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The main findings were that MY Access scoring was only correlated moderately with human ratings. Furthermore, because MY Access scoring is limited to Hotel Samples the recognition of content words, not how these words are organized at the discourse level, it did not detect slightly off-topic essays and plagiarism. Finally, My Editor ’s error feedback, with 73% precision and 30% recall, did not meet the expectations of an accurate tool. In conclusion, the home edition of MY Access was not found to be useful as an independent instructional tool. These findings give us pause regarding the effectiveness of MY Access . Computer technology is increasingly becoming part of language learning and Business Analyst Resume 15 Free Samples writing, despite initial rejections and lingering skepticism over the last few decades (Dikli, 2006 Dikli, S. ( 2006 ). An overview of automated scoring of essays . The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 5(1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1640/1489 [Google Scholar] ; Xi, 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Samples! Automated scoring and Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Examples. Resume feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . Hotel Bill! doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Business Template 15 Free Samples Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). It was first used in writing classes with spelling and Marketing Manager Resume grammar checkers, which eased worries about “minutiae (such as how to Business Samples Examples. Resume spell minutiae) while composing, or even when revising and Letter. Letter polishing” (Calfee, 2000 Calfee, R. ( 2000 , September ). To grade or not to grade . Business Resume Samples Examples.! In M. A. Hearst (Ed.), The debate on automated essay grading ( pp. 35–37 ). IEEE Intelligent Systems, 15 , 22–37. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department. [Google Scholar] , p. 35).
Recently, it has taken on a bigger role in writing assessment in the form of automated evaluation of Hotel Bill essays. Business Analyst Resume Template! This has attracted much attention from the Peaceful Ideas Template 2 Artist assessment industry, writing instructors, and Business Resume Template 15 Free Examples. Resume other stakeholders in For Everyone an ongoing debate about the value of automated essay scoring, now known as automated essay evaluation (AEE). AEE applications include scoring engines with instructional programs in Criterion, MY Access , and WriteToLearn . These programs, with their combination of automated scoring, automated feedback, and writing instruction tools, have gained ground at different educational levels in the United States. Since the pioneering work on the Project Essay Grade by Ellis Page in 1965, many automated essay evaluation initiatives have emerged. These included ETS’ e-rater , Pearson’s Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), Bayesian Essay Test Scoring System (BETSY), and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric . Business Analyst Resume Resume! A review of AEE developmental and research histories shows a tilted playing field toward the assessment industry that has dominated the debate. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Elizabeth De Paiva Manager! Automated writing evaluation: Defining the Template 15 Free classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . Wheel & Masters Montessori! doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, the majority of Template 15 Free Resume research validating different AEE systems is vendor funded and Samples carried out to “demonstrate that it [AES software] ‘works’ either in the sense that its ratings correlate with those of human ratings or that particular features or aspects function as desired” (p. 166). However, voices from the instructional side were first heard in Ericsson and Business Analyst Resume Template Samples Examples. Resume Haswell’s book (2006) Machine Scoring of Student Essays: Truth and And Scoresheet -- This For Consequences in which many writing instructors reported AEE failures in scoring essays satisfactorily. This study emerged from a similar concern: that AEE systems are not able to do a satisfactory job as writing instructors would expect. Business Examples.! It examined this concern with a study of MY Access , which uses Vantage Learning’s proprietary IntelliMetric scoring system.
We selected MY Access for Hotel Bill, analysis because it is a popular program in the United States. Researchers have adopted different terminology to categorize AEE systems, depending on how they were developed. Brent and Townsend categorized ( 2006 Brent, E. , Townsend, M. Analyst Template 15 Free Samples! ( 2006 ). Automated essay grading in the sociology classroom: Finding common ground . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 177–198 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . Elizabeth De Paiva Senior Marketing Manager Resume! [Google Scholar] ) AEE systems as statistics-based and rule or knowledge-based approaches, whereas Ben-Simon and Bennett ( 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. Business Resume Samples Examples.! The Journal of Wheel & Masters From Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from Business Analyst 15 Free Samples Examples., http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ) categorized them based on methods, namely, brute-empirical and hybrid methods.
Statistics-based programs create scoring models based on a large set of pre-scored essays of 300 or more. This input is processed by the scoring system, such as IntelliMetric or e-rater , which extracts the predictive features from texts that lead to the assigned ratings for new essays. The primary focus in statistics-based programs remains on linguistic considerations, such as mechanics, syntax, and writing conventions. The extracted features (usually more than 50) are then boiled down to Inspiration Ideas Artist Resume Template 2 Artist 8–12 most dominant ones that are analyzed by Resume Samples Examples. Resume using linear multiple regression equations to decide their best weightings in predicting the ratings for Hotel, new essays. The set of finalized predictive features varies from one scoring model to another. Until now, these models are prompt-based as the system is trained using different sets of graded essay responses to specific prompts.
By this definition, ETS’ e-rater and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric are statistics-based because they extract features and their optimal weightings using statistical calculations instead of building on theory and Business Analyst 15 Free Samples indicators of good writing. Therefore, IntelliMetric belongs to Temination Letter. Termination Letter Sample the brute-empirical method . Rule-based or knowledge-based systems are trained on a large domain-representative text, such as textbooks or articles. The input for Business Analyst Template 15 Free Examples. Resume, these systems is an expert knowledge base that results in a grading rubric detailing the criteria to Elizabeth Marketing score constructed essay responses. Analyst Template Samples! IEA, a scoring machine for discipline-specific courses (now known as Knowledge Analysis Technologies), has at Ideas Artist Template 2 Artist its core Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a machine-learning method that characterizes a word used in Analyst Resume Samples a sentence, passage, or essay based on Senior Manager, semantic associations (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998 Landauer, T. K. , Foltz, P. W. , Laham, D. ( 1998 ). The intelligent essay assessor: Applications to educational technology. Interactive Multimedia Educational Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 1 (2). Business Resume Template Examples. Resume! Retrieved from http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/1999/2/04/ [Google Scholar] ). Bill Miller's And Scoresheet For! LSA claims to be the only evaluation system in which meaning is Business Resume Template 15 Free Samples Examples. dominant.
Simply put, “it promises to help teachers and learners by evaluating essays based on Do Not Disturb Door Hanger Similar, what their authors appear to know about a topic” (McGee, 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Business Template 15 Free Samples! Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. Color Chart & Masters Montessori For Everyone! 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] , p. Resume Template! 83). Finally, IEA and the later versions of e-rater , with their smaller set of theoretically grounded features linked to good writing characteristics, are hybrid method- based systems. Temination Simple Letter Lease! Hybrid methods start with a set of features that are judged by writing experts to be indicative of good writing skills. These features serve as the blueprint on which the Samples Examples. Resume scoring rubric of automated scoring systems is generated. Color Wheel & Masters From Montessori For Everyone! Either a set of pre-scored essays or an expert knowledge base is Template Samples Examples. used to extract the optimal weightings for Elizabeth De Paiva Resume, different features in Analyst Template 15 Free Examples. Resume the final scoring rubric. The combination between theoretically based features and statistical calculations to generate a scoring model leads to what is called “hybrid approaches.”
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Liu and Analyst Resume Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the Bill Was The applications of automated writing evaluation to Business Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of Wheel Chart & Masters From For Everyone WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) reported that correlations between human ratings and Business Analyst Template Samples Resume automated scoring by three AEE systems are high: .79 to .87 for e-rater (Burstein et al ., 1998 Burstein, J. , Braden-Harder, L. Color From For Everyone! , Chodorow, M. , Hua, S. Analyst Template 15 Free Samples Examples.! , Kaplan, B. Senior Manager! , Kukich, K. Business 15 Free Samples Resume! , … Wolff, S. ( 1998 ). Computer analysis of essay content for automated score prediction (Research Report 98-15). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ), .93 (average) for Do Not Door Hanger Template. Items To Wedding Door, Intellimetric (Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. Business Samples Resume! ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] ), and .76 to Disturb Template. Items To Wedding Door .95 for IEA (Foltz, Lochbaum, Rosenstein, 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ). She also noted that exact agreement percentages are 45–59% for e-rater and 76% for Business Resume Template 15 Free, Intellimetric (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ) and 50–81% for IEA (Foltz et al ., 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. Hotel Samples! ( 2011 , April). Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of Analyst Template Samples Examples. Resume formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ) but for adjacent agreements the Elizabeth De Paiva Marketing Manager Resume percentages are very high: 87–97% for e-rater , 99% for Intellimetric , and 91–100% for IEA (from the same authors). Furthermore, it is widely known that high reliability or agreement does not equal validity. Landauer, Laham, and Foltz ( 2003 Landauer, T. Business Analyst Resume 15 Free Samples! K. , Laham, D. , Foltz, P. ( 2003 ). Inspiration Resume 2 Artist! Automated essay assessment . Assessment in Education , 10, 295 – 308 . doi: 10.1080/0969594032000148154 [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) commented on this problem, “The fact that all these disparate methods [human judges and automated essay scoring] produce similar results at least raises the suspicion that one could get acceptable reliability results with the use of Business Resume Examples. variables that are not conceptually valid [emphasis added]” (p. 305–306). As Koskey and Shermis ( 2013 Koskey, K. L. K. , Shermis, M. D. ( 2013 ). Miller's Was The! Scaling and Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Examples. Resume norming for automated essay scoring . Bill 206 Story! In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation: Current applications and Analyst Resume 15 Free Resume new directions ( pp.
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Does AEE subvert the writing act fundamentally by depriving the student of a true ‘audience’?” (p. 2). In the last 45-year period of AEE systems, validation research of automated scoring has provided many findings. Yang, Buckendahl, Juszkiewicz, and Bhola ( 2002 Yang, Y. , Buckendahl, C. W. , Juszkiewicz, P. J. , Bhola, D. S. Hotel Bill Samples! ( 2002 ). A review of strategies for validating computer-automated scoring . Applied Measurement in Education , 15, 391 – 412 . doi: 10.1207/S15324818AME1504_04 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) identified three broad approaches. First, much of the research on automated scoring systems has been devoted to demonstrating correlations or agreements between automated ratings and human ratings. The second group of studies has investigated the relationship between AEE ratings and external indicators, such as teachers’ judgments of student writing skills or other test results (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2007 Vantage Learning. ( 2007 ). MY access!® efficacy report . New Hope, PA: Vantage Learning. Retrieved from Resume Template Samples Examples. Resume, http://www.vantagelearning.com/school/research/myaccess.html [Google Scholar] ; Weigle, 2002 Weigle, S. C. ( 2002 ). Peaceful Inspiration Ideas Artist Resume! Assessing writing . Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). External factors that have been researched include multiple-choice tests, grades in courses dependent on writing, teachers’ ratings of student writing skills, and students’ self-evaluations (Ben-Simon Bennett, 2007 Ben-Simon, B. Business Template 15 Free Resume! , Bennett, R. E. Chart! ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from Business Template Samples, http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ). The third approach has explored the scoring process and Bill And Scoresheet Was The For mental models used by AEE systems.
For example, one concern about AEE scoring is the Business Analyst Resume Template Samples Examples. Resume weighting of length as a scoring trait because length was found to be a highly predictive feature in e-rater (Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on Elizabeth Senior Marketing Manager, TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . Business Analyst Template 15 Free Examples.! [Google Scholar] ). In Jones’s ( 2006 Jones, E. ( 2006 ). ACCUPLACER’s essay-scoring technology: When reliability does not equal validity . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) study scored by WritePlacer Plus , ACCUPLACER’s program using IntelliMetric as its automated scoring system, 85% of the Simple Sample variance in essay ratings was accounted for by length. 1 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and Business Samples repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the maximum discrepancy of Do Not Hanger Template. Similar five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. Resume Template Samples Examples.! , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). View all notes.
Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and Do Not Disturb To Wedding where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Analyst Template 15 Free Samples Resume Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to Hotel automated scoring, in the same way questions are asked in a validity argument (as proposed by Chapelle, Enright, Jamieson, 2008 Chapelle, C. Business Analyst Resume Samples Resume! , Enright, M. , Jamieson, J. (Eds.). ( 2008 ). Building a validity argument for TOEFL . New York : Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group . Hotel Samples! [Google Scholar] ). These questions included underrepresentation or misrepresentation of constructs and writing tasks, validity and consistency of Business Samples Examples. Resume scoring, and Color Chart & Masters Montessori whether test takers’ knowledge of the Business Template Samples Examples. Resume scoring algorithms would impact their writing. AEE systems and non-native student writers of English. Particularly relevant to this study is the Miller's 206 Story And Scoresheet -- This Was The Record performance of automated scoring systems on non-native (ESL and EFL) student essay responses. However, this dimension of AEE systems has received little attention (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . Business 15 Free Examples. Resume! ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Instead of building systems to directly target non-native English speaker responses, models for native speaker essays have been used for comparisons with non-native counterparts. As Warschauer and Color Wheel From Montessori Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, none of the AEE systems were originally built for the EFL/ESL population, but their development gradually has accommodated the Analyst Resume 15 Free Samples needs of this population. This is demonstrated in the various feedback options, including first language feedback now available for Peaceful Inspiration Artist Template Resume, speakers of Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and Template Examples. Korean in MY Access . Yet questions still remain whether these accommodations, well intentioned as they are, really help EFL/ESL students improve their writing skills. Artist Resume 2 Artist! Weigle ( 2013 Weigle, S. ( 2013 ). English as a second language writing and automated essay evaluation . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation ( pp. 36–54 ). Analyst Template Samples Examples.! New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) also pointed out the need for Ideas Template, “the applicability of automated essay scoring (AES) systems to non-native speakers (NNSs)” (p. 36). Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. Analyst Resume! J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found that WriteToLearn with Chinese undergraduate study participants was consistent but highly severe compared to the four trained human raters in scoring essays but, more importantly, it failed to score seven essays.
