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The demands have gotten crazier. Adds Joy Sudduth, managing director of JB Casting Networks, a workshop company in Culver City: How many casting directors do you talk to | Best with a hiatus now? None. They're working on a midseason replacement, an independent project, a streaming thing. Job Resume No Experience Format Download Pdf! Those 15-minute blocks, that time for those generals industry jargon for Invoice Template Free, general meetings, in Examples No Experience | Resume Format, which casting directors get to know actors without auditioning them for a specific role just doesn't exist anymore.

The Savage Agency's Stella Alex, who has repped stars such as Shailene Woodley on their way up, says, The general may not be dead, but you have to be at a certain level for it to still happen. Scott David was photographed on Dec. 3 at The Actors Link in Los Angeles. And forget casting directors schlepping to 99-seat theaters to check out plays, another once-common, now nearly extinct form of assessment. Productions aren't paying for them to make discoveries on their time, says manager Alan Mills, a partner with Marshak. Technological disruption has changed the landscape, too. Perhaps the Manager Resume | Best most significant change occurred in 2003, when Gary Marsh's Breakdown Services, which has a virtual monopoly as a clearinghouse for No Experience Download Pdf, casting notices for upcoming TV projects, went from messenger delivery to digital. Sample! This has been a boon for Job Resume Examples Format Pdf, efficiency but cut a key human element out of a human resource function. Breakdown streamlined a ton of things, says Scott David, who casts CBS' Criminal Minds and also owns a workshop studio, The Actors Link in North Hollywood, where he runs classes. Agents used to come to people's offices and discuss their clients with a book of their clients. Recommendation Letters For A! Now you can get a reel on somebody in seconds via online.

In this environment, where a breakdown for a generic small role can yield 3,000 digital submissions in several hours (up exponentially from Job Resume | Resume Format Download a decade earlier when previously inhibiting aspects like the cost of Simple Commercial Commercial Template, mailers and No Experience Format Download Pdf, time to drive across town were factored in), everyone is seeking ways to handle the deluge. Those in casting want an approach to cull the Simple Template herd, and workshops are a winnowing mechanism that happens to pay. Casting director Ty Harman, a frequent workshop presence whose résumé ranges from BET's The Game to Disney XD's Crash Bernstein , sees the sessions as crucial. I probably do them about twice a week, he says. There used to No Experience Download Pdf be time for general meetings. Now I can see 30 people in | A, two hours. Agents and managers have adapted to the tactics of the new normal. Job Resume | Resume Format Download! It's become common to On Pinterest | A Letter, Reference Letter call a casting director and tell them the client came to see you [at a workshop], says Chris Manno, recently at Frontline Management and Examples Format Download Pdf, now at Me A To Make A Cover Letter. Fbi Cover Letter Arsonhouse Entertainment the Job Resume No Experience | Resume Format Download Pdf inference being they paid to Portfolio On Pinterest Letter, Reference come see you. Owners and Job Resume Examples | Resume Format Download Pdf, practitioners defend workshops for their utility and educational value. Some tout classes as offering auditioning skills, while others justify them as empowered networking.

It's a cost of doing business, says workshop vet Gary Zuckerbrod, who casts TNT's Rizzoli Isles and is former head of the Casting Society of America. Adds Doug Morency, a co-owner of Connect Studios and actor who has landed small roles on sitcoms (a driver on CBS' Mike Molly , a sergeant on Fox's Brooklyn Nine-Nine ): If I'm a product, which I am, I should be able to market myself in any way. A 2002 decree from the state's Division of Labor Standards Enforcement issued guidelines for Artist Statement Template Letter, the industry that, among other things, prohibits workshop providers from advertising that attendees have been successful in gaining auditions, interviews or employment as a result of meeting a casting director through a workshop. It remains common for workshops to aggressively market the success of its students and Job Resume Examples Download Pdf, tout what instructors are presently casting. 8 Best! For instance, in February, Act Now!'s website enumerated alumni who have booked gigs on ABC's How to Get Away With Murder and Hulu's The Mindy Project or have been called in for | Resume Format, Fox's New Girl and HBO's Silicon Valley . Commercial Invoice. Fedex Commercial! (Act Now! recently took down this language and declined comment on the matter.) The 2002 decree specifies that workshop providers should list an instructor's experience and current credits. Some companies publicize sessions with enthusiastically suggestive language. ITA published a quintessential example of the genre ahead of the Feb.

6 appearance of casting associate Allison Bader, who works for Alyson Silverberg (The CW's Jane the Job Resume Examples | Resume Download Pdf Virgin ): Currently casting 2 EPISODICS, 1 is a CW Golden Globe Winner! Also casting 2 SITCOMS for ABC Family MTV! Does lots of PILOTS too! ITA's Rumnock insists the practice is useful to actors: Our intention is to inform our folks what they're doing. It's difficult to differentiate practices that break guidelines from those simply pushing their limits in the absence of regulatory enforcement. Warehouse Manager Business! There are too many casting workshops out there that aren't following the rules, says SAG-AFTRA COO and general counsel Duncan Crabtree-Ireland. There are more violations than there should be. We want the law to be enforced to prevent that. Adds CSA president Richard Hicks, who argues that his organization, which has one staff employee, has no means to police its membership: We have been in Job Resume No Experience | Resume Download Pdf, communication with the city attorney's office as things come up. At the end of the day, it's up to them to enforce.

L.A. City Attorney Mike Feuer declined comment on his office's lack of prosecutions under the 2010 law, but his spokesman Rob Wilcox tells THR : We will continue to be vigilant and Simple Fedex Commercial Template, will follow up on any case referred to Job Resume Examples No Experience | Resume Format us and Statement | Notary, pursue enforcement actions including prosecution when we can. We look forward to continue to collaborate with our partners in the entertainment industry and law enforcement to find innovative ways to Job Resume No Experience | Resume Download put an Simple Invoice. Fedex Commercial Invoice Template Free end to these scams. (Wilcox asserted that the L.A. County Department of Consumer Affairs was responsible for building would-be workshop cases, but Rigo Reyes, that agency's chief of Job Resume No Experience | Resume Format Pdf, investigations, did not respond to Sample For A requests for comment.) Former State Assemblyman Paul Krekorian, who sponsored the bill that carries his name and now serves as the Job Resume L.A. City Council member representing a section of the San Fernando Valley, which is filled with workshops, declined an interview as well. It's just not something he deals with on a regular basis, says his spokesman Ian Thompson.

Labor scholars and diversity advocates say the workshop issue reflects poorly on Hollywood's declarations about pursuing structural reform for the less advantaged. The opportunity costs are already very high in this business, and these workshops aren't helping, says Professor Nelson Lichtenstein, director of UC Santa Barbara's Center for the Study of Work, Labor and Democracy. Observes National Hispanic Media Coalition president Alex Nogales: It's pernicious, and it's predatory. Sample Agreement Agreement! This is Job Resume Examples No Experience | Resume Format Pdf why you're supposed to have oversight. Yet nobody with clout appears eager to address the practice, which has left many actors feeling hopeless. I don't think they're bad people with malicious intentions, says one of the industry higher-ups, who've let it persist.

But it's become a systemic thing paid job interviews and it's taking a lot of money out of a lot of people's pockets who don't have it to begin with. It's profoundly demoralizing.

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essay on folktales by James P. Hauser except where otherwise noted. All rights reserved. Part 1: The Legend and Job Resume Format, the Record. The legend of Stagger Lee is one of the most important and enduring stories from American folklore. Make Me A Cover A Cover Letter! Although it has had some popularity with the Examples | Resume, white community, it is Warehouse Resume | Best Business Template a story that comes from the African-American oral tradition. There are many different versions of the tale, but here is the general storyline. Stagger Lee (also known as Stagolee, Stackerlee, Stackalee etc.) gets into a dispute with a man named Billy DeLyon (also known as Billy the Lion or Billy Lyons) after losing his Stetson hat to No Experience Pdf, Billy while gambling. Stagger Lee pulls a gun (sometimes identified as a .45, other times as a smokeless .44) on Billy who then pleads to be spared for the sake of his wife and children.

Showing no compassion at Letters Promotion, all, Stagger Lee cold-bloodedly shoots and kills his opponent. No Experience Format Pdf! In the classic older musical recordings of the legend, the authorities are too frightened of the killer to arrest him for his crime. But, in many versions of the tale, he is Sample Vendor Vendor Agreement Contract eventually brought to justice and executed. In certain tellings of the Format Pdf, story, Stagger Lee is sent to hell after he is executed or killed, but is so bad that he takes control of the devil's kingdom and turns it into his own badman's paradise. Stagger Lee's myth is kept alive today most noticeably in our music. Recommendation Promotion! There are easily over one hundred recordings of this song under various titles such as Stagger Lee, Stagolee, Stack O' Lee Blues, Billy Lyons and Stack O' Lee, many of them done by famous blues, folk, and rock musicians. The song is most popular today with the rock audience. Bob Dylan, Huey Lewis, and Beck have all recorded various versions of it within the last ten years.

But the two most important and most well-known versions of the song--Mississippi John Hurt's Stack O' Lee Blues and Lloyd Price's Stagger Lee--were recorded by black men. No Experience | Resume Format Download Pdf! Hurt's version, recorded in Portfolio Images On Pinterest 1928, is | Resume Format Download a classic early version of the song in which justice prevails as Stagger Lee is Simple Invoice. Fedex Invoice Template punished for his crime. Price's recording, from the late 1950s, is a classic modern rock 'n' roll retelling of the No Experience | Resume Download Pdf, legend. Simple Commercial! It is, in a certain sense, the polar opposite Job Resume Examples No Experience Format Pdf of Hurt's because Stagger Lee is Artist Statement | Notary not punished for the murder of Billy DeLyon, he is Examples Download celebrated for it. At least that is what Price's record appears to be if the lyrics and music are taken at Letters For A Promotion, face value. But could it be that there was something deeper that was going on with the record than simply celebrating the legend of a badman? Let's take a closer look.

By looking at certain changes in the myth of Job Resume Examples Download Stagger Lee as recorded in song between 1928 and1958, and by considering these changes in Letters For A Promotion relation to what was going on in American history during this stretch of time, you can see a major change in the theme of the tale and in its meaning to African Americans. The 1928 version by Job Resume Examples | Resume Download John Hurt and Simple Fedex Commercial Template, most other early recordings characterize Stagger Lee as a cruel, ruthless killer. Greil Marcus, who wrote extensively about the myth of Stagger Lee in his critically acclaimed rock and No Experience | Resume Format Pdf, roll book Mystery Train , described Hurt's version of the story as cautionary. Hurt may have been issuing a warning to Sample Vendor, stay away from Stagger Lee because he was pure trouble. But he may also have been saying to his fellow African Americans that ya gotta play it cool, or else you'll end up in Job Resume Download Pdf jail--or worse. 8 Best | A Reference Letter! In other words, he could have been warning the African American community to not let the white man's oppression turn its children into bitter, angry young black men. But thirty years after Hurt's recording, Lloyd Price recorded a version of the song which, at Job Resume Examples Download Pdf, least on the surface, seemed to celebrate the murderous exploits of Simple Invoice Template such an angry young black man. Why the drastic reversal? The answer may be seen by looking at the era in which Price's recording was made. Lloyd Price released his version of | Resume Format Stagger Lee in 1958, in the early part of Warehouse Manager Resume | Best Template America's civil rights struggle. For African Americans, the conflict between Stagger Lee and Billy DeLyon may have become symbolic of the black man's struggle for equality with whites.

The most important theme of No Experience | Resume Format this essay is to Vendor Agreement Contract, Contract, show how this struggle was reflected in Price's recording. (The extraordinary way in No Experience Pdf which Price's record invoked the fight for black freedom will be explained shortly.) His modern version of Stagger Lee's story gave the legend a new or second meaning. It is Make Letterhow To Make A Cover Fbi Cover not clear whether this double-meaning was something which was created intentionally by Price, but there is plenty of evidence showing that at least some African Americans saw Stagger Lee as a black freedom fighter. Bobby Seale, a leader of a militant 1960s black group called The Black Panthers certainly saw Stagger Lee as a civil rights hero. He modeled himself after the legend and he also named his son after him. And in a 1970 jailhouse interview (excerpted in Mystery Train ) Seale names four militant civil rights activists as Stagger Lee figures--himself, Malcolm X, and fellow Black Panthers Huey Newton and Eldridge Cleaver. Another civil rights connection is Job Resume No Experience | Resume Format made by Vendor Vendor Agreement the great black author James Baldwin who, in his forward to Bobby Seale's autobiography, points out No Experience | Resume Format, that an anonymous black woman (Rosa Parks) was instrumental in helping Stagger Lee to achieve manhood. In his forward, he refers to Stagger Lee as a black folk hero (the badman's legend so captured Baldwin's imagination that he wrote a poem titled Staggerlee Wonders and he even started a novel about him) and certainly he must have seen Rosa Parks's defiant act of civil disobedience as a heroic Stagger Lee-like feat.

To those who tried to belittle her act of courage by claiming that the only reason she refused to Simple Commercial Invoice. Commercial Invoice Free, give up her seat to a white man and move to the back of the Job Resume Examples | Resume Format, bus was that she was too tired, Baldwin certainly must have responded by assuring them that during that particular incident Rosa Parks was--in her determination and resolve--the toughest and ba-a-a-a-dest person on the planet. There is further evidence of Stagger Lee's civil rights era change in status from badman to champion for black freedom in Images On Pinterest Reference the 1969 book Black Folktales from Julius Lester. Lester, an African-American writer and folk singer gives a very prominent black versus white dimension to his version of the legend. He does this in several ways. First, he gives the character of Billy DeLyon some qualities that could influence one to Examples, see him as a white man. (Traditionally, blacks saw both Billy and Stagger Lee as black men.) For example, Billy was educated and he thought he was better than other people. Also, he used a scientific method of card playing while his opponent Stagger Lee used (what Lester's book identifies as) the nigger method. A second way that the author gives the legend a theme of On Pinterest | A Letter, black versus white is in the actions of the fearful sheriff.

He aligns himself with the Ku Klux Klan in Job Resume Examples No Experience | Resume Download order to arrest Stagger Lee for his crime. Finally, the division between blacks and whites also appears after Stagger Lee dies, as he finds that all the white folks are in heaven and all the blacks are in Sample Contract, Vendor Agreement hell. In continuing to examine Stagger Lee as a hero in the black man's struggle for equality, let's return to Lloyd Price's recording of Stagger Lee. Although, on the surface, the record does not appear to have a black versus white theme, it does contain what might be a clue for the listener--especially an Job Resume Examples African-American listener--to see the Warehouse | Best Template, song in this light. That clue lies in the extraordinary introduction, an introduction which originated with this particular recording of the Stagger Lee legend.

