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sachin bansal resume 1. These are the two regular bail applications bearing Nos.1512/2009 1012/2011, filed by Sachin Bansal and another by Narender Mann respectively. 2. Briefly stated, the prosecution case against the petitioners/accused persons is that on 21.03.2006 at about 4:30 pm a call bell was given at the residence of the deceased, S.N.Gupta. Smt.Kamla Devi, the wife of the deceased S.N. Planning | Letter Word. Gupta attended the call. At the main door, she found a person with beard, aged about 25-30 years, wearing spectacles black cap, having a bag and posing himself to be a Courier boy. He informed her that he had brought a letter for S.N.Gupta, the deceased. As the Cad Block Of An Blocks Free Courier Boy is stated to have alleged that the delivery of the letter would be Bail Appl.
Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 2 of 26 made to Sh.S.N.Gupta only, Smt.Kamla Devi, complainant went inside the house and informed her husband about the courier. S.N. Gupta went to Templates | Letter Word, the door to collect the Debt Letter Template Uk – Letter Format Writing letter, however, in the meantime, the complainant who was in the kitchen heard 2-3 gunshots. It transpired that S.N.Gupta had been shot by that Courier Boy and he was lying on the floor in a pool of 7+ Wedding Planning | Letter blood. He was rushed to Jaipur Golden Hospital with the help of the neighbours, where he was declared as brought dead.
3. An FIR No.200/2006 was registered under Section 302 IPC read with section 25/27 of the Arms Act by PS Mangolpuri, Delhi and investigation conducted. The investigation led to the arrest of the petitioner, Sachin Bansal on 29.03.2006 on whose disclosure statement the other accused/petitioner, Narender Mann, was also arrested. Divorce Sample. It transpired, after investigation, that Sachin Bansal was a business partner of the deceased S.N.Gupta and there were apparently some business differences between them. 7+ Wedding Templates | Letter Word. In addition to Academic Resume Template, this, the deceased S.N.Gupta had to recover 70- Bail Appl. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 3 of 26 80 Lakhs of Planning Templates | Letter Template Word rupees, from Sachin Bansal and his father Shiv Charan Bansal, which was given to them in connection with some committees, which were being run by them. Narender Mann, the Santa Templates Images other co-accused, had to recover approximately 30-40 lakhs of rupees from the nephew of the deceased. It is the case of the prosecution that a conspiracy was weaved between Sachin Bansal and Narender Mann with the help of few other persons. Narender Mann was arrested on the disclosure statement of Sachin Bansal. Planning Templates | Letter Template Word. One Rajbir Malik arranged the pistol similar to the licensed pistol of Narender Mann.
The disclosure statement of Narender Mann led to the recovery of the car used in the crime and the pistol used as the weapon of offence along with two live cartridges from the accused Shailender Singh. One Joginder Singh Sodhi is alleged to have disguised as a Courier Boy and a friend of Sachin Bansal, Rajbir Singh, an Santa, Advocate had also allegedly helped Sachin Bansal in devising a conspiracy from choosing the weapon till the time of collecting the booty for the murder. So far as Narender Mann is concerned his role unlike Bail Appl. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 4 of 7+ Wedding Planning 26 Sachin Bansal, who was alleged to be the kingpin of the entire conspiracy, was limited to the extent that his disclosure has resulted in recovery of certain incriminating articles from the dickey of his car, which were alleged to be actually used by the person, named, Joginder Singh Sodhi, who disguised himself as a Courier Boy. In addition to this, the List For Isagenix prosecution case against Narender Mann is that his licensed pistol was recovered from Sachin Bansal and the bullets, which were used from the weapon of offence were of the same or the same type, which were issued to Narender Mann for 7+ Wedding Planning | Letter Template, his licenced weapon. 4. The trial Court had discharged Sachin Bansal as well as Narender Mann for the offence of Cad Block Of An A3 Template -Cad Free murder but the High Court vide its order dated 29.05.2009, directed framing of 7+ Wedding Planning | Letter Word charges against both of them under section 120B as well as under Section 302 IPC. The High Court had by the same order discharged some other accused persons. Special Leave Petitions have been preferred by Sachin Bansal, complainant as well as the State against the order of the Debt Letter Template Letter High Court dated Bail Appl. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 5 of 26 29.5.2009 though for different reasons.
So far as Sachin Bansal is concerned, he has challenged the framing of charge under Section 302. In this matter, special leave has been granted, although there is no stay. So far as the other two SLP's are concerned, they are also pending though it is not disclosed whether they are admitted or not. The Supreme Court has not stayed the trial Court proceedings but the trial Court record has been summoned and thus the trial is practically stand still as no effort is being made by any of the party to get the record released or to get the hearing of SLP's expedited. Bail Application No.1512/2009 (filed by Accused- Sachin Bansal) 5. So far as the accused, Sachin Bansal, is concerned his application for | Letter, grant of bail was filed in the year 2009, which is pending till date.
There is no dispute about the fact that this Court, vide order, dated 29.05.2009, had set aside the order of discharge of Sachin Bansal and directed framing of charge against him under Section 302 IPC read with Section Bail Appl. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 6 of Federal Create A Federal Resume 26 120B IPC. Template Word. Against the said order of 29.05.2009, Sachin Bansal had filed an SLP, which was granted by the Apex Court on 26.11.2010 but pending adjudication and there was no stay against the trial. The Apex Court rejected an application for grant of Templates Images On Pinterest | Christmas bail as late as on 13.05.2011. Copy of this order has also been filed by the learned counsel for the respondent. 6. The learned counsel for the petitioner in the present case has prayed for grant of regular bail and, if not regular, than, at 7+ Wedding Templates least, interim bail on Invoice Template the ground that the petitioner has been in custody since 26.03.2006 (except for Planning | Letter, a brief period, when he was discharged), as the trial is not proceeding. It has been contended that non conduct of the trial is Of An -Cad Blocks, violating his right to speedy trial guaranteed under Article 21 of the Constitution of India. It is Templates Word, also contended by him that so far as the Debt Collection Letter Template Uk – Format Writing present petitioner is concerned he has not misused his liberty and the delay in conclusion of the trial is a vital factor for consideration of the benefit of grant of bail to him. Reliance, in this regard, has been placed by the Bail Appl. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 7 of 7+ Wedding Planning Template Word 26 learned counsel for the petitioner on judgment of the Apex Court in State of Kerala Vs.
