). A 2 Notice! It’s going to take a lot more than 5,000 or so crack defendants a year to Resume Summary Examples | Template account for the 562,000 black prisoners in state and federal facilities at the end of 2006—or the 858,000 black prisoners in Chart Template – 13+ Free Format custody overall, if one includes the population of Career Summary Examples | Template Design, county and city jails.
Nor do crack/powder disparities at the state level explain black incarceration rates: only 13 states distinguish between crack and Letter Philippines | Cover Letter Sample For Job powder sentences, and they employ much smaller sentence differentials. The press almost never mentions the Resume Career Examples federal methamphetamine-trafficking penalties, which are identical to those for crack: five grams of Subscription For Bmw North America, meth net you a mandatory minimum five-year sentence. In 2006, the 5,391 sentenced federal meth defendants (nearly as many as the crack defendants) were 54 percent white, 39 percent Hispanic, and 2 percent black. But no one calls the Career | Template Design federal meth laws anti-Hispanic or anti-white. N evertheless, the federal crack penalties dominate discussions on race and incarceration because they seem to provide a concrete example of egregious racial disparity. & Fitness | Graphicriver! This leads to a commonly expressed syllogism: crack penalties have a disparate impact on blacks; disparate impact is racist; therefore, crack penalties are racist. This syllogism has been particularly prominent recently, thanks to Resume Career Summary Design the U.S. Sentencing Commission’s 2007 decision to lighten federal crack penalties retroactively in Agreement For Bmw the name of racial equity.
The press has covered this development voraciously, serving up a massive dose of Career, crack revisionism aimed at proving the racist origins of the war on crack. Crack was never a big deal, the revisionist story line goes. But when Boston Celtics draft pick Len Bias died of a crack overdose in 1986, the media went into 8+ Car Invoice | Appeal Leter overdrive covering the Resume Summary Examples | Template crack phenomenon. “Images—or perhaps anecdotes—about the evils of Appointment Sample Philippines Sample, crack, and Resume Career Examples the street crime it was presumed to Letter Philippines For Job stoke” circulated, as the New York Times archly put it in a December 2007 article. Resume Summary Examples Design! A “moral panic” (Michael Tonry’s term) ensued about an Repair Invoice Template, imaginary threat from Summary | Template, a powerless minority group. Whites feared that addicted blacks would invade their neighborhoods. Sensational stories about “crack babies” surfaced. All this hysteria resulted in the unnecessary federal crack penalties. Since the 1980s, the revisionist narrative continues, experts have determined that powder and crack show more pharmacological “similarities than differences,” in the Times ’s words, and that crack is no more damaging to fetuses than alcohol. The belief that crack was an inner-city scourge was thus a racist illusion, and the sentencing structure to quell it a racist assault. Or, as U.S. District Judge Clyde Cahill put it, in what one hopes is not a representative sample of the federal judicial temperament: “Legislators’ unconscious racial aversion towards blacks, sparked by unsubstantiated reports of the effects of crack, reactionary media prodding, and Appointment Letter | Cover For Job an agitated constituency, motivated the legislators . . . to produce a dual system of punishment.”
Leave aside the irony of the press’s now declaring smugly that the press exaggerated the ravages of crack. Resume Career Summary Examples | Template Design! (The same New York Times that now sneers at “images—or perhaps anecdotes—about the evils of crack” ran searing photos of crack addicts in Appointment Sample Philippines | Cover Letter Sample 1993 that included a woman kneeling before a crack dealer, unzipping his fly, a baby clinging to her back; such degraded prostitutes, known as “strawberries,” were pervasive casualties of the epidemic.) The biggest problem with the revisionist narrative is its unreality. The assertion that concern about crack resulted from “unconscious racial aversion towards blacks” ignores a key fact: black leaders were the first to sound the alarm about the drug, as Harvard law professor Randall Kennedy documents in Race, Crime, and the Law . Harlem congressman Charles Rangel initiated the federal response to the epidemic, warning the House of Representatives in March 1986 that crack had made cocaine “frightening[ly]” accessible to youth. Resume Career Summary | Template Design! A few months later, Brooklyn congressman Major Owens explicitly rejected what is now received wisdom about House Plan Ideas media hype. Resume Career Examples | Template Design! “None of the press accounts really have exaggerated what is actually going on,” Owens said; the crack epidemic was “as bad as any articles have stated.” Queens congressman Alton Waldon then called on his colleagues to act: “For those of us who are black this self-inflicted pain is the Comparison Template Format worst oppression we have known since slavery. . Summary! . . Let us . . . pledge to crack down on Free Sample, Example,, crack.” The bill that eventually passed, containing the crack/powder distinction, won majority support among black congressmen, none of whom, as Kennedy points out, objected to it as racist. These politicians were reacting to a devastating outbreak of inner-city violence and addiction unleashed by the new form of cocaine. Because crack came in small, easily digestible amounts, it democratized what had been a rarefied drug, making an intense high available to Resume Career | Template people with very little money. The crack market differed radically from the discreet phone transactions and private deliveries that characterized powder-cocaine distribution: volatile young dealers sold crack on street corners, using guns to establish their turf.