In a few short phrases, Price conjures up a clear night, a yellow moon, and leaves tumbling down. You could call it an incantation. Then all hell breaks loose as seven quick horn blasts (dah-dah dah-dah dah-dah dah) shatter the calm. This introduction evokes another song--a slave spiritual titled Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho--in several ways. For example, the line that completes the intro to Price's record and the leaves came tumbling down echoes the spiritual's line and the walls came tumbling down.

This could be explained away as a simple coincidence, but there are a whole string of interesting coincidences between these two songs which will be discussed in just a moment. But for now, let's look at Job Resume Examples No Experience, the significance of this spiritual. It deals with a Bible story about a battle at Jericho in Simple Invoice. Fedex Free which God brought down the city's walls upon the sounding of trumpets and the shouting of a battle cry. To African-Americans, Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho had a special meaning in that this battle was symbolic of the fight to | Resume Pdf, end slavery ( Notes 1 and 2 ). As Price's record was released in 1958 during the early stages of the civil rights struggle, a black man hearing the connection between the two songs could interpret Stagger Lee's tumbling down of leaves as symbolic of the Invoice. Fedex Invoice Template, walls of Job Resume Examples Format segregation tumbling down. If this writer--a white man who has only heard this particular spiritual a handful of times--made the connection, there must have been many African-Americans--especially those that had regularly sung this popular spiritual in church--who also made this connection while the record was climbing the pop and RB charts in the late 1950s. And it follows logically that to many of these African Americans, Stagger Lee's struggle with Billy DeLyon must have symbolized the black man's struggle for liberation from white oppression. Now that the significance of a connection between Lloyd Price's Stagger Lee and Sample Agreement Contract, Vendor, Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho has been established, let's continue to explore the links between the two songs. First of all, both of them are quite rousing songs. Each creates a celebratory mood, and this supports the idea that they may be interpreted as being about liberation--Joshua Fit the Battle celebrates liberation from No Experience | Resume Format Download Pdf slavery and Stagger Lee may be seen as celebrating release from white oppression, especially the oppression of the Jim Crow south.

As indicated earlier, the seven horn blasts in Price's record transform the calm of the introduction into a wild, rollicking, barrage of sound. Again, this could be heard by some people as a musical representation of the Artist Template, sound of walls tumbling down. The seven horn blasts from the record tie in with the Job Resume Pdf, Biblical story of Jericho (from chapter six of the book of Joshua) in two ways. First of all, God brings down the walls of the city upon the sounding of horns or trumpets. Second, the number seven appears throughout the Bible story--seven trumpets of rams' horns were blown by seven priests after circling the city seven times on the seventh day ( Note 3 ). Another link between the record Stagger Lee and the Bible story can be found in that the back-up singers shout as they join in Recommendation Letters with later sets of horn blasts; this parallels the Bible story in that the people who were gathered around Jericho shouted after hearing the Examples Format Download Pdf, trumpet blasts.

And here are several more connections between the two songs. Make Cover To Make Letter! The yellow moon that Price sings about in the introduction to Stagger Lee creates a link to the black spiritual in that the city of Jericho was named after the moon. Job Resume Examples No Experience Download! Jericho's name comes from the Template, Hebrew word yerach which signifies the moon or the Job Resume Examples No Experience Format Pdf, monthly lunar cycle. It also means to be yellow. Vendor Agreement Contract, Vendor Contract! ( Note 4 ) It is also interesting to note that, in the lyrics to Stagger Lee, the line about the leaves tumbling down is immediately preceded by a line describing the moon as yellow, while, in Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho, the line about the walls tumbling down is immediately preceded by a line containing the | Resume Format Download, word Jericho. Lastly, it might be interesting to note a parallel between Stagger Lee and the Biblical hero Joshua.

Stagger Lee was a ruthless man, showing no mercy to Billy DeLyon as he pleaded for his life to be spared for the sake of his wife and Simple Commercial Invoice. Commercial Invoice, children. Similarly, Joshua was absolutely ruthless in conquering Jericho, destroying every man, woman, child, and No Experience | Resume Format Pdf, animal in the city (as recorded in Joshua chapter 6 verse 21). Now that I have discussed this set of connections between Price's Stagger Lee and both Joshua Fit the Warehouse, Battle of Jericho and the Bible story of Jericho, let's look at how amazingly well they fit together on Price's record. No Experience Pdf! The beginning of the record is calm as Price sings about the yellow moon on a clear night; this represents the city of 8 Best Portfolio | A Jericho. Job Resume Format Download Pdf! In the very next line, he sings about the leaves tumbling down, which exactly matches the line about Manager Resume | Best Business Template, Jericho's walls tumbling down (except for the substitution of the word leaves for walls) in Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho. Continuing on with the line about leaves tumbling down, immediately after the word down horn blasts break the calm, symbolizing the horns that were sounded to bring down the walls of Jericho. This first set of horn blasts includes a total of Examples Download seven blasts, and Make To Make Fbi Cover Letter, this number appears throughout the Examples No Experience | Resume Format Download, Bible story about the Battle of Jericho. For A Promotion! The second set of horn blasts are accompanied by the voices of the backup singers; this matches what happened in the Bible story as Joshua's people began to shout after hearing the Job Resume Examples | Resume, horns. While the discussion above presents what might be just an interesting set of coincidental connections between Price's recording of Artist Statement Template | Notary Stagger Lee and the song Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho, I believe that one particular connection might be more than just a coincidence. I believe that Price consciously or subconsciously invoked “Joshua Fit the | Resume Format Download Pdf, Battle of Jericho” with the Sample Contract, Vendor Contract, lyric about the leaves tumbling down, a lyric which he originated and added to “Stagger Lee's introduction. It seems less likely that he invoked it consciously, because, if this were the case, he probably would have revealed it to the music world by Job Resume | Resume Format Download now.

But is it possible that it was done subconsciously ? Let's examine this possibility more closely. It has often been reported that Price got his start in Sample For A singing by joining a church choir and that his mother also was a gospel singer, but according to an article in No Experience Download Pdf the September/October 1999 issue of Living Blues magazine, Price has stated that he never sang in church. The article does not mention whether or not his mother was a gospel singer, but it does point out that his family were devout Baptists. Simple Commercial Invoice Template Free! Therefore, even if he and his mother never sang in church, he must have been familiar with the popular Joshua Fit the Battle of No Experience | Resume Download Jericho through his attendance of church services. And assuming he was familiar with this spiritual, it is not a farfetched idea that he could have subconsciously made a connection between it and his recording of Stagger Lee. This kind of Vendor Contract, Vendor thing can certainly happen, and it actually did happen to Job Resume Download, writer Ray Bradbury.

In an afterword to his science fiction classic Fahrenheit 451 , he pointed out that years after he had written this story about a society in which books were illegal he realized that he had subconsciously given the Make Me A Letterhow A Cover Fbi Cover, name of Examples Download Pdf a paper company, Montag, to the story's principal character and the name of a pencil company, Faber, to another main character. (Although Bradbury did not mention it, Faber is also the name of a British book publisher.) It took Bradbury over 30 years to Template | Notary Letter, come to this realization. Lloyd Price recorded Stagger Lee almost 45 years ago, and he may still not be aware of the possibility that his subconscious mind guided him to Job Resume Examples No Experience | Resume Format, create a link between that record and the old spiritual. Sample Agreement Contract,! ( Note 5 ) Much of the Job Resume Examples No Experience | Resume Format Download, discussion in this essay focuses on symbolism, and now might be an appropriate time to Agreement Contract, discuss the importance of symbolism and double-meanings or codes in African American music. Secret codes were important to the slaves because it was a covert way of communicating with each other about things that they wanted to keep from the slaveholders. For example, it is believed that the spiritual Steal Away was used by slaves to arrange secret meetings in preparation for the revolt known as Nat Turner's Rebellion. As another example, slaves would sing the spiritual Wade in the Water to signal to an escaped comrade to Job Resume Examples | Resume Format Pdf, take to the water because the dogs had been put on his trail. Vendor Contract! Upon hearing the Examples Pdf, song, slaves on neighboring plantations would take it up in order to forward the message to the man running off to freedom.

The use of Sample Letters Promotion secret codes was not limited to music. As documented in Jacqueline Tobin's book Hidden in Plain View , special symbols or designs were placed in quilts which served as secret codes to runaway slaves. The quilts were hung outside of houses along the route of the Underground Railroad to indicate that the home was a safe haven for runaways working their way north to freedom. After the Examples No Experience | Resume Pdf, end of Portfolio | A Letter, Reference slavery, African Americans continued to Examples No Experience | Resume Pdf, give double or hidden meanings to their music, including the blues. Bluesman Brownie McGhee, in an interview in Template | Notary Lawrence N. Redd's Rock Is Rhythm and Blues , made the point that when he sings a song about his woman doing him wrong, it is the white man (not his woman) that he is really singing about. Songs with double meanings that served as protest were also recorded by early black rock and roll stars. Evidence of Examples No Experience | Resume Download Pdf this can be found in rock literature which is sprinkled with writings discussing the idea that Chuck Berry's song Brown-Eyed Handsome Man was code for Brown- Skinned Handsome Man, and Commercial Fedex Invoice Template, that when Bo Diddley sang I'm a Man he was really saying to white America, Hey, don't call me boy. Dr. Horace Clarence Boyer indicates, in his liner notes to 1991's 2-CD set Mahalia Jackson: Gospels, Spirituals and Hymns (Columbia / Legacy C2K 47083), that the Bible story of the battle of Jericho was symbolic of the abolitionists' fight to Examples No Experience | Resume Format, end slavery and Me A Cover To Make A Cover Letter. Fbi Cover, of the intervention of God in bringing slavery to Job Resume Format, an end (also see Note 2). Since trumpets triggered the fall of Jericho's walls, the sound of trumpets and lyrics referencing trumpets were both also seen as signifying the liberation of slaves. For example, Dr.

Boyer points out (in these same liner notes) that the angel Gabriel's sounding of the trumpet in Jackson's rendition of Great Gettin' Up Morning represented the Sample Letters For A, Emancipation Proclamation. Jerry Silverman, a folk music collector/expert, gives an explanation similar to Dr. Boyer's (discussed in note 1) of how Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho symbolized liberation from slavery. Silverman's explanation, in his collection of songs titled Spirituals , emphasizes God's intervention as he writes that the Examples No Experience Format, slaves believed if they were strong (i.e. had strong faith in God), he would step in on Sample Agreement Contract, their behalf to bring down the Examples | Resume, walls of slavery just as he did with the walls of Jericho. The number seven has some interesting connections to the hopes of African-Americans for Portfolio Images On Pinterest Letter, freedom.. Not only is this number crucial to the events of the battle of Jericho, but it also plays an important role in Lloyd Price's Stagger Lee. To be specific, a highlight of the song is the Job Resume Examples No Experience | Resume Download Pdf, seven horn blasts following the introduction.

Also, Stagger Lee rolls a seven while gambling with Billy. By interpreting this number as a symbol of freedom, the seven rolled by Me A Letterhow To Make Fbi Cover Stagger Lee could be viewed as representing the Examples | Resume Format, freedom that blacks were given when slavery was abolished, and Billy's claim that the number was actually an eight could be seen as the Jim Crow system rearing its head to force blacks back into bondage. The ensuing dispute between the two men would then be symbolic of the civil rights struggle. In addition to Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho and Stagger Lee, the number seven has another connection to freedom in black music. 8 Best Portfolio Images On Pinterest Letter, Reference Letter! The classic reggae album Two Sevens Clash by the Rastafarian group Culture celebrates a vision of the end of the No Experience, world with optimistic joy--joy because the apocalypse was seen as bringing liberation to the suffering people of Jamaica. Rastafarians believed that the clashing of the two sevens would take place in the year 1977. July 7, 1977 was anticipated to be the actual date of the apocalypse as it was the day that the four sevens clashed. Just as the battle of Jericho is a story found in the Bible, there is also a Bible story dealing with the clashing of sevens. Manager | Best Business! In Chapter 41 of the book of Genesis, Pharaoh dreams of Job Resume Examples several sets of two groups of seven clashing [seven kine (or cows) against another seven kine and seven ears of grain against Invoice. Commercial Template, another seven ears of grain]. Again, these clashing sevens have a connection to freedom in that Pharaoh rewarded the imprisoned slave Joseph for correctly interpreting the dream by freeing him from slavery and making him prime minister of Egypt.

Coincidentally, the number seven is Examples Format Download also associated with America's symbol of freedom, the Statue of Liberty. Lady Liberty wears a crown of seven spikes which symbolize the seven continents and the seven seas. According to the The Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary contained in the New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible , the Letters Promotion, word yerach (listed as word number 3391 in the concordance) means month or moon. The Hebrew and English Lexicon of the New Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius defines the word yerach as to be yellow. You can probably find Strong's Concordance in your local library. The New Brown-Driver is much more scarce, but you can still verify that yerach means yellow by doing a quick Internet search on Job Resume Examples No Experience | Resume! Simply type the words yerach and Sample Vendor Agreement Contract, Vendor Contract, yellow in the search box. One of Job Resume No Experience | Resume Download your first hits will probably be a page from For A Promotion , a good source which explains these meanings. You can also verify that Jericho comes from the word yerach with another Google search.

Type in the words jericho, yerach, and Format, moon in the search box and you should find a bunch of Statement Template | Notary hits indicating that Jericho was named after the moon. Lloyd Price made several interesting comments related to his songwriting and No Experience | Resume Format Pdf, his recording of Stagger Lee to Living Blues magazine ( issue #147, September/October 1999). These comments are listed and discussed below. Price decided to record a version of 8 Best Portfolio Images Letter, Reference Stagger Lee based on No Experience Format Download Pdf work he did related to the badman's legend when he was in the Army. Artist Template | Notary Letter! While in No Experience | Resume Format Download Pdf Korea, he wrote a play to entertain the troops which told the story of Stagger Lee. I believe that it is possible that his stint with the military may have influenced him into giving a civil rights theme to his recording of Artist Letter Stagger Lee. Let me explain. In 1950, General Matthew Ridgeway ordered the troops in Korea to be integrated. This was one of the very first signs of the breaking apart of the walls of Examples | Resume Format Download segregation in the history of America. Having grown up in the deep south, Price certainly must have been affected by his experiences in Warehouse Resume Business an integrated American Army, and these experiences may have influenced him to record Stagger Lee as a call for and celebration of Download Pdf black freedom.

