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Tracer experiments were conducted to investigate elemental uxes in, e.g., the environment or metabolic processes; natural variations in the isotopic composition of selected elements are used for solving problems in a biological context; Pb composition analyses are used to distinguish between natural, geogenic Pb and anthropogenic Pb; through Sr isotopic analysis11 is pos- sible to trace the provenance of goods, agricultural products, food or even animals and humans - in archaeometry and forensics. Even radionuclide applications are important: ICP-SFMS measurements have proven useful in Smart Action Template, the nuclear industry and in Letter Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents, the related environmental and safety aspects. Letter Doc India | Cover What? Irradiated nuclear fuel has been analyzed by means of MC-ICP-MS for Letter Pdf Doents the optimization of the fuel cycle and for safeguard aspects. At last, ICP-MS instruments are used in analytical problems related to biological systems or environment studies; information on speciation is required in order to understand processes related to toxicity, transport and bio-availability of 21+ Conference Designs,, metals or biological processes in which metals are involved. In life science and environmental applications high mass resolution is needed for Offer Letter Letter Word Pdf Doents proteins studies (e.g. for the characterization of metal containing or metal-binding proteins in biological systems), analysis and quantication (e.g. for selenoproteins, metalloproteins and 9+ Easy Template Letter protein-bound metals). 10Sea water temperatures can be calculated from Letter Letter 9 Free Pdf Doents, Mg/Ca ratios.
11Isotopic and Letter Letter Samples What elemental signatures bear the potential of providing unique ngerprints which can be directly related to the origin of the sample investigated. 11 Chapter 3 Plasma torch The ICP is generated in Offer Example. Offer 9 Free, a discharge gas (Argon, in our case) without using any electrode, by the application of a high frequency electrical current to Chase Fax Cover an induction coil, enveloping the plasma torch , as it will be explained in the following. The development of ICP sources began in 1942 , when Babat published his rst paper on Offer Example. Offer Template 9 Free the properties of electrodeless discharges and realized the 9+ Easy Resume Template | Addressing, rst ICP operating at atmospheric pressure. About 20 years later, Reed published two articles on his ingenious approach to the stabilization and thermal isolation of the producted plasmas. He under- lined three properties that make ICP a superior source of atomization and ionization: high gas temperatures, capability of Offer Letter Pdf Doents, being sustained in noble gas environments and freedom from electrodes (representing a contamina- tion). As a result of these good analytical performances, studies on ICP were started in 1962 and the rst use of an Appointment Format | Cover, Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma as an Letter Example. Offer Template Word, ion source for mass spectrometry dates from 1978 . Sciex, Inc., introduced the rst commercial instrument for ICP-MS at the 1983 Pittsburgh Conference, which catalyzed an explosive growth of interest in the technique . In fact, until that year, commonly used ion sources were not suitable for the rapid, direct examination of aqueous samples because extensive sample preparation was required.1 Then, several other instrument companies conducted ICP-MS research and, between 1985 and Sheet. Clinic Template Medical 2010, about 20 commercially available instruments were introduced to the market (con- sidering both the ICP and the GD plasma source) . For a complete list of the commercial sector eld mass spectrometers with plasma based ion sources see Table 3.1.
To understand how an ICP works, it has to be known that high frequency currents owing in an induction coil generate an oscillating magnetic eld, whose lines of force are axially oriented inside the coil. In an Example. Offer 9 Free, ICP, the Doc India | Cover Samples What, plasma torch - where plasma is generated - is enveloped in 2 or 3 turns of Offer Letter Offer 9 Free, copper tube, cooled with either water or Argon; this settlement produces an electromagnetic inducted eld by a time-varying magnetic eld. Sample Plan. Plan Of Correction Template? The power 1The sample was evaporated onto Offer Example. Offer Letter Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents a lament for thermal ionization or incorporated into Fax Cover Sheet, an electrode for Offer Letter Example. Offer Template Word spark ionization before the sample-containing substrate was physi- cally mounted in the vacuum system. The associated time requirement for these opera- tions was rendering the routine analysis of large numbers of solutions impractical. 12 Table 3.1: Commercial sector eld mass sp ectrometer with plasm a based ion source s 1985-2010  Name Man ufacturer a Y ear of Status T yp e of Flyer Designs, | Design Trends, instrumen t Geometry in tro duction V G 9000 V G Elemen tal 1985 discon tin ued GD-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Plasmatrace I V G Elemen tal 1988 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson JMS-Plasmax I JEOL 1991 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Plasma 54 V G Elemen tal 1992 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Elemen t Finnigan MA T 1993 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Plasmatrace II V G Elemen tal 1994 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson JMS-Plasmax 2 JEOL 1995 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Nu Plasma Nu Instrumen ts 1997 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Axiom V G Elemen tal 1998 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Axiom MC V G Elemen tal 1998 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Elemen t 2 Thermo Quest 1998 av ail able ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Nu Plasma 1700 Nu Instrumen ts 1999 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Neptune Thermo Quest 2000 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson IsoProb e-P GV Instrumen ts 2004 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS magnetic se ctor + hexap ole collision ce ll Elemen t XR Thermo Electron 2004 av ail able ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson A ttoM Nu Instrumen ts 2004 av ail able ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Elemen t GD Thermo Electron 2005 av ail able GD-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson SPECTR O MS Sp ectro Analytical Instrumen ts 2010 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Mattauc h-Herzog Nu Plasma II Nu Instrumen ts 2010 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Astrum Nu Instrumen ts 2010 av ail able GD-SFMS Nier-Johnson Neptune plus Thermo Scien tic 2009 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson a Man ufacturer names are according to their names when the instrumen t w as in tro duced. 13 supply is given by a radio-frequency (rf) generator, that ranges typically between 1 and 1.5 kW, at a frequency of about 27 MHz. A sketch of the plasma torch used by Neptune MC-ICP-MS is represented in Figure 3.1; it is usually referred to Letter Template 9 Free Word as a Fassel torch, from the american chemist Velmer A. Fassel. The following treatise, which aims to give an overall description of the torch, is mainly based on the publications by Fassel  and Houk , while a detailed nomeclature description of the system can be found elsewhere . Chase Fax Cover Sheet? To form a stable plasma, a pattern of three Argon ows is Template 9 Free needed; so the Appointment Letter | Cover Samples To, Fassel torch consists of three concentric quartz or fused silicate glass tubes, carriyng a total Argon ow between 11 and 18 L/min. Since the plasma temperature is so high, a thermal insulation is needed; the outer tube main operation is thus to insulate the Offer Letter Example. Offer Letter Template Word, device from the outside environment. To this aim, the Notice On Yavapai, Reed's vortex stabilization technique is used : a ow of Example., Argon tangentially introduced streams upward, cooling the inside walls of the outermost quartz tube and centering the plasma radially in the tube.
The outer tube has a 2.5 cm diameter and carries a plasma ow between. 10 and Appointment | Cover Samples To 15 L/min; it is also responsible for the main supply of Ar to the plasma. The middle tube provides the auxiliary gas (0.5 ¿½'' 2 L/min), whose role is to lift the plasma o the injector. The auxiliary gas is Letter 9 Free Pdf Doents injected tangentially too, in order to create a vortex and stabilise the plasma. The eect of the previous two tubes is to 9+ Easy Template generate a stable toroidal plasma through the centre tube, in which the Offer Letter Offer Letter Template 9 Free Word, sample aerosol is 9+ Easy Resume | Addressing injected. Offer Letter Pdf Doents? The Argon ionization is started by a spark produced by a Tesla coil; the Fax Cover, ions and Offer Letter Example. Letter Template Word electrons this way formed interact with the oating magnetic eld given by the load coil. The result is a high frequency oscillating electron and ion current, which heats the plasma gas to high temperatures: gas-kinetic temperature of 5000 ¿½'' 8000 K, ionization temperature of about 7500 K, excitation temperature of 6500¿½''7000 K, and electron temperature of about.
10000 K; then plasma is maintained by inductive heating. The aerosol generated from the Meeting College, sample is either created by nebulization of a liquid sample solution or consists of solid particles carried by a gas ow when sample material is Example. Offer Letter 9 Free ablated by a laser; it is then transferred into the centre of the plasma by an Argon gas ow (0.8 ¿½'' 1 L/min), through the inner tube. To be eectively atomized and excited, the sample aerosols should remain localized in the interior high-temperature environment of the plasma as long as possible. Smart Action Plan Of Correction? The sample species employ about 2 ms to reach the Letter Offer Letter 9 Free Word, observation height of 15 to 20 mm above the load coil (ALC); this time is Resume | Addressing Letter sucient in an environment with such a temperature (between 5000 K and 8000 K) to give rise to an ecient volatilization and atomization of the sample components and subsequent excitation and ionization of the atoms thus formed .2 The Saha-Eggert equation  can be used to estimate the eciency of 2Just for a comparison, the residence times and temperatures experienced by the sample are approximately twice those found in the hottest combustion ames common used in AAS . 14 Figure 3.1: Inductively Coupled Plasma conguration . 15 the Letter Example. Letter Template 9 Free Pdf Doents, ionization for Chase Sheet the resulting analyte atoms, using the electron densities and Offer Letter Example. 9 Free Pdf Doents temperatures typical for Letter Doc India Samples What To the ICP discharge: it results that all elements with rst ionization potentials below 8 eV are completely ( 90%) ionized and even elements with rst ionization potentials between 8 and 12 eV are ionized by more than 10% . Letter 9 Free? So the plasma source ionization eciency is much higher for the ICP than for the other devices;3 moreover, referring to Sample Smart Action atomic spectroscopy, it is also economically convenient.4 Predominantly singly charged ions are generated for Offer Letter Letter 9 Free all elements of the Sales Sheet. Clinic Datasheet, periodic table. Thus, the mass spectrum observed mainly consists of signals corresponding to the singly charged elemental ions of the nuclides of all elements present in Offer Letter Example. 9 Free Word, the sample. ICP sources had been developed for optical spectroscopy; when they were adapted for mass spectrometry, secondary discharges (called pinches or pinch eects) between the plasma and the sampler arose. They were caused by the rf potential in the plasma and they gave rise to numerous deleterious eects: rapid deterioration of the sampling and the skimming cones, contamination of the plasma with sampler and skimmer material, high photon noise and Smart Plan. Plan Of Correction high ion energies with large energy spreads . Letter Example. Offer Letter 9 Free Word Pdf Doents? In order to decrease this phenomenon, the Neptune torch is equipped with a guard electrode (GE), also called torch shield or capacity decoupling.
This is a grounded platinum foil placed in Meeting :: Eye, between the Letter Example. Letter 9 Free Word, plasma torch and the load coil. | Cover? Since one end of the coil is connected to the rf source and the other end is grounded, a potential gradient exists along the coil, which becomes capacitively coupled into the plasma. The plasma, in turn, is Offer Example. Offer Letter Template 9 Free Word electrically coupled through the sheath (see chapter 4) to Letter Format | Cover Letter Samples What To the sampler. Letter 9 Free Pdf Doents? These two impedance sources act as a potential divider; if plasma potential is Sheet. Pregnancy Datasheet Medical too high a strong secondary discharge forms between the plasma and the sampling orice . Gray showed  that insertion of a grounded, slotted metal cylinder (the torch shield shown in Figure 3.2) between the load coil and the outer wall of the torch shields the d.c. potential component from the plasma and provides a low plasma potential - in the following it will be shown that this last gain improves the operation of the ICP-MS. Letter Letter Template? In addition, the guard electrode decreases the ion energy spread, and thus can help to Chase Sheet increase the overall ion transmission . In order to minimize the Offer Letter Example. Offer Template 9 Free Pdf Doents, plasma potential and Meeting secondary discharge, mainly two other dierent load coil congurations have been used:5 ¿½' inverted (or reversed) load coil: the load coil is grounded at the down- stream end nearest the sampler; ¿½' center-tapped load coil: a high voltage of equal amplitude but opposite phase is applied to the coil edges, while the center is connected to Letter Example. Letter 9 Free Word Pdf Doents ground. Sample Smart Action Template? 3In the Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry is lower than 5%. 4The operating cost of these plasmas owing in Letter Example. Pdf Doents, the Fassel torch, exclusive of the electrical power, is lower than the 21+ Conference Designs, | Design Trends, cost of the gases needed to operate the nitrous oxide- acetylene ame commonly used in Atomic Absorption Spectroscpy (AAS).
5Also the Offer Word Pdf Doents, interleaved and the balanced load coils have been studied . 16 Figure 3.2: Sketch of a plasma torch in which is clearly visible the guard electrode. Figure 3.3: Design features of an inverted load-coil (A) and Fax Cover a center-tapped coil (B) . 17 Chapter 4 Extraction interface In coupling an Inductively Coupled Plasma and a Mass Spectrometer, the trouble is that ICP operates at atmospheric pressure, whereas MS requires an ultra high vacuum (UHV) condition (operating pressure less then 10¿½''7 Pa), otherwise the ions would be scattered by the gas atoms. Offer Letter Example. Letter Template? The solution to such a pressure discrepancy is to interpose three interfaces between the gas source and the analyzer, resulting in a four-regions solution. While the rst one is at ambient pressure (105 Pa), the second region (called interface) is pumped by a regular rotary pump, to obtain a pressure of 2 · 102 Pa.
The higher is the grade of vacuum, the better are the instrumental performances features, such as transmission eciency or abundance sensitivity; as a con- sequence, stronger vacuum pumps are becoming popular. 9+ Easy Resume Template? To preserve the high vacuum condition in the third region, a slide valve is interposed; it is only opened when the plasma is operating stable and is closed before plasma shutdown, to isolate the high vacuum. The third region, where lenses are located, has a pressure of Letter Example. Template 9 Free, about 5 · 10¿½''2 Pa, while the Meeting, mass spectrometer (nal region) operates in ultra high vacuum conditions (about 10¿½''7 Pa). It has been found that such a low pressure is advantageous in the case of multi collector devices ; in Example. Offer 9 Free Word, order to provide this result, the Chase Sheet, analyzer is separated from the lens system by a second valve and additional ion getter pumps are required. The development and improvement of the Offer Letter Offer Letter Pdf Doents, ion sampling interface for ICP-MS have been crucial aspects of the success of the technique. 21+ Conference Flyer Psd Download | Design Trends? The rst analytical mass spectrometer for ion sampling from an ICP used a stagnant layer type sampling interface  1. At the end of the plasma torch, an Example. Letter Word, interface was present to extract a small fraction of 21+ Conference | Design, plasma with its ions into a vacuum system.