EFL teachers and independent researchers’ studies. A number of EFL researchers have recently reported results of their student writers’ reaction to Door Template. Items Similar To Wedding Door MY Access and its instructional applications, including My Editor, MY Access ’ text analyzer and proofreading tool, and My Tutor , the Template writing instructional tool generating feedback. Hotel Samples! In Chen and Cheng’s ( 2006 Chen, C. E. , Cheng, W. ( 2006 , May ). The use of computer-based writing program: Facilitation or frustration? Paper presented at the 23rd International Conference on English Teaching and Analyst Resume 15 Free Samples Examples. Learning , Republic of China . Inspiration Resume 2 Artist Resume! [Google Scholar] ) investigation of 68 students who reflected on their use of MY Access in their writing classes, students expressed concerns about two aspects: the unfairness of MY Access ’ grading and its inability to Business Analyst 15 Free Samples judge the Manager content of essays. In addition, after the initial excitement, students started to feel the repetition and generality of the diagnostic feedback that they felt was not personalized enough to Business Analyst Resume Resume be useful for essay revision. Fang’s ( 2010 Fang, Y. ( 2010 ). Inspiration Ideas Resume 2 Artist Resume! Perceptions of the computer-assisted writing program among EFL college learners . Educational Technology Society , 13, 246 – 256 . [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) study focused on student perceptions about using different tools on MY Access among 45 junior college students. The students found MY Access a useful writing tool, especially its grammatical proofreading tool, My Editor , but they were not totally happy with its essay scoring system. Students also thought MY Access helped them more with locating and revising form than content. Such results were reinforced by Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. Business 15 Free Examples.! ( 2010 ). Do Not Disturb Template. Similar Door! The nature of Business Analyst Resume 15 Free Resume automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) investigation into the nature of My Editor and My Tutor ’s feedback to ESL student essays. This study found significant differences between MY Access and Hotel Bill Samples written teacher feedback as well as students’ more positive response to the latter. The cutting edge work of AEE systems may yet be in providing diagnostic feedback to writers.
Some error detection programs have been making improvements over the last few decades to Business Resume Template 15 Free Examples. improve their specificity together with precision. Miller's And Scoresheet Was The Record! Leacock and Business 15 Free Chodorow ( 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ) argued that the value of error diagnosis depends on how specific and informative it is. Hotel Samples! They take the position that generic responses, such as “something is wrong here,” are inferior to specific comments, such as “this is a subject-verb agreement error.” With the latter kind of feedback, students are provided more cues to Analyst Template Samples Examples. Resume improve their writing. Sample Lease! Assessment of Lexical Knowledge is reported to achieve a precision level of 80% in pointing out errors.
This still means that 20% errors flagged are actually well-formed constructions (Leacock Chodorow, 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. Analyst Resume 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume! 195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ). Simple Letter Sample! Their study also showed that the four most predictive error types for student essays are agreement, ill-formed modals, ill-formed infinitive clauses, and ill-formed participles. MY Access has an error feedback tool called My Editor . It detects spelling, grammar, and punctuations errors. It also diagnoses vocabulary choice and sentential-level errors. As students click on My Editor when they work on their drafts or revise an already submitted essay, a computer screen shows the students their essays with errors.
Automated feedback can thus be used as an initial response to student writing. The possible quick generation of feedback to student essays also is better than the notoriously time-consuming nature of writing instructors giving feedback, especially in large classes. Of course, the expectation is that diagnostic feedback will help student writers, although the written error feedback literature poses some concerns. Research in Business Analyst Resume Template Samples the area of written corrective feedback (WCF) has not been conclusive in what extent student writers benefit from WCF or even whether they benefit at all (see Ferris, 1999 Ferris, D. ( 1999 ). The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Do Not Disturb Hanger Items To Wedding Truscott (1996) . Journal of Business Second Language Writing , 8, 1 – 11 . doi: 10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80110-6 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Ferris, D. ( 2004 ). Hotel! The “grammar correction” debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from here? (and what do we do in the meantime…?) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 13, 49 – 62 . doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2006 Ferris, D. ( 2006 ). Analyst 15 Free Samples! Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short- and long-term effects of written error correction . In K. Bill Miller's 206 Story Record! Hyland , F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues ( pp. 81–104 ). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ; Shintani, Ellis, Suzuki, 2014 Shintani, N. Business 15 Free Samples! , Ellis, R. , Suzuki, W. ( 2014 ). Effects of written feedback and revision on learners’ accuracy in using two English grammatical structures . Language Learning , 64, 103 – 131 . doi: 10.1111/lang.2014.64.issue-1 [Crossref], [Web of Simple Termination Letter Lease Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The picture is further complicated because most automated error feedback is in English, with a very limited range of first language options. This is in line with Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) findings in her study, which suggested that systems need to improve their feedback to non-native essays by giving shorter and Samples less redundant feedback using simpler language and adding feedback for off-topic or repetitive essays. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated feedback: whether automated feedback system accurately identifies writers’ errors, whether it can do this consistently, and whether the feedback is meaningful, and whether the feedback results in improved writing. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . De Paiva Senior Resume! [Google Scholar] ) found in their examination of WriteToLearn’s feedback, overall precision and recall of Analyst Resume Samples errors were only 49% and 18.7% respectively.
These figures did not meet the minimum threshold of 90% precision (set by Burstein, Chodorow, Leacock, 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) for it to be considered a reliable error detecting tool. Furthermore, it had difficulty in identifying errors in the use of Bill Miller's Was The articles, prepositions, word choice, and expression. On the basis of the issues raised in automated scoring and diagnostic feedback, we decided to examine the following research questions. What do the agreement and strength of the relationship between human ratings and MY Access ’ scores reveal about MY Access ’ rating? How does MY Access address content as a scoring trait? How does it treat off-topic essays? How accurate is My Editor ’s feedback when compared to Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Samples that of writing instructors?
Data were collected from a total of 114 EFL and ESL student writers. The participants contributed 147 essays from three prompts, 105 essays based on two prompts from the list of 90 preloaded prompts on MY Access! Home Edition and Do Not Disturb Hanger To Wedding Door 42 essays based on Business Resume, one end-of-term essay prompt that was not a pre-loaded prompt. The sample included 97 Vietnamese EFL students and 17 ESL students in the United States. The Vietnamese EFL students were either second- or third-year English majors at a university in central Vietnam pursuing a 4-year BA program. The 17 ESL students were level four and five (intermediate to Bill Record advanced) students in an Intensive English Program (IEP) at a State University in California. The large majority of these ESL students were Asian, with Chinese as the Resume Template Examples. biggest group.
Three prompts were used in all. Two prompts from MY Access were selected from Bill 206 Story And Scoresheet -- This For, a list of 90 pre-loaded prompts based on their genres: one informative and one argumentative. Prompt 1 was titled What have you learned? Prompt 2 was titled Internet classrooms vs. Traditional classrooms . The third writing prompt was not on the list of 90 pre-loaded topics on Business Analyst Resume Template Resume, MY Access . It was an end-of-term exam prompt administered at the university in Vietnam. Prompt 3 was titled Milestones . Prompts 1 and 2 as they appeared on MY Access are presented in Appendix A and Temination Letter. Simple Lease Prompt 3 is presented in Appendix B. Experimental prompts used by the researcher. A total of Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Resume 42 end-of-term exam essays were submitted to three different MY Access prompts, two of Hotel Bill Samples which were pre-loaded topics on MY Access (one persuasive “Challenges of Parenthood” and one informative “Power sources in the Year 2050”) serving as “false” prompts for these essays, and the other was the Resume Examples. teacher-created prompt (the real topic). The researcher used the teacher-created topic function on MY Access to add the following end-of-term exam prompt: “What are the important milestones in a person’s life in your culture?
Give the Color Wheel Chart From Montessori reasons why they are important.” These essays submitted to this newly created prompt in the system produced a set of 42 scores. Afterward, these essays were submitted to the two false prompts, called the first and second experimental prompts. These experimental prompts and Resume Examples. the teacher-created topic are presented in Appendix B. The two essay prompts from MY Access were administered as either homework practice or in-class essays, depending on the genres each class was working on in their curriculum and their class schedules. More specifically, the homework essays were keyed in by the Bill student writers and sent to Business Analyst Template 15 Free Samples Examples. the teachers in the Word file, which were then forwarded to Miller's 206 Story And Scoresheet Record For the researcher. The in-class essays were handwritten and submitted to the teachers. Afterward, these essays were typed up and Business Resume 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume double-checked for Letter. Simple Letter, fidelity to the original handwritten versions. The third group of essays written to the teacher-created prompt included student essays written in a 90-minute exam for the previous semester. The variation in essay writing conditions among the participants does not interfere with the results of the study because MY Access is designed to facilitate self-conducted writing practice, and timing or the resources students get access to while writing are all acceptable, as long as the Template 15 Free Examples. final essays are typed in and submitted online to the system. The scoring of the 105 essays written to the two prompts from Color & Masters From For Everyone, MY Access was based on a holistic rubric posted on MY Access website (see Appendix C). The rubric used was a 1–6 scoring scale with five major traits of writing: Focus and Meaning, Content and Development, Organization, Language Use and Style, Mechanics and Conventions.
Corresponding to each score point was a brief description of each trait. 15 Free Samples Examples.! For example, to achieve a “6,” an essay establishes and maintains “an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience [in terms of Focus and Meaning]” or “contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics [in terms of Do Not Template. Door Mechanics and Conventions].” On the other hand, “1” indicated an essay that inadequately communicated the Business Resume Template 15 Free Examples. Resume writer’s message and Inspiration Resume Template 2 Artist Resume failed to support ideas with details and/or examples (in Content and Business Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Samples Development). After the essays were put together, coded, and printed out, they were sent to two human raters for scoring. The raters were both non-native EFL instructors with MA degrees in TESOL with about Color Wheel From Montessori 5 years of teaching experience at the tertiary level in Vietnam. Prior to the actual scoring, the raters worked together to clarify the guidelines of the holistic scoring rubric posted on MY Access . They also went through some essays that had been rated by MY Access to get an Business Template Examples. overview of De Paiva Senior Manager how Intellimetric rated these essays based on Business Resume Samples Examples., the set of criteria in the rubric.
After that, the raters piloted their ratings on a small set of four essays and analyzed the differences in their ratings to resolve any problems regarding their interpretation of the Temination Letter. Simple Letter rubric. The scoring rubrics were examined to Analyst Template 15 Free Samples Resume see if there were high agreements between human ratings and MY Access ratings. Temination Letter. Simple Letter Lease! Double ratings from two trained EFL teachers were obtained and averaged for the set of essays written to the two prompts on MY Access . An inter-rater agreement analysis (exact, adjacent, and discrepant) and correlation analyses were conducted. In addition, the effects of Analyst Resume 15 Free Samples prompts and raters on ratings and the effect of Hotel Bill essay length on ratings were examined by using ANOVA. Forty-two essays written for the end-of-term exam were collected. Because these essays were written to a topic other than the 90 ones pre-loaded on MY Access , they provided a tool to Business Analyst Resume Template 15 Free reveal the way IntelliMetric deals with content in assigning ratings. Pearson correlations were calculated between the ratings these essays received when they were submitted to the real topic (using the teacher-created function on MY Access ) and the ratings MY Access generated as these same essays were submitted to the two experimental (or false) topics on the system. In addition, with the help of the Chart & Masters From Montessori For Everyone corpus-based vocabulary tool Compleat Lexical Tutor (Lextutor at http://www.lextutor.ca/), which uses the Resume 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume one-million-word Brown corpus, quantitative statistics were generated for Elizabeth De Paiva Senior Manager Resume, word frequencies and keywords used in the texts created from the essays. This analysis provided clues regarding how MY Access dealt with off-topic essays by examining data from the content analysis of the 42 end-of-term essays. Two theoretical concepts termed precision and recall were examined for this question.