Raneef, (2011) 1 SCC 784, wherein the Court has observed as under: In deciding bail applications an 21 Best, important factor which should certainly be taken into consideration by the court is the delay in concluding the trial. Often this takes several years, and if the accused is denied bail but is ultimately acquitted, who will restore so many years of his life spent in custody? Is Article 21 of the Constitution, which is the most basic of all the fundamental rights in our Constitution, not violated in such a case? Of course this is not the only factor, but it is certainly one of the important factors in deciding whether to grant bail. Planning Templates | Letter Word. In the present case the respondent has already spent 66 days in custody (as stated in Divorce Letter Para 2 of Planning Templates | Letter Template Word his counter-affidavit), and we see no reason why he should be denied bail. A doctor incarcerated for a long period may end up like Dr.Manette in Charles Dicken's novel A Tale of Sample List For Isagenix Shake #isagenix Two Cities, who forgot his profession and even his name in the Bastille. 7. The learned counsel for Planning Templates | Letter, the petitioner has also placed reliance on H.B.Chaturvedi Vs.
CBI, 2010 (3) JCC 2109, to contend that the bail is not to be withheld as a punishment, even assuming that the accused is prima facie guilty of a Bail Appl. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 8 of 26 grave offence bail cannot be refused as it would amount to punishing the accused before he is convicted. Sample Grocery For Isagenix Days #isagenix. 7A. It was also contended that he is a law abiding citizen and there is no direct evidence against him with regard to the allegation of killing of | Letter Word S.N.Gupta. It is Example. How To Create A Federal Resume, also stated that he is a family man and he has a small daughter of five years who has also not seen him for the last so many months. 7+ Wedding Planning Template. The learned counsel has also relied upon case titled Pritam Singh @ Pappu Vs.
State 2002 92) JCC 930 and Anil Mahajan Vs. Commissioner Customs and Another 2000 (84) DLT 854. 8. As against this, both the learned APP as well as learned counsel for the Complainant, has vehemently opposed the application for grant of Template Pdf | Academic Resume bail to the accused, Sachin Bansal. The learned APP has contended that so far as the question of grant of bail to the petitioner, in the instant case, is 7+ Wedding Planning | Letter Template Word, concerned the most important thing to be seen is the seriousness or the gravity of the offence, which can be seen from the Of An -Cad Free quantum of sentence, which it carries, apart from Bail Appl. Planning. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 9 of 26 the Divorce prima facie nature of allegations against him. It is also contended that so far as the question of | Letter Word bail is concerned delay in conclusion of trial cannot be the sole basis of extending the benefit of grant of bail to an accused more so in a case where he himself is responsible for the same. It has been contended that the petitioner himself has gone to the Apex Court assailing the order dated 29.05.2009, passed by the High Court and Santa Letter Templates Images On Pinterest | Christmas it was for the petitioner himself to have ensured that the record of the High Court, which has been summoned by the Apex Court be got released from the said Court so that the trial could continue expeditiously as there was no stay against the trial. But the petitioner has made no sincere efforts in this regard. 9. The learned APP has also raised the plea that earlier also the petitioner had filed a bail application, which was rejected and even the Apex Court turned down the application for grant of bail to the petitioner as late as on | Letter Template 13.05.2011. Under these circumstances, as there is no change in the circumstances of the present petitioner, Bail Appl. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 10 of Resume Create A Federal Resume Resume 26 therefore, he does not deserve to be enlarged on bail.
The learned counsel for the complainant, who was present, has also vehemently supported the points urged by the learned APP for the State. 10. I have carefully considered the submissions made by the respective sides and gone through the records. 11. So far as the question of grant of bail in a non-bailable offence, more so, in an offence, where the 7+ Wedding Templates Word petitioner is accused of having alleged to have committed the most heinous crime of murder is concerned the factors, which have to be taken into consideration, while exercising such a discretion are almost well settled by now in catena of authorities.
These parameters are: the gravity of the offence; the nature of allegations; the past conduct of the accused; his roots in the society and the chance of his fleeing from the processes of law or tampering with the evidence. The analysis, based on the aforesaid parameters, the Federal How To Create Resume very first parameter regarding the nature of allegations against the Bail Appl. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 11 of 26 petitioner are very serious. The prosecution case is 7+ Wedding Planning Template, that the petitioner, Sachin Bansal was the Collection Letter Template Uk – Format kingpin of the entire conspiracy in ensuring the liquidation of the victim, S.N.Gupta, in a most meticulous and pre-planned manner in order to 7+ Wedding Planning Word, settle his professional difference and to ensure that neither he nor his father S.C.Bansal have to Of An A3 Template - Cadblocksfree Blocks, return the huge amount of Rs.70-80 lakhs, which was purported to have been invested by the deceased in the various committees being run by 7+ Wedding | Letter, the father of the present petitioner. The offence of murder is the most heinous crime and carries the sentence of death and life imprisonment, therefore, naturally the gravity of the offence is very serious and so far as the role of the petitioner, in this regard, and the evidence which has been gathered is concerned, on a prima facie view of the matter not only to show the involvement of the petitioner but a great deal of planning and Ideal deliberation by the petitioner. It also shows the | Letter meticulous method in Template Uk – Format which the crime has been committed. The petitioner has gone to the extent of even utilizing the alleged services of an Advocate in order to Bail Appl. Planning | Letter Template Word. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 12 of 26 pre-empt that offence is not detected.
This is Sample, reflected from the fact of recovery of Narender Mann's licenced weapon from 7+ Wedding | Letter Template Word, him and the alleged user of the bullets either issued to Narender Mann though for a different but somewhat similar weapon. Federal Example. How To A Federal Resume. Therefore, these facts in itself are such a serious thing which makes the Court reluctant to extend the benefit of grant of bail in his favour and Planning | Letter Template Word I need not dwell on other parameters or their existence, so far as Sachin Bansal is concerned. So far as, the delay in Sample Grocery List Ideal For Isagenix Shake #isagenix conclusion of trial is concerned, no doubt it is a vital ground for consideration but delay cannot be taken advantage of by the accused in 7+ Wedding | Letter Template Word a case where he himself is responsible for A3 Template -Cad Free, the same. Further the judgment in Raneef case (Supra) is distinguishable from the 7+ Wedding Templates facts of the present case, in view of the above observations. Apart from this, that was case under Foreign Exchange which cannot be said to be as serious as the present case. Chaturvedi's case (Supra) is also distinguishable as bail is not being denied because of punishment but because of the gravity of the offence with which he is charged. Since, this is Bail Appl. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 13 of 26 a case of conspiracy there will hardly be a direct evidence as claimed by the learned counsel. 12. Sample. In the instant case, the petitioner was discharged by the trial Court and on revision being filed by the State in the High Court, vide order dated 29.05.2009, charges were directed to be framed against him.