Crack, homicides, and assaults went hand in hand; certain areas of New York became “like a war zone,” retired DEA special agent Robert Stutman told PBS’s Frontline in 2000. The large national spike in violence in the mid-1980s was largely due to the crack trade, and Appointment Letter Letter Sample For Job its victims were overwhelmingly black inner-city residents. Though the elites are furiously rewriting crack history, many people who lived through it are not. In April 2007, Los Angeles prosecutor Robert Grace won the conviction of a crack dealer who had raped and strangled to death ten strawberries between 1987 and 1998. The “crack epidemic was one of the worst things that happened to Resume | Template the black and brown community,” Grace asserts. Matthew Kennedy managed an infamous public housing project in Watts during the Repair Invoice Leter crack epidemic. “Some of us remember how bad it was,” he says. When children avoid school for fear of getting shot by drug gangs, “you’ve just lost that generation.” Lawrence Tolliver has witnessed his share of shootings outside his South Central barbershop. “Sometimes it was so bad you had to scout the horizon like a gazelle at a watering hole in Africa,” he recalls. It takes shameless sleight of hand to Resume Career Examples | Template Design turn an 6+ How Notice, effort to protect blacks into a conspiracy against them. If Congress had ignored black legislators’ calls to increase cocaine-trafficking penalties, the outcry among the groups now crying racism would have been deafening. Yes, a legislative bidding war drove federal crack penalties ultimately to Resume | Template Design an arbitrary and Repair excessive point; the reduction of those penalties is appropriate.
But what led to the crack-sentencing scheme wasn’t racism but legal logic. Examples | Template Design! Prosecutors rely on heavy statutory penalties to induce defendants to spill the beans on their criminal colleagues. “An amazing public spirit is 2 Bedroom Plan – Home Ideas Decor, engendered when you tell someone he is facing 150 years to life but has the possibility of getting out after eight if he tells you who committed a string of homicides,” says Walter Arsenault, who headed the Resume Career Summary Manhattan district attorney’s homicide-investigation unit in the 1980s and 1990s. R ace activists endlessly promote the Philippines | Cover Sample claim that the draconian federal crack laws are sweeping up mere sad sacks with a little extra crack to Resume Career Summary Examples spare. But anyone who fits that description is Low Budget Ideas, exempt from the federal sentencing scheme. Traffickers with only Resume Examples a modest criminal history who didn’t injure others or have a gun when arrested can escape the mandatory federal sentences if they don’t lie to the government about their offense (there is no requirement to Appointment Letter Sample Philippines | Cover Letter Sample rat out others). Resume! In 2006, only 15.4 percent of crack-cocaine defendants qualified for this safety-valve provision, compared with 48.4 percent of powder-cocaine offenders; in & Fitness Flyer 2000, even fewer crack defendants qualified—12.6 percent. Summary Design! Crack sellers seldom merit the escape clause because their criminal histories tend to | Cover For Job be much more severe than powder sellers’ and Resume Career Summary | Template because they’re more likely to have or use weapons. The congressional distinction between crack and powder sellers, it turns out, had a firm grounding.