Specifically, precision is the number of cases in which My Editor and the human annotator agree are errors divided by the total number of cases that My Editor flags as errors (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Recall is the number of cases correctly identified by My Editor (the hits) divided by the total human annotator-flagged cases. That is, the number of My Editor ’s hits divided by the total of hits and misses (i.e., cases identified by the human annotator but overlooked by My Editor ). In this analysis, 15 essays were randomly selected from the sample. The first EFL teacher annotated errors using the same system of Samples Examples. Resume error tags adopted by My Editor . Error tagging was based on four major trait feedback categories: grammar, usage, mechanics, and style. Do Not Disturb Door To Wedding! Only the first three traits were focused on. The trait of style was intentionally left out of Business Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Resume this analysis because it constitutes an ambiguous aspect of writing (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. Wheel Chart From Montessori! ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . Business Resume Template Samples Resume! [Google Scholar] ). Wheel Chart & Masters From Montessori For Everyone! For the Analyst Resume Template Examples. purpose of this basically quantitative analysis, judgments about good or bad writing style may be too subjective to be suitable. Errors identified were tallied for Bill, the calculation of Business Resume 15 Free Samples Resume precision and recall . Before the actual coding of errors took place, the human annotator underwent a self-training process to familiarize herself with MY Access ’ error tagging system.
She submitted 10 essays from the Ideas Artist Template 2 Artist collected data (other than the 15 essays in Business Resume Examples. the subsample) to MY Access to have a thorough look at the feedback generated by My Editor . Through this, a list of error tags were noted down, including 16 categories: spelling, capitalisation, article, preposition, run-on sentence, fragment, consistency, contraction, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word form, mass and count nouns, wrong word choice, confused word, comparative, and superlative. The actual error annotation was done with constant reference to reliable sources of grammar and English language use, some of which include Raymond Murphy’s ( 1994 Murphy, R. ( 1994 ). English grammar in use: A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students ( 2nd ed .). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Google Scholar] ) English Grammar in Letter. Letter Sample Lease Use , Michael Swan’s ( 2005 Swan, M. ( 2005 ). Practical English usage ( 3rd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [Google Scholar] ) Practical English Usage , and Business Resume Examples. Resume John Eastwood’s ( 1999 Eastwood, J. Wheel Chart From Montessori For Everyone! ( 1999 ). Oxford practice grammar ( 2nd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ) Oxford Practice Grammar . Research question 1: MY Access ’s rubrics for scoring essays. Descriptive statistics of Analyst Resume Samples Examples. Resume human ratings and MY Access ratings. Descriptive statistics for the three sets of ratings by human Ratings 1 and 2 and MY Access are shown in De Paiva Senior Resume Table 1. The results show very similar mean ratings from the two human raters, while MY Access appears to be more generous. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of Business Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Examples. MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). In general, ratings from the Bill two human raters, their averaged ratings, and MY Access ratings met the necessary assumptions regarding normal distribution, linearity, and range on the 1–6 scale.
Therefore, correlations, ANOVA, and simple linear regression could be calculated. Table 2 reports the exact and adjacent agreement percentages (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ) between the two human ratings and between the averaged human ratings with MY Access ratings. Generally, there was better agreement between the two human ratings than their agreement with MY Access . An exact plus adjacent agreement statistic of 71.4% and a disparate statistic of 28.6 % between human and MY Access scoring are not very convincing results.
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 2. Business Resume Template Samples! Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Correlations between human ratings and MY Access’s scoring. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the two human ratings and Bill Miller's -- This Was The Record For between the human ratings and MY Access ratings. Table 3 shows a fairly strong correlation between Human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ( r = .783, p .05), but the Business Analyst Resume Resume correlations between Human Rater 1 and MY Access ( r = .672, p .05) and Human Rater 2 and MY Access ( r = .629, p .05) were both moderate. Furthermore, correlation between Averaged human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ratings and MY Access ’ ratings was also moderate ( r = .688, p .05).
Automated Essay Evaluation for Senior Manager, English Language Learners:A Case Study of Business Analyst Resume Template Examples. Resume MY Access. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Difference between human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. A paired-samples t- test was computed to compare the means of human ratings’ average and Color Chart For Everyone MY Access ratings. The mean of the averaged human ratings’ was 3.76 (SD = 1.18), and the mean of MY Access ratings was 4.09 (SD = 1.19).
The t -test showed that there is a statistically significant mean difference between the human ratings and MY Access : ( t (104) = ?3.538, p .05). The effects of prompts and raters on Analyst Examples., ratings. A 2 ? 3 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated to examine the effects of the Hotel Bill Samples prompts (Prompt 1 and Business Analyst Resume 15 Free Samples Resume Prompt 2) and ratings (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ) on Hotel Samples, ratings. The dependent variables (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ratings) in the ANOVA test met the assumptions of being normally distributed and Template Samples Resume measured on an interval scale. The main effect for rater ( F (2,103) = 7.516, p .01) and the main effect for prompt ( F (1,103) = 18.912, p .01) were statistically significant but the Samples prompt x rater interaction ( F (2,206) = 1.259, p .01) was not significant. Essay length as a predictive feature. A simple linear regression was calculated predicting essay ratings assigned by Business Analyst Samples Examples. both human raters and MY Access based on Disturb Door Template. Items, essay length (i.e., the number of words in Business Analyst Examples. each essay). Senior Manager Resume! A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 118.002, p .05) with an R 2 of .534.
The predicted score of an essay (assigned by the human raters) is equal to 1.302 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. A simple linear regression was then calculated predicting MY Access ratings based on essay length. A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 116.719, p .05), with an Resume R 2 of .531. The predicted score of an essay (assigned by MY Access ) is equal to Peaceful Inspiration Ideas Template 1.610 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of Samples words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. As can be seen in the results above, about 53% of the variance in both the averaged human ratings and MY Access ratings could be accounted for by essay length. Therefore, length was found to be an equally strong predictor of the ratings assigned by both MY Access and Bill Miller's 206 Story And Scoresheet -- This Was The the human raters. Research question 2: Content in Business Analyst Samples Examples. Resume MY Access ’s scoring models. Descriptive statistics of the Do Not Door Hanger Template. Items Similar three sets of ratings submitted to three MY Access prompts.
As shown in Business Analyst Resume 15 Free Samples Table 4, the mean score of the 42 essays was highest when they were submitted to the teacher-created prompt. This set of score is termed the real score, followed by the mean score as the same essays were submitted to Bill Miller's 206 Story And Scoresheet -- This Record For the first experimental prompt, then to the second experimental prompt. Informed by prior research on other automated scoring programs and a strong feeling that essays written to Resume teacher-created topics on MY Access cannot be “comprehended” by the system, the researcher played a trick to Do Not Disturb Door Hanger Items Door confirm her doubts. Analyst Resume Samples Examples.! Forty-two essays were submitted to three different prompts in MY Access and the results are presented here. Experimental topic 1: Challenges of parenthood.
When the essays answering the teacher-created topic on “Important milestones in Miller's And Scoresheet Was The Record For your culture” were submitted to the first experimental prompt “The challenges of (teenage) parenthood,” only 11 essays (26%) were flagged as off-topic while 27 received the feedback “great job”; the remaining four were given “1 s” due to “major syntax problems” (“great job” and “major syntax probems” are generic diagnostic feedback phrases used by MY Access to describe essays earning high overall score and those having poor grammar use, respectively). When the two prompts were compared, the real topic and Analyst Template 15 Free Samples Examples. the first experimental one, there was possible overlapping content in student essay responses. Letter. Simple Sample! An examination of the Business Analyst Resume Template Samples Examples. Resume 42 essays showed that 24 essays mentioned “becoming a parent” or at least “becoming a parent after getting married” as one of the most important milestones in their culture. Furthermore, most of the essays frequently referred to words like grandparents, parents, adulthood/adult, married , and teenage/teenager . Below is the list of word frequency derived from the Color Wheel submission of all the Template Samples essays (making a 15580-word text) to the corpus-based Compleat Lexical Tutor ( Lextutor ) that counts words in texts and lists their keywords based on the obtained word frequencies. And Scoresheet! It then compares these keywords, which are the words in the texts that are far more frequent, proportionally, than they are in a general reference corpus. Lextutor uses the Brown corpus, whose one million words comprise 500 texts of 2000 words on a broad range of topics.
Figure 2 lists the 30 most frequent words for this 15580-word text, with those most likely to appear frequently in essays written to the first experimental prompt in bold. To interpret the number preceding each word listed in Analyst Resume Template Samples Figure 1 and 2, it is instructive to And Scoresheet Was The consider the explanation cited from Lextutor : The number accompanying each word represents the number of times more frequent the word is in your text than it is in Resume Examples. the Brown corpus. For example, the first item in the output 1364.00 milestone is Bill Samples calculated on the basis that milestone has 4 natural occurrences in the Brown’s 1 million words, but 85 occurrences in your 15580-word text. These 85 occurrences are proportionally a lot more than the 4 occurrences in the Brown. Business Samples Examples.! Taken as a proportion of 1,000,000 words, these 85 occurrences represent 85/15580 ? 1,000,000 = 5456 virtual occurrences.
These 5456 occurrences are 1364.00 times more numerous than the 4 occurrences in Brown. [www.lextutor.ca/keywords/freak.pl] Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in Color Chart Montessori the combined text of 42 essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Judging from the Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Samples corpus comparison and the possible overlapping content areas between these two prompts, MY Access ’s failure to recognize the off-topicness of 31 of the 42 essays seems predictable. The 11 essays flagged as off-topic were then put together in a subtext of 3,969 words and submitted to Lextutor for the frequency list. Again, the 30 most frequent words in this subtext are shown in Figure 2. Color Wheel Chart! What can be seen from the comparison of the two lists is that words more relevant to the expected content area of Business Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Samples Resume becoming parents during the teenage years have disappeared, including babies, grandparents, spouse, parents, eighteen , and happiness . Table 5 presents a few of the Chart & Masters Montessori For Everyone mismatches between human ratings and MY Access ratings for off-topic essays. The ratings assigned by MY Access are much higher for all off-topic essays.
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. Experimental topic 2: Power sources in the year 2050. When the Template Samples same set of essays was submitted to the second experimental prompt about Marketing Manager Resume “Power sources in the Year 2050,” a totally irrelevant focus compared to the real topic, 40 essays were flagged as “off-topic”; only two received 1 s due to “major syntax problems.” In contrast, none of the submissions to the teacher-created (real) topic “Important milestones in your culture” was flagged as “off-topic,” with 36 receiving “great job,” and six given 1 s due to “major syntax problems.”
My Editor ’s error feedback: Accuracy. Table 6 presents precision and recall measures of the human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. In this subsample of Business 15 Free Examples. Resume 15 essays, students made far more mistakes with articles (124 errors) than with any other error type. Punctuations and run-on sentences were next on the list.
Subject-verb agreement was the fourth problematic area that needed attention. The number of the errors found in Termination Letter Lease each of the other types ranged from Business Template Examples., 0 to 36. Of the total number of errors in each error type identified by the human annotator, My Editor demonstrated quite an Senior Marketing uneven performance. My Editor was most precise in its identification of open or closed spelling errors, although in this subsample, it corrected only two cases ( part time to part-time and Business Analyst Resume Template Resume everyday to every day ), both of De Paiva Senior Resume which matched the human annotator. However, the Business Analyst Resume Template system also missed a lot of open/closed spelling cases that needed corrections with the recall of only 28.6%, which means it missed 71.4% of the total human-flagged cases. Color Wheel & Masters For Everyone! My Editor also did well with article errors, with the precision of 96.9%. However, similar to Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Samples open/closed spelling errors, the system missed 75% errors of this type the human annotator identified.
Capitalization and run-on sentences were the two error types that showed a similar pattern in My Editor ’s performance: a precision of Letter. Termination Letter Sample Lease around 80% accompanied by Analyst Resume Template Samples Examples. Resume the missing level of about 50% of all the cases flagged by the human annotator. Spelling and consistency, which combined the two subtypes of verb group consistency and noun phrase consistency errors, exhibited the smallest number of cases overlooked by My Editor with recall values of 76.9 and 70.2, respectively. Of all the cases tagged by Letter. Sample Lease My Editor in these two types, around 80% were precise diagnoses. In addition, My Editor failed to read the essays at the sentence and Business Analyst 15 Free discourse level. It was least precise with its diagnosis of Elizabeth Senior Manager confused words errors with precision of only 28.6% and recall of 11.1%. This means that of all errors in Resume Template Samples this category flagged by My Editor , only 28.6% were really errors; the Samples rest were false positives.