The inspiration for Price's great introduction to Stagger Lee about a clear night and a yellow moon was his Army play. According to Price, the play had the very same setting and Make Cover, it served as the Examples Format Pdf, basis for | Best Business, the record's introduction. Price, who describes himself as having limited ability at playing the piano, got the idea for No Experience | Resume Format Download Pdf, Stagger Lee's horn blasts from a simple piano turnaround. (Turnarounds are used in the blues as transitional phrases, signaling the end of one verse and the beginning of the next one.) For every song that he wrote, Price gave credit to his business partner Harold Logan as a co-writer, even though Logan did not actually participate in the songwriting. Warehouse Resume Business! Therefore, it was Price alone who authored the Job Resume | Resume Download, lyrics in Make Letter. Fbi Cover the great introduction to Stagger Lee. (The rest of the Examples No Experience Download Pdf, lyrics are very similar to those contained in a version recorded in 1950 by another New Orleans RB musician who went by Business the name of Archibald.) Part 2: The Law in the Jim Crow South. Note: The purpose of the discussion below on how the law in the Jim Crow south was an Download oppressive force against black people is to provide the historical background necessary for Make Letterhow A Cover Letter., understanding how the legend of Examples No Experience | Resume Pdf Stagger Lee evolved from that of | Notary Letter a ruthless badman to that of a civil rights hero. When we think of what Jim Crow was all about, many of us think of things like separate drinking fountains and bathrooms for whites and | Resume, blacks.

This is what most of us were taught about in our American History classes in school. However, while it is correct that Jim Crow involved legal segregation, there were aspects to it which were much crueler and more sinister than separation of the races. Some of Business this is discussed below. Jim Crow, the system in the southern states of legal segregation of black people from white people, came about after the Examples No Experience Format Download Pdf, end of the Civil War Reconstruction period and lasted until it was wiped out in the 1960s by the civil rights movement. Whites established segregation because they believed that African-Americans were inferior to them and Make Cover Letterhow To Make Letter. Fbi Cover Letter, that the mixing of the two races would corrupt the Job Resume Examples No Experience | Resume Format Download, white race. They felt that they were maintaining the purity of the white race by separating blacks from whites. Segregation was the norm in schools, hospitals, restaurants, public transportation, etc. It was a part of everyday life. Segregation was the most visible evidence of how the law treated African-Americans unfairly during the days of Simple Commercial Invoice. Fedex Invoice Jim Crow, but there were many other forms of discrimination. Many southern lawmakers--and the system of law, in Format Pdf general--worked very hard to deny blacks their civil rights in additional ways.

For example, in many areas, government officials established poll taxes and literacy tests to keep blacks from voting. Georgia's own governor, Eugene Talmadge, worked in concert with the Images Letter,, Ku Klux Klan to prevent blacks from voting in elections. Furthermore, laws were established which made it easy to No Experience | Resume Download, arrest poor people, and Statement Letter, they were then enforced almost exclusively against African-Americans. For example, blacks would be arrested for vagrancy, and--since they often could not pay the fine--they would be forced to pick cotton in the fields of the Format, planters who paid off their fines. This was a regular practice in southern states that gave the plantation owners a steady supply of extremely cheap labor. Also, southern states adopted convict-lease systems which allowed private companies to use convicts as laborers, who were then worked under terribly inhumane conditions. The black prison population was targeted by the system. Warehouse Business Template! It was simply another form of slavery.

Some of the worst offenders were the turpentine companies which used convicts in Florida to extract sap from pine trees and Job Resume No Experience Format Download, convert it into turpentine. To Make Fbi Cover! Working conditions in Job Resume Examples No Experience | Resume Format Pdf the camps were horrible, and prisoners were given cruel punishments including being placed in cramped sweatboxes and Recommendation For A, being hung off the Job Resume No Experience Format, ground by their thumbs. There was little chance of escape. Some men committed suicide as a way out of the Portfolio Images Letter,, hellish camps. Other examples of the way that the law worked against African-Americans come from the barbaric act of lynching. There were some brave law enforcement officers who risked their own lives to Examples Pdf, prevent these murders, but there were many others who did far from their best in Letters Promotion stopping them.

Sometimes they actually participated in the lynchings and even posed for photographs with the victims. To top it off, America's lawmakers had a hand in allowing these crimes to be perpetrated. There was strong resistance against passing anti-lynching laws in Job Resume No Experience | Resume America--and not just in the south. Even President Franklin D. Roosevelt opposed the Recommendation For A Promotion, establishment of these laws (Note 1) . Job Resume Format Download! Lynchings were incredibly savage. Before the Sample Recommendation For A Promotion, victim was hanged, he could be subjected to hours of torture. Knives, branding irons, blowtorches, and even corkscrews were used. Job Resume No Experience | Resume! Fingers and toes were cut off as souvenirs. Sometimes victims were forced to mutilate themselves. Many of the Artist Template | Notary Letter, men and women who were lynched were completely innocent of any wrongdoing. Lynchings were often public spectacles, with many people--including young children--present during the executions. The fact that the Job Resume Examples Format, American systems of government and law did not do more to | A Letter,, prevent these horrible murders is Job Resume Examples Pdf one of this country's greatest shames.

During the Jim Crow era, many blacks were sent to prison for Agreement Contract, the slightest offenses, but it was difficult to send a white man to Job Resume Examples | Resume Download, prison unless he had committed a very serious crime. Prison populations became predominantly black. Many of Me A Cover Letterhow To Make A Cover Fbi Cover those men were innocent of the crimes for which they had been convicted. And many of those innocent men were executed. There certainly were racists among the Job Resume Format Download, men who worked in the system of law that sent those innocent men to prison and to the gallows. One of those men was Sheriff Willis McCall of Lake County, Florida. (Note 2) McCall was pitted against Make Me A To Make A Cover Letter, Harry T. Moore, an Job Resume Examples No Experience | Resume Format Download African-American educator and civil rights leader, over a case known as the Groveland Four when Moore and his wife were killed in their home by an explosion on Christmas night in 1951. Years later, Raymond Henry, a member of the Ku Klux Klan, confessed to making the bomb and accused Sheriff McCall of planning the murders. Moore had been involved in defending the men who were arrested in the Groveland Four case.

They were all black men and they had been accused of raping a white woman in Warehouse Resume | Best Business Sheriff McCall's Lake County. Job Resume No Experience! (The case has come to 8 Best Portfolio | A Reference, be known as Florida's Little Scottsboro due to its similarity to a case involving the Examples No Experience | Resume Format Download Pdf, frame-up of | A Letter, a group of Examples Download African-Americans for rape in Scottsboro, Alabama.) After the Supreme Court ordered a new trial for Sample Promotion, two of the Groveland defendants, McCall shot both of them while they were manacled together in his custody. One of the | Resume Pdf, men died. The other survived by Artist Statement | Notary playing dead. The sheriff claimed he shot them in self-defense. Job Resume Examples No Experience Format! For the next 20 years, he was regularly involved in controversies that exposed him as a racist. He clearly had little concern over being labeled a racist--in 1971, it took the threat of a court order to force him to take down a sign in his office which read Colored Waiting Room. Despite all the trouble that surrounded him, he was re-elected as sheriff seven times in a row. Sample Recommendation Letters! In 1972, he retired after another scandal--in which he allegedly kicked to death a black man who had been jailed for a minor traffic citation--finally cost him re-election.

There is no way of Job Resume Download Pdf knowing how many of his fellow officers of the law were also racists. Vendor Contract, Contract! But a clue might be found in the fact that McCall was elected president of the Florida Sheriff's Association after he shot the Groveland Four defendants. From the above discussion of the law in Job Resume Download Pdf the Jim Crow south, it is For A easy to understand why African-Americans saw officers of the law and the whole system of Examples | Resume Format Pdf law as a threat rather than a protective force. W. E. Images On Pinterest | A Reference! B. DuBois, in his classic book The Souls of Black Folk , pointed to the white man's law and system of justice as sources of humiliation and oppression. When an African-American citizen had a run-in with the Job Resume | Resume Download, law, for Sample Recommendation For A Promotion, even just the slightest offense, he could suffer terribly for it simply because the color of his skin was black. Due to this state of Job Resume No Experience | Resume Format Download affairs, a black man had to constantly have his guard up to protect himself.

An experience that bluesman Mississippi John Hurt once had serves as an excellent example of the wariness that African Americans held for the law. Hurt, after making some remarkable recordings in 1928 (including his classic Stack O' Lee Blues ), disappeared into obscurity until he was discovered in Vendor Agreement the early 1960s working on Examples | Resume Format Pdf a farm in Mississippi. The man who found him, a blues fan named Tom Hoskins, invited Hurt to come with him to his hometown of Washington, DC. Sample Agreement Vendor Agreement Contract! At first the bluesman hesitated in accompanying Hoskins because he suspected that this white man was a police officer or an FBI agent who was attempting to take him into Examples Format, custody. Knowing that he had done no wrong, he went along with Hoskins anyways, figuring that he would have to go either voluntarily or by force. Agreement Agreement Contract! (What he didn't know was that his reluctant trip to Washington would lead him on to fame as one of the biggest stars of the 1960s blues revival.) It is Job Resume Format no surprise that trouble with the Sample Recommendation Letters Promotion, law is one of the Job Resume No Experience Format, major themes of the blues. Sample For A Promotion! There are many blues songs dealing with sheriffs and police officers, judges and trials, and jails and Examples No Experience | Resume Format, prisons. Many of them are autobiographical.

The great Delta bluesman Charley Patton sang about his experiences with the law in Recommendation For A High Sheriff Blues and Tom Rushen Blues. Duncan and Examples No Experience | Resume Download Pdf, Brady, a song with some similarities to Stagger Lee, tells the legend of a black bartender who kills a white policeman for interfering with his business. Joe Turner Blues, sometimes referred to as the 8 Best Portfolio On Pinterest | A Letter, Letter, granddaddy of the blues, is a song about Job Resume Examples | Resume, a real-life prison transfer agent. In Penitentiary Blues, Lightnin' Hopkins sings about doing time for Contract, Vendor, another man's crime and ends the song by warning listeners that the same thing could happen to them. No Experience | Resume Format Download Pdf! Bukka White's classic Parchman Farm Blues is about Mississippi's notorious state penitentiary, a prison where he served time. The most famous of all the prison songs may be Leadbelly's Midnight Special.

This song is based on the legend that if a light from a train would shine through the window of a prisoner's cell, that prisoner would go free in the morning. Part 3 is below following the notes to Recommendation Letters Promotion, Part 2. FDR's opposition to Job Resume Examples Format Download, anti-lynching legislation and the African-American reaction to Sample Letters For A Promotion, it are discussed in a book by Philip Dray titled At the Hands of Persons Unknown: The Lynching of Download Pdf Black America . Before you have finished reading this essay, it might occur to you that, in discussing the days of Jim Crow (here and in later parts of this essay), I am unfairly picking on the state of Florida. Racism and discriminatory laws were certainly not limited to Florida (or to Warehouse Manager Business, the south for that matter), but I have focused on this state for several reasons. First of all, this essay was sparked by my correspondence with Stetson Kennedy, a man who has labored for the cause of civil rights for many years, doing much of his work in his home state of Examples No Experience | Resume Download Florida. Many of the issues related to Florida that I have brought up in this essay first came to my attention through my correspondence with Mr. Kennedy and my reading of his own writings.

Second, Florida is my adopted home and Statement, my curiosity about its history had led me to learn that it has an important and largely unknown past--both bad and good--related to racism and the civil rights struggle. Below is some of what I have learned. Although Florida is our southernmost state, many people do not think of No Experience | Resume Download Pdf it as a southern state. It is set apart from Statement Template | Notary other states in its region in Job Resume Examples | Resume Format several ways. Its uniqueness can be quickly highlighted by noting that (as a friend once remarked to me) Florida is the only state that gets more southern as you move further north (i.e. the Sample Recommendation Letters For A, further north you travel, the | Resume Download, more southern drawls you hear, the more rebel flags you see, etc.). Despite its uniqueness, with respect to the issue of race relations, Florida has a history which makes it much more similar to southern states such as Mississippi and 8 Best Portfolio Reference, Alabama than the average person realizes. Despite its friendly image as a place of sunshine, beautiful beaches, and happy vacations, there was a time when the state's treatment of its black citizens made it a quite ugly place. For example, the Orlando area was once a stronghold of the Job Resume Examples Format Download Pdf, Ku Klux Klan, and Me A Letterhow Letter. Fbi Cover Letter, it harbored so much racism that it was characterized by the Orlando Sentinel as once being a bastion of southern hatred.

A large majority of vacationers who have visited Disney or some of the many other attractions of central Florida would be surprised to find out that America's first civil rights martyr, Harry T. Moore, was killed not far from the land of Mickey Mouse and Snow White. Moore, an African-American educator and civil rights activist, was murdered along with his wife on Christmas night in 1951 when a bomb exploded inside their house in the small central Florida town of Mims. In another incident, in the town of Ocoee which is just outside of Job Resume Format Download Orlando, at Statement, least five black people were killed and | Resume Format, much of the Cover Letter. Fbi Cover Letter, black neighborhood in which they lived was destroyed by a white mob. The exact number of people who died is not known, but some accounts place the death toll at closer to 50. It happened on election day in No Experience Format 1920; the killings and | Best Business Template, destruction were triggered by racist anger over a few blacks who had the courage to exercise their right to No Experience | Resume Format Pdf, vote.

A similar massacre occurred in 1923 in Rosewood, Florida, a black town which was 50 miles from Gainesville and only a few miles from the idyllic fishing village of Cedar Key. The destruction wreaked by a white mob was so complete that the Template Letter, town was wiped completely off the map. Job Resume Format Pdf! While newspapers reported that only Images On Pinterest, seven African-Americans were killed, some eyewitnesses claimed that 30 or more died. There were many lynchings in Florida, and--in what was probably the most barbaric lynching that ever took place in Job Resume Examples | Resume America--a black man named Claude Neal was brutally tortured and killed in 1934 in the north Florida town of Commercial Invoice. Commercial Free Marianna. When people think of sunny Florida, they do not envision lynchings, but between 1900 and 1930 the state probably led the nation in lynchings per capita (i.e. per number of black residents) according to Examples | Resume, Freedom Never Dies: The Legacy of Make Me A Letter. Fbi Cover Harry T. Moore , a PBS documentary produced by the University of Florida. To Florida's great fortune, a man named Leroy Collins became governor of the state in 1955. Governor Collins--who at one time was in favor of segregation--went against both his fellow southern Democrats and popular opinion in Job Resume Examples | Resume his state by moving Florida steadily in the direction of racial tolerance and integration. Simple Commercial Fedex Invoice Template! The work he did spared his state from Examples Download much of the racial strife that occurred in other states during the 1960s.

Collins was a man of great courage, vision, and Simple Commercial Invoice. Commercial Invoice Template, leadership; his story should be required reading for any person holding public office. Part 3: The Transformation. In this part, we will look at Examples | Resume, how the legend of Stagger Lee evolved from that of a ruthless badman to that of a civil rights hero. But before exploring this transformation, we need to clarify the use of the term badman. Manager Resume Template! In African-American culture, the black badman was often viewed sympathetically and was even thought of as a hero. (White folklore also has its share of badman heroes. For example, the outlaw Pretty Boy Floyd was a hero to many and was even celebrated in song by Woody Guthrie.) There are various explanations for why badmen were seen as heroes in the African-American community. One that fits well with the Stagger Lee legend can be found in an essay on black folklore by John W. Roberts which appears in the Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. According to Job Resume No Experience Download Pdf, Roberts, the Simple Template, black badman could be viewed sympathetically by African Americans because his victims were often dishonest, roguish characters who threatened to Job Resume Examples Format Download Pdf, upset the harmony existing within the black community. 8 Best Portfolio On Pinterest Reference! The badman eliminated individuals whose conduct put the Job Resume Examples No Experience Format Pdf, community in danger of having the Warehouse, law stick its nose in to interfere with local affairs. This can be explained specifically in relation to the subject matter of this essay.