This interface was composed by two cones, a sampler and Example. Offer Letter 9 Free Word Pdf Doents a skimmer. Chase Sheet? The rst one consisted of a water-cooled copper cone, on Letter Example. Letter Template Word whose tip was mounted a molybdenum disk, through whose center was drilled a 50 µm diameter orice. Due to this small diameter, an aero- dynamically stagnant layer of gas formed between the two cones, as shown in Figure 4.1. 1This type of pinhole sampler was adopted in the early days from ame and plasma sampling methodology and from the original work of Gray with a d.c. capillary arc plasma . 18 Figure 4.1: Diagram of boundary layer sampling interface for 21+ Conference Flyer Designs, Psd Download | Design Trends ICP-MS . Since electrons are faster than ions, a space-charge sheath containing an Offer Letter Example. Letter Word Pdf Doents, excess of 21+ Conference Psd Download Trends, ions builded up around the tip of the cone. This stagnant bound- ary layer was in thermal contact with the relatively cool sampler, making the layer temperature intermediate between the Offer Letter Example. Offer 9 Free Pdf Doents, plasma one and the sam- pler one. As the boundary layer was extended across the sampler tip, ions were extracted only after a large number (about 106) of collisions with the layer. This transport through the boundary layer induced several liabilities: rst of all it was probably facilitating ion-electron recombination, ion neu- tralization at Sheet the sampler walls, charge exchange, ion-neutral attachment, nucleation and condensation of Letter Template Pdf Doents, solid deposits (mainly due to the formation of involatile metal compounds) and some occurring reactions might have been catalyzed by the metal surface of the orice disk. Secondly, consid- ering the supersonic jet downstream the sampler cone, collisions leading to clustering, ion-electron recombination or charge exchange also occurred. Consequently, sample deposition occurred in the sampling orice - metal oxide and metal hydroxide ions had been observed.
Progressive solid con- densation of Meeting Notice On Yavapai College, sample material both made the extraction eciency of Letter Example. Offer 9 Free, analyte ions gradual decreasing and restricted the useful life of orices. Even nowa- days the rst components that have to be changed in a mass spectrometer are the sampler and the skimmer cones: their lifetime is limited by the sputtering in the region immediately behind the aperture . Resume Template | Addressing? Back to the problem of solid deposition, with this conguration biological uids required a dilution factor of several hundred before analyses of Offer Letter Example. Offer Template Pdf Doents, such solutions could be performed for more than one hour. Flyer | Design Trends? The consequent deterioration in Letter 9 Free Word, powers of detection for analyte elements was not acceptable for various ap- plications. Meeting? Owing to Offer Word Pdf Doents the diculties arised with this type of sampling, a new 19 sampling interface has been adopted: the supersonic nozzle and Appointment Format Doc India Letter skimmer .2 The version of this technique used in our ICP-MS consists of a large sampling orice: with this conguration it is possible to break through the intermediate sheath and to have a continuum gas ow condition. Offer Letter 9 Free Word Pdf Doents? The sheath is 9+ Easy Template a thin ply around the inner edge of the Example. Offer Template Pdf Doents, sampling orice; in this ply the charged particles shield the rest of the gas ow from the potential on the sampler (usually grounded). Therefore the extracted ow passes through the sampler as a quasineutral plasma,3 i.e. with essentially equal densities of Chase, ions and electrons.4 Cool layers are still present, but they form obliquely around the Offer Example. Word Pdf Doents, inside edge of the orice, instead of across its mouth . Consequently the salt deposition and the oxide ion formation are much less severe . Smart Action Of Correction? So, this conguration provides several advantages: ¿½' a much higher total ow of Letter Letter Template Word Pdf Doents, ions; ¿½' a more representative sample of ions from the plasma; ¿½' greater resistance to plugging from deposited solids.
The improved resistance to erosion and expansion is Letter Doc India | Cover Samples To also because such an orice is made with relatively thick metal near the tip. Figure 4.2 is a scale drawing of continuum sampling interface. Offer Offer Letter Template 9 Free? The sampler (or nozzle) (A) is a nickel-made cone, in which tip is drilled a 0.8 mm diameter orice with a length of 0.25 mm. Appointment Format Doc India Letter Samples? The internal and external sampler angles are 90¿½'¿½ and 120¿½'¿½, respectively. Coaxially placed, 7 mm downstream the sampler, there is the skimmer, made from stainless steel with 50¿½'¿½ and 60¿½'¿½ internal and external angles, respectively.5 The short distance between the two cones allows a sequential pressure decrease and it could be varied by changing the Offer Example. Offer Letter, thickness of the Teon spacer (C). Both the sampler and skimmer are grounded; nevertheless there could be some benets applying a voltage to the skimmer - see section 7. From the Appointment Letter Doc India Samples, work by Hu et al.  it results that larger sampling orices could bring higher ion signals: the plot in Figure 4.3 shows how the Co and Bi ion count rate increased drilling out the circular aperture progres- sively. Letter Offer 9 Free Pdf Doents? Since also the Sample Pregnancy Clinic Template, background pressure increased after each drilling, it was necessary to empirically adjust the separation between the sampler and the skimmer to maximize the ion signal. Moreover, a small orice is more subjected to Offer Letter Example. Offer Template 9 Free Word clogging compared to a bigger one: as it can be seen in Figure 4.4 a pressure decreasing in the case of the smaller orice is 9+ Easy Resume Template Letter observed, since it plugs quickly. Offer Letter Example. 9 Free Word? In conclusion, enlarging the orice could provide a double 2This type of sampling interface have been in Plan. Of Correction | Themesclub, use since the pioneering work of Kantrowitz and Grey in 1951 . 3The charge density is considered to be suciently high as to ensure that the charac- teristic Debye length is small with respect to the dimensions of the interface components - under this condition it's possible to consider the beam as neutral.
4This concept is supported by calculations based on a paper by Letter Template 9 Free Axford and Hayhurst. 5Nowadays, dierent skimmer cone designs are available, characterized by dierent transmission eciency . 20 Figure 4.2: Scale drawing of continuum sampling interface for Smart Action Plan. Template ICP-MS . Letter? 21 Figure 4.3: Ion count rates as a function of sampler orice diameter . Sheet. Clinic Template? benet: a higher ion signal and an improved tolerance to orice plugging. Offer Example. Letter Template? However it has to be underlined that these studies were conducted with a continuous ow ultrasonic nebulizer, which transported material to Sample Sales Datasheet the plasma at Offer Letter Pdf Doents a rate at least 10 times greater than the one obtained with a con- ventional pneumatic nebulizer. As a consequence, the second improvement would not be relevant in our case. In order to understand the Chase Fax Cover Sheet, performance of this interface and particu- larly to nd the parameters needed in the simulations (see section 6.4) the gas ow (in molecules/s) through the sampler can be calculated through equation (4.1)  used by Olivares and Houk in Offer Letter Offer Letter Template 9 Free, their article (dating 1985): U0 = ¿½'f (³)NAD 2 0 P0 4 ¿½'' mRT0 (4.1) where f(³) = ¿½'' ³ · [2/(³ + 1)](³+1)/2(³¿½''1) , NA is Smart Action Plan Avogadro's number, D0 the orice diameter, P0 the ICP pressure, m the mean molecular weight of Argon, R the gas constant, T0 the source gas temperature of the Letter Example. Template, ICP, and ³ is the specic heat ratio at constant pressure and volume (Cp/Cv) of Argon. 22 Figure 4.4: Normalized interface pressure as a function of time for continu- ous nebulization of 1000 ppm Y at sampling orice . 23 The ow through the skimmer cone is Smart Of Correction Template | Themesclub given by the following equation: US = U0 · f (³) DS XS 2 (4.2) where DS is the skimmer diameter and XS the skimmer-to-sampler distance. These theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimentally obtained values for an ICP with 10 mg/l Co solution .
In a 1988 article, Douglas and French provided another way to Letter Example. Letter 9 Free Word Pdf Doents describe the gas expansion through these two orices; in Chase Fax Cover Sheet, their article the gas ow across the sampler was given by  G0 = 0.445 n0 a0 D 2 0 (4.3) where n0 is the source number density and a0 the speed of sound in the source: a0 = ³ k T0 m (4.4) (k is the Boltzmann's constant). The equation for the gas ow through the Offer Letter Example. 9 Free Word Pdf Doents, skimmer uses the gas density and the ow velocity at the skimmer tip, n(xS) and v(xS) respectively, and Sample Sheet. Pregnancy Datasheet Template the area of the skimmer orice AS:6 GS = n(xS) v(xS) AS (4.5) These two models (the one by Olivares and Houk and the one by Douglas and French) are based on a common assumption: as the plasma plume is 9 Free Word expanding from a sonic orice into Plan., a region of Offer Example. 9 Free Word Pdf Doents, lower pressure, it produces the development of the free jet shock wave system . As it can be seen in Meeting Notice :: Eye On Yavapai, the cross sectional view showed in Figure 4.5, the ow eld consists of a dark core portion, named zone of silence (unaected by the pressure changes along the Offer Letter Example. Offer Template 9 Free, jet boundary), laterally bounded from a barrel shock and ending with the so called Mach disk (its thickness has been found to be of the order of magnitude of the mean free path ). This phenomenon has been well characterised by Smart Action Plan | Themesclub Ashkenas and Sherman ; they calculated the Offer Letter Example. Offer Template Pdf Doents, distance downstream the sampler at which the Mach disk forms: xM = 0.67D0 · p P0/P1 (4.6) where P1 is the interface background pressure. This relationship has been conrmed experimentally by optical measurements of Meeting College, emission excited in the Mach disk . As the gas passes through the sampler, it expands adiabatically into the low pressure region; since the mean free path (») is much smaller than the diameter orice, several collisions between fast atoms from the Offer Letter Offer 9 Free, dark core and background atoms occur. This phenomenon causes the formation of the Mach disk and the barrel shock, depicted in Figure 4.5. Moreover, through 6The ow velocity is nearly constant at 21+ Conference | Design p5kT 0/2m . 24 Figure 4.5: Cross sectional view of Offer Letter Template, supersonic expansion behind the sampler . this scattering process, the random thermal motion of atoms in Sample Smart Action Of Correction, the plasma is converted into directed motion in the zone of Offer Letter Template, silence: the ow velocity can than exceed the local speed of Letter Format What, sound and the Mach number becomes greater than one (M 1).7 The Mach disk formation is observable analyzing atom velocities and temperatures (showed in Example. Letter 9 Free Pdf Doents, Figures 4.6 and 4.7) as a function of | Design Trends, distance downstream the sampler cone. Example. Offer Template 9 Free Word? The rapid acceleration and cooling of the atoms are expected from a supersonic expansion  and is represented by Flyer the series of point that start about 2 mm downstream the sampler. At a position of about 10 mm another population of atoms forms: this new population, slow and hot, is given by fast atoms which collide with background atoms and constitutes the Mach disk.
In order to nd a numerical result for the gas ow through both the sampler and the skimmer using the two models previously shown, some other relations are needed. Offer Letter Offer 9 Free Pdf Doents? The Mach number in the plasma is less than one (M 1); as the gas passes through the sampler the density decreases, the ow speed increases and M increases too. In this region the centerline Mach number for a monoatomic gas - as in this case - is given to a very good approximation by M = 3.26(x/D0) 2/3 ¿½'' 0.61(x/D 0) ¿½''2/3 (4.7) where x is the axial distance behind the orice. This means the Mach number reaches 1 at 21+ Conference Flyer Designs, | Design a distance equal to 0.5 orice diameters downstream 7The Mach number is dened as the ratio between between the gas ow speed (u) and the local speed of sound (a0). 25 Figure 4.6: Axial velocity dependence downstream from the sampler cone: 4 fast, cold component, slow, hot component . Figure 4.7: Axial temperature dependence downstream from the sampler cone: 4 fast, cold component, slow, hot component . 26 Figure 4.8: Scatter plot of the gas temperature as a function of the distance from the Example. 9 Free Word, sampler in the free jet, obtained from equation (4.9). the Smart Action Plan. Plan, sampler. Furthermore the gas density and temperature decrease inside the jet, according to the following equations: n0 n = 1 + M 2 ³ ¿½'' 1 2 1/(³¿½''1) (4.8) T0 T = 1 + M 2 ³ ¿½'' 1 2 (4.9) where n0 and T0 are the gas density and temperature in the source.
Equation (4.8) could be approximated back to the onset of the Mach disk by n(x) = 0.161 n0 (D0/x) 2 (4.10) This relation, that describes the drop in intensity of Offer Example. Letter Template Pdf Doents, neutral species along the centerline, has been experimentally conrmed by Niu and Houk, when in 1994 they measured electron densities in the interface with a Langmuir probe . The plot in Sheet, Figure 4.8 represents the temperature drop described by equation (4.9); this decrease corresponds to a narrowing of the width of the velocity distribution (Figure 4.9) as the random thermal motion is converted into directed motion with a relatively uniform speed. A combination of Letter Example. Offer Letter 9 Free Word, all the displayed equations have been used to obtained the results highlighted in Designs, Psd Download, Table 4.1. The gas ows have been obtained with two dierent equations and are in Offer Letter Template 9 Free Pdf Doents, good agreement, especially in correspondence of the sampler cone. In 27 Table. 4.1: Parameters and. constan ts used to calculate the. o w - highligh ted.
skimmer with tw o dieren t mo. Houk  Douglas and. h  ³ 1 .67 sp ecic heat ratio C p /C v ³ 1 .67 sp ecic heat ratio C p /C v f (³ ) 0 .726661 T 0 5000 K gas. temp eratur e D sa 0 .8. mm sampler diamete r m 6 .6 · 10 23 g relativ e atomic mass P 0 10 5 Pa ICP pressure D sa 0 .8. mm sampler diameter M 39. g/mol relativ e molecular w eigh. t a 0 1317 .97 m/s sp eed. of sound in the. source T 0 5000 K gas. temp erature n 0 1 .5 · 10 18 cm ¿½'' 3 source densit y x 7. mm sampler to skimmer distance U 0 5 .4 · 10 20 atoms/s gas.
o w through the. sampler G 0 5 .6 · 10 20 atoms/s gas. o w through the. sampler D sk 0 .8. mm skimmer diame ter M sk 14 Mac. mm sampler to skimmer distance n sk 3 .0 · 10 15 cm ¿½'' 3 gas. densit y at the. skimmer P i 861 Pa impact pressure at Sample Smart Plan Template the. skimmer v 1 .6 · 10 5 cm/s o w velo cit y D sk 0 .8. mm skimmer diameter U S 5 .1 · 10 18 atoms/s gas.
o w through the. skimmer G S 2 .5 · 10 18 atoms/s gas. o w through the. skimmer 28 Figure 4.9: Wide velocity distribution in Letter Example. Offer Pdf Doents, the plasma compared to Smart Action Plan. Of Correction | Themesclub the nar- rower distribution in the supersonic jet . the region close to the skimmer there is a factor 2 between the Offer Example. Offer Template, two models results; this dierence is negligible since the gas ow probably depends on many other contributions - e.g. the analyte species, the nebulizer gas ow - that can signicantly aect the nal result. Regarding the sampler to skimmer distance, Douglas and French showed that the best arrangement corresponds to having the skimmer tip about. 2/3 of the way back to the onset of the 9+ Easy Resume Template Letter, Mach disk  . This result approximately agrees with the one obtained for the maximum intensity in the case of a neutral beam from Campargue expansion : XS = 0.125 D0 D0P0 »P1 1/3 (4.11) Even if here » is referred to as the mean free path inside the sampler orice, it has no particular subscript as it is expected to be nearly equal to the one for the gas outside the sampler in the ICP.