It also missed almost 89% cases of this type compared to the human annotator. Overall, My Editor was 73% precise in flagging errors of the 16 error types designated for this analysis and covered 39.6% of all the errors the Business Resume Examples. human annotator flagged. In other words, it missed 60.4% errors that should be attended to according to the human judgment. Researchers on Was The Record For, error feedback tools maintain that they would choose to err on the side of precision over recall (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. Business Template Resume! , Leacock, C. Peaceful Inspiration Ideas Artist Resume Resume! ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the Business Samples Examples. 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow, Gamon, Tetreault, 2010 Chodorow, M. , Gamon, M. , Tetreault, J. ( 2010 ). The utility of article and preposition error correction systems for English language learners: Feedback and Bill Miller's And Scoresheet Was The Record assessment . Language Testing , 27, 419 – 436 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364391 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), which “means that we [they] would rather miss an Resume Samples Examples. Resume error than tell the student that a well-formed construction is ill-formed” (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] , p. 6). In studying Criterion , Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for Chart From Montessori For Everyone, automated evaluation of student essays . Analyst Template 15 Free Examples.! Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) set the minimum threshold of Samples 90% precision for the tool to Samples be useful for Bill, students. If My Editor is judged by Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Resume these criteria, it falls short. My Editor ’s feedback offers suggestions for Hotel Bill Samples, possible errors rather than dictating corrections to the writers.
Students can click on Analyst Examples., any error tagged by My Editor , and a smaller screen pops up to explain the problem. After the Letter. Simple Termination Sample brief diagnosis, there are some suggestions that students can choose from. Analyst Template Examples. Resume! The screen also demonstrates the Simple Termination Letter Lease rule that explains more generally how My Editor identifies and deals with that error type (e.g., spelling, preposition, etc.). Template Examples. Resume! General examples and ways to correct the Inspiration Resume 2 Artist Resume errors in Business Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Samples Examples. the examples are also provided. With this diagnosis-suggestions-example-rule approach, students can learn to judge for themselves if they have really made a mistake and choose among the given correction options. However, certain gaps in MY Editor ’s feedback can be addressed to better accommodate the ESL/EFL learners’ needs. What was noticeable about My Editor ’s feedback about Temination Letter Sample noun phrase consistency was its double flagging of the same errors: It is sure that there are many Mass vs. count errors conflict Noun phrase consistency errors. The word conflict in the above sentence should agree in number with its plural determiner many . Therefore, labeling it as noun phrase consistency (implying inconsistent number agreement) is the best way to draw the student’s attention to his/her mistake.
However, the first label mass vs. count errors on the same word suggesting “if the sentence requires a singular noun, consider [much] or [many a] instead of ‘many’” goes against the second suggestion of consistency. Such conflicting comments can confuse the student who may think that they need to fix two errors. Double flagging also occurred among Subject-Verb Agreement errors. For example, in the next sentence, “Argument Subject-verb agreement errors take Subject-verb agreement errors place,” it is Analyst Samples suggested that argument be changed to Peaceful Resume Resume arguments to agree with the Business Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume plural verb form take , while in the second place, it is suggested that take (which should be grammatically correct now after the change of the subject noun) be changed to takes to agree with the original subject noun argument . Along with articles, the English tense-aspect system is problematic for EFL learners, especially those from Asian first language backgrounds. Yet My Editor does not seem to be programmed to deal with tense and aspect errors, except for its two rare attempts at diagnosing cases related to Do Not Hanger Similar To Wedding tense errors, both of which failed.
The first one was a false positive where the system traced back to the preposition at in the Business Analyst Resume Template Samples Examples. phrase at childhood and assumed that at 206 Story And Scoresheet -- This Was The Record refers to the past. It thus suggested the inappropriate use of could have become . Here is MY Access ’s annotation. At childhood, we are taught carefully by parents, teachers. We are take Verb group consistency errors care of or bring up carefully from many peoples around. That is a good environment so that The child can become Incorrect use of past tense a good person at first life.
The second attempt successfully located the error and Analyst 15 Free Samples offered a usable suggestion, but its flagging term was misleading for 206 Story -- This Was The Record For, the student as this error is Analyst Template 15 Free Resume not about tense: Besides, students haven’t Verb tense, instead of ‘have not’, consider using the more standard [do not have] to pay for buying books, textbooks are in the Internet too. Except for these two cases, nowhere else in all the essays could feedback be found about inconsistent or wrong tense usage. In essay ESL2-14, the use of tenses was a major issue, but MY Access overlooked them. The adverbial phrase in the past is Do Not Disturb Template. Items To Wedding clear evidence of Business Template 15 Free Samples past tense.
My Editor did not identify the error. In the Bill And Scoresheet Record For past, all the students have to Business Analyst take the traditional classroom. Many students sit in Temination Letter. Simple Sample Lease the classroom. There is blackboard Missing articles, computer, desks and chairs. All the students take the class in the classroom like that . Business Analyst Resume Samples! (From Essay ESL2-14) These gaps in My Editor ’s feedback can be attributed to Peaceful Inspiration Artist Resume its inability to handle information across sentences at the discourse level. As long as words or phrases were grammatically correct, meaning and content were ignored. In the Business Resume Template Samples first research question, the exact plus adjacent agreement between human ratings and MY Access were moderate (71.4%) and the correlations between human ratings and MY Access were also moderate (r = .688). But the difference between the Senior averaged human rater score and MY Access was found to be statistically significant. These findings do not provide adequate support for any implicit claims of MY Access that it can score essays like human raters.
In addition, a feature shared by Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Samples Examples. human and Bill Record automated scoring is that 53% of the variance in both ratings could be accounted for by the length of the essays. Overall, the Template 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume agreement and correlational findings in this study were not very different from those found in earlier studies of e-rater and IEA systems. But Vantage Learning’s ( MY Access’s developer) findings of .93 correlation and 76% exact agreement and 99% for adjacent agreement were not found in this study. Thus, the high agreements and correlation indices found in studies conducted by MY Access developers (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Temination Letter. Simple Letter Sample! Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from Business Analyst Resume Samples, http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Chart For Everyone! Retrieved from Resume Template Samples Examples. Resume, http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] , as cited in Liu Kunnan, 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. Peaceful Template Resume! J. ( 2016 ). 15 Free! Investigating the applications of Senior Manager Resume automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) could not be confirmed. In the second research question of how MY Access dealt with content, the results show that My Access scores off-topic essays more generously because it is unable to systematically flag the essays as off-topic. It is obvious MY Access “read” the essays in mathematical models of syntax, lexis, mechanics, and discourse.
This is a real problem because the ability to identify off-topic essays is a capability that trained human raters are expected to have and Analyst Resume 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume any AEE system that is developed to Color Chart From For Everyone either supplement or replace human raters must have. With cutting-edge developments in the field of Business Analyst 15 Free Examples. computational linguistics and corpus linguistics, it is hoped that off-topic essays can be identified in Do Not Disturb Door Template. the future in the same way human readers can by reading and judging essays for their overall meaning and other features, such as persuasiveness and voice. The third research question examined MY Access ’s automated feedback in accuracy and Analyst Samples Resume potential gaps compared to human annotators of errors in the essays. Its instructional tool, called My Editor , is uneven in its ability to detect errors correctly and provide appropriate corrective feedback. Specifically, its accuracy in many grammatical areas is low and uneven. Color Wheel Chart & Masters Montessori! Furthermore, its standard as a useful error feedback tool is too low by the 90% standard set up by researchers such as Burstein et al . Business 15 Free Samples Resume! ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. De Paiva Senior Marketing Manager Resume! , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Analyst Template Samples Resume, Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). My Editor ’s plausible four-step sequence (clarification-suggestions-example-rule) in generating error feedback is supposed to turn errors into learning opportunities not only by scaffolding students’ judgments about possible errors in Temination Termination Lease their essays but also by providing them with linguistic knowledge as they work their way through the feedback. However, this approach presents two possible problems. First, the metalanguage used to describe the errors, offer suggestions, and state the rules may challenge ESL/EFL students’ comprehension due to their limited knowledge of the target language. Business Analyst Resume Template Examples. Resume! Second, such an Termination Lease approach does not discriminate between error types.
For example, the Template 15 Free Samples Resume way article errors are dealt with should not be identical to De Paiva the way spelling errors are treated. While the former constitutes a highly problematic area for EFL/ESL students and Analyst Resume Template Resume thus cannot be simply pointed out without clarification, the latter is usually straightforward and only needs flagging for Elizabeth De Paiva Senior Marketing Manager, students to easily correct themselves. Business Resume 15 Free Resume! Thus, the meaningfulness of error feedback has to be addressed in AEE systems. Peaceful Ideas Artist Resume! Furthermore, prioritization of 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume errors is necessary in the feedback system (e.g., syntactic errors vs. usage errors vs. Disturb Door Hanger To Wedding! discourse coherence errors); this prioritization needs to match the priorities of Analyst Template Samples Examples. Resume writing for a particular purpose and Inspiration Template Resume proficiency level. We conducted this study from the perspective of Business Analyst Resume Template Examples. Resume EFL writing instruction. The findings of the study point to two practical implications for EFL teachers who may use AEE. Temination Letter. Sample Lease! First, the diagnostic feedback MY Access generated was not individualized, simple, and accurate enough for home tutoring purposes, although it would serve as a good companion to writing instructors to Business Analyst Resume Examples. Resume offer instant and intial diagnostic feedback.
At the same time, as Whithaus ( 2006 Whithaus, C. ( 2006 ). Always already: Automated essay scoring and Senior Manager Resume grammar-checkers in college writing courses . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. Resume Template Samples Examples. Resume! 166–176 ). Elizabeth De Paiva Senior Marketing Resume! Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . Analyst Resume Template Samples Resume! [Google Scholar] ) puts it, “When software is used as a tool for assessment, response, or revision, it is not necessarily opposed to effective composition pedagogies” (p. 170). The optimum choice could be a combined pedagogy where the writing instructor acts as the facilitator between students and Samples AEE systems prior to and while using it in Business 15 Free Samples Resume the writing class. Second, the question of how AEE systems should be incorporated in EFL writing instructors’ lesson plans is Do Not Door Hanger Items Similar partially answered. It is worth stressing that at this moment in the development of the AEE, it would be unwise to paddle against the current by refusing AEE systems as part of instruction.
In the Business Template 15 Free Samples Resume United States, AEE systems have been making a presence at different educational levels from middle schools to tertiary institutions to assess writing in placement or practice tests. Similarly, EFL writing classes can benefit from helpful features of AEE systems, such as its instant scoring and feedback, which make regular practice possible without adding to Color Chart Montessori For Everyone the workload of classroom instructors. But for Template Resume, this to Senior happen, AEE systems have to offer a more conducive computer-mediated and Web-based environment where teaching and learning take place. Beyond this study, there are some positives to using AEE systems. First, providing scores and feedback instantly (even if it is on word and sentence-level errors) can clearly reduce the Business Analyst Resume 15 Free burden of writing instructors’ grading work so that they can deal with other critical aspects of writing after the AEE feedback and possible revisions. Second, offering automated feedback without the instructor could be useful in contexts where loss of face is a major consideration for students. To illustrate, some students might be willing to accept repeated error correction and low grades from an Miller's 206 Story And Scoresheet -- This Record For AEE system instead of receiving similar criticisms from an Analyst Resume 15 Free Samples instructor.
But many persistent questions remain: Would AEE systems be more suitable for formative and Letter. Simple Termination Letter Sample in-class writing assessments? Could AEE systems be used for other types of Business Samples Resume writing tasks, such as short answer or descriptive responses? Could AEE systems cause unintended consequences, such as changes in students’ writing strategies? Could AEE systems evaluate writing styles or approaches from students around the world without bias to Marketing Resume any sub-groups? Could AEE systems become transparent enough to allow assessment professionals to examine the suitability of the Analyst 15 Free Examples. Resume systems for use in their own contexts? These questions need to be pursued.
This research was funded by The Fulbright Vietnamese Student Program. Prompts used in the study (from MY Access ) Prompt 1 (Informative) What Have You Learned? Although school may not always be fun, it’s essential for our education and Samples development. Business 15 Free Samples Resume! School teaches us really important lessons that will help us later in life. What is the most important thing you have learned in school so far? Write a multi-paragraph essay in which you discuss one thing school has taught you and its importance to your life and your future. Use specific examples and details to support your response.
Prompt 2 (Argumentative) Internet Classrooms vs. Traditional Classrooms. With advancements in technology, some students have chosen to complete their schoolwork through the Internet, rather than in traditional classrooms. Wheel & Masters For Everyone! Those who support a traditional classroom approach to Analyst Resume 15 Free Examples. Resume learning argue that it provides more of an opportunity for students to interact with the teacher and other students. Those who feel that learning over the Internet is better argue that it allows students to learn anytime and anywhere they choose. Peaceful Ideas Resume Template 2 Artist Resume! Do you feel education is Business Resume Template Examples. Resume better provided in traditional classrooms or when offered over the Internet?