Within the African American community, illegal activities such as the juke joint gambling engaged in by badmen such as Stagger Lee were an accepted and (arguably) necessary part of life (even though they may have been illegal or considered to be immoral by some members of the community). But a cheat--such as Billy was often portrayed to be--was not to be tolerated, as he had the No Experience | Resume, potential to brew up the kind of trouble that would bring into the black community a very unwelcome element--the white man's law. And the Me A Cover Letter. Fbi Cover Letter, policing of Examples Format Download Pdf juke joints would result in restrictions that would interfere with the ability of these establishments to provide a good time for their patrons. The above explanation and others dealing with why badmen were heroes to blacks revolve around the adversarial relationship between the black community and the white system of law. 8 Best Portfolio Images | A! Since the white man's law was used to enforce the racist rules of the Jim Crow system against Job Resume Examples No Experience Pdf, blacks, it is understandable that they could make heroes out Cover To Make Fbi Cover Letter, of the Job Resume Examples | Resume Format, badmen who were at odds with the law. This point will soon be illustrated below in a discussion of how a real life badman named Roy became a hero to the black community in which he lived. Now let's take a detailed look at how Stagger Lee's transformation from badman hero to civil rights champion took place and how this change was reflected in black music. In early recordings of the song, Stagger Lee certainly was portrayed as a badman. One of the earliest recorded versions, titled Stack O' Lee Blues was by Warehouse Manager | Best Business Template Ma Rainey (available on her Complete Recorded Works Volume 3, 1925-1926 ). Rainey's version identifies Stagger Lee as a badman and killer, but she makes no mention of his fight with Billy DeLyon.

In the Job Resume | Resume Format Pdf, year 1927, Furry Lewis recorded a version titled Billy Lyons and Stack O' Lee (available on Portfolio Images Letter, Letter his Complete Recorded Works, 1927-1929 ) in which Stagger Lee shoots Billy Lyons during a great fight triggered by a gambling dispute. Stagger Lee shows no mercy as Billy's sister begs him to spare her brother's life. A key element in this song is that the Examples No Experience | Resume Format Pdf, law is afraid to go after Stagger Lee who is armed with a deadly forty-five. In possibly the Artist Template | Notary, greatest version of the song, Mississippi John Hurt's 1928 recording (available on Examples | Resume Format Pdf Avalon Blues: The Complete 1928 Okeh Recordings ) makes no mention of gambling, but he identifies the dispute as being over a five dollar Stetson hat. (In many later versions of the song, Stagger Lee and DeLyon gamble over the Stetson.) Hurt's version, known as Stack O' Lee has the badman killing Billy despite his pleas to spare his life for the sake of his wife and children. Similar to Lewis's recording, Hurt's version portrays the police as being afraid to Make Cover Letterhow A Cover Letter. Fbi Cover Letter, go after Stagger Lee for his crime. A key element in Format Download Hurt's version occurs when Stagger Lee is at Make Letterhow To Make Letter, the hangman's noose--he holds his head up high, apparently having made no apologies and Job Resume No Experience Download, showing no sense of guilt. (Blues historian Max Haymes points out the badman's defiance at the rope in his essay Got the Blues for Statement Template Letter, Mean Old Stack O' Lee.

It is posted on the world wide web at . Also, the No Experience Format Download Pdf, lyrics to most of these early versions of the Sample Letters For A, song are included in that essay.) There are three key elements--the law's fear of Stagger Lee, his lack of Job Resume | Resume Format Download remorse at the gallows, and the dispute involving the Stetson--that are crucial to understanding how the Artist Template Letter, gambler's legend evolved from badman to Job Resume No Experience, civil rights hero. Regarding the first element, Stagger Lee had such great notoriety as a badman that even the police feared him. This was enough to draw admiration from members of the black population who, under the Jim Crow system, must have seen the white man's law as nothing short of evil. Sample Letters! Jim Crow, backed up by a strong--and often racist--police force and by the threat of extralegal acts like lynching, was the Examples No Experience Download, white man's way of ensuring that blacks stayed in 8 Best Letter, Letter their place. They were required to be obedient and Examples | Resume Format Pdf, submissive to discriminatory laws and Agreement Agreement, practices which not only held them back but were also humiliating and Download, degrading. Due to this oppressive white system, African Americans must have envied a legendary figure like Stagger Lee, a man of 8 Best Portfolio Images Letter, their own race who could do as he well pleased and still have the Job Resume Examples Download Pdf, law stay out of his way.

But they did not envy him for being a feared criminal; they envied--and admired--him because he refused to Statement Template Letter, accept the subordinate place of a black man in the white man's world. He stood tall and defied the white man's law. Job Resume Examples Format! And in versions of the story where the law does catch up with him and executes him, his legend grows even greater as he is victorious in a battle with the Invoice, devil, taking control of the underworld and Examples | Resume Format Pdf, turning it into Warehouse Resume | Best Business, his own badman's paradise. Regarding the second key element, Stagger Lee's conduct at the gallows certainly could evoke additional admiration from African-Americans. By standing in defiance before the hangman's noose, he was violating a sacred ritual of the white man's system of justice. As discussed by Examples No Experience Format David M. Oshinsky in Resume Business Worse Than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice , the execution ceremony required that the condemned man should confess to his crimes, say that he was sorry, and ask for forgiveness from Job Resume Format Download Pdf God.

In doing so, he (in effect) admits that the white man's law is good and fair, and Portfolio Images On Pinterest Letter, Reference, recognizes that the white man's law is also God's law, and acknowledges that justice is being served through his execution. Oshinsky recounts the events documented in the book Deep South (by Allison Davis, Burleigh Gardner, and Mary Gardner) revolving around two black men about to be executed in Natchez, Mississippi in the year 1934. No Experience Format! One man, identified as Nathan, acted out the part that the authorities expected of him; he got religion, confessed to his crimes, and admitted that he was wrong. The other man, identified as Roy, refused to take part in the execution rituals that the authorities laid out for Sample Agreement Vendor, him. He rejected all attempts at getting him to admit guilt, repent, or apologize.

The one ritual that he did participate in was the last meal, and he mocked this tradition by ordering a final meal of chicken and dumplings and--to show his disdain for the proceedings--cigars. On the day of his execution, he stood calmly at the rope, quietly defiant until the very end. He was the living incarnation of Mississippi John Hurt's Stack O' Lee, standing at the gallows with his head proudly held high. To the local African American community, Roy was considered a hero. He became a local Stagger Lee like legend and a mythology grew around him which included exploits such as going down to Format Download, hell and ripping the Me A Letterhow A Cover Letter. Letter, devils horns from his head. Job Resume Examples No Experience Format Pdf! Roy, a man who had killed his wife and her father, became a hero because he refused to participate in the white man's execution rituals--rituals which served to Recommendation For A Promotion, confirm white supremacy and black inferiority. On the other hand, Nathan, the man who did participate in the rituals, was seen as a coward. Job Resume No Experience | Resume! The black community certainly thought of Artist Template | Notary Letter Roy as a man who deserved to be punished for his crimes, but he was viewed as a hero due to Job Resume Examples | Resume, the defiant and fearless way that he died under the white man's system. Letters For A! As Oshinsky pointed out in his book, one of the local African Americans made an observation that reflected the feelings of his people very well when he stated that Roy wasn't much good at livin', but he knew how to Job Resume Examples | Resume Download Pdf, die.

By refusing to honor the white man's execution rituals, Roy and Stagger Lee stood as courageous figures to African Americans. So far, this paper has discussed two of the three key elements that are crucial for gaining an understanding of how Stagger Lee was transformed from a badman into a champion for black freedom. Before getting into the third key (i.e. the dispute over Letters Promotion the Stetson hat), let us continue looking at how Stagger Lee's legend continued to change over the years as recorded in song by various blues artists. As discussed earlier, the legend of Stagger Lee evolved over time as various musicians emphasized different aspects of the story and Job Resume No Experience Format Download Pdf, added their own embellishments. As the Portfolio On Pinterest Letter, Reference Letter, song continued to change through this folk process, two of the key elements were no longer present in a version recorded by New Orleans musician Archibald.

It was titled Stack-A-Lee and became an RB hit in No Experience Pdf 1950. In Archibald's version, the lyrics make no mention of Vendor Agreement Contract, Vendor Agreement Contract either the Format Download Pdf, law's fear of Stagger Lee or of his defiant conduct at his execution. These two key elements have disappeared. In fact, the lyrics make no mention of the law at all and don't even hint at Stagger Lee being executed or brought to justice in any way. ( Note 1 ) Only one of the three key elements remains--the dispute over the Stetson. By excluding the two key elements which dealt with Stagger Lee being brought to Images | A Reference, justice, Archibald toned down some of the negative aspects of the badman's story. He presented him as a more positive figure in other ways also. For example, many earlier recordings of the song describe Stagger Lee as being a cruel or bad man, but Archibald's version does not use these negative terms. The basic storyline remains the No Experience Format Download Pdf, same--Stagger Lee still kills Billy DeLyon in a dispute over a Stetson, but the killer is not characterized as an Resume | Best evil person. Instead, in this particular version of the tale, Stagger Lee could simply be an honest man who was cheated by Billy (according to Job Resume | Resume, the lyrics, Stagger Lee rolled a seven, but Billy claimed it was an eight), and in Cover A Cover Fbi Cover Letter his anger made the Job Resume Examples | Resume Download, terrible mistake of taking his opponent's life. This is something quite different from being a ruthless killer. Archibald's Stack-A-Lee was a huge influence on a recording by Cover Letterhow To Make A Cover Letter. Lloyd Price, a musician who also just happened to be from New Orleans.

Price's record, titled Stagger Lee, was a #1 hit in the late 1950s and it is the version that most people are familiar with today. The lyrics to Stagger Lee are almost identical to the lyrics in Job Resume No Experience Format Archibald's record. Therefore, the two key elements which are not present in Archibald's version (i.e. the law's fear of Stagger Lee and Warehouse Manager Resume, his remorseless defiance at the gallows) are also absent from Price's recording. But Price adds some new twists to the song--he fills his voice with exuberance and employs a musical accompaniment of instruments and back-up singers with an extremely jubilant tone. The record sounds like a celebration, like a Gary U.S. Bonds party record or a frat-rock song.

The background singers can even be heard repeatedly urging Stagger Lee on. It was a song about a violent murder that seemed to celebrate the event. To anyone who was paying attention to the song's lyrics, this must have been quite shocking. Job Resume Examples No Experience Download Pdf! After all, the record was released in Manager the 1950s, not in Job Resume Examples Format Download today's world of 8 Best Portfolio Images On Pinterest | A Letter, Reference Letter Eminem and gangster rap. Despite the violent lyrics, according to Price (as discussed in an article in Living Blues #147, September-October 1999), the Job Resume No Experience | Resume Format Download Pdf, only DJ who would not play the record was Dick Clark. He refused to play it on his extremely popular television show American Bandstand because he thought it was too violent. Knowing that sales of Stagger Lee would increase greatly if it received exposure on Clark's show, Price rerecorded the Sample Recommendation Promotion, song, changing the lyrics so that the Job Resume Examples | Resume Format Download, story ended with apologies instead of 8 Best Portfolio Images | A Letter, Reference murder ( Notes 2 and 3 ) Despite the censorship, the original record--which seemed to Job Resume | Resume Format Download Pdf, celebrate a tragic murder and treat the killer like a hero--was well on its way to becoming a #1 hit on both the pop and Simple Fedex Commercial Invoice Template Free, RB charts before it was replaced with the nonviolent version. How could this be? Why did this hugely popular record celebrate--or seem to celebrate--the taking of a human life? One possible explanation can be found by looking at Job Resume No Experience | Resume Format Pdf, the production approach typically employed by Price's record company, ABC-Paramount, in making his records.

As pointed out by Charlie Gillett in his classic rock history The Sound of the Sample Recommendation For A, City , ABC's typical approach to recording the singer was to provide a loud, rhythmic, and cheerful musical backing for his voice. In other words, you could say that this tale of murder was given a merry, high-spirited musical accompaniment simply because the record company produced all of Price's records that way regardless of the lyrical content. The above explanation is probably accurate in a certain sense, but it does not tell the whole story. There was something much deeper going on Examples No Experience Format Download with Price's record, as signaled by the fact that it included the addition of a quite unique and powerful introduction to the song which linked it to Sample Contract, Agreement, the spiritual Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho. As pointed out near the Examples No Experience | Resume Download, beginning of this essay, creating this link between Stagger Lee and the slave spiritual is an indication that the Sample Recommendation Promotion, struggle between Stagger Lee and Billy DeLyon had become symbolic of the No Experience Download Pdf, black man's struggle for liberation from white oppression. And as also discussed earlier, the legendary figure of Stagger Lee was evolving from a badman to a civil rights champion during this time frame. Therefore, the celebratory tone of the Make Cover To Make Letter. Letter, record might best be explained by thinking of his fight with Billy as representing the civil rights struggle. In this case, Stagger Lee's killing of his opponent could be interpreted as being symbolic of the black man's victory in this struggle. And this triumph would certainly be a cause for celebration. ( Note 4 ) With the above explanation, Lloyd Price's recording of Stagger Lee serves as a vision of No Experience Download liberation from white oppression in the same way that certain slave spirituals such as In That Great Gettin' Up Morning served as visions of release from slavery. Writing in How Sweet the Sound: The Golden Age of Gospel , Dr.

Horace Clarence Boyer points out that this particular spiritual and others were sung as songs of celebration in the mid-1800s when the slaves foresaw that freedom was close at Me A Cover Letterhow To Make A Cover Fbi Cover, hand. No Experience | Resume Download! (Note 5) When Price recorded Stagger Lee in Commercial Invoice. Fedex Commercial late 1958, African-Americans must have had a similar sense of anticipation of victory in the civil rights struggle; they had won several important battles (some of which will be discussed in Part 5 of Job Resume Format Pdf this essay) and their charismatic leader Martin Luther King had emerged on the national scene. Therefore, this civil rights era recording of the Make A Cover Fbi Cover Letter, old folk song--with Price's exuberant voice and the jubilant musical accompaniment--could have served as a song of release and celebration similar to spirituals such as In That Great Gettin' Up Morning. With this new civil rights version of Stagger Lee, it becomes hugely important that the Examples | Resume Format Download Pdf, fight centered on the ownership of Vendor Agreement Contract, Agreement Contract a Stetson hat. This dispute, over what might seem to be a relatively insignificant thing, is the last of the Job Resume Examples No Experience | Resume Format Download, three key elements which are crucial to Artist Letter, understanding how Stagger Lee evolved from a badman type of hero to Job Resume | Resume Format Download Pdf, a civil rights hero. As pointed out earlier, the other two elements--the law's fear of Stagger Lee, and his remorseless defiance at the gallows--are not present in the modern Stagger Lee records by Archibald and Lloyd Price. These elements were crucial in Sample Vendor Agreement Contract, Agreement Contract sustaining the legend of No Experience | Resume Download Stagger Lee as a badman and black hero for many years, but they are not present in these two musicians' records.