The skimmer protrudes into the zone of silence so that shock waves form behind the Offer Template Word, skimmer tip o the outside walls of the skimmer, as shown in the sketch in Figure 4.10. With this conguration, the metal wall of the skimmer where the second shock wave begins is thick enough to conduct away the heat generated and 9+ Easy Resume | Addressing the thin edge of metal at the skimmer tip remains stable. Otherwise, if the skimmer was located after the Mach disk, the sampled gas would be reheated by collisions with background gas in the Mach disk; this process would lead to the formation of Offer Letter 9 Free Pdf Doents, a spherical white emitting region. The heat this way producted would be directly transferred to the skimmer tip, too thin to properly conduct the heat away; the result would be the 9+ Easy Template Letter, melting or the rapid degradation of the skimmer tip . Calculation of the Knudsen number Kn, especially at the skimmer, is also instructive; it is dened as the ratio of the mean free path » to the 29 Figure 4.10: Eect of dierent sampler-skimmer distances. (a) Skimmer at normal position used for analysis. (b) Skimmer outside the zone of silence .
30 skimmer diameter DS: Kn = » DS (4.12) In the Letter Template Word, small scale Kn quanties the failure of the Navier-Stokes description: in fact this model corresponds to Sales Pregnancy Datasheet Medical the collision-dominated transport limit of Offer Letter Template 9 Free Pdf Doents, small Knudsen number Kn 1. More specically, in the presence of hy- drodynamic gradients in a homogeneous gas over lenghtscales characterized by Kn 1, the Chapman-Enskog expansion procedure can be applied to the governing kinetic (Boltzmann) equation to show that the gas response can be described by linear-gradient constitutive relations which lead to the Navier-Stokes description . Practically, the lower the Sample Pregnancy Template Medical, Kn, the smaller the number of Example. Offer Template Pdf Doents, collisions is; Kn would have to be much less than unity (i.e. » DS ) for the beam to expand through the skimmer without collisions. The mean free path » can be expressed through the following relation, based on viscosity measurements and kinetic theory arguments : » = 16/5 µ nm q 2¿½'kT m = 16/5 µ n ¿½'' 2¿½'kT m (4.13) where n is the Psd Download, molecular number density, m the particle mass and k the Boltzmann's constant. It is possible to refer to the viscosity coecient both with µ and ·. Niu and Offer Example. Letter Template 9 Free Houk report another relation for the Knudsen number: Kn = » DS = 1 1.414¿½'¿½'nDS (4.14) where ¿½' is the gas kinetic cross section for Ar (4.1 · 10¿½''15 cm2). The result obtained applying these two relations with the settings previously described are Kn = 0.3 and » = 0.2. Sales Pregnancy Datasheet Template Medical? These values are consistent with several articles    . The literature concerning supersonic expansions indicates that in this case two main disturbances are to be expected around the tip : a thin shock in front of the Letter Example. Letter Word, skimmer and perturbation of the straight line beam ow by collisions of the Sample Smart Action Plan Of Correction Template, beam with atoms reected from the skimmer wall. Offer Letter Template Word? Considering now the gas ow rate calculated for our particular case, the- oretically the total ion current at the base of the skimmer should be about.
0.4 mA; this result is consistent with several papers: for example, Gillson et al. , even if with a slightly dierent setting, calculated an ion current of. 1016 ions/second, corresponding to 1.5 mA. Sample Sales Pregnancy Datasheet? This current has been calculated considering that through the skimmer passes only 2.6% of the central ow of the ICP. Considering the Offer Letter Offer Letter, theoretical loss of analyte ions for Sheet Y, Chen and Houk calculated a transmission eciency from the Letter Template Word, skimmer to the detector is 0.02%. As a consequence, the overall eciency of an ICP-MS is about. 5·10¿½''6 ; in other words, theoretically, for every 106 analyte ions in the central channel of the Meeting :: Eye On Yavapai, ICP, only ve ions reach the detector. As it will be explained later, this number is even lower in the reality. Through a comparison with a three-aperture ICP-MS interface, they deduced that many ions are lost between the skimmer tip and the ion optics or inside the ion optics itself. So 31 it is crucial to understand what happens in this region and how ions are lost. Chapter 6 is aimed to simulate the region where particles y, including the skimmer and the rst lens (named extraction lens), in order to study and Offer Letter Example. Letter Template Word characterize the formed beam.
Resuming the work by Gillson et al., they repeated the ion current measurements8 with the same settings for 9+ Easy Template a heavier ion (U+); the ux resulted higher. This phenomenon is Letter Offer Letter Word Pdf Doents called instrumental mass discrimination and has been deeply investigated (e.g., by Sheet Kivel et al. ), since it hampers accurate determination of absolute isotope ratios. In general, it consists in having at the spectrometer a stoichiometric composi- tion dierent from the one characterizing the original sample material. It has been reported that, typically, analyzing two isotopes, the heavier has a higher transport eciency: the dierence is about 10 ¿½'' 20% in the case of light elements and down to 1% for heavy elements. Four main factors are at the base of Letter Offer Pdf Doents, mass discrimination: ¿½' sample introduction and ion generation; ¿½' collisions; ¿½' space charge eect; ¿½' energy-selective ion transmission. The rst and the last one are not studied in Sample Datasheet Template Medical, the present work, since it is limited to Offer Letter Example. Template 9 Free Word the region dened by the skimmer and the rst ion lens. As the plasma is quasi-neutral until the starting of the skimmer, it's reason- able to assume that mass discrimination in the interface is mainly caused by collisions.
This hypothesis is Fax Cover consistent with the work by Taylor and Farnsworth : they found the Letter Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents, absence of any space charge eect dur- ing the ion transfer from the source to the spectrometer. Moreover, for the present work, collisions have been considered a negligible contribution compared to space charge eect. As a consequence, mass discrimination upstream the skimmer has not been considered; the | Addressing Letter, following investigation is Offer Example. Offer Template Word limited to the region downstream the skimmer cone, up to the extraction lens.9 Resuming mass discrimination due to space charge eects, it can be explained by postulating that the ion beam within the skimmer is space charge limited: its density is so high that mutual repulsion will not allow the ions to Appointment Doc India Letter remain tightly focused. Offer Template 9 Free? Since all ions have the same charge, they are subjected to the same force: as a consequence, lighter ions are de- focused (and then colliding on the skimmer walls) much more readily than heavier ones. More than upstream, the space charge is considerable in the region downstream the 9+ Easy Resume | Addressing Letter, skimmer. In fact, according to the model by Douglas and French , plasma is sampled without signicant charge separation.10 8They used a stainless steel collector - situated 1 in. from the base at the skimmer - consisting of three concentric rings and a central circular stop.
9Study of mass discrimination after charge separation can be found elsewhere . 10In an alternate model, presented by Chambers et al., it is assumed that signicant charge separation occurs between the sampler and the skimmer; therefore the Offer 9 Free Word Pdf Doents, ion current through the skimmer would be signicantly less than that estimated in this work. 32 Behind the skimmer, where the beam expands, there are three main con- tributions to the loss of the Fax Cover Sheet, ions: the Offer Letter Template Word Pdf Doents, density decreasing - proportionally to 1/x2 (where x is the distance from the skimmer) - as a consequence of the Smart Action Plan. Plan Of Correction | Themesclub, expansion, the beam spreading and the preferential loss of electrons. This last phenomenon could be explained considering the Debye length »D; downstream of the Offer Offer 9 Free Pdf Doents, skimmer »D is signicant compared to the dimensions of the beam and electrons are lost readily to the inner wall of the skimmer because their high mobility. Moreover, in this stage, the electrostatic eld penetration from the extraction lens becomes signicant; as a consequence of these two eects, electrons leave a net axial positive space charge . Its signicance can be quantitatively described using the perveance P : P = I V 3/2 (4.15) where I is the total current and Meeting Notice V the Letter Example. Word, accelerating potential. P depends only on the geometry of the Sheet. Pregnancy Datasheet Template Medical, extractor and on the type of the Offer Offer Letter Word, particle . Sales Sheet. Pregnancy Clinic Datasheet? For a singly charged ion beam, space charge is negligible if P 10 ¿½''8 · (m ion/me) ¿½''1/2 (4.16) where mion and me are, respectively, the mass of the particle and of the Offer Letter Example. Offer Template Word Pdf Doents, electron. So, for Argon ions, the Sheet. Template, maximum perveance without signicant space charge eects is 3.7·10¿½''11. Offer Example. Offer Template Word Pdf Doents? In the proximity of the skimmer P is equal to 1.9 · 10¿½''7 , which exceeds the maximum perveance by more than a factor 5000. To obtain a rough estimate for the maximum electron current (for argon), it is possible to 9+ Easy | Addressing Letter assume the skimmer as a cylinder with diameter.
D and length L:11 Ie,max(A) = 38.6 · 10 ¿½''6V 3/2 D L 2 (4.17) The ion current is related to the electron one: Iion Ie = r me mion (4.18) therefore Iion,max(A) = 9.04 · 10 ¿½''7 r z mion V 3/2 D L 2 (4.19) As hinted before, another cause of losing ions is the rarefaction of the Offer Letter Letter Template Word Pdf Doents, beam as it travels farther from the skimmer tip. Chase Sheet? The Debye length in- creasing, by virtue of Example. Offer Letter Word, its inverse square root dependence on the ion density, causes also the ions (not only the electrons) spreading. So, to enhance the transmission eciency, the distance between the skimmer tip and the ion optics has to Resume Template Letter be minimized. A substantial increase in Offer Letter Example. Letter Template Pdf Doents, ion signal was 11The diameter at the base of the skimmer is equal to its length; the Fax Cover Sheet, average diameter of the skimmer is Offer 9 Free Word then about L/2 and the ratio D/L is about 0.5. 33 seen when this separation was reduced to 2.4 cm . Sample Action Of Correction Template | Themesclub? At this position, the mouth of the rst lens was only 5 mm from the nearest surface of the skimmer wall. Closer separations were tried, but the voltage output for the rst lens became unstable, because of an electrical discharge between the ion lens and the skimmer wall or due to a high current ow to the lens. In the Neptune MC-ICP-MS is the thickness of the separation valve limits the Letter Example. Offer Letter Template 9 Free Pdf Doents, smaller distance between the skimmer and the lens.
Table 4.2: Resume of the torch and the extraction interface operating pa- rameters Forward power 1350 W Guard electrode Grounded Gas ows: Cool 14.6 L/min Auxiliary 0.9 L/min Sample 0.8 L/min Make-up 0.3 ¿½'' 0.5 L/min Injector Sapphire (narrow bore) Spray chamber APEX HF Cones:12 Sampler Aluminium 0.9 mm Skimmer Aluminium 1.0 mm 12Custom design by PSI. 34 Chapter 5 IBSimu To simulate what happens during the beam extraction from the Sheet. Medical, plasma source, an ion optical computer simulation package have been used, IBSimu. This software is designed especially for the ion source community  and Letter Example. Offer Letter Template it is well suited for Meeting Notice On Yavapai College our particular aim because it is conceived for ion (both positive and negative) and Offer Letter Example. Offer Template 9 Free electron plasma extraction. Its development started at LBNL in 2004 where it was used to design a slit-beam plasma extraction and nanosecond scale chopping for pulsed neutron generator. Sample Smart Plan. Plan Template? Later, at the University of Jyv¤skyl¤ (Finland), Department of Physics (JYFL), the code was made modular and suitable for many dierent types of problems. IBSimu has been documented and released with an open source license (it can be downloaded at: http://ibsimu.sourceforge.net/) and so it's well suited for use in the scientic community. Offer Letter Example. Letter Pdf Doents? It is used as a computer library through a C++ interface and it presents several peculiar advantages: ¿½' power and versatility; ¿½' customization and inclusion of new modules; ¿½' automation and batch processing; ¿½' incorporation of code in other software; ¿½' easiness of use (on the main site there are two tutorials http:// ibsimu.sourceforge.net/tutorial.html and the reference manual http://ibsimu.sourceforge.net/manual_1_0_5new_solver/index. html); ¿½' possibility to 9+ Easy | Addressing Letter do the diagnostics from Letter Example. Letter Word, code or with an interactive tool; ¿½' data exporting and visualization. The code is capable of Meeting Notice On Yavapai, solving electric elds in 1D, 2D (planar or cylin- drical symmetry) or full 3D simulation geometries and it can calculate rel- ativistic continuous wave or pulsed particle trajectories taking into account the space charge density. The starting point is the denition of the ge- ometry, where the simulation is done, and the electrodes (including the 35 Figure 5.1: Operational diagram for solving the Poisson problem. grounded interfaces), using a mathematical description. Offer Letter 9 Free Word? In order to Format Doc India Letter What To calcu- late the electric potential, the simulation domain is divided in square meshes with constant step size, which dimension can be specied in the geometry section of the code. So the eld where particles y is discretized: for each cell the Poisson's equation ¿½'' 2¿½' = ¿½'' 0 (5.1) is Offer Letter Example. Letter Template solved using nite dierence method (FDM) on the nodes of the Sheet, mesh.
Then, the electrostatic potential is calculated through a solver, using an Offer Letter Letter Template, iterative approach (described in the following). Format Letter Samples? The nite dierence representation for a vacuum node i is: ¿½'i¿½''1 ¿½'' 2¿½'i + ¿½'i+1 h2 = ¿½'' i. 0 (5.2) while Neumann (5.3) or Dirichlet (5.4) boundary conditions can be used for boundary nodes. ¿½''3¿½'i + 4¿½'i+1 ¿½'' ¿½'i+2 2h = d¿½' dx (5.3) ¿½'i = ¿½'const (5.4) To achieve smooth electric elds on the solid edges, the edge nodes within the solids are adjusted to virtual potentials using subnode information about the geometry: ²¿½'(x0 ¿½'' ±h) ¿½'' (± + ²)¿½'(x0) + ±¿½'(x0 + ²h) 1. 2 (± + ²)±²h 2 = ¿½'' (x0) 0 (5.5) On the edges of the simulation domain, every solver supports Dirich- let and Offer Letter Example. Letter Word Pdf Doents Neumann (rst and second order approximations) boundary condi- tions. The calculation can also include the generally accepted nonlinear plasma model for positive ion extraction; thermal background electrons of the plasma are modeled analytically in Poisson's equation (5.1) where. = ion ¿½'' e0 exp[(U ¿½'' Up)/(kTe/e)] and Notice :: Eye On Yavapai the plasma potential Up and the electron temperature Te are the Offer Letter Offer 9 Free Word Pdf Doents, model parameters. Ion charge density ion is calculated from beam current density and electron charge density e0 is set to Designs, Psd Download | Design Trends ion at plasma potential. The electric eld (needed for particle 36 trajectories) is obtained by numerical dierentiation and Offer Template Word interpolation of potential, using nine closest neighboring mesh nodes.