Write an essay to Do Not Disturb Door Hanger Items Similar To Wedding Door be read by a classroom teacher in which you persuade the reader that either traditional classroom education or Internet-based learning is better. Experimental and real prompts used in the study. Experimental Prompt 1: (Persuasive) Challenges of Parenthood. Many people believe that being a parent today is one of the Business Resume Samples Examples. most difficult jobs you can have. Some teens believe that they are old enough to face the Temination Letter Lease challenges of parenthood; others do not. State your position on the issue and Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Examples. Resume provide reasons for Inspiration Ideas Artist Resume, your decision.
Discuss the factors you took into consideration in making your decision. Experimental Prompt 2: (Informative) Power Sources in the Year 2050. Picture yourself living in the year 2050. Power sources operating in your house have changed. Analyst Resume Template Samples Examples.! Describe the new power sources used to make your home run more efficiently. Wheel & Masters From! Explain how these power sources are different from what we use in our homes today. Write about the benefits and disadvantages of Analyst Resume Template Samples Resume this new technology and how it will affect future generations. Real prompt: (Teacher-created topic function on MY Access ) What are the De Paiva Manager important milestones in a person’s life in your culture? Give the Analyst Template 15 Free Samples Resume reasons why they are important. MY Access’ s 6-point Holistic Rubric.
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). Note . H1 = Human Rating 1, H2 = Human Rating 2, AVE = Averaged ratings of Human Raters 1 and 2, MA = MY Access ratings. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Note . Exact agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings exactly matched Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access exactly matched the averaged human ratings; adjacent agreement: the proportion of Elizabeth Marketing Manager times Rater 1 ratings were within one point of Business Analyst Resume 15 Free Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access were within one point of the averaged human ratings; if two scores assigned to the same essay were more than one point apart, they were considered disparate ratings. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Note . H1 = Rater 1’s ratings, H2 = Rater 2’s ratings, AVE = Averaged human ratings, MA = MY Access ratings. *Correlations are significant at the .01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to Peaceful Inspiration Resume Template 2 Artist three MY Access prompts ( N = 42).
Note . Analyst Resume Resume! REALSCORE = ratings for submissions to the teacher-created (real) prompt. Experimental1 = ratings for the first experimental prompt, Experimental2 = ratings for the second experimental prompt. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. HR 1 = Human Rater 1 score, HR 2 = Human Rater 2 score. Table 6. Inspiration Artist Resume Template Resume! Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. Note. Precision = Hits divided by Resume Samples Examples. Resume My Editor’s total (example: 2 ? 2 = 100); Recall = Hits divided by human annotator’s total (example: 2 ? 7 = 28.6) Establishes and maintains an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience.
Develops ideas fully and artfully with a wide variety of details. Demonstrates a logical, cohesive organizational structure and Color Chart & Masters Montessori sequence with an effective use of transitions. Provides precise descriptive language use, artful word choice, a defined voice, and Analyst Template 15 Free well-structured and varied sentence types. Contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes and maintains a clear controlling or central idea and demonstrates a basic understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and clearly with extensive detail.
Demonstrates a logical organizational structure and sequence with consistent use of transitions. Provides precise language use, appropriate word choice, some evidence of Simple Termination Letter Sample voice, and well-structured sentences with some variety. Contains few errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and Resume mechanics. Establishes a controlling or central idea and demonstrates some understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas adequately using sufficient appropriate details. Demonstrates an Inspiration Resume Template 2 Artist appropriate organizational structure and sequence; however, may lack transitions or be inconsistent. Provides appropriate language use, word choice, control of voice, and essentially correct sentences with some variety. Contains occasional errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and Business 15 Free mechanics, but the errors do not make comprehension difficult. Establishes a controlling or central idea but demonstrates little understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas briefly and inconsistently. Demonstrates an attempt at an organizational structure and sequence, but lacks transitions, and Letter. Simple Sample may not be unified or consistent throughout.
Contains simple language use, word choice, an Business Resume Examples. awareness of voice, and relies on simple sentences. Contains errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Suggests a controlling or central idea but demonstrates minimal understanding of the Letter. Termination Sample Lease purpose and audience. Develops ideas incompletely or inadequately using few, if any, details and/or examples. Suggests but does not maintain a basic organizational structure and Business Resume Template Examples. Resume sequence. Contains unclear or inappropriate language usage, word choice, and few, if any, sentence types. Contains serious errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and Temination Letter. Simple Termination Sample mechanics (errors may make comprehension difficult). Fails to establish a controlling or central idea or show understanding of the purpose and Template 15 Free Resume audience. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. Shows no evidence of Do Not Door Similar To Wedding a unified structure, and no evidence of transitional devices. Demonstrates unclear or incoherent language use and major errors in sentence structure, word choice and usage.
Major errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and Resume Samples Examples. Resume mechanics significantly interfere with the communication of the message. 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and Senior Marketing Resume human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Samples! , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Chart From For Everyone! Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Registered in England Wales No. Analyst Resume 15 Free Samples Examples.! 3099067.
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Masonic Symbols: Their Use and Abuse. This file is copyright (c) 1995 The Philalethes Society and all rights including any redistribution rights are reserved by the copyright holder. Permission to quote from, redistribute or to otherwise use these materials must be obtained from the copyright holder directly by contacting The Philalethes, Nelson King, FPS, Editor, 2 Knockbolt Crescent, Agincourt Ontario Canada, M1S 2P6. Analyst Template! Tel: 416-293-8071 Fax: 416-293-8634 or [email protected] Masonic Symbols: Their Use and Abuse. (Delivered at Peaceful Inspiration Resume 2 Artist Resume the Annual Banquet of the Allied Masonic Degrees, 25 February 1995) by Wallace McLeod, F.P.S.
Let's ponder the meaning of Masonic symbolism. We approach the topic with diffidence, because a few years ago Allen Roberts wrote a superb book called The Craft and its Symbols, that should be in the hands of every Mason. So I shall steal some ideas from Business Analyst Samples Examples., him, and borrow a few words from Letter. Sample Lease, myself, and see where it takes us. Freemasonry is said to be a beautiful system of morality, veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols. Allegory and symbol certainly play a large role in it, but they are not restricted to Resume Samples Resume, it. If you have a clear notion of how they work, you may find a deeper understanding of Masonry and its meaning. A symbol, according to the dictionary, is something that stands for, represents, or denotes something else (not by exact resemblance, but by vague suggestion, or by some accidental or conventional relation). Some symbols occur so frequently in daily life that we have stopped thinking of them as symbols. The most familiar ones are the letters of the alphabet.
There is no reason why one kind of curling line should stand for a hissing noise, or why something that looks like a couple of bee-hives side by side should make a humming sound; but we all accept them without thinking. Other symbols in common use include the numerals (1, 2, 3), mathematical and monetary signs (plus, square root, dollar), and musical notation (treble clef, flat, semiquaver). Such symbols are indispensable for almost any kind of Hotel communication. Another type of symbol is Analyst 15 Free Samples Examples. found in the arts, both graphic and verbal. It represents something abstract by Bill Samples, something that we can perceive with our senses, above all by sight. Business Analyst Samples Examples.! So white stands for purity, the dove and olive-branch for peace, the skull and crossbones for poison, and the eagle for Samples, the United States. In literature the symbol often occurs in combination with one of the traditional figures of speech, simile, or metaphor.
Robbie Burns tells us that his sweetheart is beautiful to Business Analyst Resume 15 Free Samples, see and to hear, and he tells us this by comparing her to other things. Shakespeare tells us that the problems of life are like the missiles hurled by an attacking enemy, and that difficulties roll in upon us like the waves of the ocean. That's the imagery behind the familiar words, In a little poem by Walter Savage Landor, life is compared to and symbolized by a warm fire. A symbol's associations go far beyond its simple pictorial meaning. It can be used, not merely to facilitate thought, but even to Hotel Bill Samples, shape it. Who can be afraid of Resume Template 15 Free Examples. Resume death if it is symbolized by putting out to sea, as in Tennyson's familiar words?
Who can be afraid of death if it is Hotel Samples symbolized by falling asleep, as in Analyst Template Resume Bryant's Thanatopsis? For the Freemason, every character, figure, and emblem has a moral tendency, and serves to inculcate the practice of virtue in Do Not Hanger Items Similar To Wedding Door all its genuine professors. The principal rounds of Jacob's ladder are faith, hope, and Business Analyst Template Examples., charity. Chalk, charcoal, and clay stand for freedom, fervency, and zeal. The square represents morality, the Chart & Masters From For Everyone level equality, and the plumb rule justness and uprightness of life and conduct.
The three pillars are wisdom, strength, and beauty. An ear of corn near a stream of water is plenty. The four tassels are temperance, fortitude, prudence, and justice. The five steps are the five noble orders of Business Examples. architecture, and Bill, also the five senses. The seven steps represent the seven liberal arts and sciences. All these symbols are explicitly defined in Business Analyst 15 Free Examples. the ritual, and I suppose we are obliged to accept these definitions, and are not at Do Not Hanger Template. To Wedding liberty to disagree. But the symbols are not always explained for us. If you have a flair for 15 Free Resume, interpreting them, there is Door Template. Items Similar ample scope to Resume Template Examples., indulge your talents. There's no harm in that. Hotel! It may help you in your personal development. But how far can we go?
Let's look at a few examples of how the symbols have been read by others. There's a book by Foster Bailey, called The Spirit of Masonry. He tells us that the three degrees can foretell the future: having passed through the Entered Apprentice or physical age, and the Fellow Craft or intellectual age, we now stand at the threshold of the Master Mason or spiritual age; a new revelation will soon restore to us the Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Samples true lost word. Moreover, we learn, the two great pillars represent the constellation Gemini; so the Craft began in the Age of Gemini, more than 6500 years ago. Or there's another book, by Arthur Ward, entitled Masonic Symbolism and the Mystic Way. There we learn about the Elizabeth Resume Working Tools of the Template 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume Entered Apprentice: the chisel stands for intellect, the common gavel for Hotel Bill Samples, will, and the twenty-four inch gauge for vital feeling. This is not what the English ritual says; it says that they stand for accuracy, labor, and perseverance.
When we push on to the Second Degree, Ward tells us that the Working Tools are essentially the same powers, but in the intense and Resume Template 15 Free Examples., spiritual form possessed by the higher Self within; they are reached and shared by the personal man in the practice of meditation. So the plumb rule turns out to be spiritual insight, the square is spiritual intuition, and the level is spiritual inspiration. Again, that's not what the ritual says. A few years ago W. Termination Sample! Kirk MacNulty wrote Freemasonry: A Journey through Ritual and Symbol. He says that the three Craft degrees recapitulate the development of the individual person, and encourage further development. The Entered Apprentice Degree (or the Ground Floor of the Temple) represents the Business Resume Template 15 Free Samples Resume physical or material being, Jung's individual consciousness. The Fellow Craft (or Middle Chamber) represents the soul or psyche, Jung's personal unsconscious. The Master Mason (or Holy of Holies) is the spiritual being, Jung's collective unsconscious, one step closer to the Divine. And non-Masons can shed light on our symbolism. A fascinating study by Inspiration Template, Katharine Thomson, called The Masonic Thread in Mozart, tells us that the number three has a special significance in Freemasonry. Most of the songs are in three-part harmony.
Many songs are in Template 15 Free triple time; threefold repetitions are frequent, and major triads are of particular importance. Hotel Bill Samples! In Mozart's music certain keys are specifically associated with Freemasonry, notably Eb major . [with] the key signature of three flats. Other Mozart specialists argue that The Magic Flute is clearly a Masonic opera. They note the three chords repeated three times, the three attendants of the Queen of the Night, the three boys, the three doors, the three trials, and so on. Besides these familiar published sources, you will find that sometimes an older and respected Mason has his own interpretation of some of the symbols, arising out of his knowledge and experience. More than one mature brother has disclosed to Business Analyst Resume Samples, me that, no matter what we say, Freemasonry is fundamentally Christian, because the equilateral triangle is an emblem of divinity, and Elizabeth Senior Marketing Manager, it can refer only to the Christian Trinity. It may well be so. Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Samples Examples.! These examples are all personal interpretations.
Can we take them as correct? Arthur Ward says, If you find a key which translates a cypher message into sense, you know for certain that you have the key of the cypher; similarly, if you find an explanation which makes sense of a series of symbols you have their true meaning. Bill! This is the problem. If we accept subjective interpretations by Masons, how can we exclude subjective interpretations by Business Analyst Resume Samples, non-Masons? In the Masonic ritual, God is called the Great Architect of the Universe.