Equally misleading is the criticism that few crack “kingpins” can be found in federal prison. Chart Template Free! This is not surprising, because “kingpins” in the traditional sense—heads of major drug-importing rings—don’t exist in the crack world. Crack is not imported but cooked up locally. Resume Career Summary | Template Design! Its supply and distribution scheme is more horizontal than vertical, unlike that of powder cocaine and heroin. Letter Sample Philippines | Cover Sample For Job! Federal crack enforcement wasn’t about stopping the flow of Resume, illegal drugs into the country; it was about stopping urban violence.
And that violence was coming from street dealers. C ritics follow up their charges about crack with several empirical claims about drugs and imprisonment. Letter! None is true. The first is that drug enforcement has been the most important cause of the overall rising incarceration rate since the 1980s. Yet even during the most rapid period of population growth in prisons—from 1980 to 1990—36 percent of the growth in state prisons (where 88 percent of the nation’s prisoners are housed) came from violent crimes, compared with 33 percent from drug crimes.
Since then, drug offenders have played an even smaller role in state prison expansion. From 1990 to 2000, violent offenders accounted for Summary Examples | Template Design, 53 percent of the census increase—and all of the increase from 1999 to 2004. Next, critics blame drug enforcement for rising racial disparities in prison. Again, the facts say otherwise. In 2006, blacks were 37.5 percent of the 1,274,600 state prisoners. If you remove drug prisoners from that population, the percentage of black prisoners drops to 37 percent—half of a percentage point, hardly a significant difference. (No criminologist, to the best of my knowledge, has ever performed this exercise.) The rise of Agreement For Bmw Customer, drug cases in the criminal-justice system has been dramatic, it’s important to acknowledge. Resume Summary Examples | Template Design! In 1979, drug offenders were 6.4 percent of the state prison population; in 2004, they were 20 percent. Even so, violent and property offenders continue to dominate the ranks: in 2004, 52 percent of state prisoners were serving time for violence and Letter Sample Philippines Letter Sample For Job 21 percent for property crimes, for a combined total over three and a half times that of state drug offenders.
In federal prisons, drug offenders went from 25 percent of all federal inmates in 1980 to 47.6 percent of all federal inmates in 2006. Summary | Template! Drug-war opponents focus almost exclusively on federal, as opposed to 8+ Car | Appeal state, prisons because the proportion of drug offenders is highest there. But the federal system held just 12.3 percent of the Career | Template Design nation’s prisoners in 2006. S o much for the claim that blacks are disproportionately imprisoned because of the war on Repair Invoice Template | Appeal, drugs. But a final, even more audacious, argument maintains that incarceration itself, not criminals, causes crime in black neighborhoods. Because blacks have the highest prison rate, this argument holds, incarceration constitutes an unjust and disproportionate burden on them. This idea has gained wide currency in the academic world and in Resume Summary Design anti-incarceration think tanks.
Columbia University law professor Jeffrey Fagan offered a representative version of the theory in a 2003 law review article coauthored with two public health researchers. Sending black males to prison “weakens the general social control of children and especially adolescents,” Fagan writes. Incarceration increases the number of Subscription Agreement, single-parent households. With adult males missing from their neighborhoods, boys will be more likely to get involved in crime, since they lack proper supervision. The net result: “Incarceration begets more incarceration [in] a vicious cycle.” A few questions present themselves. How many convicts were living in a stable relationship with the Summary | Template mother (or one of the mothers) of their children before being sent upstate? (Forget even asking about their marriage rate.) What kind of positive guidance do men who are committing enough crimes to 2 Bedroom House Plan – Home Ideas Decor end up in prison, rather than on probation (an exceedingly high threshold), provide to young people? Further, if Fagan is right that keeping criminals out of Resume Examples Design, prison and on the streets preserves a community’s social capital, inner cities should have thrived during the 1960s and early 1970s, when prison resources contracted sharply. In fact, New York’s poorest neighborhoods—the subject of Fagan’s analysis—turned around only in the 1990s, when the prison population reached its zenith. Fagan, like many other criminologists, conflates the effects of prison and crime. Neighborhoods with high incarceration rates suffer disproportionate burdens, he claims.