And these two recordings are the most important and successful (Archibald's record was a top 10 RB hit and Price's went to number one on both the pop and RB charts) versions of the song to be recorded during the modern civil rights era. With these two hits, Stagger Lee's image was cleaned up and his reputation as a badman became diminished, thereby leaving the Artist Statement Template Letter, third key element--the fight over the Stetson--to become the primary focus of the Examples Download, story as Stagger Lee is transformed into a different kind of Warehouse Business Template hero, a hero for black freedom. | Resume! It is my contention that during the civil rights era, the dispute over the Stetson between Stagger Lee and Billy came to Simple Invoice. Free, be symbolic to African-Americans of their struggle for freedom against whites. This essay now moves to an exploration of how this dispute over a hat took on such a symbolic nature. Part 4 is below following the notes to Part 3. Archibald broke his recording of Stagger Lee's story into two parts. Job Resume No Experience | Resume Download! So there were two separate records--Stack-A-Lee, Part 1 and Stack-A-Lee, Part 2. In Part 1, the badman does not suffer any consequences for his crime of shooting Billy. His punishment is relegated to Part 2, wherein he is shot and killed by Statement Template | Notary Letter the police and is sent to hell. Part 1 is the version which became a top 10 RB hit. Therefore, most of the audience only heard Part 1 and missed the end of the story in which Stagger Lee pays the price for murdering Billy.

Greil Marcus, in his book Mystery Train , provides different details on what happened. Job Resume Examples Format! Marcus writes that Dick Clark asked Price to change the lyrics to eliminate the violence before singing the song on his American Bandstand TV program. Price complied by changing the song so that it ended with apologies instead of murder. Make Me A Cover Letterhow To Make A Cover Letter.! Marcus also writes that Price rerecorded the song with the new lyrics. Dick Clark may have thought that Lloyd Price's Stagger Lee contained lyrics which were too violent for his rock and Examples No Experience | Resume Format Pdf, roll audience, but those lyrics were faithful to the folk music roots of the song. Commercial Free! American folk music has a long tradition of songs with lyrics that portray violence (as discussed by David Hershey-Webb in an article in the April 21, 1993 issue of Job Resume No Experience Download The Recorder titled Number One with a Bullet).

One of the best known examples of this is the classic murder ballad Frankie and Albert (also known as Frankie and Johnny). And Stagger Lee is not the only folk song to mythologize an outlaw; other songs include Jesse James and Woody Guthrie's Pretty Boy Floyd. There is even an old folk song titled Knoxville Girl which makes the violent imagery of Stagger Lee seem like a silly nursery rhyme. It tells the story of a boy who kills his girlfriend for Manager Resume | Best Business, not being true to him. The most graphic lyrics to the song are below. I picked a stick up off the. And I knocked that fair girl. She fell down on her bended.

For mercy she did cry. Oh Willie, dear, don't kill me. I'm unprepared to die. I only beat her more. Until the ground around me. With her blood did flow. I took her by her golden. And dragged her 'round and. Then threw her into the river.

That flows through Knoxville. The Louvin Brothers, one of the greatest groups in the history of country music, had a minor hit in Examples | Resume Format Pdf 1959 with their version of Knoxville Girl. It was the first song that they ever sang together. By interpreting the song to be about the Fedex Commercial Invoice, black struggle for freedom, Stagger Lee's refusal to spare Billy's life for the sake of his wife and children can be seen as serving to bring out the Job Resume Format Download, fact that many black families were mercilessly broken apart by Vendor Agreement Agreement Contract slavery, and by the sending of many innocent black men and women to Job Resume Download Pdf, prison, and by the lynching of many innocent black men and women. Dr. Horace Clarence Boyer, in his liner notes to the 1991 2-CD set Mahalia Jackson: Gospels, Spirituals Hymns , provides a detailed explanation of how In That Great Gettin' Up Morning was a song of anticipatory celebration of the Sample Recommendation Letters Promotion, day when the No Experience | Resume Format Pdf, slaves would be set free. Part 4: The Stetson Hat. Author's Note on the Stetson hat as a positive versus negative symbol:

When I wrote the Simple Invoice Template Free, essay below concerning the Stetson hat, I was convinced that the Stetson must have at | Resume Pdf, one time been a symbol of white authority to African-Americans. I believed this because the hat was worn by many southern sheriffs and prison guards during the days of Jim Crow. Sample Letters For A! Since the | Resume Format Download, law was the primary instrument by which Jim Crow was kept in Warehouse Manager | Best place, logic told me that the Download Pdf, southern sheriff's trademark Stetson must have been a quite negative symbol to America's black population. One thing that kept bothering me though was the fact that the hats have actually been worn by some African-Americans. In particular, I was aware that blues and soul musicians such as Otis Rush, Solomon Burke, and Clarence Gatemouth Brown regularly wore Stetsons. After finishing the Commercial Fedex Template Free, essay, I continued to research the Stetson and soon it became quite clear to me that, although the hat certainly was a powerful symbol to blacks, it was actually a positive rather than a negative symbol. There were two sources which helped me to discover this: Louis Armstrong's book Satchmo: My Life in New Orleans and Cecil Brown's doctoral dissertation Stagolee: From Shack Bully to Job Resume No Experience Format, Culture Hero . On Pinterest Letter,! Armstrong relates in Job Resume No Experience | Resume Download his book that, during his early days in Me A Cover Letterhow To Make Letter New Orleans, Stetsons were coveted by Examples No Experience Pdf African-Americans and they often purchased them by Template Letter making periodic payments. Brown points out the symbolic nature of the hat by Job Resume | Resume stating that it represented the black man's manhood. Sample Letters Promotion! As a symbol of African-American manhood, the Format Download Pdf, Stetson was ultimately a symbol of freedom (as explained in my essay Stagger Lee: From Mythic Blues Ballad to Ultimate Rock 'n' Roll Record. Taking into account the idea that the hat could actually be a positive symbol, I wonder whether perhaps it had a dual symbolic nature which represented both freedom (a positive) and white authority (a negative).

In other words, it might be a case of Portfolio On Pinterest | A two different sides of the same coin--on one side, the hat may have been a symbol of Job Resume Format Pdf Jim Crow-era white authority, and on Promotion the other, a symbol of the freedom won by defeating Jim Crow. If this is the case, then it may be that African-Americans wore the Job Resume No Experience Format Download Pdf, hat as a proud reminder that they were able to Manager Resume | Best, survive and Job Resume | Resume Format Download, triumph over many years of racist oppression. Although I may have been incorrect about the Stetson being a negative symbol of racist white authority, this does not invalidate the point I was trying to make in writing the essay. The essay argues that many African-Americans who listened to Artist Statement, Lloyd Price's civil rights-era recording of Examples Format Download Pdf Stagger Lee may have interpreted it as being about their ongoing struggle for freedom due to Statement | Notary Letter, the fact that the fight between Billy and Stagger Lee centered on a symbol of racist white authority--the Stetson hat. This argument still holds together with the Job Resume No Experience | Resume Format Download, corrected understanding that the Stetson was actually a symbol of freedom itself. I plan to Make Me A Letterhow A Cover, revise the essay to reflect the findings discussed above.

Until then, I will continue to investigate the No Experience | Resume, significance of the hat and its meaning as it relates to the Stagger Lee legend. One area I plan on pursuing is whether the Stetson actually does have a dual, i.e. positive/negative, symbolic role. If so, this should not be a surprise because the transforming of a negative into a positive is not an Contract, Vendor Contract uncommon thing for African-Americans. Job Resume Examples No Experience | Resume Pdf! Wally Amos (also known as Famous Amos) is a good example of Warehouse | Best Business this. His favorite saying goes something like when life gives you lemons, make lemonade. This philosophy is quite fitting in that it comes from a member of the African-American people, a people which has had to adapt to racist adversity and overcome great obstacles in order to survive. In Mississippi John Hurt's Stack O' Lee Blues, he laments that Billy was murdered over a $5 Stetson hat.

Bob Dylan's extraordinary version of the song, based on an obscure 1927 recording by Frank Hutchison titled Stackalee, echoes that sentiment as, in a wailing voice, he repeatedly lays the Job Resume Examples No Experience | Resume, blame for all the Artist Statement Template | Notary Letter, trouble on that John B. Examples Format Download! Stetson hat. But his recording specifically identifies the hatmaker's full name, as if to say that there is more to the story, that the cause was something more than just the hat itself. What Dylan might be saying is that the trouble was all about the same thing that the Stetson hat is all about. Let me explain what I mean by Warehouse Business Template this. The Stetson is a powerful symbol which has strong elements of conflict and violence ingrained deeply in its history. For example, it was sometimes referred to as a war bonnet. And among collectors of western memorabilia, an old Stetson with a bullet hole in it is a very special item to have in one's collection. Job Resume Examples No Experience | Resume! According to Lewis Nordyke's article Boss of the Plains: The Story Behind the Stetson (collected in The Cowboy Reader , an anthology edited by Lon Tinkle and Allen Maxwell), the Stetson was known as a hat that could take a dozen bullet holes and still not unravel. Me A Letterhow A Cover Letter. Letter! The Stetson can represent good on the one hand and Job Resume Examples No Experience | Resume Format Pdf, evil on the other. A classic example of this comes from the cowboy movie cliche of the Artist Template, good guys wearing the white hats and the bad guys wearing the black. As a symbol of the cowboy, it is also a symbol of the white man's violent struggle with the Examples Format Download Pdf, American Indian.

It is a symbol of the Portfolio Images On Pinterest | A Letter, lawman, but, as Stetson Kennedy has pointed out to me, it is also a symbol of the lawman against the badman. This translates, for African-Americans, into a symbol of the lawman against Stagger Lee, and of the lawman against the black man as will soon be discussed in detail below. By recognizing the Stetson's great symbolic nature, we can see that the Job Resume | Resume Download, fight between Billy DeLyon and Stagger Lee was about much more than a $5 Stetson. It represented something of much greater significance than a simple hat--it signified the battle between good and evil, between lawman and badman, and between black and white. Fedex Invoice Template Free! In the southern states, the Stetson was almost as much a symbol of the law as a police officer's badge.

To African-Americans, this type of Job Resume Examples hat--when perched on top of a lawman's head--must have been a potent symbol of the injustices that they were forced to endure under a racist system of law. Southern sheriffs, prison guards, and other officers of law enforcement were the primary instrument by which the Jim Crow system was kept in place, and Agreement Agreement Contract, the Stetson hat was a typical part of the southern lawman's uniform. By killing the man in the fight over No Experience Format Download Pdf the Stetson, Stagger Lee symbolically defeated the people and the system that oppressed him and the African-American people for Agreement, so many years. To explore what has just been put forth more fully, let's take a closer look at two things: (1) Stagger Lee's opponent, Billy DeLyon and (2) the Stetson hat. Lloyd Price's and Examples No Experience Pdf, Archibald's recordings do not explicitly identify Billy as an officer of the Cover A Cover, law, but the Download, song's storyline of a dispute over a Stetson certainly must have influenced African-Americans into seeing him as a white lawman. The law and the men who enforced it were a constant threat to blacks. Even the Make Me A Cover Letterhow To Make Letter. Letter, most docile harmless law-abiding black men had to constantly be on guard against acting in a way that the law saw as a provocation. No Experience! Simply standing up for one's rights could mean having to deal with the man and doing time in jail. Since the law was such a threat to Sample Recommendation Letters, blacks, and the Stetson was a symbol of the law, many blacks must have seen the dispute over | Resume Pdf the hat as representing the black man's struggle with the white man's system of law.

And since blacks identified with Stagger Lee, they would have cast Billy DeLyon with the role of Invoice. Commercial Template Free a white policeman. Job Resume No Experience | Resume Download Pdf! In fact, in an essay titled Got the Fedex Commercial Invoice, Blues for Mean Old Stack O' Lee, Max Haymes points out that Billy is portrayed as a policeman in an early recording about Stagger Lee from 1927 by two men known as The Downhome Boys. (See for Haymes's essay. Job Resume Examples Download Pdf! Also see Note 1 .) Therein, he also points out that the Sample Letters, fifth stanza of the | Resume Format Pdf, song seems to Artist Statement Letter, protest the common practice of arresting innocently idle blacks for Examples No Experience | Resume Download Pdf, vagrancy, a discriminatory practice which I discussed earlier in this essay.) It would be fair to say that the role of the police officer is so vital to the Stagger Lee legend that--in versions which make no specific mention of the lawman--he and Billy have become combined into Warehouse Manager Resume, a single person. Format Pdf! (Note 2) Now, let's move the focus away from Billy and take a closer look at the Stetson hat itself. When people write about the legend of Stagger Lee, they rarely fail to mention the Stetson--probably because they sense that it is very important, even crucial, to the story.

But these writers also rarely offer any explanation as to the significance of the hat to the story. Two individuals who have put forth such explanations are Max Haymes and Cecil Brown. Haymes discusses the Stetson (in the essay referenced above) in terms of its magical or mojo-like qualities. And Brown wrote about the importance of the hat, mainly on a psychological (Freudian) basis, as part of his dissertation titled Stagolee: From Shack Bully to Culture Hero . I will go in | Notary a different direction in Job Resume Examples No Experience | Resume Download Pdf my essay, focusing on the Stetson in connection with the Sample Vendor Agreement Contract, Agreement, history of | Resume Format Download Pdf race relations between African-American and white people. But before we get into specifics about the Stetson, let's look at the symbolic nature of hats in general. They often serve as symbols of authority as in a king's crown or in the special hats worn by military and police officers. Traditionally, in the presence of Recommendation Letters Promotion a king or another individual holding a post of Job Resume Format authority, a man of lower station was expected to Simple Fedex Invoice, remove his hat. Examples | Resume Format Pdf! By baring his head, he in effect became shorter thereby showing subordination to his superior.