The petitioner himself has challenged the said order in 7+ Wedding Planning | Letter Template the Apex Court in which leave has been granted to him but the Apex Court has not stayed the proceedings of the trial Court and the record of the trial Court has been summoned by the Apex Court for the purpose of Debt Collection Letter Writing hearing of the appeal, it was open to the present petitioner to have filed an application to Templates | Letter Template, get the Sample List Shake Days #isagenix record of the trial Court released so that the trial could have continued because the Apex Court has not consciously stayed the trial. 13. On the contrary, the petitioner has chosen to file an application for grant of bail before the Apex Court, which was dismissed as late as on 13.05.2011. If the delay would have been a ground, the Apex Court itself would have granted the Bail Appl. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 14 of 26 bail to the petitioner or observed something in this regard but it dismissed the application and since then there has been absolutely no change in | Letter Template the circumstances. As a matter of A3 Template Blocks fact, when the 7+ Wedding Planning application of the Debt Template Uk – Letter Format Writing present petitioner has been dismissed by the Apex Court despite special leave having been granted, I feel it will be totally inappropriate for this Court to pre-empt the 7+ Wedding Templates | Letter Template Word entire matter and release the present petitioner on bail, which was filed in the year 2009 because the order of rejection of the bail by the Apex Court cannot be nullified by a Court, which is certainly inferior to the Apex Court, by extending the Academic Resume benefit of bail to the petitioner. So far as the other two judgments are concerned, they are also not helpful to 7+ Wedding Planning Templates | Letter, the petitioner. Bail is a matter of judicial discretion to be exercised keeping in Sample view the facts of each individual case and merely because it is granted in one particular fact of 7+ Wedding | Letter Word situation, it does not mean that the petitioner is also entitled on bail.
14. For the reasons mentioned above, I feel that the Letter Templates | Christmas petitioner is not entitled to the grant of regular bail. So far as Bail Appl. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 15 of 26 the prayer made during the course of oral submissions, by the learned counsel for 7+ Wedding Templates, the petitioner for Santa On Pinterest | Christmas, grant of an interim bail with a view to enable the petitioner to undergo treatment for 7+ Wedding Templates | Letter Template, mental disease or for any other reason, is concerned, the same cannot be made a ground for grant of interim bail as the petitioner is being taken care in the hospital and proper treatment is being given to Letter Template Letter Format, him. 15. Accordingly, the Planning Templates Template Word bail application of the petitioner- Sachin Bansal is dismissed. Bail A.No.1012/2011 (filed by the Petitioner/ Narender Mann) 16. Cad Block Of An A3 Template Blocks. So far as the bail of the petitioner/accused, Narender Mann, is concerned, it was contended by Mr.K.K. Sud, learned senior counsel for the petitioner that the nature of evidence, which have been gathered against the petitioner is not of the type, which will be able to show that he was a part of the conspiracy. It was contended by him that the petitioner has been falsely implicated in as much as he has been arrested on the basis of the disclosure statement Bail Appl.
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Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 17 of 26 has not gone to the Apex Court challenging the Planning Templates Template Word framing of Federal charge against the petitioner though he was discharged by | Letter Word, the trial Court and ordered to be charged by the High Court. 17. It is contended that he has roots in the society, his business has suffered considerably and there is no chance of Pdf | Resume Template his fleeing from the Planning | Letter Word processes of law much less his tampering with the Santa Letter Templates | Christmas evidence. In this regard, it was contended by Mr.Sud, learned senior counsel that the petitioner after his arrest was released on bail, he was falsely implicated by the complainant in respect of an offence under Section 506 IPC on 7+ Wedding Planning | Letter Word account of the alleged threats having been given to the complainant side to not to Federal Example. How To Create Resume, testify against him, which has ultimately resulted in his discharge which clearly belies the apprehension of the complainant that the petitioner will be a threat to the holding of a fair trial, if he is released on bail. It was contended by 7+ Wedding Planning Template Word, the learned senior counsel that if not on regular bail, the petitioner may be enlarged at least on interim bail for Cad Block -Cad Blocks Free, a period of six months so as to enable him to Bail Appl. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 18 of 26 resume his contact with the family and also to take steps to Templates Template Word, get the trial expedited by approaching the Apex Court. 18.
The learned APP has vehemently opposed the grant of bail to the petitioner, Narender Mann also. The grounds, which have been urged for opposing the bail application of the accused, Sachin Bansal, have been reiterated and stated to be equally applicable to the case of the present petitioner. Letter. Similarly, the learned counsel for the complainant has also supported the submissions made by the learned APP opposing the grant of bail to the present petitioner on the ground that delay cannot be the basis or rather consideration for grant of bail to an accused who is alleged to have committed a heinous crime. For this purpose, the learned counsel for the complainant has placed reliance on case titled Kalyan Chandra Sarkar Vs. Rajesh Ranjan, AIR 2004 SC 1866.
It has been contended by the learned counsel for the complainant that earlier also when the petitioner was released on | Letter bail he had threatened the witnesses of the complainant side for which an 21 Best, FIR was registered and, Bail Appl. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 19 of 26 therefore, there is a reasonable apprehension that in case he is released on bail he will threaten the witnesses afresh. 19. I have carefully considered the submissions made by Planning Templates | Letter, the learned counsel for Grocery List Ideal For Isagenix Shake #isagenix, the parties and gone through the record. No doubt, the nature of allegations against the petitioner are very serious in nature and 7+ Wedding Planning Templates | Letter Template Word he is alleged to be a part of a group which conspired to kill an innocent person, S.N. Gupta but the fact of the matter remains that the petitioner though an accused of a serious crime has a right to have a speedy and Resume Example. How To Resume Resume expeditious disposal of his trial. Templates | Letter Word. The petitioner has been admittedly in custody for almost 5? years as claimed by the learned senior counsel except for Letter Uk – Letter, a brief period when he was discharged.
There is no doubt that the allegations against the petitioner are also very serious on account of being a part of a conspiracy which he carried out together with Sachin Bansal and other accused to liquidate the deceased. | Letter Template Word. This was allegedly also actuated by personal gain by way of recovery of money which he would have got from Sachin Bansal, which was otherwise payable to the Bail Appl. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 20 of 26 deceased. His role is further prima facie established because of recovery of various incriminating articles from the dickey of his car, dickey and coupled with the fact of recovery of his licensed weapon and cartridges from Sachin Bansal. 20. There being no immediate sign of the SLP coming up for hearing in routine course or on account of no semblance of efforts being made by any of the three parties, who have preferred SLP's to Create A Federal Resume Resume, expedite the hearing of Template their SLP's against the order dated 29.05.2009, the right of the petitioner to get an early hearing are getting defeated as the entire trial is held up despite there being no stay as the trial Court record is stated to Sample List Ideal Shake Days #isagenix, have been summoned by the Apex Court. None of the Templates | Letter Word parties despite the suggestions having been given by the Court to approach the Example. How To Resume Apex Court for the release of the record seems to have taken any step for getting the record released. Bail Appl. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 21 of 26. 21.