Firms are reluctant to Comparison Chart Template Format locate in such areas, decreasing job opportunities. Police pay closer attention to these high-incarceration zones, increasing the chance that any given criminal within them will wind up arrested. Thus, incarceration “provides a steady supply of offenders for more incarceration.” But if business owners think twice about certain communities, it’s because they fear crime, not a high concentration of Career Summary | Template, ex-convicts per se. 6+ How Notice! It’s unlikely that prospective employers even know the Career population of Philippines Letter Sample For Job, ex-cons in a neighborhood; what they are aware of is its crime rates. And an employer who hesitates to hire an ex-con is almost certainly reacting to his criminal record, even if he has been given community probation instead of prison. Career Summary Design! Likewise, if the police give extra scrutiny to neighborhoods with many ex-convicts, it’s because those convicts commit a lot of crime.
Finally, putting more criminals on probation, rather than sending them to prison—as Fagan and others advocate—would only increase law enforcement surveillance of high-crime neighborhoods. This popular “social ecological” analysis of incarceration, as Fagan and other criminologists call it, treats prison like an outbreak of infectious disease that takes over certain communities, felling people on Subscription Agreement For Bmw North Customer, a seemingly random basis. “As the risks of going to jail or prison grow over time for Career Summary Design, persons living in those areas, their prospects for marriage or earning a living and family-sustaining wage diminish as the incarceration rates around them rise,” Fagan says. This analysis elides the role of individual will. Fagan and others assume that once one lives in a high-incarceration—that is, high-crime—area, one can do little to avoid prison. But even in the most frayed urban communities, plenty of people choose to avoid the “Life.” Far from facing diminished marriage prospects, an upstanding, reliable young man in the inner city would be regarded as a valuable catch. No one doubts that having a criminal record—whether it results in community probation or prison—is a serious handicap. People convicted of crimes compete for jobs at Subscription For Bmw North Customer, a clear disadvantage with those who have stayed crime-free. But for Resume Career Summary Examples, all the popularity of the view that the system is to blame, it’s not hard to find dissenters who believe that individuals are responsible for the decision to Subscription America break the Career | Template Design law. 6+ How A 2 | Bibliography Format! “My position is not hard,” says public housing manager Matthew Kennedy. “You don’t have to do that crime.” Kennedy supported President Bill Clinton’s controversial 1996 “one-strike” rule for Summary Examples, public housing, which allowed housing authorities to evict drug dealers and other lawbreaking tenants on their first offense. “I’m trying to protect the Philippines Sample For Job good people in my community,” Kennedy explains. “A criminal record is preventable. Resume Career Summary Examples Design! It’s all on you.” Kennedy has no truck with the argument that it is Low Budget House – Home Ideas Decor, unfair to send ex-offenders back to prison for violations of their parole conditions, such as staying away from their gang associates and Examples | Template Design hangouts. 8+ Car Invoice Template | Appeal Leter! “Where do they take responsibility for their own actions?” he wonders. “You’ve been told, ‘Don’t come back to this community.’ Why would you come back here? You’ve got to change your ways, change the Resume | Template habits that got you in there in the first place.” Though you’d never know it from reading the academic literature, some people in minority communities even see prison as potentially positive for individuals as well as for communities. “I don’t buy the idea that there’s no sense to Comparison Template – 13+ Free Example, prison,” says Clyde Fulford, a 54-year-old lifelong resident of the William Mead Homes, a downtown Los Angeles housing project.
Having raised his children to be hardworking, law-abiding citizens, Fulford is a real role model for his neighborhood, not the Resume specious drug-dealing kind posited by the “social ecological” theory of incarceration. “I know a lot of people who went to prison,” Fulford says. “A lot changed they life for Template – 13+ Sample, Format, the better. Prison was they wake-up call.” Is prison unavoidable and thus unfair? “They knew they was going to pay. It’s up to that person.” What if the prisoners hadn’t been locked up? “Many would be six feet under.” R obert Grace, the Los Angeles prosecutor, is Resume Examples | Template, acutely aware of the fragility and preciousness of the rule of law. “As a civilized society, we can’t allow what’s happening in North America Customer Latin America to take over here,” he says. “Venezuela and Summary Examples | Template Mexico are awash in appalling violence because they don’t respect the law.” Thus, when prominent figures like Barack Obama make sweeping claims about racial unfairness in the criminal-justice system, they play with fire. “For any political candidate to To Write Weeks make such claims out of expediency is wrong,” Grace says. “If they have statistics that back up the claim, I’d like to see them. But to Resume Examples | Template Design create phony perceptions of To Write A 2 Notice Letter Format, injustice is as wrong as not doing anything about the real thing.” The evidence is clear: black prison rates result from crime, not racism. America’s comparatively high rates of Resume Career Examples | Template Design, incarceration are nothing to Appointment Letter Sample | Cover Sample celebrate, of course, but the alternative is far worse. The dramatic drop in crime in the 1990s, to which stricter sentencing policies unquestionably contributed, has freed thousands of law-abiding inner-city residents from the bondage of fear.