In the past, hats were symbolic of social class, with members of different classes wearing different types of Make Cover To Make A Cover Fbi Cover Letter hats. A well-known example of a hat designating one's social status is the top hat which was commonly worn by upper class men during the nineteenth century. Examples | Resume Download Pdf! Hats also represent transformation, as in the crowning of a king. Anyone who has attended a high school or college graduation ceremony is familiar with the symbolic transformation made by 8 Best On Pinterest Letter, Reference moving the tassel from one side to Job Resume No Experience | Resume, the other on top of a graduate's mortarboard. Make Me A Cover Letterhow Fbi Cover! (Note 3) The Stetson is a large and impressive hat that could make a man appear much taller and give him a certain air of Examples No Experience Download Pdf authority. It is a symbol of law and order to Americans because it is part of the uniform of many law enforcement agencies. But to certain groups, the Stetson can be a very negative symbol. Sample Vendor Contract! In One Flew Over the Examples No Experience Format Download Pdf, Cuckoo's Nest , a book filled with symbolism, there is a key scene when a mean-spirited white character wears a Stetson. The novel's author, Ken Kesey, used the hat as a symbol of the white man's oppression of the American Indian (Note 4) . In the world of African-Americans, the Stetson must have also been a symbol of white oppression because it was commonly worn by southern men of the law including sheriffs, prison guards, and judges. Not all southern lawmen were racists (some of them risked their own lives to save black men from lynch mobs), but many of the uniformed officers of the law in the south were enthusiastic enforcers of the Jim Crow system. The folklorist Alan Lomax, near the beginning of 8 Best Portfolio | A Letter, his book The Land Where the | Resume Format Pdf, Blues Began , tells of his encounters with two Mississippi sheriffs who displayed racist attitudes that surely were common among southern lawmen.

One of the sheriffs, whom Lomax described as wearing his Stetson like a crown, expressed shock over the idea that Lomax would shake hands with a black man or use the term Mister in addressing him. Possibly the most notorious and powerful of all the southern sheriffs was Willis McCall, the racist Lake County, Florida sheriff who shot the Groveland Four defendants. McCall, with his Stetson capping his hulking six foot one inch 240-pound frame, was a personification of the evils of the Jim Crow system. A Stetson was the trademark of another well-known lawman, Bud Russell. Russell's name was legendary in the jails and prisons of the south. As the chief transfer agent for 8 Best Portfolio Images On Pinterest Letter, Letter, the Texas prison system, he is said to have traveled millions of miles, most of them spent transporting prisoners from Job Resume Format Download Pdf local jails to Texas state prisons. His work had him traveling throughout the Sample Recommendation Letters For A, south and through many northern states also. Job Resume No Experience Format Download Pdf! It is Make Me A Cover To Make Letter. Fbi Cover Letter estimated that he had 115,000 men in his custody during his forty year career and only one of them was ever able to escape.

A large percentage of these prisoners were African-Americans. Russell treated these black men more humanely than the Job Resume Examples, average officer of the law, but his exceptional efficiency at getting his job done make him a figure of dread among the black prison population. He transported groups of prisoners long-chained together by the neck in a specially built wagon known as Black Betty. When a man in a jail cell awaiting transfer to a Texas state prison heard the rattling of chains coming towards him from down the hall, he knew it was Bud Russell and that any chance at Manager | Best Template, escape had been lost. But there were other ways of identifying Russell; in Alan Lomax's book The Land Where the Blues Began , he quotes from a song the prisoners sang about Russell (probably from a version of the classic song The Midnight Special). Yonder comes Bud Russell. How do you know? I know by Job Resume Examples | Resume Download his big hat. And his forty-four. The big hat was Russell's trademark grey Stetson (Note 5) . This was not the only song about Russell. The great Texas bluesman Lightnin' Hopkins wrote and recorded a song called Bud Russell Blues and also mentions him in Sample Letters For A Promotion another recording titled Penitentiary Blues.

As you might suspect, Hopkins was from Texas and he served time in prison. Russell was such a legend that the term Uncle Bud became synonymous with prison transfer agents in general (Long-Chain Charlie was another slang term for these agents). When Uncle Bud delivered a group of prisoners to Examples Pdf, the penitentiary, they were taken into the custody of guards who despised convicts, especially black convicts. In the 1967 Paul Newman movie titled Cool Hand Luke , Hollywood brought us the chilling image of the Simple Template, cold cruel prison guard (Note 6) . Examples Format! The guard who stood out the most in the movie was known as the walking boss or the man with no eyes. He had a particularly menacing appearance which was emphasized by his black Stetson hat and reflective shades (Note 7) . Although the guards treated the convicts with brutality, this celluloid version of prison life fell far short of depicting the horrible conditions that many prisoners, and blacks in particular, endured in the south's prison system. A very graphic, factual account of a convict's experiences in a state penitentiary can be found in Albert Sample's book Racehoss: Big Emma's Boy (Note 8) . In this book, Sample--a real-life inconceivably tough Stagger Lee figure himself--tells of his years in a Texas prison where guards constantly brutalized black prisoners and even killed them without any fear of being held accountable.

One such guard was nicknamed Boss Killer Band because he allegedly murdered a whole band of black convicts--a total of 14 men--in a single day. In Lomax's The Land Where the Blues Began , he likens the southern prisons he visited to Make Letterhow Fbi Cover Letter, Nazi concentration camps. He describes the extreme racism of the Job Resume Examples No Experience Format Download Pdf, guards in Sample Letters Promotion these prisons and in one particular description of them he points out their Stetson hats. For the many blacks who served time in prisons, the Examples | Resume Format, Stetson must have been associated with some of the most brutal aspects of white oppression. In writing this paper, I gathered information from the Portfolio Images Letter, writings of Stetson Kennedy and corresponded with him regarding the Stetson hat. As Mr. Kennedy has been a dedicated worker for civil rights for many years, and he is also a relative of the man who created the Download Pdf, Stetson, he certainly has a sensitivity to Artist Statement | Notary Letter, the meaning of this hat to No Experience Download, African-Americans. He told me the following story which is an excellent illustration of Me A Cover Letterhow To Make A Cover Letter. how this simple hat could be a powerful symbol to blacks living in No Experience | Resume Download Pdf the Jim Crow south. In the 1940s, many African-Americans worked in the migrant camps of south Florida in the fertile fields just south of Lake Okeechobee. On Saturday nights, the local sheriff would make his rounds by Contract, Vendor Contract visiting the Job Resume | Resume Format Pdf, many juke joints frequented by these migrants.

These jukes were rough places where knife fights were common, but the Business Template, sheriff came up with a unique way of reducing the number of Job Resume Examples | Resume Format Download cutting scrapes He would go to Contract, Vendor Agreement Contract, the establishment with the worst reputation and throw his Stetson out on the dance floor. He would leave it lying there as a symbol of his authority, and depart from the juke to continue on with his night's work. The hat was such a powerful symbol that the couples would be extremely careful to Job Resume No Experience | Resume Format Download, not disturb it as they moved around the dance floor. After making all the other stops on his rounds, the sheriff would drive back to Sample Recommendation Promotion, the juke where he had left his hat. Upon arriving, he would go to retrieve the Stetson, finding it lying undisturbed in the exact spot on the floor where he had left it. Examples | Resume Format! (Note 9) Based on the above discussion of the Stetson, it should be clear that this type of hat was a very powerful and negative symbol to members of the black community. It was a symbol of the law, and Invoice. Fedex Commercial Invoice, the law was no friend to African-Americans. In their fight for equality, they often found that standing in their way was a lawman wearing a Stetson hat. And since the fight between Stagger Lee and Billy DeLyon centered on a Stetson, many African-Americans who listened to Job Resume No Experience Format Download, Lloyd Price's civil rights era recording of Stagger Lee may have interpreted it as being about their ongoing struggle for freedom. With Stagger Lee's triumph over Sample For A Billy, the recording served as a vision of victory in the civil rights struggle, a victory which--after many, many years of slavery and oppression--could finally be imagined as within reach.

From this perspective, the jubilant tone of Price's recording makes perfect sense--it was a victory celebration. My discussion of the Stetson would not be complete without pointing out that this hat could also be a positive symbol to African-Americans. Examples Pdf! In Stagolee: From Shack Bully to Culture Hero , Cecil Brown explained that, during the late nineteenth century, black men--including Lee Shelton, the man upon which the Stagger Lee legend is at least partially based--wore Stetsons as symbols of their manhood or newly won masculinity. In effect, wearing a Stetson was a way of showing that you were no longer a slave, but a free man. Looking at 8 Best Letter,, the Stetson from this perspective, the fight between Stagger Lee and Billy could be interpreted as the black race's battle for freedom, with the hat serving as a prize symbolic of Job Resume Examples | Resume Format Pdf that freedom. Other examples of black men wearing Stetson hats can be found in the world of the blues. Bluesman Big Bill Broonzy describes black musicians wearing ten-dollar Stetson hats in his autobiography Big Bill Blues . Sample Contract, Contract! A number of famous bluesmen have worn a Stetson as a trademark including Clarence Gatemouth Brown and Otis Rush. And the Job Resume Examples No Experience Format Download, great rock and roll songwriter Otis Blackwell, a black man who grew up in New York with a love for cowboy movies and Tex Ritter cowboy songs, regularly wore a Stetson. Invoice. Fedex Commercial Invoice Template Free! So the Stetson could be a positive or negative symbol with the determining factor being whose head the hat was perched upon.

Part 5 is below following the notes to Part 4. Duncan and Job Resume No Experience | Resume Download, Brady is an old song which is specifically about a black man going up against a white policeman. It was in Leadbelly's repertoire and it tells the story of a black bartender named Duncan who kills a white policeman named Brady in retaliation for harassment of the For A Promotion, bar's customers. John W. Examples No Experience Pdf! Roberts, in chapter 5 of Sample Vendor Agreement Contract, Agreement Contract his book From Trickster to Job Resume Download, Badman, presents an excellent discussion of the black badman versus the white law officer. See especially pages 196 and 197. There once was a time in America (not more than 50 years ago) when a man who left his home without a hat on his head was considered to be improperly dressed. Although hats are a much less important part of fashion today, they can still be quite powerful symbols. For example, when Hollywood's George Lucas originally explained his idea for the movie Raiders of the Lost Ark to Steven Spielberg, the hat that the Make Cover To Make A Cover Letter., character Indiana Jones would wear was one of the major factors which captured Spielberg's imagination. Here is how Spielberg explained it: When he [Lucas] mentioned that it would be like the old serials and that the guy would wear a soft fedora and carry a bullwhip, I was completely hooked. (Quoted from George Lucas: The Creative Impulse by Charles Champlin.) (end of Job Resume Examples Pdf Note 3)

The scene occurs in chapter 24 when Chief Bromden tells a story to McMurphy about a time when he was a boy and several white men visited the reservation. The location of the prison is not identified in the movie, but the novel upon which it is based sets the story in Statement Template the state of Examples | Resume Download Florida. The book Cool Hand Luke was written by Don Pearce, a man who actually did time on a central Florida chain gang. In Pearce's book, all the guards wore cowboy hats, but, in the movie, the Walking Boss was the only guard to wear a Stetson. The story of Albert Racehoss Sample's life is truly amazing. He spent 17 years incarcerated in the Texas prison system, doing most of his time in a unit called Retrieve, a place that was known as the burnin' hell. During that time, he became a man so ba-a-a-ad that he made Stagger Lee's legendary badness seem tame in comparison. He was a man of mixed race, both black and white.

He was a small man, but he was so tough and callous that even the biggest and meanest cons would not dare tangle with him. Sample was punished on a regular basis for his rebellion against Make Letterhow, authority and his refusal to accept the dehumanizing treatment to which prisoners were subjected. But the punishment had no effect on him because he was so hardened by his life's experiences that he could endure incredible amounts of Examples | Resume Pdf pain and torture. The guards would punish him by | A Letter, Reference hanging him up off the ground with handcuffs, suspending him until his feet were just barely off the ground. This torture was so painful that it was referred to No Experience | Resume, as being effective at making the deaf hear and the blind see.

The warden tried to break Sample's spirit by leaving him hanging like this for hours. Then, he would approach Sample and ask him how he was doing. Sample's response was that he was doin' just fine Cap'n. Then the warden would ask him when you want me to let you down from there?. Sample would respond by saying whenever you get ready, Cap'n. This was the Vendor Vendor Agreement, pattern for what was repeated over and over again, with the warden hoping to catch Sample in a moment of weakness in which he would cry out for mercy. But Sample refused to give in. It was his way of striking back and No Experience | Resume Format Download Pdf, protesting against Me A Cover Letterhow Letter. Fbi Cover, the way he was treated. They probably would have killed him if it wasn't for the fact that he was such a valuable laborer on the prison farm.

In his capacity for Job Resume | Resume Format Download, work, he was a true superhuman--a real life equal to the legendary John Henry. The guards certainly must have also feared what would have happened if they had tried to | Best Business Template, kill him and failed. Even the notorious murderer Boss Killer Band was apparently too frightened of Sample to try to kill him, as evidenced by an incident in which he explained to the prisoner why he hadn't yet killed his yellow ass. After he was released from prison, Sample earned a college degree and became a prison reformer, earning many prestigious awards for his work. He wrote his life story in Racehoss: Big Emma's Boy . | Resume Format Pdf! A powerful movie documentary about | Notary Letter, him titled Racehoss was released in 2001. In relating this story to me, Stetson Kennedy explained that he was not sure of where he had come across it, but he believed that its source was his friend, the Florida writer Theodore Pratt. (Pratt, who wrote extensively about Florida in Job Resume No Experience | Resume Format Download books and articles of Recommendation Letters Promotion fiction and non-fiction, died in 1969.) The way Mr. Kennedy remembered it, the story was contained in a work by Pratt titled Curb Girl . I can find no evidence of anything written by Pratt with that title, but I did learn that there is a Ronald Reagan movie titled Juke Girl which was based upon a story that Pratt provided to NAME of movie studio (This is documented in letters that Pratt wrote to Kennedy . Job Resume | Resume Format Download! The letters are part of a collection of Pratt's personal papers which are archived in Florida Atlantic University's library.) Juke Girl contains no scene which resembles the story of the sheriff tossing his Stetson on the juke joint floor.

A screenplay for the movie which was included in Pratt's papers did not contain the scene either. Still, it is Sample Letters Promotion possible that the story was included in the material Pratt provided to the studio and was simply never incorporated into the screenplay. Despite my failure to Job Resume Download, find the story among Pratt's writings, I believe that he actually was Kennedy's source, mainly because Pratt wrote an article for the Saturday Evening Post titled Land of the Jook (published in Template | Notary Letter the April 26, 1941 issue). The article exposed the poor living conditions endured by the black migrant farm workers in the Glades area of Palm Beach County. In this article, Pratt also wrote about his visits to the local juke joints frequented by the migrants. It is Examples Format Pdf my guess that during one of Statement Template | Notary these visits he must have encountered or learned about the Stetson-throwing sheriff.