I feel that the case of the present petitioner is slightly distinguishable from the case of Sachin Bansal, in this regard as he cannot be blamed for the delay. 22. So far as the judgment of Kailash Chandra's case (supra) is concerned, I have gone through the same. No doubt, in 7+ Wedding Planning Templates | Letter the said judgment, the period of incarceration, which was 3? years, has not been held to be a ground so different to warrant the grant of bail but the facts of that case were slightly different as compared to the facts of the present case. Debt Collection Letter. In the case, which has been cited by Planning Template, the learned counsel for Cad Block - Cadblocksfree Blocks Free, the petitioner, the 7+ Wedding Planning Templates | Letter respondent Rajesh Ranjan @ Pappu Yadav, was granted bail by the High Court, and, thereafter witnesses examined had turned hostile, while as in the instant case, the trial itself is not able to proceed for Letter Sample, want of record and consequently there is no question of any witness turning hostile and the right under Article 21 of the Constitution of the petitioner to have a speedy trial is defeated. 7+ Wedding Templates | Letter. Therefore, I feel so far as the case of the petitioner is concerned, it deserves to be dealt on a different footing Bail Appl.
Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 22 of 26 and at least the prayer of the petitioner for grant of interim bail for Letter Sample, a limited period till the time the trial recommences be granted to Templates Template Word, him. For this purpose, the other aspects with regard to his enlargement on Collection Uk – Writing bail being a threat to 7+ Wedding | Letter Template Word, fail trial or his past conduct of misusing his liberty or apprehension of his fleeing away from the processes of law need to be examined. 23. If done so, no doubt, the past conduct of the petitioner is alleged to Federal Resume Example. Create, be not clean in as much as he had threatened the complainant side for 7+ Wedding | Letter Template, which FIR was registered. But it has been stated by the learned senior counsel for the petitioner that he was discharged in that case by the trial Court. No doubt, the petitioner has been able to earn discharge, I feel that this can be taken care of by not only warning the present petitioner but also by putting the condition that he shall not approach directly or indirectly any witnesses or the complainant or threaten them in any manner whatsoever and even a slightest deviation from the Sample List Ideal Shake #isagenix same will be visited with the cancellation order. Bail Appl. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 23 of 7+ Wedding Template Word 26. 24. The petitioner is admittedly a married person having roots in the society as alleged in 21 Best Images On Pinterest the petition, therefore, I feel that the petitioner must be permitted to 7+ Wedding Planning Templates, breathe at Letter Uk – Format least fresh air for a limited period till the trial recommences.
I am clear in my mind that this period of interim relief to the petitioner has to be for Template Word, a very limited span so as to enable the petitioner to take steps to approach the Apex Court for expeditious return of the trial Court record or alternatively expeditious disposal of the SLP by bringing to Of An A3 Template - Cadblocksfree -Cad Blocks Free, its notice that his rights are also getting defeated by non-disposal of the SLP which none of the three parties, namely, Sachin Bansal, complainant or for that matter the State are ready to expedite by | Letter, approaching the Apex Court. 25. For the above-mentioned reasons, I feel that the Sample List Ideal Shake #isagenix petitioner deserves to be granted interim bail for a period of three months from the date of his release, subject to his furnishing a personal bond in the sum of Rs.50,000/- with two sureties of the like amount to the satisfaction of the Planning | Letter learned trial Court. It is made clear in the opening itself that Bail Appl. Debt Template Format. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 24 of 26 this period of three months is subject to the condition that in case the trial commences prior to the expiry of three months then the petitioner will have to necessarily surrender and the examination of the witnesses will take place only after the petitioner has surrendered so as to ensure that there is free and fair recording of the testimony of the witnesses. It is also made clear in the beginning itself that in no circumstances whatsoever, the petitioner shall file an application seeking enlargement of this period of interim bail and if filed the same shall not be entertained in Planning | Letter Template Word any manner whatsoever before he surrenders before the Jail Superintendent after availing of his benefit of interim bail. It is also made clear that this grant of interim bail is subject to the condition that he shall not threaten the Of An A3 Template - Cadblocksfree Blocks witnesses or leave the country or the National Capital Region of Delhi without the permission of the Planning Court and he shall keep the Sample List Ideal Days #isagenix Jail Superintendent as well as the Investigating Officer informed about his mobile number. Bail Appl. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 25 of 26. 26.
With these directions, the application of the petitioner- Narender Mann is partly allowed. 27. Expression of 7+ Wedding Planning Templates any opinion herein before may not be treated as an expression on merits of the case. September 30, 2011 SS Bail Appl. Nos.1512/09 1012/11 Page 26 of 26.
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The fourth requirement is for interconnected VoIP providers to Templates Template clearly articulate to their customers the possible limitations of their 911 service and receive acknowledgement from them. The last requirement involves the Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP). Template Academic Template? PSAP will be used when emergency service providers are not capable of receiving or processing the location information of the 7+ Wedding Word call received. Sample Grocery List For Isagenix? However, there are still differences between VoIP E911 and traditional telephone 911 service in that they work differently. The second public safety issue relates to wiretapping access for law enforcement. The telephone system plays a critical role in law enforcement. FBI officials can easily tap into PSTN circuits but have difficulty with intercepting circuits used in VoIP. FBI supports its beliefs that VoIP service providers must allow wiretapping under the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA). According to the FCC website, ‘CALEA requires a “telecommunications carrier,” as defined by 7+ Wedding Planning | Letter Word the Act, to ensure that equipment, facilities, or services that allow a customer or subscriber to “originate, terminate, or direct communications,” enable law enforcement officials to conduct electronic surveillance pursuant to court order or other lawful authorization. CALEA was intended to preserve the ability of law enforcement agencies to conduct electronic surveillance by requiring that telecommunications carriers and manufacturers of Sample telecommunications equipment modify and design their equipment, facilities, and services to ensure that they have the necessary surveillance capabilities as communications network technologies evolve.’ FCC Encyclopedia Print Email. (n.d.).
Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act. Retrieved February 15, 2014, from http://www.fcc.gov/encyclopedia/communications-assistance-law-enforcement-act. 7+ Wedding Planning Template? Currently only PSTN service providers and wireless phone services have been subject to this legislation. The issue is VoIP is not defined as a telecommunications carrier and Academic Resume Template, if it was it would then be subject to 7+ Wedding Templates Template Word CALEA. VoIP is an Internet based application and is classified as Title I ‘Information Services’ which are lightly regulated. The Commission has deregulated information services which mean the 6+ Blank Invoice Template Resume states cannot regulate them. VoIP may mimic traditional telephone service in Templates Template Word, functionality but it does transmit over the Internet rather than the public switched telephone network. This is where the issue comes into play, can states regulate Title II service carried over Title I network? The Commission has provided very little guidance regarding this question. Now let’s move on to talk about the tax dilemma.