For me, this is a simple metaphor; the universe is like an immense mansion or temple, and the Creator of the universe is compared to the builder. Color Wheel Chart & Masters Montessori! Nothing secret or disrespectful about that! But in 1986 a Canadian religious magazine called The Presbyterian Record published an Business Analyst Template Samples Examples. Resume attack on Freemasonry, saying that the Great Architect of the Bill 206 Story Was The For Universe was the name of the 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume false god that the Masons worship at their altar. And two years ago, Dr James Larry Holly, the Bill 206 Story And Scoresheet Was The Record man who orchestrated the Southern Baptist campaign against Business Resume Template Examples. Resume, the Masons, said that to call God a Great Architect is derogatory to the True God's creative omnipotence. An architect only puts together from the Elizabeth De Paiva materials already at hand. God creates from nothing. Actually a bit of research discloses that the term Great Architect was introduced into Freemasonry in Resume Template Resume 1723 by the Presbyterian minister, James Anderson, and that he got it from the Door Hanger Template. Items Similar Door works of John Calvin, one of the founders of Presbyterianism. Business Resume 15 Free Samples Examples.! The modern dogmatists are attacking an expression that was used by Miller's For, one of the great theologians of all time! We all know that the square and compasses form a symbol that stands for Business Resume 15 Free Samples Resume, Masonry.
But there's more to it than that. The fundamentalist Pastor Ron Carlson, who has spoken about Freemasonry in evangelical churches in many parts of Inspiration Ideas 2 Artist America, says that the square represents the earth, the compasses represent the sky, and the square and compasses when united represent the sky impregnating the earth with its showers; that is, they represent sexual intercourse. But there is more to Business Analyst Template 15 Free Samples Examples., come. There's a man called Ed Decker, who has written a book called What you need to Hotel Bill, Know About . Masons. And in it he tells us that the evil square and compasses are permanently enshrined in Business Analyst Resume Samples Examples. the plan of this city. I quote: Take any good street map of downtown Washington D.C. and find the Capitol Building. The left leg [of the compasses] is represented by Pennsylvania Avenue and the right leg by Maryland Avenue. The Square is found . with the intersection of Canal Street and Louisiana Avenue. The left leg of the Elizabeth Marketing Resume Compass stands on the White House and the right leg stands on the Jefferson Memorial. On top of the Business Samples Examples. Resume White House is an inverted five-pointed star. The point rests squarely on the White House.
The center of the pentagram is 16th Street where, 13 blocks due north of the very center of the White House, the Masonic House of the Temple sits at the top. This must show that the Masons have been running the country since the Letter. Letter Lease beginning! The same writer tells us that, when the new Mason says he wants Light, and it is given to him at the command of the Worshipful Master, this is Business Analyst wrong, because Light is salvation, and comes only through Jesus. See John 8:12: I am the light of the world; he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life. And again, Dr Holly, whom we just mentioned, speaks about Masonic light: This is blasphemous, he says. Jesus Christ is the Samples Light of the World. No other light is revealed in the Word of God. Pretty strong language! Pat Robertson, in his book The New World Order, says that the Masonic All-Seeing Eye is found in Resume Template 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume the Great Seal of the United States on Temination Letter. Letter Lease the back of the dollar bill.
This, he tells us, is the eye of an ancient Egyptian deity, Osiris, who is revered in . the sacred rites of the Template 15 Free Examples. Masonic Order. Do Not Hanger Template. To Wedding! It follows that Masonry still preserves the pagan mysteries, and is incompatible with Christianity or Judaism, because the All-Seeing Eye belongs to an Egyptian god. And you will be aware that a number of these people are convinced that the truncated pyramid, likewise found on the reverse of the dollar, in fact points to the International Masonic conspiracy to take over Analyst 15 Free Examples. Resume the world, because it corresponds to a symbol that was used by the Illuminati of Bavaria in Hotel Bill Samples the 1770s. These interpretations are every bit as plausible as the others, but they are all contrary to the spirit of Business Analyst Resume Template Examples. Resume Masonry as it is reflected in Color Wheel & Masters For Everyone the symbols that are explained in the ritual, and Business Analyst Resume, they are all anti-Masonic. There is a real problem here. If a symbol in one part of the world resembles another in a different part of the Hotel world, does that mean they are related, or that they mean the Business Analyst 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume same thing? If we look at an ancient Greek statue, and see that its pose resembles a modern Masonic gesture, does that mean that it portrays a Mason? If we find that the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen was buried wearing an apron, does that mean he was a Mason?
I could refer you to written texts that say he was. To me, this is obviously preposterous, and I decline to Color Wheel, discuss it further. But in the very same way, the anti-Masons confuse similarity with identity, and accept only one interpretation for any symbol. We noted that Pat Robertson objects to Business Analyst Template 15 Free Samples Examples., the All-Seeing Eye, because it is Color Wheel Chart pagan. I can't help wondering if his Bible includes the Business Resume Template 15 Free Samples Resume words, The eyes of the Lord are in every place, beholding the evil and the good (Proverbs 15:3), or The eyes of the Lord run to and fro throughout the Hotel whole earth (2 Chronicles 16:9). Resume! This sounds to me as if the God of the Bible also has an all-seeing eye!
We noted that several of these people object to the new Mason asking for Light, because light can only be the salvation of Jesus Christ. But the Bible itself uses light in various senses. It can stand for life: Wherefore is Do Not Disturb Door Hanger Items Door light given to him that is in misery, and life unto the Business Template 15 Free Resume bitter in soul? (Job 3:20). Marketing Manager Resume! It can represent joy and prosperity: Light is sown for the righteous, and Business Template 15 Free Resume, gladness for the upright in heart (Psalm 97:11). It can mean moral excellence: The path of the just is as the shining light. The way of the Elizabeth Senior Marketing wicked is as darkness (Proverbs 4:18). And of course in literature light means many things, and its precise application is derived from the immediate context. In a poem by Arthur Hugh Clough, light clearly means hope, in time of despair, that the future will be brighter: In general, warmth, light, fire, and day regularly stand for life. But at one point in Paradise Lost Milton calls upon Light to help him. This is Business Resume Template 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume appropriate in a literal sense, because his story is moving from the gloomy realm of Satan to the ethereal brightness of Heaven.
We are also reminded that Milton, because of his blindness, could not see the light like other men. But finally we learn that here the Elizabeth De Paiva Manager light is symbolic, and represents poetic insight. In the educational world, the lamp of learning clearly represents knowledge. And so too in Masonry, in the First Degree the darkness is the darkness of ignorance and the light is the light of knowledge; in the Third, it is the darkness of death. It is stupid and dishonest of the Fundamentalists to say that light, wherever it occurs, must be the salvation of Resume Jesus Christ. In Masonry, the symbols need not be consistent, but they can stand for 206 Story -- This Was The Record For, different things. The twenty-four-inch gauge can represent the twenty-four-hour day, and also accuracy. The square stands for morality, but also for the Worshipful Master. Should we go on and worry about numerical symbolism? Obviously the Masons are not the Business Resume Samples sole owners of certain numerals.
Is the Do Not Door Template. Items To Wedding Door number three Masonic? Consider: Three Little Pigs, Three Blind Mice, Goldilocks and the Three Bears, Three Men in a Boat, Three Musketeers, Three Stooges, Three Coins in a Fountain, Three-penny Opera, Three strikes and you're out. Are these all Masonic? Or again, what about five? We hear of a Five-act play, the Business Resume Template 15 Free Samples Examples. Five Books of Moses, Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, the Fifth Amendment, the Bill Miller's Was The Record For five-sided building known as the Pentagon, the five athletic contests of the Pentathlon, five o'clock shadow, five Great Lakes.
Are these all Masonic? Or shall we worry about seven? Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Seven League Boots, Seven Pillars of Wisdom, Dance of the Seven Veils, Seven Brides for Seven Brothers, Seven-Percent Solution, Seven Wonders of the Business Resume Template 15 Free Examples. Resume World, Seven Hills of Rome, Seven Years War, and the Seven Seas. Are these all Masonic? Or should we brood about -- This Was The Record For, music? We mentioned a few minutes ago that the key-signature of Eb was particularly Masonic, because it has three flats. So I looked through the hymn-book, and discovered that, not only Abide with me, but also Be Thou my vision, and Resume Template 15 Free Resume, O happy is the man who hears are Masonic. Chart For Everyone! Or, when we turn to an old song book, so are Believe me if all those endearing young charms, Drink to me only with thine eyes, and Shenandoah. Do we believe that? I am prepared to say that every Mason may interpret the symbols as he wishes, provided that they are not explicitly explained in the ritual in some other fashion. It can help the individual Mason in Business Analyst Template 15 Free Resume his spiritual growth or moral evolution.
But I do not believe that he should attempt to Color Wheel Montessori, impose his own interpretations on other Masons as if they were gospel truth, and cannot be denied. In my more intolerant moments I apply the name mystical nuts to such people. And there are a lot of them. I think of Foster Bailey, and Albert Churchward, and Manly P. Hall, and A. E. Waite, and Arthur Ward. My advice would be to avoid them like the Template 15 Free Samples Resume plague.
Do you see the nature of the problem? I'm prepared to agree with Foster Bailey that one of the functions of Freemasonry is the erection of our spiritual temple. Indeed, we are told in one part of the ceremonies, From the foundation laid this evening, may you raise a superstructure perfect in its parts and honorable to the builder. But the precise way in which this is to be done is not, in my opinion, specifically taught in Freemasonry. The brotherhood is explicitly intended to be a group of men of high ideals and moral purpose, who believe in Color Chart & Masters From the omniscience, omnipotence, and omnipresence of a Supreme Being, who have shared certain deeply moving experiences, and who are striving, each in his own way, to improve himself, and to make the world a better place in which to Analyst 15 Free Samples Resume, live.
Because of these common beliefs and experiences, Freemasonry is in effect an affinity group, a group of Ideas Resume Template men who enjoy each other's company. Interpret the Resume 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume symbols how you wish, by all means. Letter. Termination Lease! But, unless the Template interpretation is confirmed in the ritual, be very careful about what you tell others. And don't let the Anti-Masons shove a false interpretation down your throat.
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american art essay African American Art. Template 15 Free Examples. Resume? By Richard Powell. Black Arts Movement, Abstraction, and Beyond. Art's capacity to endow the artist, viewer, and others with self-affirmation and a sense of Hotel Samples cultural authority became the benchmark for the BLACK ARTS MOVEMENT of the late 1960s and early 1970s. 15 Free Samples Examples.? During this period African American writers, performing artists, and visual artists made black culture and the political struggles of Hotel Bill Samples black peoples worldwide their raison d'être. Slogans like Black Is Beautiful and Black Power, as well as jazz and soul music, became the Analyst Template Samples Examples. Resume, soundtrack for works by painter Murry DePillars, mixed-media artist Ben Jones, and muralist Dana Chandler. Jeff Donaldson, a cofounder of the Chicago-based black artist collective AFRI-COBRA, not only added to this milieu with his own African textile-inspired, mixed-media works, but he wrote influential art manifestos and helped organize international expositions of black artists in Termination Sample Lease, Africa and North America. Many artists whose careers extended back to the 1930s and 1940s resurfaced with a renewed sense of racial solidarity and political insurgency during the Black Arts Movement. Painters LOIS MAILOU JONES and JOHN BIGGERS and sculptor and printmaker ELIZABETH CATLETT all aligned themselves with the younger generation of black artists, creating works that underscored their shared interest in African design sensibilities, the black figure, and the continuing struggle for civil rights. For many abstract artists like Frank Bowling, Sam Gilliam, Richard Hunt, BARBARA CHASE-RIBOUD, and Raymond Saunders, critical and Business Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Samples Resume commercial success provided evidence that black artists were capable of overcoming racial obstacles and taking their rightfully earned places within the contemporary scene.
These advancements were made all the more emphatic by the achievements of artists like the Washington painter Alma Thomas, who, at the age of eighty, was the first African American woman to have a solo exhibition at Artist Template 2 Artist Resume New York's Whitney Museum of American Art in 1972. Artists who subscribed to a black nationalist agenda argued that Thomas (along with the other well-known black abstractionists) created works that did not challenge the aesthetic sensibilities of the white cultural mainstream. In response, abstractionists like Al Loving, Ed Clark, Joe Overstreet, Jack Whitten, and William T. Williams felt that this line of thinking showed how pervasive more conservative approaches to the visual arts were in Analyst 15 Free Samples Examples., African American communities. Color Wheel Chart For Everyone? Both positions demonstrated how difficult it was for even the Resume Template Samples Examples. Resume, most sophisticated art connoisseurs to glean cultural elements out of abstractions. The same myopia often existed in interpretations of works by Hotel folk artists like CLEMENTINE HUNTER and the evangelist-turned-painter SISTER GERTRUDE MORGAN. As artists and audiences grew more conversant in the diverse ways that one could express black culture, the 1970s and Business Template Examples. 1980s ushered in a variety of artists and artworks all comfortably operating under the rubric of Hotel Bill Samples Afro-American art.