Then, the code cal- culates the particles trajectory integrating the Sample Sheet. Datasheet Template, equations of motion, derived from Letter Word Pdf Doents, Lorentz force, with adaptive Runge-Kutta Cash-Karp (fourth and fth order) algorithm. In 2D and with a null magnetic eld: dx dt = vx dy dt = vy dvx dt = ax = q m Ex dvy dt = ay = q m Ey This method has an automatic step-size adjustment for required trajec- tory accuracy. The implementation of the Runge-Kutta algorithm is used from the GNU Scientic Library. As the CPU available was multicore and the particle tracer is multithreaded, for a high eciency calculation eleven cores were used for ying particles and one for the potential determination. The particle tracer algorithm nds all the meshes the :: Eye College, trajectory passes through and deposits the Offer Letter Template, charge of the particle on the four (eight in On Yavapai, 3D) surrounding mesh nodes.
The same procedure checks for collisions in the mesh square. The code in Appendix A was the starting point in my work; to under- stand the Offer Letter Letter 9 Free Word Pdf Doents, extraction process and to optimize the Designs, Psd Download, fundamental parameters (Up and Te), I changed some parts of it, as it will be explained in the next chapter. Hereinafter there is a description of the main operations done by Letter Example. Offer Letter 9 Free Word Pdf Doents this rst code. Letter Format Doc India What? After including all libraries needed (most of them have been written by Taneli Kalvas), some denitions are present: the Example. Template, number of iterations, the rst lens acceleration voltage V acc, the plasma potential. Up, the electron temperature of the plasma Te, the number of particles per species n_particles and Sample Action Plan. Plan Of Correction Template | Themesclub the kinetic factor Ekin_factor (KF ). The last one is given by Offer Template 9 Free the ratio between the kinetic energy KE and the mass m; it is dened in Chase, this way in order to Offer Letter Example. Offer 9 Free Pdf Doents be equal for all the particles, regardless of their mass (in fact they are sent with a given velocity, not energy). Psd Download | Design? To have the kinetic factor in eV/amu it has been used the following equation: KF [ eV/amu] = 1.66 · 10¿½''8 3.2 v 2 (5.6) where v is in Letter Example. Letter 9 Free Word Pdf Doents, m/s. Meeting Notice :: Eye College? Following the code, a rst array is dened to list the masses of the simulated ions in addition to Argon and another one is for Template Word the beam current (in µA). In the section Output denitions it is possible to set (through boolean variables) what to print during the :: Eye On Yavapai College, compiling and at Letter Template 9 Free Pdf Doents the end of the 37 code: debug and Sheet. Datasheet Template verbose provide some status information, the GTK plot represents the Offer Letter Letter Template 9 Free Pdf Doents, trend of both the electric potential and space charge error and Sales Datasheet plotting produces several les (it will be explained in detail later). Before starting the Offer Letter Example. Offer Letter Word, geometry section, the function fname is dened; it is used in the plotting phase, to print the name of the dierent les produced in it.
Then, in the geometry section, the Fax Cover, skimmer, the interface and Offer Letter Offer Letter Template 9 Free Word the ex- traction lens are dened, using a cylindrical simmetry: only the upper part is described and Letter Format Doc India To then, through a mirror function on Offer Example. Offer Letter 9 Free x axis, the electric eld in the lower part is obtained. In this section the mesh dimension - really important in the next chapter - is also dened. After the insertion in the geometry of the solid objects, boundary conditions are setted: at the edges of x and y (numbers from 1 to 4) they are of Neumann type, while for the user dened electrode (7 and 8) they are of Sample Action Plan. Plan Of Correction Template | Themesclub, Dirichlet type. At this point the initialization of the plasma and of the solver takes place: since several nonlinear solvers are available, the rst task was to decide which one was more tting our requirements (see section 6.1). The Argon charge density is calculated and the particles are setted to be mirrored along the x axis. Thus it is possible to Letter Offer Letter Word start the iteration loop.
This is necessary since there are two contributions to Sample Clinic Datasheet Medical the electric potential: the accelerating voltage (usually. ¿½''2000 V) of the ion lens and the space charge of the ying particles. Offer Letter Template Pdf Doents? As this second factor depends on the particles trajectories, which in turn are determined by the total electric potential, an iterative approach has been adopted. The number of iterations can be set in Sheet. Pregnancy Clinic Template, the beginning of the code: const uint n _iter = 21 Then the i index spaces in the range 0 · niter in order to reach the convergence. In the following a brief explanation of the Offer Letter Offer Letter Template Pdf Doents, operations executed in every cycle is provided: i = 0 : In the rst iteration the electric potential is calculated taking into account the Doc India | Cover What To, electrodes contribute only, i.e. for = 0. After computing the electric eld, particles are sent. i = 1 : As particles are now present, space charge is calculated and Offer Letter Example. Template Word Pdf Doents set as a variable in the plasma model; in fact, with IBSimu, plasma is a function of space charge , electron temperature Te and plasma potential Up. Then electric potential (and subsequently electric eld) is recalculated, now as a function of both electrodes and ying particles. As the charge density only changes passing from the rst to 21+ Conference Psd Download | Design the second iteration, plasma is calculated only in Example. Template 9 Free Pdf Doents, this step; there is no need to recalculate it in the other steps. For i ¿½'¿½ 2: The potential and eld are recalculated and Psd Download so are the particle trajectories, until both electric potential and Offer Letter Template 9 Free Word space charge converge - i.e. until the dierence for these two parameters between two iteration is nearly zero.
There are dierent function to produce particles, depending on which beam parameters are known: 1. add_2d_beam_with_energy (uint32_t N, double J, double q, double m, double E, double Tp, double Tt, double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) 38 2. Chase Sheet? add_2d_beam_with_velocity (uint32_t N, double J, double q, dou- ble m, double v, double dvp, double dvt, double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) 3. Letter Template 9 Free Pdf Doents? add_2d_KV_beam_with_emittance (uint32_t N, double I, double q, double m, double a, double b, double e, double Ex, double x0, double y0) 4. add_2d_gaussian_beam_with_emittance (uint32_t N, double I, dou- ble q, double m, double a, double b, double e, double Ex, double x0, double y0) where N is the number of particles, J the beam current density (A/m2), q the charge of beam particle (in multiples of Sample Clinic Template Medical, e) and Offer Template 9 Free m the mass (u). Designs, Psd Download Trends? For the rst two functions, the beam is dened on a line from Offer Example. Offer Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents, (x1, y1) to (x2, y2) and it propagates into a direction 90¿½'¿½ clockwise from the direction of vector pointing from | Addressing Letter, (x1, y1) to (x2, y2); at the beginning the beam prole is uniform. For the rst function E represents the beam energy (in eV ), while Tp and Tt are the parallel and Offer Offer Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents transverse temperature, respectively, in eV. Resume Template | Addressing Letter? The particle speeds in direction i are sampled from a gaussian distribution with standard deviation dvi = p(Ti · e/m), where Ti is the Offer Template 9 Free Pdf Doents, beam temper- ature in 21+ Conference Psd Download | Design Trends, direction i (eV), e is the Offer Example. Template 9 Free, electron charge (C) and m is the mass of the ion (kg). With the Sample Sales Sheet. Pregnancy Clinic Datasheet Template, third function, particles are own in the positive. x -direction from a starting location (center point) dened by (x0, y0) and the beam spread in the projectional space is made according to KV/hard- edged (Kapchinsky-Vladimirsky) distribution. I represents the beam total current (in A) and Ex the starting energy of the beam (in eV). The beam is made to Example. Letter Pdf Doents match Twiss parameters ± (a) and ² (b) in projectional direction (y,y'). Sample Pregnancy Clinic Template Medical? The rms-emittance of the beam is made to Example. 9 Free match rms (e). After iterating trajectories (through a special object), electric potential and space charge are recorded in the convergence.dat le; at the end of the simulation process this le can be found in the same folder where the Notice :: Eye College, source code is. If setted true in the beginning, it starts the last phase, the plotting one; this is the list of all the plots produced: ¿½' particle traces in the geometry eld; ¿½' zoom of particle traces in the range 0 ¿½'' 1 mm (the zone including the skimmer and the focus point); ¿½' electric potential as a function of x, usually a curve starting near 0 (the skimmer is Offer Offer Template 9 Free Word grounded but there is the plasma potential contribution) and ending at ¿½''2000 V (the lens voltage); ¿½' a 3D plot representing the electric potential as a function of x and y in the skimmer region; ¿½' emittance at 50 mm, as a function of y and the angle y0, reporting the values of ±, ², ³ and ; 39 ¿½' charge density (in C/m3) as a function of x; it is maximum at the beginning - at the skimmer tip -, then rapidly drops to zero, with a peak in correspondence to the focus point; ¿½' space charge as a function of x and y in the skimmer region; ¿½' kinetic energies (in eV) of ying particles, in a scatter plot, as a func- tion of particles mass; ¿½' signal intensity, in arbitrary units, for each mass, at 8, 50 and 56 mm; ¿½' beam prole histogram plot at 4 and 50 mm; ¿½' a scatter plot for the beam prole, representing the y value as a func- tion of the particles mass, both at 50 and 56 mm.
40 Chapter 6 Simulation 6.1 Task 1 - solver. The rst task was to nd and compare the dierent available solvers, in order to nd out which one is the fastest. With this aim, the computing time for 1 and 2 iterations has been determined, using one thread only and considering an Sample Sales Pregnancy Datasheet Template, Argon beam with 20k particles, a beam current of 1 mA and a mesh size equal to Letter Template 9 Free 100 µm. The outcome of Letter Format Doc India What, this comparison is the bar plot in Figure 6.1. As it can be seen, the UMFPACKSolver is the Example. Template Word, fastest. Moreover this solver can also use multi-thread; this feature makes the UMFPACKSolver the more suitable;1 accordingly, it was used throughout the 21+ Conference Flyer Designs, | Design, entire project. 6.2 Task 2 - computing time vs mesh size.
As explained in Offer Example. Offer Template, the previous chapter, to calculate the electric potential and the charge density, IBSimu divides the simulation domain in small cells, with uniform size: for Meeting :: Eye each cell UMFPACKSolver solves the problem, i.e. Poisson's dierential equation, and Offer Example. Offer Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents returns a value. So the mesh size has a large eect on the quality of the approximation: the smaller the mesh size, the higher the quality of the simulation is (down to the limit of mesh_size ¿½'' 0, representing the exact solution of the problem). The trouble is that it is impossible to decrease the mesh size innitely. The limits are the available memory (with 8967201 nodes - equivalent to a 10 µm mesh size - the Smart Action Plan Of Correction Template, system reports a memory allocation error) and Offer Letter Example. Letter Word the computing time. In fact, the higher the number of nodes, the longer is the time needed to solve the problem. So it is useful to nd a compromise to solve the Flyer Designs, Psd Download | Design Trends, problem with a good approximation and in a relatively short time. The relation between computation time and mesh size was investigated for mesh sizes in the range of 15 ¿½'' 300 µm.
In Table 6.1 and Figure 6.2 the data are given and plotted for a 20k particles Argon beam, with a current beam of Letter Template Word, 20 mA and 41 iterations. 1Twelve threads were available on the computer used. 41 Figure 6.1: Computing time for Appointment Format Samples To dierent solvers. Table 6.1: Computing time for dierent mesh sizes mesh (µm) no of nodes time (s) 300 10197 77.85 250 14625 97.61 200 22761 131.92 150 40303 163.45 100 90321 259.35 50 359841 619.59 40 561801 853.01 30 997957 1343.57 25 1436481 2021.08 20 2243601 3608.08 15 3987023 8676.87 42 Figure 6.2: Computing time as a function of the Offer Letter Example. Word Pdf Doents, number of nodes. It seems that the data points plotted have 2 dierent trends: the rst data can be tted with a root function, then (from the Sample Sheet. Clinic Datasheet Template, 50 µm mesh) the Example. Offer Letter Template Word, data can be tted with really good approximation through a square function. The functions used to t the two curves are respectively y = a · (1 + x) b (Figure 6.3) and y = A + B · x + C · x2 (Figure 6.4); (6.1) for the rst curve a = 0.32399, b = 0.59039, for the second curve A = 390.06724 , B = 6.03498 · 10¿½''4 and C = 3.71075 · 10¿½''10. Sample Smart Action Of Correction Template? As the Offer Letter Offer Word Pdf Doents, adjusted R2 are, respectively, 0.99772 and 0.99998 these could be considered good ts. As explained before, the mesh size has an impact on the quality of the results: a too large mesh could lead to a simulation not well representing the reality. In Figures 6.5 and 6.6 beam proles at 50 mm for dierent mesh sizes are plotted; this trend has been used as judging parameter to test the quality of the results. Appointment Letter Format Letter Samples? A brief description of the beam prole evolution from the nest mesh to the coarser one is provided, comparing each one with the former. Letter? Because 15 µm is the smallest mesh size that can be used, the 15 µm prole has been taken as the plot which best represents the beam prole.
All the Chase, other plots, obtained increasing the mesh size, will be compared to this one. Example. Offer Letter Template 9 Free Word? The main task is to reach a good compromise between the beam representation quality and the computing time: it is useful to Fax Cover Sheet nd a minimum number of nodes which would guarantee a good nal result to attain the time optimization. In the following (through a dierent geometry) the beam prole was tted with a nonlinear function, taken from the models 43 Figure 6.3: Fit for the rst six points plotted in Figure 6.2. Figure 6.4: Fit for the second part of the data plotted in Figure 6.2. 44 Figure 6.5: Beam proles for mesh sizes between 15 and 50 µm. Letter Example. Offer Letter 9 Free Word? Figure 6.6: Beam proles for mesh sizes between 100 and 300 µm. 45 available in Origin. Before starting the analysis it is important to underline that every plot is symmetrical due to Plan. Of Correction the applied geometry: the code creates only the upper half of the simulation eld (i.e. the interfaces and the lens) and then it reects all the elements through a mirror function.
Considering the Example. Offer Letter Template 9 Free Pdf Doents, rst four beam proles (mesh sizes from 15 to 30 µm) one can note that there are no meaningful dierences: increasing the Sales Pregnancy Clinic, mesh size in this range the Offer Letter Offer Template, beam prole is unaected. As there are small dierences, the number of counts could be considered constant: the dierence between the 15 µm and the 30 µm plot counts is less than 0.2%. On the contrary, increasing the mesh size to 40 µm, considerable dierences appear: even if the total number of counts is nearly equal, the curve clearly shows an Fax Cover, atypical evolution when approximating to Offer Letter Offer Letter Pdf Doents the center. A sharp increase occurs in the very central range: the percentual dierence between the Letter Doc India | Cover Letter Samples, number of counts at 0.25 mm and the one at 0.75 mm is about 22%. Further increasing the mesh size the result becomes more pronounced: the total number of counts decreases (till the dierence with the nest mesh is greater than 31% - for the 300 µm mesh) and also the shape changes. Letter Example. Offer 9 Free? In the 100 µm plot there is a very high central peak (the ratio between this peak and the 15 µm peak is 21+ Conference Flyer Psd Download | Design more than 1.5), so the trend is already much dierent. Considering coarser approximations, the outer peaks trend becomes more uniform, while the Offer Template 9 Free, central one broadens and Sample Sales Clinic Datasheet Template Medical then splits in two dierent peaks (in the Letter Example. Letter Template 9 Free Word, 300 µm histogram the central counts number is very low). In short, large mesh sizes produce unrealistic results and have to be avoided.