Should VoIP be taxed in the same way as traditional telephone? The traditional phone service carries a lot of Sample different taxes such as state, federal and local taxes. Depending on where you live, some areas charge a county tax. Should these same taxes apply to VoIP? Regulators argue that VoIP is a telecommunication service no different than a phone service and 7+ Wedding Planning Templates | Letter Word, therefore should pay the same taxes and Cad Block - Cadblocksfree Free, fees. Template Word? Others argue that VoIP is a data service, not a phone service; therefore, it shouldn’t be regulated or taxed like the traditional public telephone networks. On the other hand States do have a distinct interest in taxing telecommunications services because they rely on these taxes to fund universal services such as 911 services. Currently there are some taxes included on company’s VoIP bill but it is far less than a traditional landline. VoIP providers are under pressure to contain these costs to remain competitive.
I believe that hands off approach to Collection Letter Uk – VoIP should be considered to Planning Templates | Letter Template Word allow the technology to mature to Collection Letter Letter Writing encourage our economy to be competitive and to wait and see what direction it will take to encourage more investment and uptake. If you take the advances of the technology you may inhibit its adoption. VoIP services should dodge these fees because communications occur mostly over the Internet rather than PSTN line when you make a VoIP call. Simply put, VoIP is classified as an information service and not telecom carriers. PART II: HOW DOES THE FCC CLASSIFY VoIP SERVICES. This is a Federal Regulation issue and regulators are trying to determine and/or define what VoIP is and where it falls in the context of existing framework. 7+ Wedding Planning Template? The FCC will need to decide whether to classify VoIP as an information service or as a telecommunications service. According to US law, an How To, information service is generally free from regulation while a telecommunications service may be subject to old line common carrier requirements. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 sets forth the differences in definition and regulation of these services. 7+ Wedding Planning Word? Per page 991 of our textbook, ‘The definitions of the terms ‘telecommunications service’ and ‘information service’ established by Resume Example. How To A Federal the 1996 Act are similar to the Computer II basic- and enhanced-service classifications. ‘Telecommunications service”the analog to Templates Template Word basic service’is ‘the offering of telecommunications for Debt Collection Letter Writing, a fee directly to the public’regardless of the facilities used.’ 47 U.S.C. ??153(46). ‘Telecommunications’ is 7+ Wedding Templates | Letter, ‘the transmission, between or among points specified by the user, of information of the user’s choosing, without change in the form or content of the information as sent and received.’ ??153(43). ‘Telecommunications carrier[s]”those subjected to mandatory Title II common-carrier regulation’are defined as ‘providers] of telecommunications services.’ ??153(44).
And ‘information service”the analog to enhanced service’is ‘the offering of a capability for generating, acquiring, storing, transforming, processing, retrieving, utilizing, or making available information via telecommunications.’ Benjamin, S. M., Lichtman, D. G., Shelanski, H., Weiser, P. J. Federal Resume Example. A Federal Resume? (2006). Telecommunications Law and Policy, Second Edition. 7+ Wedding Templates | Letter Template? Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press. If the FCC chooses to define VoIP under Title One of the Telecommunications Act, it would make VoIP essentially regulation-free, much like other Internet content. But if the FCC chooses the latter and defines VoIP under Title Two, the government will regulate VoIP under the Divorce myriad of Planning | Letter regulations that has been developed for the telephone industry.
The application of this classification to different types of VOIP services is Grocery List Ideal For Isagenix Shake #isagenix, based on two FCC rulings in 2004. In FCC Vonage Order 11-2004 the district court examined the recent history of regulations governing the telecommunications industry. The court found in Templates Template, its 1980 Computer II decision, the FCC had recognized the growing challenges posed by Letter Sample the interaction between computers and 7+ Wedding Template Word, telecommunications technology. ‘The premier legacy of Computer II is the establishment of the basic versus enhanced dichotomy. This layered approach to regulation becomes the bedrock of the computer inquiries success, and distinguishes it from Federal Resume Example. A Federal Resume, other international schemes. It established a bright-line test and Templates, amplified the Resume separation of the communications facility from the enhancement.’ Cybertelecom: Computer II. (n.d.). Cybertelecom: Computer II. Retrieved February 14, 2014, from http://www.cybertelecom.org/ci/cii.htm. At that time, the | Letter Template Word FCC distinguished between ‘basic services’ like telephone service and ‘enhanced services’ like computer-processing service offered over Santa On Pinterest | Christmas, telephone lines noting that ‘basic services’ would continue to be regulated by | Letter Template Word Title Two while ‘enhanced services’ would go unregulated. Sample? The FCC further stated that the | Letter Template absence of regulation of ‘enhanced services’ offers the Debt Collection Template Letter Format greatest potential for efficient utilization and full exploitation of the Planning Templates Template Word interstate telecommunications network. Vonage’s VoIP service offers an Divorce Sample, enhanced service not a telecommunications service under the Commission’s rules.
The FCC and the United States District Court of Minnesota recognized that Vonage’s VoIP service is an information service and cannot be regulated by 7+ Wedding Planning Template Word the states. Based on this federal policy, current federal regulators continue to keep VoIP free from regulation. The FCC concluded in February 2004 that Pulver.com’s Free World Dialup , a service that facilitated voice communication between computer users over the Internet, was an Debt Collection Letter Uk – Format, unregulated information service, in part because the company did not provide transmission and 7+ Wedding Planning | Letter Template Word, did not charge for its services. Collection Template Uk – Letter Format? The FCC explained that traditional telephone rules do not necessarily apply to all voice services and Templates | Letter, that state-by-state regulation of a wholly Internet-based service is inconsistent with the controlling federal role over interstate commerce required by the Constitution. The FCC’s decision in this case was that Pulver’s computer-to-computer services were ‘Information Services’ instead of ‘Telecommunications’. Pulver’s services were under the deregulatory framework of Title I of the Communications Act instead of the highly regulated common carrier telephone regime of Title II of the Act. Invoice Academic? Title II captures all the traditional, land-line monopoly telephone services. Pulver’s service did not involve PSTN to warrant common carrier telephone regulation.
PART III: THE BENEFITS AND RISKS TO SOCIETY. Many businesses are cancelling their traditional land lines in favor of the new technology VoIP due to the reaping benefits of cost savings, data integration, productivity, efficiency and 7+ Wedding Planning Template, system portability. While VoIP services can be less expensive than standard telephone network services, call quality can be a factor in 6+ Blank Invoice Template Pdf |, one’s decision to switch to VoIP. However, with constant innovation and updates to VoIP will make its service comparable to the traditional phone system. Although VoIP may offer some good benefits, businesses need to be aware and understand the risks as well. 7+ Wedding Planning | Letter Word? With any new technology, it’s important to understand the legal and Sample List Days #isagenix, regulatory impact. As VoIP continues to 7+ Wedding | Letter grow there is a risk of government regulation.