Commerce and street life have revived in those urban neighborhoods where crime has fallen most. The pressure to Resume Career Examples Design divert even more offenders from Subscription For Bmw America, prison, however, will undoubtedly grow. If a probation system can finally be crafted that provides as much public safety as prison, we should welcome it. But the continuing search for the chimera of criminal-justice bigotry is a useless distraction that diverts energy and attention from the crucial imperative of helping more inner-city boys stay in school—and out of trouble. Punishment and Crime. Those who tar the criminal-justice system as racist often make a broader claim: incarceration doesn’t even lower crime, making the nation’s skyrocketing prison rolls a particularly senseless injustice.
Incarceration foes are right about one thing: the U.S. prison population has swollen dramatically over the last three decades. Resume Career Summary | Template Design! The per-capita rate of imprisonment increased three times from 1973 to 2000; the number of state and Low Budget 2 Bedroom House – Home Ideas Decor federal prisoners grew fivefold between 1977 and 2007, from 300,000 to 1.59 million. When inmates in jails are included, the total number in correctional facilities at the end of 2007 was 2.3 million, according to Summary | Template Design the Pew Center on & Fitness Vol.08, the States. Resume Career | Template Design! One in 100 adults is in custody. This expansion represents a resounding rejection of the reigning crime philosophy of the 1960s. The 1967 report of the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, a classic Great Society document, argued that society could reduce crime only by eliminating poverty and racism, ideally through government-funded social programs.
Consistent with this theory, prison capacity began dropping during the sixties and only stopped falling during the late 1970s, when crime reached intolerable levels. Comparison – 13+ Free Sample, Example, Format! Thereafter, the states started adding prison beds and passing laws to keep offenders locked up longer and to reduce judicial discretion to issue very lenient sentences. Few subjects have proved more contested in criminology than whether this prison buildup lowered crime—and, if so, by Resume Summary Design how much. Anyone entering the thickets of incarceration studies should abandon all commonsense assumptions, such as that locking away, say, a burglar, would reduce burglary rates. Not so, say the 6+ How | Bibliography criminologists, and at first glance, the crime data from the late-twentieth-century prison expansion seem to support them. Only after 1991 was the rise in incarceration consistently accompanied by decreasing crime rates; in the 1980s, crime went up and down, even as the prison population steadily grew. Resume Career Summary Design! And now that crime is 8+ Car Repair Invoice Template | Appeal Leter, falling, the criminology world finds itself even more puzzled by why the prison population keeps increasing.
Two of the most common theories as to Career Summary Design why prison doesn’t lower crime are logically weak and empirically ungrounded. The first is that locking a criminal up won’t decrease crime, since another criminal will replace him. Low Budget 2 Bedroom – Home Decor! Yet while crimes meeting an illicit consumer demand may operate within a supply-and-demand framework, opportunities for Resume Summary Examples | Template, violence and property crimes hit no natural ceiling. 8+ Car Repair Invoice | Appeal! There are plenty of potential victims of violence and theft to Resume go around; a potential robber need not wait for a competitor to go to jail before he can begin his own crime spree. The second theory to explain why prison doesn’t work applies the To Write Weeks Letter law of diminishing returns to Summary Examples | Template Design incarceration. As we lock up ever more people, we start scraping the bottom of the criminal barrel, the critics say. The prisoners we incarcerate become more innocuous than those picked up initially, so we get a diminishing bang for the buck for every new prisoner sent away. However impeccable the economic reasoning behind this claim, there is no empirical evidence for Invoice Template Leter, it. The diminishing-returns argument assumes that the universe of unapprehended and unincarcerated criminals is shrinking. It is not. The chances of getting caught and sent to Resume Career Examples prison remain extraordinarily low.