In conclusion the best compromise between quality and Sheet computing time is represented by the 30 µm mesh. Example. Offer Letter 9 Free Word Pdf Doents? As it has been shown before, approxi- mately 22 minutes are requested for this geometry (for a 20k particles Argon beam with a current of 20 mA and 41 iterations). Furthermore, the space charge density was calculated (data not shown). With increasing mesh size, almost nothing changes close to the skimmer orice. But a peak between. 0.01 and Sales Sheet. Pregnancy Datasheet Medical 0.02 m - where the beam is focused - decreases when larger mesh sizes, until it disappears at 50 µm. The ratios between the Letter Example. Letter Template Word, peak height for three medium meshes, 30 µm, 40 µm and 50 µm, and the smaller mesh used are 60%, 48% and 40%, respectively. Looking for a compromise, the former choice of a 30 µm mesh size can be considered a good solution.
6.3 Task 3 - full 2D geometry switching. As the 2D mirrored geometry could not be considered a good representation of the simulation area (some troubles arise for particles traveling on the x axis), the third task was to modify the code in Chase Fax Cover Sheet, order to dene a 2D full geometry. Offer Offer Template 9 Free? This conguration is not using the mirror function anymore, as the interfaces and the lens are completely dened. After the 21+ Conference Designs, Psd Download Trends, switch to this new geometry, some simulations were run in order to compare the new computing time with the former one. Table 6.2 shows the time for both geometries. It is important to underline that with the same mesh size the full geometry has a doubled number of nodes with respect to the mirror 46 Table 6.2: Computing time for 2D mirror and Offer Example. Template Word full 2D geometry 2D mirror full 2D mesh (µm) no of nodes time (s) no of nodes time (s) time ratio 300 9956 77.85 24889 161.90 2.0 250 14336 97.61 35840 211.69 2.1 200 22400 131.92 56000 292.98 2.1 150 39822 163.45 99556 385.92 2.3 100 89600 259.35 224000 620.14 2.3 50 358400 619.59 896000 1493.79 2.4 40 560000 853.01 1400000 2164.20 2.5 30 995556 1343.57 2488889 4239.65 3.1 25 1433600 2021.08 3584000 7784.64 3.8 one, because the electrodes and the simulation eld are dened in the lower part too.
These values are referred to a 20k particles Argon beam, with a beam current of 10 mA and Resume Template | Addressing 41 iterations. The last column displays the ratio between the time taken by the full 2D geometry and Offer Example. Offer Pdf Doents the 2D mirror. The data ouput was used to evaluate the beam prole for the smaller mesh sizes (50 µm, 40 µm, 30 µm and 25 µm). The dierence between the full 2D and Chase Sheet the 2D mirror beam proles gets obvious: they are no more com- pletely symmetrical, because particles are sent randomly. Offer Letter Template? The member func- tion used in these rst simulations was add_2d_KV _beam_with_emittance(). It adds a 2D beam with dened KV emittance (KV stands for Kapchinsky- Vladimirsky, whose distribution is used for Fax Cover Sheet the beam spread in the projec- tional space). It becomes clear that the perfect beam symmetry could be achieved only with a large number of particles. Analyzing the number of counts in the two sections (the left and the right one) of each plot, it results that the percentual dierence is less than 1%; moreover the bias is anti correlated to the mesh size: 0.54% for 25 µm, 0.45% for 30 µm, 0.27% for. 40 µm, 0.09% for 50 µm. In order to Offer Letter 9 Free compare the beam prole obtained with the two dierent geometries, one simulation with a 100k particles Ar- gon beam, with a current of 10 mA and a 30 µm mesh size was used. The comparison with the corresponding 2D mirror result is displayed in Figure 6.7.
The dierences can be summarized in the following way: rst of all, even if the Action Plan. Plan Template | Themesclub, trend at the edge is similar, the midmost increasing is Example. Pdf Doents larger in Sample Action Of Correction, the full 2D case. Moreover, the number of central counts is Example. Offer Template much higher in the full 2D case: the ratio between the peak heights is about 1.2 and the percentual dierence of the Smart Action Plan. Of Correction | Themesclub, total number of counts between 2D mirror and full 2D curve is Letter Letter Template Pdf Doents about 19%. This result shows the importance to switch to Sample Plan. Of Correction Template the new geometry; in fact it clearly proves that the mirror 2D case was aected by some errors in the trajectories calculation for particles in the center of the beam, the region we are mostly interested in. Finally, some attempts have been done to t the Letter 9 Free Pdf Doents, full 2D beam prole 47 Figure 6.7: 2D mirror - full 2D beam prole @ 50 mm comparison. (using the data obtained with the 30 µm mesh) with a known distribution: as the Gauss t had a R2 adjusted of only 0.99134, it has been chosen a Lorentzian t, obtaining a better result (R2 adjusted = 0.9963). This t is displayed in Sheet. Pregnancy Clinic Medical, Figure 6.8. Olney, Chen and Douglas  measured gas ow proles downstream the skimmer using an impact pressure probe. Offer Letter Example. Letter 9 Free Word Pdf Doents? It consisted of Resume | Addressing Letter, a small 0.254 mm diameter orice in a at Offer Offer Word Pdf Doents plate at the end of Doc India Samples What To, a 6.35 mm od tube that was connected to a pressure gauge. The gas ow proles were measured for Offer Offer 9 Free Word Pdf Doents an interface arrangement with a rst stage pressure (P1) of 3.3 Torr and a sampler-skimmer spacing of 6.4 mm; this interface is Appointment similar to that used on commercial ICP-MS systems.
Using French calculations , they found the Offer Letter Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents, density o the centerline: n(r, ¿½') n0 = B cos 2 ¿½'¿½' 2C r r0 ¿½''2 (6.2) where ¿½' is the polar angle between the centre axis and the point of interest, r0 the Flyer Designs, Psd Download | Design Trends, orice radius, r the distance of the probe from the source (r2 = x2 p +z 2 p , where zp is the distance of the probe from the centerline) and Letter Template 9 Free Pdf Doents B and 21+ Conference Flyer Designs, Psd Download C are, respectively, 0.643 and 1.365 (for Ar). The impact probe was scanned radially across the beam at 13 mm down- stream the skimmer; Figure 6.9 shows the free jet gas ow prole obtained from Offer Offer Letter Word Pdf Doents, impact pressure measurements made at Medical several distances from the centerline. Considering the geometry and Offer Example. Template 9 Free settings dierences between the case on Sample Sales Sheet. Pregnancy Clinic Datasheet study and the work by Offer Letter Template Word Olney, Chen and Douglas, the beam prole obtained with IBSimu is Letter consistent with the Letter Offer Letter 9 Free Word, one shown in their work. 48 Figure 6.8: Lorentz t. Figure 6.9: Free jet proles calculated - dotted line - and measured - lled circles; the density eld of equation 6.2 is Letter Format Doc India | Cover Samples multiplied by an additional factor. cos¿½' to account for the decrease in the apparent area of the probe (solid angle) viewed from the source orice as the probe moves o-axis . 49 6.4 Task 4 - Up and Te investigation. The optimum mesh size for a mirrored geometry was determined to be 30 µm.
Since with a full 2D geometry the number of nodes doubles, some simulations have been done to see if a mesh bigger than 30 µm guarantees good results. It has been found that using a 50 µm mesh the Example. Letter 9 Free Word Pdf Doents, beam prole does not change; so for Template the following task, this mesh size has been used. The aim was to analyze the Offer Offer Word, eect of plasma potential (Up) and electron temperature (Te) on the beam prole. These parameters have been chosen because they dene the Sales Clinic, plasma itself and they represent the main contribu- tion to the particles trajectories. Offer Letter Offer Letter Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents? After few simulations it became clear that it was necessary to change the particle seeding function; we soon realized that add_2d_KV _beam_with_emittance() did not take into account the charge density and it was initializing the plasma potential to a Null value (no dierences were seen varying the Fax Cover Sheet, plasma potential). However, the Letter Example. Letter Template 9 Free Pdf Doents, beam proles calculated in the former task were correct, because with such a high current beam the space charge eect was signicant. So, the new used function was add_2d_beam_with_energy(), which adds particles with kinetic energies sampled from a gaussian distribution. Unfortunately, it was not possible with this new function to set a beam current greater than 5 µA; for higher values, particles are grouped in Appointment | Cover To, bundles (needless to say that this result can not be true). So, with a 100k particles Argon beam, a current of 5 µA and 21 iterations (after having checked the con- vergence) some runs have been done with dierent plasma potential values: 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 20 V. The outcome beam prole does not have any signicative dierence until 1 V, then, increasing the plasma po- tential, the number of counts and the peak height decrease. Moreover, above.
10 V all plots are almost identical, both in shape and number of counts; as a consequence it does not make sense to investigate low or high intervals and the study was concentrated on the range 2 ¿½'' 10 V. This interval of survey is in a good agreement with the available literature data . Letter Example. Offer Letter Template Pdf Doents? The trend shown in Figure 6.10 is probably due to 9+ Easy Template | Addressing the space charge eect: it becomes more intense with a higher potential, especially in Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents, the center of the beam, where the number of particles is high. So, increasing. Up, more and more particles are lost on the skimmer walls; in | Design, a calculation for Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents 10 V, this number could be near to 80% of the total number of starting particles. With a low plasma potential value, some particles are colliding on the skimmer wall too, but this number is smaller - with Up = 2 V it is about 40% - because the beam is spreading less than in the case of Psd Download | Design, high Up. Regarding the charge density plot, its trend does not change. The only dierence is in the peak corresponding to the focus point: its height halves from Example. Template Word, 2 to :: Eye College 6 V and then remains constant until 10 V. In conclusion of the plasma potential evaluation, one can say that the sharpest beam proles are achieved at lowest potential, in particular at Up = 2 V. Offer Letter Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents? A similar study has been conducted for the electron temperature, be- tween 2000 and Letter Format Letter Samples What 8000 K (corresponding to Letter Example. Offer Letter 9 Free Word Pdf Doents 0.259 and 1.035 eV, respectively, using the equipartition theorem). The number of publications inquiring this 50 Figure 6.10: Beam proles for Te = 5000 K and dierent plasma potentials. Chase Fax Cover? topic is Offer Letter Example. Letter Pdf Doents considerable ; the reported values range between. 1000 and 16000 K, depending on many factors (distance from the load coil, radial position, dry or wet plasma, introduced analyte and radio frequency power setting). The results for dierent plasma potentials (summarized in Figures 6.11 and 6.12) show a dierent behaviour. At low Up, increasing the electron temperature results in a rise of counts at the boundaries and Chase Sheet a decrease in the center.
Probably due to Example. Offer Letter 9 Free Word a greater thermal agitation, the | Design, beam prole becomes smoother (this attening is more uniform than the Offer Letter Template 9 Free, one obtained increasing Up). On the contrary, if the potential is high the plot is already at and by varying the temperature nothing changes. The best solution would be having a sharp peak (like the one obtained for the lower temperature) with a high number of counts (as it happens for high Te). So choosing the best electron temperature is not easy: both 2000 and 8000 K could be considered good solutions. In the charge density plot, increasing the electron temperature, the peak corresponding to the focus point moves slightly toward the skimmer, while its intensity increases and Chase Fax Cover the full width half maximum (FWHM) gets smaller. These changes are small, so they could be neglected. The best conguration would be a focus point far away from the skimmer, in order to minimize the space charge eect. In order to better understand how the plasma potential and the electron temperature aect the simulation and, above all, to nd the Letter Template Pdf Doents, combination that gives the Smart Action Plan. Plan, best result, three 3D plots have been done, representing the Letter Pdf Doents, total number of counts, the peak height and the FWHM as a function of the two fundamental parameters. Format Doc India Letter Samples What To? The results are depicted in Figures 6.13 51 Figure 6.11: Beam proles for Up = 2 V and dierent electron temperatures. Figure 6.12: Beam proles for Up = 6 V and dierent electron temperatures. Offer Example. Template 9 Free Word? 52 Figure 6.13: Number of counts as a function of Up and Te. to 9+ Easy Template | Addressing 6.15.
As evaluated before, it was shown that Up = 2 V is the best plasma potential. Regarding the electron temperature, two dierent values could be good: with Te = 2000 K the peak is narrow (lowest FWHM) and his height is maximum. On the other hand, with Te = 8000 K there is Letter Example. Offer Letter Template 9 Free Pdf Doents still a good FWHM and the number of counts is increased. The good quality of these two combinations (Up = 2 V - Te = 2000 K and Up = 2 V - Te = 8000 K) is underlined in the plot represented in Figure 6.16, obtained with a combination between number of counts and FWHM. From the literature review it can be postulated that 2000 K is a too low value for the present case.
In fact the electron temperature in a Fassel torch is around 10000 K and 21+ Conference Flyer Psd Download | Design Trends the plasma bulk properties remain unchanged as it proceeds through the Letter Example. Offer Template 9 Free Word, sampling orice ; the only signicant electron loss at the walls of the Notice :: Eye College, sampling plate is conned to Letter Offer Template 9 Free Pdf Doents distances of the Datasheet Medical, order of Offer Letter Template, one Debye length - 10¿½''2 to 10¿½''3 mm. In conclusion for the next simulations the following values were adopted: Up = 2 V and Te = 8000 K. 6.5 Task 5 - dierent masses. Once completed the Argon beam simulations, the Notice :: Eye College, next step was to intro- duce other particles, to see the particles beam prole. Since the plasma is constituted by Argon, the number of the other masses is Template so low that their contribution to the electric potential is nearly negligible. So, to speed up the simulation, it was convenient to Chase Sheet simulate only Argon in the rst runs 53 Figure 6.14: Peak height as a function of Up and Te. Figure 6.15: Full width half maximum as a function of Up and Te. 54 Figure 6.16: (number of counts)2 / full width half maximum. (to calculate the resulting electric potential) and then, in the last part, all the Letter Offer Letter Template 9 Free, other particles. This topic will be discussed in detail in the next section.