Certain governments are keen on protecting the position of legacy telecoms incumbents. There is no common regulatory standard. The regulatory burden is considered high as each country needs to be considered separately. On Pinterest? Businesses may need to obtain telecom license from the Templates | Letter Template Word local regulator and be required to provide emergency call access number portability between traditional public switched telephone networks (“PSTN”) and VoIP services, and net neutrality. If there is federal regulation this would create more competitive interconnections and will reshape how VoIP is managed. The FCC would enter into the Internet circuit as an official regulator. It’s all about striking the Letter Templates Images | Christmas right balance between regulation for consumer protection and freedom for service providers. I do not think regulating VoIP would protect consumers nor would it provide them with a level playing field because new technologies do not develop on a level playing field. Although I do not object to regulation per se, but do not believe it should be done by the states alone. Having state by state regulations make for a messy market, there is the issue of different rules being imposed.
The risk is using the mindset of the old telecom world on a new and 7+ Wedding Planning Templates | Letter, very different kind of technology.’ PART IV: NETWORK NEUTRALITY. Network neutrality is a growing issue. The basic principle behind network neutrality is that the Internet should remain free of any discrimination or barriers among classes of users or of information stored and Federal A Federal Resume, transmitted on the Internet. This implies no matter whom or where the user is the connection, quality, and the prices will remain equal. Planning Template Word? Many large corporate interests, especially software and Sample, applications providers, from Yahoo! and Amazon to 7+ Wedding Planning Templates | Letter Word eBay and Microsoft have been urging the FCC, Congress and even state legislatures to adopt laws that codify network neutrality on Debt Collection Letter Template, the Internet.
So why would Internet Service Providers (ISP) like VoIP want to change it? These and other companies want to change the terms of network neutrality to increase large corporate profits and possibly push out smaller competitors. ISP view is that running a network is expensive and that you should be charged by the amount of data you use in 7+ Wedding Planning Templates | Letter Template Word, the same way that your electrical company charges you. The Internet has always been neutral so why would the government bureaucracy think they can manage the Internet. If the Internet were regulated by government bureaucracy it would be far less advanced and not as useful as it is today. Sample Ideal For Isagenix Shake Days #isagenix? FCC wants to know how much power they have to regulate ISPs since they regulate the 7+ Wedding Planning traditional telephone companies.
The FCC would not be able to use the same tools as they use to regulate ISPs. FCC tried to Sample Grocery For Isagenix #isagenix regulate ISPs and the court found that the Planning FCC was trying to apply Title II obligations to Cad Block A3 Template - Cadblocksfree Free companies that are regulated under Title I of the Telecommunications Act which is the law that created the Template Word FCC and gives it its power. The court did agree with FCC idea of network neutrality but did not like the way the FCC handled it. At this point, the FCC has the Pdf | option to appeal. 7+ Wedding Template? They can ask for For Isagenix Shake Days, a rehearing or redefine what an ISP is 7+ Wedding Planning Templates | Letter Word, so that they VoIP would fall into class Title II.
This process is known as reclassification. The basic questions that have been faced by regulators all over the world are about the Invoice Pdf | Template necessity and Planning, the scope of VoIP regulation. The open question remains whether VoIP services should be regulated? Should a light-regulated approach on VoIP services be employed focusing on Of An -Cad Blocks Free, public interest and consumers benefits? It is my belief that the Commission should end this battle once and for all. Following are the basic principles that regulators should consider to Planning Templates Word become the national’s regulatory framework adequate to the VoIP reality. First principle, I think VoIP should be classified as a Title I Information Service. I do not find it favorable to subject two services that consumers view as substitutes to two different regulatory regimes. This doesn’t make much sense to me. Second principle, the Internet Protocol nature of VoIP technology means it functions like an information service opposed to a telecommunications service.
Third principle, the regulatory burdens of Title II carry government control in lieu of oversight, mandates, and compliance. Title II of the Communications Act is highly regulated. A common carrier subject to Title II regulation maybe subject to price regulation and they must interconnect with other carriers at FCC determined rates. The common carrier must also contribute to the universal service fund and be in compliance with public safety obligations. Fourth principle, regulators should remove legal and regulatory barriers to the development of VoIP (deregulation). Fifth principle consists of no price regulation; VoIP providers should be free to set their own prices. 21 Best Images | Christmas? Sixth principle, the whole telecom players should finance universal service ‘ including VoIP service providers. Planning Templates? Seventh principle, it is my opinion that state regulation of intrastate telephone service is a thing of the past. This made sense during an era when customers distinguished between local and long-distance service and when state services were dominated by local monopolies which required regulatory oversight. If states are permitted to regulate new emerging services like they did the old telephone monopoly it would hinder the growth of this new technology, create barriers to entry, and it would delay the Cad Block A3 Template - Cadblocksfree -Cad benefits of 7+ Wedding Planning Templates Word competition in voice service. In summary, I feel they should postpone regulating the Collection Uk – Letter Format Writing Internet.
Since the Internet is worldwide every government would need to agree on 7+ Wedding Templates Word, some type of regulation and that would be difficult to do and I don’t envision that happening. Collection Format Writing? It is impossible to get several countries to agree on 7+ Wedding Templates | Letter, anything. Lastly, I would like to make a comment on Letter, the article ‘Who Killed the VoIP Revolution’. Templates | Letter Template Word? In my opinion, the VoIP to PSTN is not dead, it’s alive and A3 Template - Cadblocksfree -Cad Blocks, kicking, and still being defined. People need phone services but they do not want to pay Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) prices.
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Essay on the Salient Features of Gandhism. Essay on 7+ Wedding Planning | Letter Template the Salient Features of Gandhism are as follows: Truth is the most cardinal principle of Gandhism. Mahatma Gandhi was a worshipper of truth. He believed that there is no good higher than truth. Truth is God and God is Truth.
He searched for truth throughout his life. He named his auto-biography, 'My Experiments with Truth'. He achieved many successes by following the path of truth. He did not give up the path of truth even in times of failures. He had to bear many sufferings for truth. He was of the opinion that a truthful person will not harm his opponents but will make them friends. He always considered truth as the ideal, and continuously strived for its achievement.
He firmly believed that only a society based on truth can become an Sample List Ideal For Isagenix Shake Days #isagenix, ideal society. Truth and truthful living constitute the guiding principle of Gandhism philosophy. Next to truth, Mahatma Gandhi expressed full faith in non-violence. Infact, non-violence and truth were to him two sides of the same coin. A seeker of truth always follows the path of non-violence. Non-violence means not to harm any person, not even to one's opponent in any way. Gandhiji was against the propagation of violence in one's thought, words, actions and deeds.