Possibly Pratt did not write about the sheriff in his Post article because he wanted to include it in the story that he eventually submitted to Warner Brothers. Assuming that Pratt was the source for the Stetson-throwing sheriff story, it probably would have been based on fact because Pratt was a real stickler for Job Resume Examples No Experience | Resume, authenticity in his novels and other fictional work. The research notes contained in his personal papers provide clear evidence of his efforts to give authenticity to his portrayals of Florida life and history. And in regards to Recommendation For A, his research for Jook Girl , I found a letter from Pratt to Job Resume Examples | Resume Format, Kennedy (dated September 24, 1941) in which he states that Warner Brothers have a bellyful of 'Glades jook stuff in my story which I gathered in Simple Fedex Invoice the 'Glades. Part 5: Black Power and the Romanticized Stagger Lee. Earlier in Job Resume Examples No Experience Pdf this essay, I showed that by looking at recordings which were made between the Invoice. Fedex Free, 1920s and 1950s, you can observe a major change in the myth of Stagger Lee. In the earlier recordings, Stagger Lee was portrayed as a cold ruthless killer, but Archibald's 1950 record is a major departure from the past as his version tones down a number of the negative aspects of the badman's legend. Finally, we saw that Lloyd Price's celebratory version of Stagger Lee in Job Resume Examples No Experience Format the late 1950s reflected the fact that the badman had evolved into a champion for black rights. Now we will take a look at black history and Letters For A Promotion, relate it to Examples No Experience | Resume Pdf, Stagger Lee's legend in order to gain an understanding of how this major transformation may have come about. In doing this, we will see that the legend's evolution seems to have mirrored major social and Sample Vendor Agreement, political changes. Format Download! Let's examine these changes by taking a look at the world of the Statement Letter, black man in 1928, and then jumping three decades ahead to 1958 to see how that world had changed.

When Mississippi John Hurt recorded his classic 1928 version of the Examples Download, Stagger Lee legend, blacks were living under the Jim Crow system, a system which demanded that they be absolutely submissive to the white race. In commenting on this system in his book Why We Can't Wait , Martin Luther King pointed out that any African-American who did not defer to whites and who instead showed a spark of Make Me A Letterhow A Cover manhood, was likely to be threatened by the police, thrown in jail, and/or beaten. This is why blacks admired a figure like Stagger Lee. | Resume Pdf! He had no fear of the law, he stood up to and defied the white man's system. But he was not a real hero who could bring about Simple Free, real change. Job Resume | Resume Download! Instead, he was a destroyer, a nihilist with supreme power, a man who blacks could envision as being able to totally obliterate the white man's world. The popularity of his legend among African-Americans was probably a reflection of the fact that, after so many years of enslavement and Warehouse Manager | Best, oppression, there was simply no hope for change in their world. As Lawrence Levine pointed out, the American black man's only hope was for the white man's world to be wiped out so that a better one could be built in its place.

And Stagger Lee, the ultimate badman, the man who defeated the | Resume Pdf, devil and took over Warehouse | Best Business hell, was the man who could do it. If we jump ahead now to the time of Lloyd Price's 1958 recording of Stagger Lee, we see that during that thirty year leap some major changes occurred which resulted in a different and better world for Examples No Experience | Resume Download, African-Americans. For example, in Make Me A Cover To Make Letter. Fbi Cover 1937, Joe Louis became the world heavyweight boxing champion, making him an absolutely huge hero to blacks. Many African-Americans (including Malcolm X, who was so inspired by Louis that he stepped into the ring himself) saw Louis as a symbol of the black man defeating the white man and Job Resume No Experience, his racist system. Another advance was made in 1950 with the integration of all troops fighting in the Korean War. And in 1954, in a case known as Brown vs. the Board of Letter Education of Topeka, Kansas, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously overturned an earlier decision from over 50 years ago that had allowed school segregation. This was followed, in 1955, by the event that turned the fight for civil rights into a powerful force--the arrest of Rosa Parks in Alabama for Job Resume Examples No Experience | Resume Download Pdf, refusing to give up her seat on a bus to a white person. Also in Simple Fedex Free 1955, blacks were breaking down barriers in the music world as Chuck Berry, Little Richard, and Fats Domino all brought rock and roll to Examples Format Download Pdf, white America with their first hits on the pop charts.

Another landmark was reached when Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1957 which was the first major piece of civil rights legislation passed in over 80 years. Later in 1957, another victory was won when federal troops were used to guard black students in order to bring about the court-ordered integration of a high school in Letterhow To Make A Cover Fbi Cover Letter Little Rock, Arkansas. With all of these advances, hope may have no longer seemed like a dirty four-letter word to African-Americans. They could see that change was possible and that freedom was within reach. This major shift was echoed by the transformation of Stagger Lee. Reflecting the changing times and attitudes, he was converted from No Experience | Resume Format Pdf a totally destructive force into an agent for social change.

With this newly found hope, the black badman became a symbolic hero in the fight for civil rights. His ba-a-a-a-dness made him the ultimate warrior in the fight for freedom. Therefore, after a string of encouraging civil rights victories during the fifties, many black people must have heard Lloyd Price's hit record Stagger Lee--as it began its climb up the charts in late 1958--as a song of Sample Letters For A Promotion hope about their fight for freedom. Viewing the No Experience Format Download, record in this way, the celebratory tone of the music can be heard as the sound of rejoicing over the battles won so far and over | Notary Letter the final victory envisioned for the future. Evidence of Stagger Lee's new role as a civil rights hero can be found in the writings and statements of African-American writers and activists such as James Baldwin and Bobby Seale. For example, Stagger Lee's transformation was pointed out by Baldwin in his foreword to Seale's autobiography. Therein, he suggests that the defiant act of civil disobedience by Rosa Parks allowed the figure of Stagger Lee to achieve his manhood. What he was saying was that the legend had matured, that Stagger Lee had, in effect, grown up by redirecting himself to a social and Examples No Experience | Resume Format Download Pdf, political agenda. Sample Recommendation Promotion! This is what happened with Malcolm X. After discovering the teachings of Elijah Muhammed, he underwent a transformation from a hustler and hoodlum to Examples No Experience Pdf, a civil rights and religious leader for Make Cover To Make A Cover Fbi Cover Letter, the Muslim group the Nation of Islam.

This major redirection in Malcolm X was referred to by Seale during a 1970 jailhouse interview (excerpted in Greil Marcus's Mystery Train ) in which he commented on the legend of Stagger Lee and Job Resume Examples | Resume Download, its inspiration and meaning to him. He said that he saw Stagger Lee in himself and in the lives led by Malcolm X and his fellow Black Panther leaders Huey Newton and Eldridge Cleaver. These men all went through transformations similar to Stagger Lee. And, looking back in time, it is clear that (as Marcus has stated) the Black Power movement was inspired to some degree by the legend of Stagger Lee. In saying that he saw Stagger Lee in himself and in other militant black leaders, Bobby Seale was romanticizing the legendary outlaw. Seale's views reveal a major switch from the past in Contract, Vendor Contract the way that badmen were treated in the black folk tradition. Traditionally, the black badman was not a romanticized figure. Men such as Stagger Lee were not seen as good or innocent, and they were not given any socially redeeming qualities. Job Resume No Experience Download Pdf! Lawrence Levine discusses this subject in some detail in his book Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought From Slavery to Freedom . Therein, he contrasts black folklore's unromanticized badman with white folklore's noble outlaw or social bandit. Agreement Agreement! Levine points out | Resume Format, that white badmen such as Robin Hood or Pretty Boy Floyd (whose exploits were celebrated in song by Woody Guthrie) were seen as benefactors to and heroes of the poor and oppressed. He theorizes that white folklore's good badmen are generated during times of great social change or upheaval out of the Letters, desire for a return to the order of the past.

He then concludes that the reason black folklore lacks good black outlaws is No Experience Download that the African-American community held no desire for things to return to as they were in the past. Considering the inhumane conditions that they had lived under for so many years, there obviously was nothing to Commercial Invoice. Fedex Commercial Invoice Template Free, be nostalgic about. In making his argument, Levine brings out the Examples No Experience Download, total hopelessness of the black experience in Recommendation Letters Promotion America. But, with the advances made through the Examples No Experience, civil rights movement, many of the black men of Bobby Seale's generation finally did have some real hope for a better life. There was even hope for those who had become disillusioned with the civil rights movement--those who saw that its achievements had little effect on the social problems of black America such as poverty and unemployment--and who then turned, in search of a remedy, to Business, the Black Power movement. Even this more radical element had hope for change because the racial turmoil of the 1960s received worldwide attention. The ugliness of America's race problem was being exposed to the world through television news coverage which showed powerful images of the suffering endured by African-Americans and their struggle for equality.

Much of the No Experience Download Pdf, world looked at the plight of black America with sympathy, and this must have been encouraging to African-Americans. This hope for change is what may have led to the romanticization of the black badman and to Seale's speaking of Stagger Lee as a hero. Seale said that there were millions of Stagger Lees in the black community. Contract, Vendor Agreement Contract! He held such a deep identification with the No Experience | Resume, legend that he named his son Stagolee. In his jailhouse interview, he explained that he gave his son this name because that's what his name is Simple Commercial Fedex Invoice Free as if to say that Stagger Lee is who we all are in Examples Pdf the black community. The Meaning of the Sample Agreement, Stagger Lee Legend.

I want to finish up this section by exploring the meaning of the Stagger Lee legend. Job Resume Examples | Resume Download! The black writer and folk tale collector Zora Neale Hurston has stated that every African-American folk tale has had a point to make. All of them have had something to Resume | Best Template, teach black Americans about themselves and Job Resume Examples No Experience Format Pdf, the world they lived in. So what was the point or meaning of the story of Stagger Lee? What did it teach?

James Baldwin would probably answer these questions with one word: survival. Baldwin thought that survival was a main ingredient which African-Americans put into their folk tales (Note 1). | A Letter, Reference! And the story of Stagger Lee can certainly be understood as carrying a message of survival--Stagger Lee was killed by the white man as punishment for the killing of Examples No Experience | Resume Billy, but he triumphed in the end as he defeated the devil and Template | Notary Letter, turned hell into his own version of paradise. This story offered hope for survival to black men who knew that they could suffer, at the hands of whites, a fate similar to Stagger Lee's--whether it would be by execution, by lynching, or by having their lives slowly sucked out of them bit by Format bit in any number of ways. And there may have been a second way that the legend of Stagger Lee dealt with survival. It may have made the point that directly challenging the white man's authority would pose a threat to Sample Letters, the black man's survival.

After all, if a man as powerful and bad as Stagger Lee lost his life by placing himself at odds with the white man's authority, the average black man would not stand a chance challenging the white man. Examples No Experience | Resume Format Download! Therefore, the message of the folk tale may have been that blacks would have to bide their time before they could directly challenge their white oppressors. They would have to work indirectly to improve their lot, and Resume | Best, use their wits to survive until they could take a chance at defying the white man's discriminatory laws. And this is exactly what African-Americans did. Examples No Experience Format Download! A great example of this can be seen in the life of the black writer Richard Wright who, while he was a young man, used trickery to get his hands on books which he wanted to On Pinterest Reference, read. Living in an area where blacks were not permitted to borrow books from the local library, he would go to the library and pretend that he was on an errand to Examples No Experience | Resume Format Pdf, pick up the books for a white man. Wright would borrow the Sample Recommendation Letters, library card of a white co-worker and write a note to the librarian which he signed with the name of the owner of the card. Job Resume Examples Format Pdf! The note would contain a list of books and 8 Best Portfolio Images Letter, Reference Letter, request that they be given to this nigger boy. He would assume a look upon his face which conveyed to the white librarian that he was totally uninterested in the books. This ruse worked like a charm as the library regularly provided Wright with the books he desired. (Note 2) Note 1: This is discussed by Maya Angelou in Job Resume Examples No Experience Format Download Pdf her book A Song Flung Up to Heaven . Sample Contract, Vendor Agreement! According to Angelou, Baldwin also believed that African-Americans put survival into their poems, songs, dances, clothing, cooking and humor.

Note 2: This story appears in Wright's The Ethics of Living Jim Crow: An Autobiographical Sketch. Part 6: The Ultimate Rock 'n' Roll Record. The greatest pop music was music of liberation: Bob Marley, Bob Dylan, Elvis Presley, James Brown, Public Enemy, The Clash, The Sex Pistols. Those were pop groups that liberated an Examples | Resume Format Pdf enormous amount of people to be who they are. --Bruce Springsteen on Nightline/UpClose. (ABC News) July 30, 2002. Lloyd Price's recording of Stagger Lee may very well be the ultimate rock and Fedex Commercial Free, roll record. What follows is | Resume Format Download Pdf my argument for why I make this claim. My reasoning is based upon a theme-oriented approach of classifying rock, blues, and jazz and showing how they are related to each other. This approach was developed by a writer named Herb Bowie and is presented in his web book titled Reason to Rock which can be accessed at . Bowie's methodology is to look at the overriding theme of each type of Commercial Invoice. Template music and Job Resume Examples Format, show how they are connected to each other based on their different themes.

I will explain this approach, and then, I will use its ideas to make my argument for why Price's Stagger Lee is the ultimate rock record. Bowie explains that the theme of the blues is oppression. To be more specific, it is the white race's oppression of the black race. He points out that this can be seen in both the lyrics and the rigid song structure of the blues. In presenting my own argument, I will focus on Sample Contract, Agreement the subject matter of the Format Download Pdf, lyrics. When a black man sings the Manager Resume | Best Business Template, blues, he is not singing about being in Job Resume | Resume Pdf a personal state of sadness or depression. Instead, in singing about his experiences with pain and suffering and frustration and anger, he is singing for all African-Americans about the Make Letterhow To Make A Cover Letter. Fbi Cover, realities of the conditions that they all face as members of the Job Resume Examples No Experience | Resume Format Download, black race. The subject matter of the blues is the Agreement Vendor Contract, day to day problems of the black man living under a constant state of white oppression. For example, a particular blues song may be about not being able to pay the Job Resume Download, rent--but what is it that is really at Sample Vendor Agreement Vendor Agreement, the root of the problem of Job Resume Examples Download not having the money to On Pinterest, make the payment?

Brownie McGhee has pointed out, in Lawrence Redd's Rock Is Rhythm and Blues , that whiskey, women, and money may be the things he sings about in his blues, but a song of complaint about his woman doing him wrong is actually a complaint about the white man doing him wrong. Therefore, in a very elemental way, the blues is protest music--protest against Job Resume Examples No Experience Pdf, oppression. Stagger Lee embodies the blues theme of oppression (Note 1) and it certainly is a protest song. The main reason Stagger Lee was such a legendary figure among blacks is Sample Vendor that he was free. Job Resume Examples Format! His badness was important because it allowed him to be a free man, to not have to answer to anyone including the 8 Best Portfolio | A Reference Letter, white man's law. Singing--or being entertained by--a song of protest like Stagger Lee was one of the few ways that African-Americans could fight back against Jim Crow. At the opposite end of the musical spectrum from the blues, we find jazz. Herb Bowie points out that the theme of this type of music is No Experience Download Pdf freedom. Jazz focuses upon Cover Letter. Fbi Cover Letter, improvisation which is practically synonymous with musical freedom. No Experience Pdf! A standard jazz technique is to play a popular song and then improvise variations to Artist Statement Template | Notary Letter, the melody line.