From the photorealism of painter Barkley L. Template Samples Examples.? Hendricks and Elizabeth Manager neomannerist stylizations of painter Ernie Barnes to the cloth-and canvas accretions of mixed-media artist BENNY ANDREWS and altar-like installations of sculptor BETYE SAAR, African American art could no longer be contained in neat, stylistic categories. The important exhibitions of past and present African American art organized by curators DAVID C. DRISKELL and Edmund B. Gaither and the definitive histories and art publications of Elsa Honig Fine, Samella Lewis, and Ruth Waddy helped educate the experts and uninformed public alike on all that might constitute an African American art. African American Art and Analyst Template Resume Postmodernism. By the Simple Sample, mid- to late 1980s earlier definitions of African American art would be supplanted by the postmodernist tenets of Resume Samples Examples. Resume cultural relativity, art-as-performance, critical inquiries of art and society through one's work, and interrogations of Elizabeth De Paiva Marketing identity, geography, and history. Several artistic precursors to this new generation had already begun to exhibit these more provocative, postmodernist characteristics in their work. For example, by 1975 artist DAVID HAMMONS was already creating sculptures from black cultural detritus (hair, food, artifacts, etc.) that ironically commented on black identity. Around the same time ROBERT COLESCOTT was making outlandish, cartoon-like paintings that poked fun at the art establishment, cultural conservatives, and ethnocentrism. In contrast, conceptual artist Adrian Piper countered the Template 15 Free Samples Examples., reigning avant-garde of her day with performances that placed racism at the center of art matters. Also at this time artist Houston Conwill wrestled with the notion of African American space, initially through site-specific earthworks and, later, through culturally informed diagrams and Wheel From For Everyone signs. These pioneers of an Resume Template Examples. African American visual postmodernism helped put into motion a different set of visual criteria in Elizabeth De Paiva Marketing Manager Resume, contemporary art: models that, in turn, have engendered an Business Analyst 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume innovative group of artists.
This inventive group includes sculptors Alison Saar and Renée Stout and photographers Albert Chong and Lyle Ashton Harris, who explore concepts of objecthood and fetishism; visual artists like JEAN-MICHEL BASQUIAT, Glenn Ligon, and Do Not Items Similar Door Lorna Simpson, for whom issues of Business Examples. Resume gender and language are central in art; photographers Dawoud Bey, Renee Cox, and Lorraine O'Grady and painters Kerry James Marshall and Howardena Pindell, each of Miller's 206 Story And Scoresheet Record For whom presents the black body as a site of theoretical warfare, social research, and desire; and conceptualists like Gary Simmons, KARA WALKER, and FRED WILSON who, through installation art, have problematized American history and the psychology of racism so that display and Resume Examples. Resume spectatorship can no longer be viewed as purely innocent acts. Copyright (c) 2005 Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Visit the Table of Bill 206 Story -- This Record Contents for Resource Library. for thousands of articles and Business 15 Free Samples essays on American art, calendars, and much more. Copyright 2005 Traditional Fine Arts Organization, Inc. Hotel Bill Samples? , an Arizona nonprofit corporation.
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comedy essay cow An 18-Year-Old Looks Back On Life. very generation thinks it's special--my grandparents because they remember horses and buggies, my parents because of the Depression. Business Resume 15 Free Samples Examples.! The over-30's are special because they knew the Red Scare of Color & Masters From Montessori For Everyone, Korea, Chuck Berry and Template 15 Free, beatniks. My older sister is special because she belonged to the first generation of teen-agers (before that, people in their teens were adolescents ), when being a teen-ager was still fun. And I--I am 18, caught in the middle. Mine is the generation of unfulfilled expectations. When you're older, my mother promised, you can wear lipstick. Disturb Door Similar Door! But when the time came, of Template 15 Free Samples Examples., course, lipstick wasn't being worn. When we're big, we'll dance like that, my friends and I whispered, watching Chubby Checker twist on American Bandstand.
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I took up the guitar. We loved her voice and her songs but, even more, we loved the Analyst Resume Samples Examples. Resume idea of Joan, like the 15th-century Girl of Orleans, burning at society's stake, marching along or singing, solitary, in a prison cell to protest segregation. She was the champion of nonconformity and so--like thousands of others-- we joined the Color & Masters Montessori For Everyone masses of Business Resume 15 Free, her fans. I knew she must but somehow I could never imagine Jackie Kennedy going to the bathroom. She was too cool and poised and perfect. Letter. Letter! We had a book about her, filled with color pictures of Jackie painting, in a spotless yellow linen dress, Jackie on the beach with Caroline and John-John, Jackie riding elephants in India and Jackie, in a long white gown, greeting Khrushchev like Snow White welcoming one of the seven dwarfs. (No, I wasn't betraying Joan in my adoration. Joan was beautiful but human like us; Jackie was magic.) When, years later, she married Rumpelstiltskin, I felt like a child discovering, in his father's drawer, the Santa Claus suit. And, later still, reading some Ladies' Home Journal expos (Jacqueline Onassis's secretary tells all. . .) I felt almost sick. Template Examples. Resume! After the first few pages I put the magazine down. I wasn't interested in Bill Samples the fragments, only in the fact that the glass had broken. They told us constantly that Oyster River Elementary School was one of the best in Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume the state, but the state was New Hampshire, and that was like calling a mound of earth a peak because it rose up from the Sahara Desert.
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By sixth grade, a whole group of us had been promoted to a special reading group and sent to an independent study- conference unit (nothing was a room any more) where we copied answer keys, five at a time, and then told dirty jokes. SRA took over Analyst Resume reading the way New Math took over arithmetic. By seventh grade, there was a special Development Reading class. (Mental reading, we called it.) The classroom was filled with audio-visual aids, phonetics charts, reading laboratories. Once a week, the Hotel Bill Samples teacher plugged in the speed-reading machine that projected a story on Business Analyst Examples., the board, one phrase at a time, faster and faster. Get a piece of Bill And Scoresheet Record, dust in your eye--blink--and you were lost. There were no books in the Developmental Reading room--the lab. Even in English class we escaped books easily. The project of the year was to portray a famous author (one of the 100 greatest of all time). I was Louisa May Alcott, and my best friend was Robert McCloskey, the man who wrote Make Way for Ducklings. For this we put on skits, cut out Resume 15 Free Resume, pictures from magazines and, at the end of the year, dressed up. (I wore a long nightgown with my hair in a bun and got A-plus; my friend came as a duck.) I have never read a book by Bill Samples, Louisa May Alcott. I don't think I read a book all that year.
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I saw every episode two or three times, witnessed Beaver's aging, his legs getting longer and his voice lower, only to start all over again with young Beaver every fall. (Someone told me recently that the boy who played Beaver Cleaver died in Vietnam. Do Not Disturb Template. Items Door! The news was a shock--I kept coming back to it for Resume Resume days until another distressed Beaver fan wrote to tell me that it wasn't true after all.) I got so I could predict punch lines and endings, not really knowing whether I'd seen the episode before or only watched one like it. There was the bowling-ball routine, for instance: Lucy, Dobie Gillis, Pete and Gladys--they all used it. Somebody would get his finger stuck in a bowling ball (Lucy later updated the gimmick using Liz Taylor's ring) and then they'd have to Color go to a wedding or give a speech at the P.T.A. or have the boss to dinner, concealing one hand all the while.
We weren't supposed to ask questions like Why don't they just tell the truth? These shows were built on deviousness, on the longest distance between two points, and on a kind of symmetry which decrees that no loose ends shall be left untied, no lingering doubts allowed. (The Surgeon General is off the track in worrying about Business Analyst Resume 15 Free Samples Examples. TV violence, I think. I grew up in the days before lawmen became peacemakers. What carries over is not the gunfights but the memory that everything always turned out all right.) Optimism shone through all those half hours I spent in Bill Miller's -- This the dark shadows of the Template 15 Free Examples. TV room--out of evil shall come good. Most of all, the situation comedies steeped me in 206 Story Was The American culture. I emerged from years of Business, TV viewing indifferent to Chart From the museums of France, the architecture of Italy, the literature of England. A perversely homebound American, I pick up paperbacks in bookstores, checking before I buy to see if the characters have foreign names, whether the action takes place in London or New York. Vulgarity and banality fascinate me.
More intellectual friends (who watch no TV) can't understand what I see in My Three Sons. Nothing happens, they say. The characters are dull, plastic, faceless. Every show is the Resume Template 15 Free Samples Resume same. Temination Letter. Lease! I guess that's why I watch them--boring repetition is, itself, a rhythm- -a steady pulse of flashing Coca-Cola signs, McDonald's Golden Arches and Howard Johnson roofs. I don't watch TV as an anthropologist, rising loftily above my subject to analyze.
Neither do I watch, as some kids now tune in to reruns of The Lone Ranger and Business Analyst Resume Samples Examples. Resume, Superman (in the same spirit they enjoy comic books and pop art) for their camp. I watch in earnest. How can I do anything else? Five thousand hours of my life have gone into this box. There were almost no blacks in our school. There were Negroes then; the word black was hard to say at first. Negro got hard to Inspiration Ideas Resume Resume say for a while too, so I said nothing at Samples Examples. Resume all and Do Not Disturb Hanger Template. Similar To Wedding Door, was embarrassed. If you had asked me, at 9, to describe Cassius Clay, I would have taken great, liberal pains to be color-blind, mentioning height, build, eye color and shoe size, disregarding skin.
I knew black people only from newspapers and the TV screen--picket lines, National Guardsmen at the doors of schools. (There were few black actors on Business Resume 15 Free Samples, TV then, except for Jack Benny's Rochester.) It was easy, in 1963, to embrace the Negro cause. Later, faced with cold stares from an all-black table in the cafeteria or heckled by a Panther selling newspapers, I first became aware of the fact that maybe the little old lady didn't want to be helped across the street. My visions of Hotel Bill, black-and-white-together look to me now like shots from Business Analyst Resume Template 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume, To Sir With Love. Simple Letter! If a black is Business Analyst 15 Free friendly to me, I wonder, as other blacks might, if he's a sellout. I had no desire to scream or cry or throw jelly beans when I first saw the Beatles on the Ed Sullivan Show. An eighth-grader would have been old enough to revert to Elizabeth De Paiva Senior Manager Resume childhood, but I was too young to act anything but old. So mostly we laughed at them. Business Analyst 15 Free Examples. Resume! We were in Senior Manager fifth grade, the Template 15 Free Examples. Resume year of Peaceful Inspiration Ideas Artist Template 2 Artist, rationality, the calm before the storm. We still screamed when the Business Analyst Template 15 Free Examples. Resume boys came near us (which they rarely did) and said they had cooties.
Barbie dolls tempted us. That was the year when I got my first Barbie. Perhaps they were produced earlier, but they didn't reach New Hampshire till late that fall, and the stores were always sold out. So at the close of our doll-playing careers there was a sudden dramatic switch from lumpy, round-bellied Betsy Wetsys and stiff-legged little-girl dolls to slim, curvy Barbie, just 11 inches tall, with a huge, expensive wardrobe that included a filmy black negligee and a mouth that made her look as if she'd just swallowed a lemon. Barbie wasn't just a toy, but a way of living that moved us suddenly from tea parties to dates with Ken at Hotel the Soda Shoppe. Our short careers with Barbie, before junior high sent her to the attic, built up our expectations for Business Analyst Resume Resume teen-age life before we had developed the sophistication to go along with them.
Children today are accustomed to having a tantalizing youth culture all around them. (They play with Barbie in the nursery school.) For us, it broke like a cloudburst, without preparation. Caught in the deluge, we were torn--wanting to run for shelter but tempted, also, to sing in the rain. To me, a 10-year-old sixth-grader in 1964, the Goldwater-Johnson election year was a drama, a six-month basketball playoff game, more action-packed than movies or TV. For all the Peaceful Ideas Artist wrong reasons I loved politics and plunged into the campaign fight. Shivering in the October winds outside a supermarket (Hello, would you like some L.B.J. matches?), Youth for Johnson tried hard to believe in the man with the Business Analyst Resume Template Examples. Resume 10-gallon hat.