A follower of non-violence does not torture others through his words, actions and deeds. He tries to change the 7+ Wedding Word, heart of others by bearing sufferings for himself. According to Gandhiji non-violence is of three types: It is the best form of non-violence. Here non-violence is not adopted under compulsion.
The basis of the non-violence of the brave is morality and inner strength. Only a brave person can practise non-violence. This type of non-violence can achieve very good results. (ii) Non-violence based on Expediency: It is the non- violence of the weak. It is used as a matter of expediency or utility. It is the On Pinterest | Christmas, result of weakness and helplessness and not of moral conviction. It is used for the fulfillment of selfish interests.
This form of 7+ Wedding | Letter non-violence can lead to a limited success only. (iii) Non-violence of the Coward: The non-violence of the coward is the worst form of Cad Block - Cadblocksfree -Cad non-violence Cowardice and non-violence can never really go together. 7+ Wedding | Letter Template Word. A coward does not face danger, he runs away from it. Mahatma Gandhi would prefer violence instead of accepting the non-violence of the coward. He holds the view that if there is violence in one's mind it is good to use it openly rather than to Sample Grocery Ideal Shake Days #isagenix practise non-violence to hide one's impotence. A violent man can become non-violent one day but there is no hope for a coward.
Gandhism favours non-violence of the brave. It always advocates the use of non-violence for securing the objectives dictated by Truth. Now the United Nations has decided to celebrate each year 2nd October (Birthday of Mahatma Gandhi) as World Non-violence Day. It is a tribute to Mahatma Gandhi's love for Non-violence. Mahatma Gandhism advocates dependence upon 7+ Wedding Planning, Satyagraha as the means to resist evil. Example. How To Resume. It is a moral weapon which is based on soul force and not physical force. 7+ Wedding | Letter. Satyagraha means, 'Clinging to the Truth'. Satyagraha is the vindication of truth, not by infliction of suffering on the opponent but on one'- own self. Satyagraha is Letter Sample, nothing but Tapsya for truth.' Satyagraha is a moral weapon with which one can successful meet the challenge evil, injustice, exploitation and untruthfulness. Gandhiji was of the opinion that oppression and exploitation were possible only through co-operation given by those who were being oppressed.
When the people decide to 7+ Wedding Planning Templates | Letter Template Word refuse to co-operate with an unjust Government the unjust system sooner or later, comes to an end. Debt Collection Letter. Non-violent non-cooperation can even bend the absolute power of a despot. When negotiations and petitions fail, the evil can be resisted only through non-cooperation. Even a despot government cannot continue in rule without the cooperation of the people. When the people adopt the path of non-cooperation after shedding all fear, the despot also becomes helpless, and he has to bow before the public. Gandhiji led the struggle for | Letter, freedom by sing non-violent non-cooperation means. Non-co-operation can assume three different forms: The aim of the stoppage of work is to arouse consciousness in the minds of the people and the government against evil. The weapon of social boycott can he used against those people who do not join non-cooperation movement. But it does not mean a denial of the use of social service to Sample Grocery Ideal Shake Days the persons boycotted.
Social boycott also does not mean insulting of the cooperator by the non-cooperator. The aim of picketing is Planning Word, not to check the entry of a person to Federal Example. How To Create A Federal that place which is picketed but to arouse public indignation against the wrong doers. Strike is another mode of Satyagraha. The objective of Word strike is stoppage of work to register protest against the government for 21 Best Santa Templates, focusing the attention of the public on 7+ Wedding specific public issues. But the strike has to be voluntary and non-violent. Gandhiji was also against Grocery List Shake Days #isagenix, repeated strikes because he felt that these will reduce its efficacy.
Where the question of the strike of the workers in the factories is concerned, he advised them that they should take care of the interest of the whole industry. Whenever they may go on strike, they should limit their opposition to 7+ Wedding Planning | Letter injustice, corruption, inefficiency and undue greed of the List Ideal For Isagenix Shake #isagenix, owners. The strike should always be totally non-violent. Fasting is Templates Word, another effective method of Satyagraha. According to Letter Sample Gandhiji, the 7+ Wedding | Letter, best and most acceptable method is Template, that of Planning Template Word fasting.
It can be used for self-purification, for opposing injustice, and for changing the Federal How To A Federal Resume, hearts of the wrong doers. It is a means to arouse public opinion by self-suffering. But fasting can prove effective against injustice only Planning Word when it is undertaken by one who is a noble, spiritual, self-disciplined and faithful person. An indolent and indiscipline person has no right to 21 Best Santa Letter On Pinterest practice it. It is the most drastic form of 7+ Wedding Templates Word Satyagraha. Gandhiji called civil-disobedience, a complete, effective and bloodless substitute of an armed revolt, It means disobedience of immoral, unjust and oppressive laws. It includes non-payment of taxes and non-cooperation with the government in Sample any way. But the weapon of civil-disobedience being a very dangerous weapon, it has to be employed with great care and caution.
In Civil Disobedience, one always gets into direct conformation with the government. Therefore, people should be ready to bear the punishment resulting from disobedience of civil laws. Further, civil disobedience movement has to be kept as a movement free from violence and Templates Template, lawlessness. Hijrat is also a weapon of Satyagraha. Letter Templates | Christmas. It means voluntary exile from the place of normal residence to some other place in order to escape from oppression and injustice.
The founder of 7+ Wedding Planning Template Islam, Prophet Mohammad migrated from Sample Grocery List For Isagenix Shake Days Mecca to Medina. Gandhiji held the view that voluntary exile may be resorted to when people cannot live in their homes with self-respect or when they cannot resist oppression non-violently or when they cannot defend themselves by force. Thus, Satyagraha, as the fight for truth and fight against evil, could be practiced in several ways. 5. Planning Templates Template. Relationship between Religion and Politics: Gandhian Philosophy advocates the view than religion and politics are not entirely separate things.
The relationship between the Collection Uk –, two is like the relationship between body and soul. Gandhiji entered politics for the sake of religion. 7+ Wedding Planning Template. He spiritualised politics. He held that the people who say that there is no relationship between religion and Template Academic Resume Template, politics do not know the meaning of religion. For him there could be no politics devoid of religion. However, by religion Gandhiji did not means any particular religion. He always respected all the religions and followed their values. He believed in all religions because these represented the same values. His God was truth, love, non-violence and selfless service of humanity and these constituted his religion. Taken in this way, politics must never loose sight of religion that is religious (moral) values which are present in every religion.
6. Faith in the principle of Purity of Means and Ends: Gandhism firmly believes in the use of good means for the realisation of good ends. It firmly stands against the materialistic principle of end justifies means. Gandhism is | Letter Template, totally against the use of bad means for the attainment of a good end. It supports the Federal Resume A Federal Resume, principle of moral ends through moral means. A good end can never be really secured through evil means.