In the 1950s, avant-garde players such as Ornette Coleman took the idea of musical freedom to the extreme, creating music which is known as free jazz. Bowie identifies the major theme of rock music to be liberation, positioning it between the blues and jazz. He points out that the blues and jazz deal with fixed states--oppression and freedom--which are opposites of each other, while rock and roll expresses the transition between these states, moving from oppression to freedom. Therefore, rock and roll deals with the act of liberation, of being set free from bondage. One of rock's all-time greats, Bruce Springsteen, would surely agree that rock and roll's main theme is liberation. He has commented about No Experience Format Download Pdf, his own life in a way that has made it clear that rock music was his means of escape, his way out, his liberating force. Many critics have interpreted his car songs as being about escape, and Springsteen once pointed out that the Letters Promotion, guitar was his key to the highway.

In inducting Bob Dylan into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, he pointed out that the Job Resume No Experience | Resume, music of Elvis freed people's bodies and Dylan's freed people's minds. For A Promotion! Clearly, Springsteen sees rock and Job Resume Format, roll as a liberating force. Using the theme-oriented approach discussed above as the basis for Simple Invoice. Fedex Invoice Template, my argument, I will now go on to explain why I believe that Lloyd Price's recording of Stagger Lee is the ultimate rock and roll record. Examples Format! But first, let's take a look at this record's credentials. It was released in late 1958, and, in Sample Recommendation For A early 1959, it went all the way to number one on Job Resume No Experience | Resume Format both the RB and the pop charts.

Not only that, but it was the Simple Commercial Free, first record made in a rock and roll style by a black man, woman, or group that went all the way to number 1 on No Experience | Resume the pop charts. At that time, the Letterhow To Make, pop charts were still dominated by white musicians. Records from Examples | Resume Little Richard, Fats Domino, and Chuck Berry had all broken into pop's top 10 in 1955, but Price's Stagger Lee was the first black rock and roll record to Agreement Contract, Contract, go all the way to number 1. (A few hits by black musicians, such as Sam Cooke's You Send Me and several records by The Platters became number one pop hits before Stagger Lee, but they could not really be classified as rock and roll.) So Stagger Lee was a real breakthrough for black rock and roll. This is important, but it is not what actually makes this recording the ultimate rock record. So what does make Lloyd Price's Stagger Lee the ultimate rock and roll record? It is the Examples No Experience | Resume Format Download, ultimate rock record because it is the most fitting and greatest expression of rock's theme of liberation. Let me explain what's behind this statement.

Rock and Sample Vendor Vendor Agreement Contract, roll expresses the theme of Job Resume No Experience | Resume Format Download liberation in many ways. For example, Alice Cooper's School's Out celebrates freedom from Warehouse Business Template school, Bruce Springsteen's Thunder Road deals with escape from a life with no prospects and little hope, and many, many rock songs--such as Blue Monday by Fats Domino, Working for the Man by Roy Orbison, and Working for a Living by Huey Lewis--stem from the desire to be set free from the burden of work. But, the No Experience | Resume Download, ultimate expression of rock's theme of liberation--considering the fact that rock and roll developed from the blues--would have to deal with the subject of liberation from some form of oppression. Yet there are several different ways that liberation can take place for those who are oppressed or enslaved or imprisoned. For example, some benevolent force could set an enslaved or oppressed people free, as Lincoln did when he abolished slavery or as one country might liberate another from domination by a foreign power. This, in Make Me A Letterhow To Make Letter. Fbi Cover Letter a way, parallels the Examples No Experience | Resume Format Download, type of liberation that Springsteen spoke about when he said that Elvis freed our bodies and Make Cover Letterhow Fbi Cover Letter, Dylan freed our minds.

Another type of liberation occurs through escape, as when a prisoner escapes from the bonds that hold him. Job Resume Format! Again, this parallels Springsteen's comments about how rock and roll provided him with a means of escape from a life that he did not care for. Simple Commercial Fedex Commercial! A third type of liberation occurs when a person who is being oppressed faces his oppressor, engages him in battle, and defeats him. This third type is the most direct, dramatic, and powerful form of liberation, making it the most fitting form for this music that we call rock and Job Resume Examples No Experience Format, roll. Now, let me recap and get even more specific in defining what would be the ultimate rock and roll record. Since rock and roll developed from the blues, and Sample For A Promotion, since the theme of the Job Resume Examples No Experience Format Download Pdf, blues is the oppression of the black race by the white race, and since the theme of Vendor Agreement Contract rock is liberation, the Examples | Resume Format, ultimate expression of rock and roll would be a record in which the oppressed black race liberates itself by doing battle with and Vendor Vendor Agreement, defeating its white oppressors. If you agree with what has been discussed throughout this essay, you would have to conclude that Lloyd Price's Stagger Lee is that record.

But let's say that you do not buy into my theories about the Stetson hat or about the link created between Stagger Lee and Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho. By looking at things from a different perspective, I can still make a solid argument for Price's Stagger Lee being a song about the liberation of African-Americans from Examples No Experience | Resume Download white oppression, thereby making it the ultimate rock and roll record. Let me explain this other perspective. By taking Stagger Lee--a song which reflects and stems from the oppression of the black race by Sample Recommendation Letters For A Promotion the white race--out of its blues tradition and recording it as a rock and roll song, Lloyd Price changed its theme from oppression to liberation. This transformation was brought about by Price, regardless of Examples No Experience | Resume Format what his intentions were and what was going on in his conscious or subconscious mind.

A song which was so deeply rooted in the tragedy and inhumanity of slavery and Jim Crow, and which was recorded in such a jubilant, rocking and exhilarating tone, could no longer be a blues or a song of Artist Template | Notary Letter oppression. Job Resume Examples | Resume! It could only be one thing-- rock and Recommendation Letters Promotion, roll. And, as rock and roll, it announced an Examples | Resume Download Pdf amazing turn of Make Cover A Cover Letter. Letter events--victory! Without a doubt, Lloyd Price's recording of Stagger Lee is the ultimate rock and roll record. Stagger Lee is not really a blues song, it's a ballad. But it is part of the blues tradition and Job Resume Examples, was sung by many bluesmen and also by songsters who were deeply influenced by Commercial Fedex Commercial Invoice Free the blues such as Mississippi John Hurt.

Part 7: The Return of the Badman: Stagger Lee in the 21st Century. According to the late Joseph Campbell, a man who was one of America's greatest authorities on mythology, modern science and Job Resume Pdf, technology have greatly reduced the importance of Recommendation Letters Promotion myths in people's lives. | Resume Format Download Pdf! But if he was alive today, he might agree that the myth of Stagger Lee is an Make Cover To Make Letter. Fbi Cover Letter exception. Stagger Lee's legend has not only Job Resume Examples No Experience Format Download, survived the modern world, but may have actually grown in importance. Today, we find the figure of 8 Best Portfolio On Pinterest Reference Stagger Lee in our books, in our movies, and in our music. He may have a different name now, such as the black writer Walter Mosley's character Mouse, but there is no mistaking who he is based on his violent actions and bad-ass I answer to nobody attitude (Note 1) The world has become a harder, much more dangerous and more violent place to live in, and, in this kind of environment, Stagger Lee's legendary ba-a-a-dness makes him very, very relevant. After all, a man who can beat the devil at his own game, take control of hell and turn it into his own version of No Experience | Resume Download Pdf paradise is not just the ultimate badman, he is also the ultimate survivor (Note 2) . Stagger Lee's importance in today's world is the Sample, subject of the rest of Examples No Experience | Resume this essay, but let me backtrack a little bit, for now.

It was not long after Lloyd Price had his late fifties hit with Stagger Lee that black rock and roll musicians faded from Statement popularity and were replaced by artists who made soul music. During the sixties, black singers and vocal groups such as Aretha Franklin and | Resume, The Temptations shared domination of the 8 Best On Pinterest Reference, pop charts with white pop and rock groups like The Beatles and The Rolling Stones. Black music in the seventies was dominated by dance and party music--disco and funk. The legendary black outlaw Stagger Lee had all but disappeared from black music during this decade. But that was about to be changed by a new form of music known as rap. Rap had some characteristics which it shared with rock and Job Resume Format Download Pdf, roll.

Like rock, it was direct, dramatic, and powerful. ( Run D.M.C. even created rap's first pop top 10 hit when it teamed up with Aerosmith's Steven Tyler and Joe Perry in a remake of Me A Letterhow To Make A Cover Letter. Fbi Cover Walk This Way.) In 1985, a Los Angeles rapper named Toddy Tee had a local hit with a record titled Batteram which dealt with tactics used by the LAPD in its war on drugs. It was a hint of what was to come. In the Examples No Experience | Resume Download, late 1980s, a group named N.W.A. Make Cover A Cover Fbi Cover! (a polite abbreviation for Niggaz With Attitude) put gangster rap on the map. Their breakthrough album, 1988's Straight Outta Compton , was a celebration of the criminal lifestyle (Note 3) . It was an album full of rage depicting mountains of violence with plenty of hell-raising and hedonism thrown in for Pdf, good measure. Stagger Lee was back.

And he was bigger and ba-a-a-a-der than ever. He had new street names like Ice Cube, Dr. Dre, and a moniker that most resembles his original--Eazy-E. But even though his name had changed, there was no mistaking that this was Stagger Lee. It was made crystal clear by the title of one song from the album--F--k tha Police.

By the early nineties, gangster rap was the dominant form of rap. Statement Template | Notary Letter! But there were also rap groups, such as Boogie Down Productions, who pointed out the consequences of gangster violence. These groups preached about and created music about being more socially responsible. They tried to educate and raise the political consciousness of their listeners. Examples Download Pdf! But they also had a tough, aggressive Stagger Lee attitude, as evidenced by the name of | Notary Letter one of the best of these groups--Public Enemy--and by the titles of Job Resume No Experience | Resume Format Pdf two of their albums-- It Takes a Nation of Warehouse | Best Millions to Job Resume Examples | Resume Format, Hold Us Back and Fear of a Black Planet . Rap music signaled that black America still had a long way to Statement Template Letter, go, especially in escaping from the ghetto. And, of Job Resume No Experience Format Download Pdf course, that meant that white America still had a long way to go to. The civil rights victories of the 1950s and 1960s did not bring relief to the people living lives of desperation in the worst parts of the big city. The ghettos just kept getting worse. The cards were still stacked against inner city African-Americans, and--still to a large degree in at least some cities, if not all--so was the American system of justice and law enforcement.

Out of Artist Template | Notary frustration and anger, Public Enemy recorded the song 911 Is a Joke and west coast rapper Ice-T wrote the Job Resume No Experience | Resume Download Pdf, song Cop Killer in Make Me A Letterhow To Make Letter. which he fantasized about dusting off some policemen. Job Resume | Resume Format Download! Ice-T's song sent police groups into an uproar, resulting in the record being banned. Cop Killer had a chilling message, but people with open minds can understand how a song like that could be written out of Commercial Invoice anger, especially considering that Ice-T was from Job Resume Examples No Experience Los Angeles, a city whose police force included Mark Fuhrman and the officers who perpetrated the Rodney King beating. As rap was emerging during the 1980s, proponents of the Reagan-era backlash against civil rights claimed that all that was necessary for 8 Best Portfolio Images On Pinterest | A Letter,, black people to improve on No Experience | Resume Format Download their lot in Cover To Make A Cover Letter. Fbi Cover Letter life was for No Experience | Resume Format, them to pull themselves up by their bootstraps. But in Vendor Contract his book The Ice Opinion , Ice-T gives a different point of view, the viewpoint of someone who has actually lived the ghetto life. He explains how kids living in the ghetto are so easily swept up into a life of crime. In particular, he points out how in his Los Angeles neighborhood, he saw the police department and system of law literally forcing kids into the wrong side of the legal system. Examples No Experience | Resume Format Download! It is probably impossible for a white person to understand just how big a trap the Cover A Cover Letter. Fbi Cover, ghetto is, but Ice-T's book is a real eye-opener. Job Resume No Experience | Resume Format Download! It makes it clear that for a kid to have a chance of surviving and escaping from the ghetto's world of violence, drugs, and crime, he would have to be strong, gifted, and very, very, very lucky. And that still would only give him an outside chance.

Survival is the Recommendation For A, name of the game in the ghetto. Getting out is not about pulling yourself up by your bootstraps; it's about walking through the fires of hell and managing somehow not to be consumed by the flames. It means doing battle with the devil and somehow coming out on top. Examples No Experience | Resume! That is why Stagger Lee is back. Because he is the only one who is ba-a-a-a-d enough to do it. And as we begin the 21st century, it sure enough looks like he's going be around for a long time. Mouse, a character found in Mosley's Easy Rawlins mystery series, is an outstanding modern day incarnation of Stagger Lee. In the movie based on Resume Template Mosley's book Devil in a Blue Dress (starring Denzel Washington as Easy Rawlins), Don Cheadle gives a particularly chilling performance as Mouse.

Hollywood has brought us other images of Stagger Lee relatively recently including a memorable scene in Spike Lee's Malcolm X . It takes place in Malcolm's younger days. Decked out in a colorful zoot suit, he and another man accidentally bump into each other in a night club. The man insults Malcolm and Job Resume Download Pdf, then takes Malcolm's wide-brimmed hat from Letterhow To Make A Cover Fbi Cover his head and tosses it on the floor. Malcolm responds by breaking a bottle over the man's head knocking him to Examples Format Download, the floor. In Stagolee: From Shack Bully to Culture Hero , Cecil Brown points out that Spike Lee may have shot this scene with the myth of | Notary Letter Stagger Lee in mind. (Incidentally, if you take Spike Lee's given name, Shelton Lee, and reverse the positions of the first and last names, you get the name Lee Shelton. Job Resume Examples | Resume Format! And Lee Shelton just happens to Sample Recommendation For A, be the name of the man known as Stag Lee who killed William Lyons in St. Louis and who may be the historical figure who inspired the Job Resume Format, Stagger Lee legend.) In addition to Stagger Lee, the stories of many other African-American folk figures contain the theme of Recommendation For A Promotion survival. Examples No Experience Format Pdf! An example is the character Shine, a black man who, because of his skin color, does not get a seat on the sinking Titanic's lifeboats. To save himself, he jumps into the icy water and swims to safety. James Baldwin once told his friend Maya Angelou that the reason that the black race survived slavery was that they put surviving into their poems and songs and folk tales.

A forerunner of gangster rap was rude-boy music, a music from Jamaica which was popular during the mid-1960s. It included records which either glorified or condemned the violent criminal lifestyle of the ghetto youth of the island. The rudies idolized rough, tough, and violent outlaws as can be seen in song titles such as I'm the Toughest, Tougher than Tough, and Johnny Too Bad. The rude-boy records were the Jamaican version of the Stagger Lee badman theme.