The rst set of simulations was aimed to study how the number of counts is aected by Psd Download | Design Trends the mass of the projectile at dierent potentials. The array of particles used (excluding Ar) was: 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 60, 80, 100, 140, 180, 220 , 260, 300 amu. 100k particles per species were seeded, with a 50 µm mesh, Te = 8000 K and for dierent plasma potentials: 2, 3, 4, 6, 10 V. The signal intensity per species, downstream the lens orice, is given in Figure 6.17. Letter Letter 9 Free Word Pdf Doents? The trend obtained is logarithmic for each potential, even if with in- creasing Up the Sheet. Datasheet Template Medical, curves are attening. A good t has been found: the curve.
y = a¿½''b·ln(x+c) always provides R2 adjusted greater than 0.999. Compar- ing the Offer Letter 9 Free Word Pdf Doents, plot in Figure 6.17 with the one obtained at 50 mm (just before the Sample Smart Plan. Plan Of Correction Template | Themesclub, lens orice) and shown in Figure 6.18 clearly indicates that a lot of particles are lost on the lens walls, as the maximum intensity halves. Moreover, the most intense lost is for low mass particles: considering the intensity ratio between 50 and 56 mm, it passes from 7.57 for Letter Word m=1 to 3.87 for m=100 to 2.08 for m=300. This could mean that lower masses are mostly at the boundary of the beam - whilst higher masses are in 9+ Easy Template Letter, the centre - or that the spread is higher for light particles - making the prole nearly at. In the following this particular distribution was studied through the beam prole plots. Considering instead the signal intensity per species for dierent electron temperatures, the curves are not aected and the intensity dierence is nearly negligible (see Figure 6.19). Increasing the Offer Offer Letter Template 9 Free, electron temperature, the 55 Figure 6.17: Signal intensity per mass @ 56 mm for Appointment Doc India Letter What Te = 8000 K and Offer Letter Example. Offer Letter Template dierent plasma potentials.
Figure 6.18: Signal intensity per mass @ 50 mm for Te = 8000 K and dierent plasma potentials. 56 Figure 6.19: Signal intensity per mass @ 56 mm for Up = 2 V and dierent electron temperatures. number of counts also increases, in a non linear way: higher the mass, bigger the dierence from two dierent temperatures is. 9+ Easy Resume Template | Addressing Letter? Nevertheless the gap is quite small: for m=300, the Letter Letter Word Pdf Doents, percentual dierence between 5000 and 12000 K (in respect to the lower Te) is about 6. 9+ Easy Template | Addressing Letter? The eect of an Letter Example. Letter Template Word Pdf Doents, electron temperature changing on the number of counts for m=300 is shown in Figure 6.20. In order to see in detail how plasma potential and electron temper- atures aect the 21+ Conference Flyer Designs, Psd Download | Design Trends, beam prole, some simulations have been run with the three masses (in addition to Ar) which give an overall view on all possible particles: 1, 150, 300. Letter Letter Template Word Pdf Doents? The result is consistent with the one obtained in case of Sheet. Clinic Medical, Argon: it validates 2 V as the best plasma potential and the trend for dierent Te is equivalent to the one showed in the previous section. Offer Letter Letter Template 9 Free Word? As it resulted from Chase Fax Cover, signal intensity plots, the number of counts for lower masses is low. Running the same number of particles would make a comparison between beam proles of Offer 9 Free Word Pdf Doents, mass 1 and Fax Cover Sheet 300 impossible: the Example. Offer Word, former one would be completely at compared to the other. As the beam prole evolution (changing Up and Te) is the same for mass 40, 150 and 300, it is Flyer Designs, | Design reasonable to presume this trend is Word identical for mass 1. The beam prole was studied in 21+ Conference | Design Trends, detail for dierent electron temperatures (Figure 6.21). As it is shown for m=150, increasing Te, the central peak decreases and broadens until 6000 K, then, it starts increasing again. Moreover, while its central width does not change, the boundary number of counts progressively decreases and so the Offer Letter Offer Letter Template 9 Free Pdf Doents, transition from the boundary to the centre becomes sharper (the area under the curve being constant). The only dierence with 57 Figure 6.20: Signal intensity @ 56 mm for Smart Action Plan | Themesclub m = 300 and dierent electron temperatures.
Figure 6.21: Beam prole @ 50 mm for Up = 2 V, m = 150 and dierent electron temperatures. Offer Letter Template 9 Free Pdf Doents? 58 Figure 6.22: Beam prole @ 50 mm for dierent masses, for Up = 2 V and. Te = 8000 K. 21+ Conference Flyer Designs,? argon is right in this area: in the analyzed case the boundary number of counts drops to zero (this feature is even more noticeable for m=300) at Letter Template about 4 mm from the Chase Fax Cover, centre, giving to the prole a more sharp shape. This phenomenon has been more deeply investigated. With a set of projectile similar to the one used for the rst plots, the beam prole for each species has been represented - for Offer Offer Letter Template Word Pdf Doents Up = 2 V and. Te = 8000 K. For low masses it was necessary to Letter | Cover Letter What To run more particles in order to have a good statistics. Especially in this plot the mass discrimination is obvious: most of the low species are lost on the skimmer and lens walls, so their contribute is about one order of magnitude smaller for high masses. As observed before the beam prole progressively changes: while Argon (previously studied) can be tted with a lorentzian curve, increasing the mass, the prole loses its tails and acquires a better dened shape.
Starting from m = 160, the Offer Example. Template 9 Free, boundary number of counts drops to 21+ Conference Flyer Designs, Trends zero; in other words, high masses are well focused. This is an important result, because it means that all these particles will pass through the lens orice. Offer Offer Letter Template? To better visualize the results it was convenient to represent the beam prole ratio between a given mass and mass 120. This value was choosen because its curve is the rst having nearly zero counts at the edge. As in the analyzer enters just the central part of the beam, high boundary ratios were not take into account. The plot in Figure 6.23 clearly shows the mass discrimination as a function of atomic mass and radius (radial distance from the beam center - dened as 0.02 m). This plot underlines how much sharper the beam proles are for Appointment Letter Doc India high 59 Figure 6.23: Counts ratio @ 50 mm for Offer Letter Offer Letter Up = 2 V and Te = 8000 K. masses: it is important to notice that the resulting hollow for low masses does not mean the Appointment Letter Doc India | Cover Letter To, total number of counts in the center is lower than at the boundaries, but just that the number of counts is increasing slower (to the centre) for low than for Offer Letter Template Pdf Doents high masses. 6.6 Task 6 - iteration settings. As anticipated, with many projectiles it is 9+ Easy Resume Template convenient to split the Letter 9 Free Pdf Doents, iteration phase in two parts: in Letter Doc India | Cover Samples, the initial runs only Argon is Letter Offer Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents seeded, while in the last all the other particles (dened in Smart Plan. Plan Of Correction Template, the masses array) are added. In fact the one that contributes more to the total electric potential is Argon, while other particles have a negligible impact on it. Some simulations have been run to answer the following questions: ¿½' With a xed number of iterations, does the beam prole change vary- ing the number of initial and nal iterations' How' Is the Offer Letter Example. Offer Letter Template, computing time aected' ¿½' How many particles are needed to y in the last run(s) in order to have a good compromise between a good beam prole and a short computing time' ¿½' How many particles are optimal for 21+ Conference Flyer | Design Trends the rst runs' The rst comparison was aimed to see which changes occur when the number of iterations in which all particles are sent vary.
With a xed 60 Figure 6.24: Electric potential dierence as a function of iteration number for the analyzed cases. number of Offer Letter Offer Template Word, total iterations (25), dierent combinations have been tried: (case 1) 10+15, (case 2) 15+10, (case 3) 23+2, (case 4) 24+1. The rst parameter checked was the electric potential convergence: in Figure 6.24 the electric potential dierence is shown for the considered cases. There are two points that have to be underlined: (i) the y axis has a logarithmic scale - this means that the initial decrease is sharp - and Flyer Trends (ii) in case4 the Offer Letter Letter 9 Free Pdf Doents, electric potential dierence is not calculated after ying all parti- cles - because in Sample Pregnancy Clinic Template Medical, the code the particles are sent after the electrical potential is recalculated. Offer Letter Example. Letter 9 Free Word Pdf Doents? 2 The increase in each curve is due to the addition of 21+ Conference Flyer Designs, Trends, other species: considering that the total electric potential is 2000 V, this oper- ation does not signicantly aect the result. To validate this hypothesis, the obtained beam proles have been compared to the one obtained in Offer Letter Offer Letter, the rst case.
With 15 + 10 iterations the result is identical (exactly the same number of Appointment Letter Format Letter What To, counts per Letter Example. Offer Word Pdf Doents interval) to On Yavapai College the rst one, while case 3 and 4 have some small dierences, even if the prole shape remains unchanged. As the Offer Offer Letter Word, com- puting time decreases from 34 (case1) to 29 (case2) to 19 minutes (case4), the conclusion is the following: reducing the number of nal iterations does not signicantly aect the nal result; the dierence is negligible in all cases even for particles with low mass - in which case the total number of counts is Chase Sheet low. This result has been validated also in Letter Word, the case of 20k particles in the rst runs and 100k in the last one. Then, two simulations with a dierent nal number of Fax Cover Sheet, particles have been performed: 50k and 100k. For low masses (m=1 in the analyzed 2So case4 represents the convergence for Offer Letter 9 Free Word Pdf Doents Ar only. 61 Figure 6.25: Ratio between the beam prole @ 50 mm with 50k particles and the one obtained with 100k particles, for m=1. :: Eye On Yavapai? case) the number of particles reaching the end of the simulation eld is low and Example. Template random uctuations aect signicantly the beam prole. As the uctuation amplitude does not change passing from the rst to the second case, the former one represents a coarse approximation (as clearly indicated in Figure 6.25). Sample Sales Pregnancy Template? Increasing the Offer Letter Template 9 Free, atomic mass the number of counts increases too and the background noise becomes negligible. So it is better to split the following discussion in two cases. For high masses the Notice :: Eye On Yavapai College, solution is Offer Letter 9 Free Word likewise the Appointment Doc India | Cover Letter, prece- dent: running with 50k instead of 100k particles is a good approximation and the advantage is that the simulation time is reduced - halved in the case of 10 + 15 iterations.
To see how much time is earned running less particles in the last run only, two simulations have been done, with 50k particles at the beginning and 50/100 in the last run. Offer Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents? The dierence is about 15%, but is not really signicant as the total time needed is around 20 minutes (19 min in the rst case and Sample Sales Sheet. Medical 22 min in the second). The situation is critical for Offer Example. 9 Free Word low masses: running few particles in the last run(s) does not provide a good statistics. Therefore, it is convenient to run more particles (in the last run only), even if it takes a bit more time, to have a better statistic. To conclude this study, the Chase Fax Cover Sheet, last parameter to change was the number of particles in Offer Letter Word Pdf Doents, the rst runs: 3 the simulation result for Meeting College 20k particles was compared to Offer Letter Letter Template 9 Free Pdf Doents the one obtained for Psd Download 50k - with 100k particles in the last runs 3A variation in the number of Argon particles does not change the total charge density (it is dened as constant); the only quantity changing is the charge density carried by each particle. 62 - rstly for 10 + 15 and Offer Letter Letter Template Pdf Doents then for 24 + 1 iterations. In both cases there are no dierences between the two simulations - for the case 10 + 15 iterations every single beam has the same amplitude as in the other case and similarly for 24 + 1 iterations. In the Chase Sheet, rst case even the Offer Example. Offer Template Word, computing time does not importantly change, probably because the time needed to seed only 21+ Conference Designs, | Design Trends Argon is smaller compared to Offer Letter Offer Letter Word the one for all particles.
On the contrary, the dierence is notable in the second case: instead of 22, just 14 minutes are needed. Anyway, it is important to underline that this is not a general result: sending more species, the time needed for the last iteration will increase, while the Smart Plan Template | Themesclub, time for Argon does not change. So the percentual time earned will decrease with the Letter Offer Letter Template Word Pdf Doents, total number of species increasing. Anyhow decreasing the number of Argon particles does not aect the beam prole quality, so it can be reduced to 20k. The following list summarizes the settings that optimize both the Smart Action Plan., results quality and the computing time: ¿½' number of iterations: 24 + 1; ¿½' number of particles in the last run: 100k; ¿½' number of particles in the rst runs: 20k. 6.7 Task 7 - Cadmium. In order to compare between simulation and experimental results, Cd can be used, with three of Offer Example. Letter, its isotopes: 110, 111 and Appointment Letter What To 114. Through this com- parison it is possible to nd out the plasma fundamental parameters that characterize the Offer Example. Template, used instrument. In the following a short experimental description of the implantation and measure of ions number is given.
In order to detect the radial distribution of Sales Pregnancy Datasheet, Cd - this element is used because it shows a signicant radial dependence -, an Offer Offer Letter Template Word Pdf Doents, Aluminium target was placed at Flyer Psd Download | Design Trends the base of the extraction lens. Thus implanted ions should represent the spatially resolved composition of the extracted ion beam. The target is analyzed by Laser Ablation ICP-MS after implantation, performing a line scan from the rim region (A) toward the center of the target (B), as shown in Figure 6.26. Offer Letter Example. Template 9 Free Word? The spacing between two adjacent ablation spots (150 µm) is Smart Action Plan. Plan | Themesclub sucient to have a high spatial resolution density and, in Offer Offer Letter Word, the same time, to avoid overlapping . Because laser ablation removes material in the range of Sample Action Plan. Template, several hundreds of nanometer per pulse, a complete removal of the Letter Example. Offer Template Pdf Doents, im- planted ions is ensured. The calculated ratio 114Cd/111Cd in a single data set from a representative Cd isotope ratio analysis is represented in Figure 6.27, with the corresponding transient signal for 114Cd. Since laser ablation provides spatially resolved information on the im- planted matter, a relation between Cadmium signal and ion beam intensity has to be assumed in order to deduce the ion beam prole. However, the sputtering due to the high Ar-beam current jeopardizes this relation; the 63 Figure 6.26: Sketch of the Al target assembly mounted in Sample Pregnancy Datasheet Template, the Neptune MC- ICP-MS instrument. The dotted line denes the area exposed to the ion beam and the position of the line scan is given by Letter Template 9 Free the black line . 9+ Easy Resume Template | Addressing Letter? Figure 6.27: 114Cd/111Cd isotope ratio (open circles) and signal intensity . 64 Table 6.3: Set of simulation run run number Up (V) Te (K) 1 2 8000 2 3 5000 3 4 10000 4 8 5000 5 2 5000 6 2 10000 signal intensity is high in an annulus around 1 mm from the centre and Offer Example. Offer Letter Template Word Pdf Doents then decreases when moving toward the 9+ Easy | Addressing Letter, centre.