Good ends have to Templates | Letter Template be achieved only by good means. Gandhism describes state as a 'Souless Machine.', The state represents violence in a concentrated and organised form. The individual has a soul, but the state is Resume Example. How To Resume, souless machine. It can never be weaned away from violence because its basis has been force. Gandhiji repudiated the state on historical, moral and philosophical basis. He argued that there was no illustration in history when the state had supported the case of the poor. State is based on 7+ Wedding Planning | Letter Template force and its orders are enforced with coercive power. So it has no moral basis. The state curbs the individuality of man and it creates hindrances in Cad Block Of An A3 Template - Cadblocksfree -Cad Free the way of economic progress. However, Gandhiji did not favour a complete abolition of the State.
He accepted the role of state as an agency for providing security to the people. Gandhiji considered state as a means and not an end. In the words of Gandhiji, The state is not an end in itself, but a means of enabling people to better their conditions in Planning Templates | Letter Template Word every department of life. Gandhiji wanted the state to be a Service State. Of An A3 Template - Cadblocksfree -Cad Blocks. State should work for making the Word, life of man better. Further, the state is not infallible and Santa Images, omnipotent.
People can oppose the unjust laws and policies of the state. Gandhiji wanted to Templates | Letter limit the functions of the State. Like individualists, Gandhiji regarded the State as a necessary evil. He wished to assign to it minimum functions. Like Thoreau, he believed that government is the best which governs the least.
Self-government really means greater freedom from the control of the State. Undoubtedly, there are certain functions which cannot be performed without the Invoice Pdf | Academic, state. However, a large number of | Letter Template functions can be performed without the State. This can be done by the people solely through their own initiatives and mutual co-operation. Gandhiji did not look with favour the 21 Best Santa Templates Images On Pinterest | Christmas, growing power of the State.
Gandhiji's ideal was a stateless democratic society. This society was to be a federation of Planning Templates | Letter self-contained and self-regulated village communities. It was to work on the basis of Sample Ideal Shake peoples' voluntary and peaceful co-operation. Every village was to be a small republic, having a panchayat with full powers. Every village republic was to 7+ Wedding Template Word have the right to manage all its affairs. A3 Template - Cadblocksfree -Cad Blocks Free. It was also to protect itself from foreign aggression through its own means. Such a society was to be highly civilized in which every individual was to be aware of its needs and necessity of working with others on the basis of equal labour. Gandhiji named his ideal society as 'Ram Rajya'. Truth and non-violence were to be the basis of Ram Rajya. In the Ideal society people were to lead a happy and peaceful life on the basis of | Letter moral and spiritual values.
Gandhiji knew well that his ideal of stateless village based of self-government could not be realized in a short time. He therefore supported democracy as the best form of government. Example. Create A Federal Resume Resume. However, the central point of his concept of democracy was Village Panchayat system. Panchayats were to play a special role in the Gandhian Society. The members of Panchayats were to be directly elected by the people. The right to vote was to be given only to those persons who were performing one or the other type of physical labour. Panchayats were to have sufficient powers to run the administration of 7+ Wedding Planning villages. Above village panchayats there were to be district level panchayats whose members were to be elected indirectly by the members of the village panchayats. Each district panchayat was to manage the district administration.
Above the district administration there was to be the provincial government whose members were to Federal Create Resume Resume be elected by the district panchajyats. Above the provincial governments, there was to be a central government. 7+ Wedding | Letter. The members of the Letter On Pinterest | Christmas, central parliament and the supreme executive were to be elected indirectly by all the provincial assemblies. The functions of the central government were to be kept limited. Thus the whole country was to be ruled by panchayats of the people. Gandhiji was in favour of 7+ Wedding a democratic state with its powers decentralised. He was of the opinion that the greater the centralisation the lesser was the democracy in the state. Centralisation leads to a misuse of power. Centralisation always acts as a big handicap in the way of moral growth. As such, the best principle for the organisation of government was full decentralisation of powers. Gandhiji believed in the principle that every man should do some physical labour to earn his bread.
Those who feed themselves without doing physical labour are parasites on society. 21 Best Santa. Teachers, doctors, advocates, administrative officers and such other persons who do mental labour should also do some physical labour to earn bread. Template Word. Gandhiji advocated that they should earn their bread by engaging themselves in wheel-spinning or some other handicraft. They should do mental labour for the society free of any cost. Ideal labour is that with which one grows something out of land. Gandhiji was not against the institution of private property as such. But he opposed the use of property as a means for exploiting others. He was of the view that every person must have a house to live in, proper food to eat and adequate clothes to cover his body. However, Gandhiji did not want to prevent more hard-working and more talented people to earn more.
He also did not want that rich people should be deprived of Divorce their property forcibly. He simply believed and advocated the view that the 7+ Wedding | Letter Word, gap between the Debt Collection Letter Letter, rich and the poor should be less. It can be bridged only if rich people may come forward to use their talent and wealth not for themselves but for the betterment of the society as trustees. This is his principle of Planning Template 'Trusteeship'. Property-holders, whether they are landlords or capitalists should consider their property a social trust. They should use it in the interest of the society. As trustees, they could have only reasonable rate of earnings because of their service and usefulness to 21 Best Letter Templates | Christmas the society. The rate of 7+ Wedding Templates Template Word earning could be just only if the earners agreed to surrender their existing titles based on absolute ownership for List Shake, a trusteeship. If, however, the landlords and the capitalists failed to accept the new principle of trusteeship as the basis of ownership, the weapon of non-violent non-cooperation could be used against them and social control over property be established. Trusteeship system could work as a mean for transforming the present capitalist system into an egalitarian order. Gandhism is opposed to centralised economy Economic centralisation helps capitalism to flourish.
It leads to economic exploitation of man by man and nation by nation. Big industries need raw materials in large quantities. The craftsmen do not get supply of 7+ Wedding Word raw-materials at proper rates. Due to large scale production by machines, the Sample, demand for goods produced by craftsmen goes down and consequently they have to face unemployment. The search for 7+ Wedding Planning | Letter, raw-materials gives birth to - Cadblocksfree colonialism and imperialism. For an over-populated country like India centralised production is unsuitable as it leads to unemployment. Gandhiji favoured complete economic decentralisation. Each village should be a self-sufficient economic unit.
Gandhiji was a supporter of small and cottage industries. He gave high priority to 7+ Wedding Planning Templates | Letter Template Khadi industry. He emphasized that through this industry, one of the major needs of the people can be fulfilled. Gandhiji launched Swadeshi Movement to propogate the use of Khadi and other self-made things. Gandhiji was against mechanised farming, large-sale farming and large scale industrialisation. He was in favour of personal intensive farming on a small scale. He wanted to protect human and cattle power from the competition of machines. According to Gandhiji, crime was a social disease. Mostly, it was a product of the present social order which was both unjust and inhuman in approach.
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