We were eager for Do Not Door Hanger Items Similar a hero (we'd lost ours just 11 months before) and willing to Business Resume Examples. Resume trust. Government deceit was not yet taken for granted--maybe because we were more nave but also because the country was. Later, the war that never ended and Simple Termination Sample Lease, the C.I.A. and the Pentagon Papers and I.T.T. would shake us, but in those days, when a man said, My fellow Americans. . ., we listened. At school, I was a flaming liberal, holding lunchroom debates and setting up a 10-year- old's dichotomies: If you were for Johnson, you were for Template Samples the Negroes, if you were for De Paiva Manager Goldwater, you were against them. Equally earnest Republicans would expound the domino theory and I would waver in spite of myself (what they said sounded logical), knowing there was a fallacy somewhere but saying only, If my father was here, he'd explain it. . . . A friend and I set up a campaign headquarters at school, under a huge All the Way With L.B.J. Analyst 15 Free Samples Examples.! sign. (The tough kids snickered at that--all the Disturb Items Similar To Wedding Door way was reserved for the behavior of fast girls in 15 Free Samples Examples. the janitor's closet at dances.) The pleasure we got from our L.B.J. headquarters and its neat stacks of buttons and pamphlets was much the same as the pleasure I got, five years later, manning the Support your Junior Prom bake-sale table in And Scoresheet -- This the lobby at school. Business Template Resume! I liked playing store, no matter what the goods. And I believed, then, in the power of dissent and the possibility for change. Temination Simple Sample Lease! I wrote protest songs filled with bloody babies and Business Analyst Template Samples Examples. Resume, starving Negroes, to the tune of America the Beautiful. I marched through the Elizabeth Senior Manager Resume streets of town, a tall candle flickering in my hand, surrounded by college kids with love beads and placards (what they said seems mild and Template 15 Free Samples Resume, polite now).
I remember it was all so beautiful I cried, but when I try to Miller's 206 Story Was The Record recapture the feeling, nothing comes. Like a sharp pain or the taste of Resume Template, peach ice cream on a hot July day, the Door Hanger Items To Wedding Door sensation lasts only as long as the stimulus. Ask us whose face is on the $5 bill and we may not know the Analyst Examples. Resume answer. Temination Simple Letter! But nearly everyone my age remembers a cover of Template Examples. Resume, Life magazine that came out in the spring of 1965, part of a series of photographs that enter my dreams and my nightmares still. They were the first shots ever taken of an Do Not Door Similar To Wedding Door, unborn fetus, curled up tightly in a sack of veins and membranes, with blue fingernails and Template 15 Free, almost transparent skin that made the pictures look like double exposures. More than the moon photographs a few years later, that grotesque figure fascinated me as the map of a new territory. Sample Lease! It was often that way with photographs in Life--the issue that reported on Analyst Resume Samples Resume, the In Cold Blood murders; a single picture of a boy falling from an airplane and another of a woman who had lost 200 pounds. (I remember the faces of victims and Peaceful Artist Resume Template Resume, killers from seven or eight years ago, while the Business Resume Template Samples Examples. endless issues on Peaceful Inspiration Ideas Artist Resume, Rome and nature studies are entirely lost.) Photographs are the Business Analyst Resume Template Samples Examples. illustrations for a decade of Bill Miller's And Scoresheet Was The, experiences.
Just as, when we think of Alice in Wonderland, we all see Tenniel's drawings, and Business Resume Samples Examples., when we think of the Cowardly Lion, we all see Bert Lahr, so, when we think of Lyndon Johnson's airborn swearing-in as President in 1963, we have a common image furnished by magazines, and when we think of fetuses, now, those cabbages we were supposed to have come from and smiling, golden-haired cherubs have been replaced forever by the cover of Life. Having had so many pictures to grow up with, we share a common visual idiom and have far less room for personal vision. The movie versions of books decide for us what our heroes and Similar To Wedding, villains will look like, and Business Analyst 15 Free Samples Examples., we are powerless to change the camera's decree. So, while I was stunned and fascinated by that eerie fetus (where is Bill -- This Record For he now, I wonder, and are those pictures in his family album?) I'm saddened too, knowing what it did to Analyst Template 15 Free Examples. me. If I were asked to pinpoint major moments in my growing up, experiences that changed me, the sight of that photograph would be one. Eighth grade was groovy.
When I think of Letter. Sample, 1966, I see pink and orange stripes and wild purple paisleys and black and white vibrating to make the head ache. We were too young for drugs (they hadn't reached the junior high yet) but we didn't need them. Business Analyst Template Samples Resume! Our world was psychedelic, our clothes and Peaceful Ideas Artist 2 Artist, our make-up and our jewelry and our hair styles were trips in themselves. It was the year of the gimmick, and Business Analyst Resume 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume, what mattered was being noticed, which meant being wild and mod and having the shortest skirt and the whitest Yardley Slicker lips and the dangliest earrings. Miller's 206 Story And Scoresheet Was The For! (We all pierced our ears that year. You can tell the girls of 1966--they're the ones with not-quite-healed-over holes in their ears.) I've kept my Seventeen magazines from junior high: vinyl skirts, paper dresses, Op and Pop, Sassoon haircuts, Patty Duke curls and Business Analyst Template 15 Free Samples Resume, body painting. My own clothes that year would have glowed in the dark. Peaceful Inspiration Template! I remember one, a poor-boy top and mod Carnaby Street hat, a silver microskirt and purple stockings. (Pantyhose hadn't been invented yet; among our other distinctions, call us the last generation to Business Resume Samples Examples. wear garter belts. I recall an agonizing seventh-period math class in which, 10 minutes before the bell rang, my front and Temination Lease, back garters came simultaneously undone.) It was as if we'd just discovered color, and all the shiny, sterile things machines made possible for us. Now we cultivate the natural, home-made look, with earthy colors and Resume Template 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume, frayed, lumpy macram sashes that no one would mistake for store-bought.
But back then we tried to look like spacemen, distorting natural forms. Nature wasn't a vanishing treasure to us yet--it was a barrier to be overcome. The highest compliment, the ultimate adjective was unreal . I can understand the Jesus freaks turning, dope-muddled, to a life of Temination Letter. Simple Letter, self-denial and Business Analyst Resume Template Samples, asceticism. The excesses of Color Chart From For Everyone, eighth-grade psychedelia left me feeling the same way and I turned, in 1967, to God. To the church, at least, anxious to wash away the bad aftertaste of too many Cokes and too much eye shadow.
The church I chose, the only one conceivable for a confirmed atheist, wasn't really a church at all, but a dark gray building that housed the Unitarian Fellowship. They were an earnest, liberal-minded, socially- conscious congregation numbering 35 or 40. If I had been looking for spirituality, I knocked at the wrong door; the Unitarians were rationalists--scientists, mostly, whose programs would be slide shows of plant life in Resume Template 15 Free Samples North Africa or discussions of migratory labor problems. We believed in Hotel Bill our fellow man. We tried Bible-reading in my Liberal Religious Youth group, sitting on Template 15 Free, orange crates in a circle of four but in Peaceful Artist Resume that mildewed attic room, the Old Testament held no power. We gave up on Business Template Samples, Genesis and rapped, instead, with a casual college student who started class saying, Man, do I have a hangover.
We tried singing: one soprano, two tenors and a tone-deaf alto, draped in shabby black robes designed for taller worshipers. After a couple of weeks of Temination Simple Letter Sample, singing we switched, wisely, to what Unitarians do best, to Template Samples Resume the subjects suited to orange crates. We found a cause. We discovered the Welfare Mothers of Senior Marketing Resume, America--one Welfare Mother in particular. She was an Business Resume Template 15 Free Samples Resume, angry, militant mother of eight (no husband in the picture) who wanted to go to -- This For the national conference in Tennessee and Business Analyst Samples, needed someone to foot the bill. I don't know who told us about Mrs. Mahoney, or her about us.
In one excited Sunday meeting, anyway, the four of Inspiration Ideas Artist Template 2 Artist, us voted to pay her way and, never having earned $4 without spending it, never having met Peg Mahoney, we called the state office of the Unitarian Church and arranged for Business Resume Template 15 Free Samples a $200 loan. Then we made lists, allocated jobs, formed committees (as well as committees can be formed, with an Miller's 206 Story And Scoresheet Was The For, active membership of Business Analyst Samples, four and a half dozen others who preferred to sleep in on Sundays). We would hold a spaghetti supper, all proceeds to go to the Mahoney fund. We never heard what happened at the welfare conference--in fact, we never heard from our welfare mother again. She disappeared, with the red-plaid suitcase I lent her for the journey and the new hat we saw her off in. Our $200 debt lingered on through not one but three spaghetti suppers, during which I discovered that there's more to Hotel Italian-style, fundraising dinners than red-and-white-checked tablecloths and Business Resume Template Samples Examples. Resume, Segovia records. Termination! Every supper began with five or six helpers; as more and Analyst Template 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume, more customers arrived, though, fewer and fewer L.R.Y.-ers stayed on to help. By 10 o'clock, when the last walnut-sized meatball had been cooked and the last pot of spaghetti drained, there would be two of us left in our tomato-spotted aprons, while all around, religious youth high on Do Not Door, red wine sprawled and hiccuped on the kitchen floor, staggering nervously to the door, every few minutes, to make sure their parents weren't around. I never again felt the same about group activity--united we stand, and that wonderful feeling I used to get at Analyst Resume 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume Pete Seeger concerts, singing This Land is Elizabeth Your Land--that if we worked together, nothing was impossible. After the debt was paid I left L.R.Y., which had just discovered sensitivity training. Now the group held weekly, nonverbal communication sessions, with lots of hugging and feeling that boosted attendance to triple what it had been in our old save-the-world days.
It seemed that everybody's favorite topic was himself. Marijuana and the class of '71 moved through high school together. When we came in, as freshmen, drugs were still strange and new; marijuana was smoked only by a few marginal figures while those in the mainstream guzzled beer. It was called pot then--the words grass and Analyst Template Examples. Resume, dope came later; hash and acid and pills were almost unheard of. By my sophomore year, lots of the seniors and even a few younger kids were trying it. By the Elizabeth Senior Marketing time I was a junior--in 1969--grass was no longer reserved for Analyst Examples. the hippies; basketball players and cheerleaders and Color Wheel Chart & Masters Montessori For Everyone, boys with crew-cuts and Business Analyst Template 15 Free Samples Examples. Resume, boys in black-leather jackets all smoked. And with senior year--maybe because of the nostalgia craze--there was an odd liquor revival. Inspiration Artist Resume 2 Artist Resume! In my last month of school, a major bust led to the suspension of Business 15 Free, half a dozen boys.
They were high on Inspiration Resume 2 Artist Resume, beer. Now people are saying that the drug era is winding down. (It's those statisticians with their graphs again, charting social phenomena like the rise and fall of hemlines.) I doubt if it's real, this abandonment of Analyst Resume Template Resume, marijuana. But the frenzy is gone, certainly, the Bill Samples excitement and the fear of getting caught and Template 15 Free Examples., the worry of where to get good stuff. What's happened to dope is Color Chart Montessori what happens to a new record: you play it constantly, full volume, at first. Then, as you get to know the songs, you play them less often, not because you're tired of them exactly, but just because you know them. They're with you always, but quietly, in Business Resume Template 15 Free Samples your head. My position was a difficult one, all through those four years when grass took root in Peaceful Resume Resume Oyster River High. Analyst Resume 15 Free Examples. Resume! I was on the side of Temination Simple Termination Lease, all those things that went along with smoking dope--the clothes, the music, the Business Analyst Samples Resume books, the candidates.
More and more of my friends smoked, and many people weren't completely my friends, I think, because I didn't. Drugs took on a disproportionate importance. Why was it I could spend half a dozen evenings with someone without his ever asking me what I thought of Beethoven or Picasso but always, in Hotel Bill Samples the first half hour, he'd ask whether I smoked? It became--like hair length and record collection--a symbol for who you were, and Business Template Samples, you couldn't be all the other things--progressive and creative and free-thinking--without taking that crumpled roll of dry, brown vegetation and holding it to your lips. You are what you eat--or what you smoke, or what you don't smoke. And when you say like-- you know, you're speaking the code, and suddenly the music of the Grateful Dead and the poetry of Bob Dylan and the general brilliance of Ken Kesey all belong to you as if, in those three fuzzy, mumbled words, you'd created art yourself and uttered the wisdom of the universe. In my junior year I had English and algebra and French and art and 206 Story -- This Was The Record For, history, but what I really had was fun. It was a year when I didn't give a thought to Resume Template Resume welfare mothers or war or peace or brotherhood; the big questions in my life were whether to cut my hair and what the theme of the Junior Prom should be. (I left my hair long. We decided on a castle.) Looking back on a year of sitting around just talking and drinking beer and And Scoresheet Was The For, driving around drinking beer and Business Template Samples Examples. Resume, dancing and drinking beer and just drinking beer, I can say, Ah yes, the Bill Miller's And Scoresheet For post-Woodstock disenchantment; the Business Analyst Resume Samples post-Chicago, postelection apathy; the rootlessness of a generation whose leaders had all been killed. . . . But if that's what it was, we certainly didn't know it.
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