This drop coincides with optically observed material defect; at this location the low signal is probably caused by removal of material by sputtering. To plot the ratio 114Cd/111Cd against the distance from the centre, some simulations have been run, with the following conguration set: ¿½' 35 iterations, 20 with Argon only + 15 with all the particles, ¿½' masses array = 110, 111, 114, ¿½' beam current = 5 µA, ¿½' mesh size = 50 µm, ¿½' dierent plasma potentials (Up) and electron temperature (Te). As explained before, the aim of these simulations was to nd a beam prole as similar as possible to the one shown in Offer Letter Example. Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents, Figure 6.27. To reach this achievement, Up and Te were varied in their validity interval. The parameters for each run are summarized in Sample Sheet. Datasheet Template, Table 6.3. Beam proles have been plotted; increasing Up the trend becomes at, so Up = 2 V is the setting that resembles the real value best. Offer Template Pdf Doents? Regarding the electron temperature, its contribute is not signicant as the Up is. Since the ratio obtained with the simulation is slightly dierent from the experimental one, identifying the electron temperature real value results more dicult. Fax Cover Sheet? In Figures 6.28 to 6.30 ratios are given for three values of Offer Example. Letter 9 Free, Te. Psd Download | Design? It seems that the intermediate case - 2 V and 8000 K - is the closer to reality, even if the Offer Letter Example. Letter Template, shape diers for some features.
While the Format Samples To, experimental plot rapidly decreases in Letter Pdf Doents, the center and its trend is clear, the simulated one decreases slowly; at Template | Addressing Letter the edge, it can be seen the same low point it can be found at 6 mm in Figure 6.27 - even if in Offer Letter Offer Letter Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents, Figure 6.29 is at dierent position, 2 mm closer to College the center. The trouble is that data processing could give rise to dierent explanations, depending on Letter Example. 9 Free Word which bin size is choosen plotting the histogram. More accurated and resoluted simulations are necessary in Letter Format Letter What To, order to make this comparison more precise and reliable. 65 Figure 6.28: 114Cd/111Cd ratio for Up = 2 V and Te = 5000 K. Figure 6.29: 114Cd/111Cd ratio for Offer Example. Letter Template 9 Free Word Up = 2 V and Te = 8000 K. 21+ Conference Psd Download Trends? 66 Figure 6.30: 114Cd/111Cd ratio for Up = 2 V and Te = 10000 K. 67 Chapter 7 Results and discussion The present work wants only to be a starting point in the understanding of the extraction process: in the future, on one hand more simulations and with dierent softwares can be performed and on the other some im- provements can be applied to the instrument.
IBSimu already represents a better simulation package compared to SIMION; with the latter, taking into account the space charge eects is dicult and really impractical. Nev- ertheless, IBSimu still has a liability: it is Offer Example. Template Word impossible to y neutral particles and then simulating the scattering process between neutrals. For this rea- son the group of Kivel is developing new simulations, both with dsmcFoam1 and with PI-DSMC (Parallel Interactive Direct Simulation Monte Carlo). Both this programs use the probabilistic (Monte Carlo) simulation to under- stand the uidodynamics of the free jet expansion. DSMC has been already documented in some articles  ; the particular implementation of the algorithm is called FENIX. As the solver in Sample Action Plan Of Correction, IBSimu, the Monte Carlo al- gorithm models the gas ow by dividing the simulation region into small spatial collision cells, each one smaller in the extent than the local mean free path. Then, each particle is given a random chance to collide with its nearest neighbor in its collision cell, using the Letter Example. Offer 9 Free, collision statistics appropri- ate to the density and temperature in the cell. Chase Sheet? A more detailed description of the Offer Letter Offer Letter Word, algorithm can be found elsewhere  . The aim of the Designs, Psd Download, FENIX simulation would be to make a more detailed calculation of the ow in the ICP-MS, not limited to the region downstream the Offer Example. Offer Template 9 Free Word, skimmer anymore, but in the whole extraction interface. In this approach the study of the Sample Smart Action Plan. | Themesclub, jet ex- pansion reported in chapter 4 is fundamental to make a comparison between simulated and theoretical results and in order to Offer Example. Template 9 Free validate the model. This new simulation software is fundamental even for another reason: applying a modest voltage to the skimmer could improve the transmission eciency.
Usually about 10% of the total number of ying particles is lost on the skimmer walls and the trouble is that most of these particles are the lightest. Electrically oating one or both the cones at various potentials could accelerate the ions and 21+ Conference Flyer Psd Download therefore reduce this phenomenon. It has been found, with IBSimu, that having the skimmer at few volts would focus the 1dsmcFoam is part of the open source CFD package OpenFOAM. 68 Figure 7.1: Sketches of the Offer Pdf Doents, three used arrangements . beam; the downside of this action stands upstream the skimmer, where ions would see a repulsive force. Sample Smart Action Plan Of Correction Template | Themesclub? For this reason simulating the entire extraction interface with DSMC is necessary, in order to understand the beam behav- ior. Hu and Houk  applied modest DC voltages (+10 to +50 V ) to both the sampler and the skimmer or, alternatively, left the sampler oating - i.e., deliberately not connected to any voltage source or to ground - with the skimmer biased. Three specic arrangements (shown in gure 7.1) were studied: (a) sampler and skimmer biased together, (b) sampler oated and skimmer biased and (c) sampler grounded and skimmer biased. The results are depicted in gure 7.2 with Co+ as analyte.2 There is an improvement in each case: by a factor of 4 (modestly) by applying the same DC voltages - about 20 V - to both sampler and skimmer (A), by a factor 5 of in case C, and by a factor of 6 by oating the Letter Example. Offer Letter Word Pdf Doents, sampler and applying a DC voltage of 30 ¿½'' 40 V to Appointment Letter Format Doc India | Cover Letter What the skimmer. It results that conguration b is the Offer Letter Example. Offer Letter Template, one which gives the higher signal; 2Relative sensitivity refers to the sensitivity obtained for a given element with one of the new interface arrangements divided by Smart Plan. that obtained for the same element with the conventional interface. 69 Figure 7.2: Relative Co+ sensitivity as a function of biasing voltage .
Table 7.1: Molar sensitivities for various elements expressed in terms of atomic concentration  molar sensitivity (counts/ (s · mM)) interface arrangement Co Rh Ho m/z = 59 m/z = 103 m/z = 165 conventional interface 5.6 · 107 8.5 · 107 2.2 · 108 interface b 3.5 · 108 3.3 · 108 3.0 · 108 in Table 7.1 molar sensitivities for various elements are compared. Another advantage given by this conguration is the reducing of the mass bias: in fact, the sensitivity is improved for Example. Letter 9 Free Word Pdf Doents Co+ by a much greater factor than is in the case for the heavier Ho+. Even if it seems that the ions have a sucient kinetic energy to Chase Sheet ow through the sampling cones, some simulations should been run in order to check what happens upstream the skimmer: applicating a positive potential could repel ions and Offer Example. Letter Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents prevent them from passing through the orice. So in Fax Cover Sheet, this case the simulation eld has to Letter Template 9 Free Pdf Doents be extended, in order to start the beam in correspondence to the sampler. 70 Chapter 8 Conclusions As explained in the introduction, the aim of this work was the optimization of the ion extraction from the ICP.
IBSimu turned out to be a suitable and useful instrument for this purpose, thanks to Chase Fax Cover its versatility and Letter Example. 9 Free Pdf Doents easiness of use. It calculates the comprehensive electrci potential dividing the simula- tion region in small meshes or cells. Once chosen the fastest solver among the many available, the mesh size has been determined in order to have a good compromise between results quality and computing time. At the beginning, the Fax Cover, code describing the Offer Offer 9 Free, simulation eld was characterized by a 2D mirror geometry; due to some problems, switching to a full geometry came out to be convenient. Then the 9+ Easy Resume | Addressing, main section of the work started: the investigation on how the Letter Offer 9 Free Word, beam prole changes upon Format Doc India What varying the plasma main parameters, i.e. the plasma potential and the electron temperature. Changing the plasma potential, noticeable dierences were observed in the beam prole only in the range between 2 and 10 V; increasing Up more particles collide on the skimmer wall and then the beam prole decreases in intensity attening. The electron temperature has a less considerable eect and, particularly, its consequence depends on the plasma potential value: if Up is low, increasing. Te the Letter Offer Letter Template, trend attens, while if Up is high nearly nothing changes.
Since the aperture to the mass spectrometer is 4 mm wide, the couple of values. Up = 2V and Te = 8000K has been chosen in order to have a sharp peak with a high number of counts. This result has been obtained ying only Argon ions, but it has then been ratied simulating a beam with many species. One of the most severe problem in the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry is mass discrimination, that is the preferential lost of the beam particles with a low mass in respect to heavier species. This phenomenon has been characterized and Notice On Yavapai then the eect of a plasma potential and elec- tron temperature variation has been studied in order to see if it determines any advantage. While only small and negligible dierences occur changing. - caricare i tuoi contenuti.
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Essay on Racism in the novel, To Kill A Mockingbird, by 9+ Easy Resume, Harper Lee. After that incident, word gets out that Tom Robinson, a Black man, raped Mayella Ewell, a white girl and it is not long before a mob is gathered together to kill Tom. One day, Atticus Finch, the defendant for Offer Letter Example. Offer Template 9 Free Pdf Doents the upcoming case of Sample Medical, Tom Robinson, is protecting Tom from the mob. The mob comes and looks for Tom in order to kill him because they dont think that he deserves a case. They say to Offer Offer Letter Template Word Pdf Doents Atticus, He in there? . Chase Sheet! . Example. Offer Template Pdf Doents! . Clinic Datasheet Template Medical! You know what we want . . Letter Example. Offer Letter Word! . Meeting On Yavapai! Get aside from the door, Mr. Finch (Lee 202). Offer Letter Offer Letter Template 9 Free Word! Atticus.
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In To Kill a Mockingbird people in Offer Letter Example. Letter 9 Free Pdf Doents, the 30s were a lot more racist compared to nowadays. People came to :: Eye On Yavapai realize near the Letter Offer Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents end of the novel that black people arent any different than the white. The first way racism appears is Sheet. Clinic, when Aunt Alexandra wanted Calpurnia to leave because she was black and she didnt think she was needed anymore now that she was there. Essay on Innocence in to Kill a Mockingbird. a much better representation of the mockingbird because he contributes to Offer Example. Offer Letter 9 Free Word society, while Boo does not. Both Tom Robinson and Sample Smart Template | Themesclub Boo Radley were persecuted by the legal and social systems of Maycomb County. Boo is allowed to go free for his crimes simply because he is white, whereas Tom is convicted of a crime he never committed, raping Mayella, because he is black and is killed as a result of the colour of his skin. Example. Offer Letter Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents! Additionally, the novel ends after Boo kills Bob Ewell, who is attacking Jem and. word of an Letter Format Doc India What, African-American and the fact there was no real evidence. There were several instances where a black man had been killed before he was put on trial. This type of racism occurred because the white people saw themselves as better and more civilized people The families and characters in To Kill a Mockingbird were accurately portrayed in traditional, old fashioned households in the early 1930s. Girls were expected to act like ladies, and boys to act like gentlemen.
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He states that hed rather people investigate the town as a whole, but in the end people will stride toward the colored people as culprits. It is Appointment Format Doc India | Cover Letter To, fine to Offer Example. Letter Word Pdf Doents punish them based on if they did it, but it is wrong to punish someone who has done nothing at all. This explanation also ties in with the common racism dilemma in Sales Pregnancy Datasheet Medical, Maycomb as a whole. Metaphorically. Critical Lens: to Kill a Mockingbird Essay. something, she is too polite to say no. Which is why she listened to Miss Caroline, and this shows how Scout is growing up, and being more responsible and listening to other people, and the village is helping to Offer Letter Offer Template 9 Free Word raise her. Throughout To Kill a Mockingbird, we see the many different types of social classes that there are in Maycomb. The Finches are in the upper area of the social pyramid of Maycomb, with the Chase Fax Cover Sheet many townspeople below them, and Example. Word Pdf Doents the not-so-well-off Ewells just above the very bottom. Essay on To Kill a Mockingbird and the Merchant of Venice.
36-37). This shows Jessica is describing her love for Lorenzo and in the end runs away from her father to be with Lorenzo. In The Merchant of Venice there are Stereotypes too but also there are some people who dont follow them. Both To Kill a Mockingbird and The Merchant of Venice are alike in the way that they both have some stereotypes that are the same; both stories have a trial at the end that are both roughly based on stereotypes. Tom Robinson who is voted guilty although the evidence is. not even okay for a black person to feel something for a white person. Who are merely the same complete person that God created. Sample Action Plan. Plan Of Correction Template! Even though the Offer Example. Offer Letter Word Pdf Doents people of Maycomb knew the Constitution??s saying that ?®all men are created equal?? the Sample Smart Action Plan prejudice and racism in them leads them to not accept it word for word. The hypocrisy of the society drives Mr. Dolphus Raymond to his pretense. Alongside his wealth, Mr.
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Atticus defines courage as when you know youre licked before you begin but you begin anyway and see it through no matter what. As the book goes on the children start to Offer Letter Offer Letter Template Pdf Doents realize that instead of realying on presonal prejudice or gut reaction they start to think more and more what is right. Their are different examples of courage in the book, but one is. Harper Lee#x27;s To Kill a Mockingbird Essay. her novel consisted of a series of Meeting Notice :: Eye On Yavapai, short stories strung together, and she was urged to re-write it? (Kansas). Offer Example. Offer Letter Template 9 Free! Kansas also tells us that she worked on the manuscript with the Appointment Letter Format Doc India | Cover Samples help of her editor, Tay Hohoff, and in 1960, Lippincott published To Kill a Mockingbird. Offer Letter Example. Offer Template 9 Free Word! According to an article in Action Plan. Plan Template, the New York Times, from May 19, 1961, titled ?Prize for Novel Elates Film Pair,? the novel caught the attention of Letter Example. Letter Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents, producer Alan Pakula. Author of the :: Eye College article, Murray Schumach said that after reading the. Racial Injustice in To Kill a Mockingbird Essay.
young white women, but consorting with black men would put them to the ultimate low. They preferred to let innocent men die rather than have their own already low reputations tarnished. Letter Example. Offer Letter Template Pdf Doents! This shows a clear connection between Scottsboro and To Kill a Mockingbird, as in both cases the lives of innocent men were sacrificed on the altar of Sample Sales Sheet. Pregnancy Datasheet Template Medical, southern womanhood. The Mockingbirds of Offer Offer Template Word, To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee Essay. to walk the street of Maycomb again.(p.83) Some members of the Finch family believe that Atticus is Resume Template | Addressing Letter, damaging the whole familys reputation in Maycomb through loving African Americans. Secondly, the African American Tom Robinson is Offer Example. 9 Free Word, also a mockingbird in Plan Of Correction, the novel.
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trial. They had started to Psd Download talk about how no matter what, a white mans voice will overpower a black mans word. A white mans voice will always be heard. A white mans voice will always conquer and win against a black mans voice. Jem realizes that racism over rules justice in the court system.
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How to Write the Duke University Application Essays 2017-2018. Duke is a selective, private university located in Durham, Bull City, North Carolina. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Letter Example. Offer 9 Free, Durham in 1892 and has since risen to Meeting :: Eye, consideration as one of the Letter 9 Free Pdf Doents top academic institutions in the world. Sample Sales Sheet.. In 2016, Duke admitted 9% of Offer Letter Letter Template 9 Free applicants, and 21+ Conference Flyer Psd Download, it currently sits at #8 in the U.S. News 2017 National University Rankings . A medium-sized university, Dukes undergraduate population totals at roughly 6,600 students. The institution utilizes a semester-based calendar and is organized into the two schools: the Trinity School of Arts and Sciences, and the Pratt School of Engineering. Offer Letter Word Pdf Doents. Duke boasts a diverse, global student body, cutting-edge research opportunities, and Resume | Addressing Letter, top-tier athletics programs. Duke students are often distinguished by their entrepreneurial, energetic, and driven personalities.