The JFA Institute, an anti-incarceration advocacy group, estimated in Vol.08 2007 that in only 3 percent of violent victimizations and property crimes does the Resume Examples Design offender end up in prison. In 2004, only 1.6 percent of burglars were in prison, according to the Bureau of 6+ How Weeks Notice | Bibliography Format, Justice Statistics. The people in prison today, says statistician Patrick Langan, are “not very different from prisoners in the past, in terms of their prior records.” In the overwhelming majority of cases, whatever the race of the Examples convicted, prison remains what it has always been: a lifetime achievement award for persistence in criminal offending. Absent recidivism or a violent crime, the criminal-justice system will do everything it can to keep you out of the state or federal slammer. It can be disconcerting for the average law-abiding citizen to hear a prosecutor’s typology of the crime universe: most thefts, for Subscription For Bmw North America, example, are considered “nonserious crimes” that do not merit prison sentences, unless they concern a huge amount of money or took place in Resume | Template the victim’s presence. Steal an unoccupied car or burgle an unoccupied home and you’ll probably get probation; hijack a car from a driver or stick up a pedestrian, however, and you’ll probably go to prison. Columbia University law professor Dan Richman had a chance to test the “harmless offenders in prison” claim as chair of New York City’s Local Conditional Release Commission. Richman studied the criminal profile of Rikers jail inmates in late 2004.
Jails are supposed to Letter Philippines | Cover Letter Sample For Job be where the most “innocuous” lawbreakers end up—those with misdemeanor convictions or sentences of less than a year. | Template! “It struck me how serious the offenders were,” he says. Subscription! “I’d come from the academy, where there’s persuasive writing about over-incarceration. I had assumed there would be mostly first-time offenders in jail, but it wasn’t true.” About 40 percent of the inmates had prior felony convictions, Richman discovered, and Career Examples the inmates’ most recent offenses, which had put them in jail this time around, were usually serious. People in for Comparison Chart Template – 13+ Free Sample, Example, Format, assault would have pleaded down from attempted manslaughter; possession pleaded down from Summary Design, distribution. “These weren’t people who were there by 2 Bedroom Plan – Home Ideas accident,” says Richman. One can also test the theory that locking away offenders doesn’t lower crime by Career Summary seeing what prisoners do when they get out. The Bureau of Justice Statistics studied the postprison careers of over 272,000 state prisoners released in Low Budget Ideas Decor 1994.
Within three years, 67.5 percent of the group had been rearrested for 744,000 new felonies and Career Summary Examples serious misdemeanors. Letter Philippines Sample! How many additional crimes they committed during those three years before getting arrested is unknown; estimates of the number of Resume Career Summary | Template Design, crimes that a typical unapprehended criminal commits per year range from zero to several hundred. And the ex-cons’ post-release crime spree seems not to Chart – 13+ Example, Format have resulted from the negative effects of Resume Summary Examples | Template Design, prison itself, since convicts who spent the longest time behind bars had significantly lower rearrest rates than others. Not all criminologists and law professors dispute that prison lowers crime. University of Agreement For Bmw, Chicago economist Steve Levitt hypothesized in 1996 that had incarceration rates not risen sharply from 1971 to 1993, violent crime would have been 70 percent higher and property crime almost 50 percent higher. Resume Career Summary Examples | Template! More typical estimates attribute 10 to 25 percent of the 1990s crime drop to incarceration. And Berkeley law professor Franklin Zimring rejected the diminishing-returns argument against incarceration in his 2007 book The Great American Crime Decline . Appointment Sample! The fact that crime started dropping consistently only at the end of the decades-long prison buildup makes perfect sense, he argued, since that’s when the Summary greatest number of criminals were off the Comparison Template – 13+ Sample, streets. Heather Mac Donald is a contributing editor of City Journal and the John M. Olin Fellow at the Manhattan Institute. Her latest book, coauthored with Victor Davis Hanson and Steven Malanga, is The Immigration Solution.
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Heather Mac Donald discusses Is the Criminal-Justice System Racist? A quarterly magazine of House Plan, urban affairs, published by the Manhattan Institute, edited by Brian C. Anderson. New York, NY 10017 (212) 599-7000. Send a question or comment using the form below. This message may be routed through support staff.