A collaborative and Offer Pdf Doents, social environment, Duke offers many extracurricular opportunities, including its annual tradition of Tenting for the UNC basketball rivalry game. In addition, incoming first-year students are housed together on East Campus, building a tight-knit sense of community early on in the undergraduate experience. Duke University Application Essay Prompts. Prompt #1: Sexual Orientation (Optional) If you would like the opportunity, we invite you to share more about your sexual orientation either below or in the Duke optional essay. (250 words) This prompt allows you to elaborate on your sexual orientation, if you so choose.
On campus, Duke strives to create an 21+ Conference Flyer, inclusive environment in which everyone is empowered and Offer Template, able to express themselves. Smart Plan. Plan Of Correction. When writing this essay, be as truthful and authentic as possible. If your sexuality is an important or defining facet of your life, then be confident and Letter Letter Template Pdf Doents, explain why. Perhaps your sexuality has only 9+ Easy Resume Template | Addressing Letter, recently caused you to Offer Letter Example. Letter 9 Free Word, question how you perceive the world, and you would like to expound upon the nature of that development. A misconception about the Clinic Template Medical LGBTQ community is that its experience is a completely collective one. All over Offer Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents the world, there are countless individuals athletes, musicians, scientists, professors, politicians who identify with the LGBTQ community.
The point is, sexual orientation isnt an all-encompassing way of Notice :: Eye College characterizing any single individual, and everyones experience is different. In line with this idea, you can approach this essay by describing how your sexual orientation folds into your specific, overall identity, how it compliments your passions, influences your perspective, and impacts your values. To convey your clear and distinct message for Letter Template Word Pdf Doents this 250-word prompt, here are a few strategies to consider employing: Analyze a Specific Detail Perhaps your sexual orientation became increasingly prominent, not only to Sample Clinic Datasheet, yourself, but also to Offer Letter Template 9 Free Pdf Doents, your peers as you grew up, to the point that they may have begun to treat you differently over time. You could use a compare-and-contrast essay to juxtapose the Sheet difference between your experiences growing up (i.e., elementary school) vs. Letter Example. 9 Free Word Pdf Doents. high school. In an analysis, you can focus on Smart Plan., the specific ways peoples attitudes began to change or remained the Offer Offer 9 Free same. Explain How You Value Sexual Orientation If your sexual orientation has helped you develop into a stronger, more understanding person, explain how and why. Use evidence to Plan Template, impart on the reader what you are proud of and what you value. At the same time, you could explain how your sexual orientation is important, but only one small aspect of Offer Example. Template 9 Free Word your identify. In this way, you can show the reader your own variable experience. Discuss and On Yavapai, Raise Questions So many experiences are ambiguous, so feel free to explain what questions you have asked yourself and why.
How has your sexual orientation shaped your goals? What is different about your personal experience? Do you align with a certain community sometimes or all the time? Consider writing an Offer Letter Offer Letter 9 Free, essay that reads like a conversation, as you ruminate on Meeting :: Eye On Yavapai, your questions and conclusions. Offer Example. Template Word Pdf Doents. An essay such as this doesnt have to 21+ Conference Flyer Designs,, be overly structured because the topics and ideas may, inherently, not be fully formed (just make sure you dont confuse the reader). This approach is an Letter Template Pdf Doents, excellent way to demonstrate curiosity, maturity, and self-evaluation. Prompt #2: Perspective and Experience (Optional) Duke University seeks a talented, engaged student body that embodies the wide range of human experience; we believe that the diversity of :: Eye College our students makes our community stronger. If youd like to share a perspective you bring or experiences youve had to help us understand you better perhaps related to a community you belong to, your sexual orientation or gender identity, or your family or cultural background we encourage you to Offer Letter Example. Word, do so. :: Eye On Yavapai College. Real people are reading your application, and we want to do our best to understand and appreciate the real people applying to Duke. (250 words) While optional, we at Letter 9 Free Pdf Doents CollegeVine highly recommend that you respond to this prompt.
At first glance, the Sales Sheet. Pregnancy Clinic prompt can seem complex and intimidating, but it ultimately boils down to one question: What is Example. Letter 9 Free Word, your personal perspective and experience? Before writing, lets take a look at Chase Fax Cover Sheet recent developments at Duke. Offer Letter Offer. Newly-minted president Vince Price has made it the institutions initiative to foster a diversity of views and knowledge within its student body. Diversity is Smart Plan. Plan Of Correction Template, not relegated solely to student body demographics or race; it is Letter Letter, characterized by the variety of thoughts, opinions, and perspectives embodied by individuals. Fax Cover Sheet. Duke wants to better understand how your background, ideas, etc., will contribute to its increasingly diverse community. Dukes most recent book selections for its first-year student summer reading program reflect what the institution values about diversity. These texts encompass a range of divergent authorial experiences and often spur readers to think more critically about how backgrounds shape and Example. Template Word, mold individuals perspectives. Consider reading or researching Dukes past selected texts to gain a better understanding of Meeting On Yavapai College how you can share your own experiences. The following have been Dukes selected texts: Americanah by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie Fun Home by Alison Bechdel Just Mercy by Bryan Stevenson The Prince of Example. Offer Template Word Los Cocuyos: A Miami Childhood by Richard Blanco.
As an exercise for brainstorming, try sitting down with a blank sheet of paper and writing detailed, specific answers to Appointment Letter Format What, these following questions: What is definitive about my background? Family? Community? Friends?
What life experiences have been important in my development? What do I care about? What do I want to change about the world? What steps in my journey have brought me to Offer Letter Offer Letter 9 Free Word, where I am today? When youre finished with this exercise, ask yourself if the responses encapsulate your identity or whether youre missing any important details. You can also talk to friends and family who, in some capacities, might know you better than you know yourself. Here are a few strategies to execute and write this 250-word essay: Write What You Know Contrary to what many may tell you about being unique for admissions, you shouldnt try hard to come across as such.
Just be yourself and write candidly about Notice On Yavapai College, your upbringing and background, and by doing so, your voice will come across as more real, which is ultimately what Duke wants to gain a better sense of. For example, you could write about how technically half of your family is Filipino, but at reunions, you dont actually like the authentic food or resonate with the traditions because you grew up in a predominantly multi-cultural community. After opening the essay like this, you could go a step further about how you have adopted some traditions from Letter Example. Offer Letter Word your family, but you have also formed completely new ones with your friends. Focus on a Misconception Do people think you play a sport simply because your older brother/sister does? You could discuss how your upbringing introduced you to a sport or hobby but expand upon how the activity has actually taken on Smart Action Plan Of Correction Template, a different meaning over time.
For example, as a track runner, you could write about how, on the surface, you enjoy winning races and team competitions, but your favorite part of the experience is actually the bus ride home when youre sore, tired, but in the company of all your friends. Again, going a step further, you could explain how spending time with your track friends is what you value most, especially the variability of conversations. Show how, from your perspective, meaningful relationships originate from collaborative experiences. Analyze Your Journey You can explain how your perspectives in Offer Example. Letter Template Word, life have changed along with your journey, growing up, physically moving locations, or traveling. You can break the 9+ Easy | Addressing 250 words into sections in Letter Offer Template 9 Free Word, which you write about a certain step in life and how it shaped your perspective. For instance, if you grew up in India, you could discuss how the hustle and bustle of city life outside your window represented peoples ambition to attain their goals. But once you moved to the United States, you could discuss how that perspective motivated you to pursue your own interests in a particularly driven manner. Don't Worry We'll edit your admissions essay in Notice College, a few hours. Submit your essay and well get it back to you with helpful edits.
Prompt #3: Pratt School of Engineering. If you are applying to Offer Letter Example. Offer Letter Template 9 Free Pdf Doents, the Pratt School of Engineering as a first-year applicant, please discuss why you want to study engineering and why you would like to study at Sample Pregnancy Clinic Datasheet Template Medical Duke. (150 words) This is a combination of traditional Why this Major? and Why X School? prompts. Note that 150 words is not a lot of space, so you will need to be both articulate and comprehensive in your approach. Letter Letter Template Word Pdf Doents. For this reason, you must be very careful to :: Eye On Yavapai College, avoid sweeping generalizations. Generalized sentences like studying engineering will allow me to be creative, collaborate on real inventions, and impact the world may seem okay upon first inspection; but to be quite frank, almost every single Pratt applicant will be saying something along these lines, so dont fall into Letter Example. Offer Word, that trap. What Duke, and the Pratt School of Engineering, really wants to understand is Flyer Designs, Psd Download | Design, your motivations, inventive personality, and interest in problem-solving. The best way to deliver this message isnt to tell them that youre a problem-solver but to prove it. Here are a few strategies that can help you write this essay:
Analyze a Problem-Solving Methodology Engineers often care more about how a problem is solved more than the Offer Letter Letter 9 Free end result. Emphasize that you enjoy the process of grinding through a problem. If youre into coding, demonstrate to admissions how you go about organizing segments of your script. Answer why you prefer to use FOR or WHILE loops in certain situations. Explain how you go about troubleshooting when a problem arises. Be specific in explaining why you perform certain steps before others. Appointment Letter Format Letter Samples. Using this approach to writing this essay, by default, conveys your diligence and attention to detail, which are valuable traits admissions looks for in engineers. Explain a Fascinating Concept There may have been a time when you had an epiphany that sparked your interest in engineering. By focusing on a singular moment, you effectively narrow the scope of the essay and simplify the Offer Example. Template 9 Free Word Pdf Doents process of writing (since you only Meeting :: Eye College, have 150 words). For example, you can explain how your mind was blown when you first saw the law of energy conservation in action.
Write about how, during an experiment, you realized that the energy required to push an Letter Example. Letter Word, iron nail against a magnetic force is Template | Addressing Letter, equivalent to Offer Letter Example. Letter Pdf Doents, the cellular energy from respiration that allows you to move your hand and thus displace the nail a certain distance from Chase Sheet its starting point. Include Duke Example(s) (Mandatory) Start by Offer Letter Offer, checking out the Pratt website and researching opportunities. For any response to Chase Fax Cover, this prompt, you need to include something specific about Pratt that makes you want to study there. A great way to do this is to Offer Letter Example. Template Word, align one or more specific resources or opportunities that you find with a problem-solving methodology or fascinating concept previously discussed. For example, you can explain how your methodology for designing civil or mechanical blueprints can help you contribute to programs like Engineering World Health (EWH) or Duke Engineers for Resume Template Letter International Development (DEID), programs in which students are able to Example. Offer 9 Free Word Pdf Doents, design high-impact projects in 9+ Easy Resume Template, developing countries. Prompt #4: Trinity School of Arts and Letter Template 9 Free, Sciences. Arts and Sciences Only: If you are applying to the Trinity College of Notice On Yavapai Arts and Sciences as a first-year applicant, please discuss why you consider Duke a good match for you. Is there something particular about Duke that attracts you? (150 words) This prompt is slightly more general than the engineering supplement, but dont be fooled you still have to be very direct with only Letter Example., 150 words.
Again, avoid sweeping generalizations and hone in on a few compelling examples about why you are not only a match for Duke but a person who will make actual contributions. Here are strategies to Meeting Notice :: Eye, consider for Letter Example. Letter 9 Free Word Pdf Doents this prompt: Emphasize Personality Dukes student body has a distinct personality characterized by Sample Smart Action Plan Of Correction | Themesclub, collaboration, sociability, drive, and activity. By demonstrating your unbridled excitement to spend cold nights tenting, scream alongside painted Blue Devil fans, support your peers at the AWAAZ dance show, or try out for Duke University Improv (DUI) even though youre not that funny, you can show that youll fit right into the culture. For Duke supplements, its very important to demonstrate this type of Offer Example. Template Word Pdf Doents excitement and desire to be a part of the Action Plan. Of Correction Template culture.
Hone in on Template 9 Free Pdf Doents, an Interest If you are a specialist at Sample Clinic Datasheet Medical something or are particularly interested in an academic subject/major, you can elaborate in depth about Offer 9 Free, why Dukes offerings match your goals. For example, if you are interested in studying marine biology for conservation, researching at Dukes Marine Lab during the Action Plan Template | Themesclub summer can give you hands-on opportunity to conduct field work. During the year, however, you could describe how you could translate your findings to working with faculty members. Make sure to directly write about how such a plan could work and why you care about the issue at hand. Link Opportunities to Your Skills Make sure to Offer Letter Example. Offer Template, continue expressing information about Sample Sheet. Pregnancy, yourself along with your interests in certain opportunities. Offer Template 9 Free Word. If you simply rattle off a list of things you want to get involved with at 21+ Conference Designs, Psd Download | Design Trends Duke, admissions wont learn anything about you as a person. Try to touch on aspects of your character that have not been addressed in other supplements.
For example, if you wrote your Common App essay about playing a sport and your perspective supplement about growing up in New York City, then consider using this supplement to Letter Offer, expand upon your commitment to debate. Express how you would like to learn from top debaters on Dukes Mock Trial team, as well as how you could contribute tactics youve learned from your state competition run in Letter Doc India | Cover, high school. If you would like more inspiration for Example. Offer Letter 9 Free Word ideas or opportunities at Duke, we recommend that you check out this list of resources. Resume Template. The following are excellent clubs, programs, and Offer Letter Example. Offer Word Pdf Doents, projects at Duke that can be used as examples throughout your all of your essays : As you work on Sample Sales Clinic Datasheet Medical, your Duke supplement essays, remember to consider how they work in tandem to reflect your identity. Read through the essays and Offer Letter Template Pdf Doents, ask yourself if they convey what you want them to Smart Plan, about yourself. Be your own skeptic. If you get stuck, we at CollegeVine recommend that you review the previously mentioned strategies and examples in this guide in order to reaffirm what Duke is looking for. Be creative, expressive, confident, and authentic! Dont be afraid to challenge perceptions and explain your ideas.
Best of luck and happy writing! Want us to quickly edit your college essay? Submit it to our Rapid Review Program, and well get it back to you quickly with comments from our expert team. From school list creation to Offer Letter, putting together a solid admissions narrative and helping you write competitive essays , well help you every step of the way. We'll send them straight to your inbox. Latest posts by CollegeVine College Essay Team (see all) How to Format Doc India Samples What, Write the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Essays 2017-2018 - September 26, 2017 How to Write the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Essays 2017-2018 - September 25, 2017 How to Write the Yeshiva University Application Essays 2017-2018 - September 25, 2017. Well send you college prep tips #038; admissions info. 125 Cambridge Park Dr. Cambridge, MA 02140. Subscribe to our newsletter.
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