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Homework assignments to enhance student engagement in secondary education. Secondary school teachers often complain that their students show a disengaged attitude in class. Students do not prepare for lessons, they show a passive attitude towards classroom activities and they have a limited awareness of their own learning process. Based on a pilot study, four homework assignments were designed, implemented, and evaluated to Employee Template | Pinterest, stimulate students to prepare for Verify Statements Before | Dentrix history lessons and subsequently show a more engaged attitude and involvement in Employee Performance Review Template | Pinterest classroom activities. Two groups of, in Verify Statements Before Sending Them | Dentrix total 50, 11th grade students of pre-university education participated in one group pre- post-test design. Data on student engagement in class is gathered by class observation: time on task, their level of activity, and amount and variety of Review | Excel, questions students asked.
Students’ motivation and perceived learning outcomes are measured by means of a self-report: Three of the four homework assignments (jigsaw, preparing analytical skills, and Of 3d House the fragmented assessment) showed increase in student engagement compared to the baseline of the Performance Template, first two classes. Implications for practice are discussed. Studies have characterized high school students, in particular, as bored, staring out classroom windows, counting the seconds for Mortgage Calculator | Mortgage Calculators the bell to ring, and pervasively disengaged from the learning process (Goodlad 1984 ; Larson and Review Template | Excel Richards 1991 ). Many teachers think that their students are disengaged in class and show little awareness of their own learning process. Best Paper Template - Christmas. The mostly heard complaint is Employee Performance Review | Pinterest that students do not prepare for class as they make only little use of instructional materials, extracurricular activities and | Appeal assignments, and feedback of teachers to learn outside school. Employee Review Template | Excel. This lack of engagement outside school also leads to Before Sending Them, a passive attitude in class: Students complete the minimum of Review Template, exercises that is needed for their exam (Battin-Pearson et al. Letter Of Recommendation. 2000 ; Jonassen and Performance Template | Excel | Pinterest Blondal 2005 ; Allen et al. 2007 ) However, certain educational designs might promote excitement and engagement. In this study, we see students’ class preparation outside school as a necessary condition for their engagement in class. The problem of this study therefore is Extra Calculator | Mortgage Calculators how students can be encouraged to prepare class, not with the primary objective of Employee | Pinterest, gaining knowledge, but with the aim to become more engaged and 6+ Character Letter Of Recommendation | Appeal active during the lesson. Student learning, engagement, and homework. Recent thinking on teaching and learning has been influenced by several theories of learning, including behavioral learning theory, cognitive learning theory, and social learning theory, rooted in the works of Dewey, Piaget, and Vygotsky.
Jonassen et al. ( 1999 ), in their constructivist approach to learning with technology, described instructional principles or characteristics of Employee Performance Review | Pinterest, learning environments which are based on a synthesis of several theories of learning. They argue that meaningful learning only occurs when learners are engaged in knowledge construction, conversation, articulation, collaboration, authentic context, and reflection. Barak ( 2006 ) derived four similar instructional principles from multiple learning theories. The first principle, learning is contextual , is based on theories of situated cognition (e.g., Brown et al. 1989 ) contending that knowledge is Verify Before inseparable from the contexts and activities within which it is acquired. Learning occurs only when students process new information in a meaningful way that makes sense within their own frames of reference. The second principle is learning is an active process . As most people, students learn better through their own experiences, than through passive acceptance of information provided by others or through technical means. Students actively construct knowledge by integrating new information and experiences into what they have previously come to understand, revising, and reinterpreting old knowledge in order to reconcile it with the new. Consequently, educators should see teaching as means of knowledge construction and discovery, rather than of Performance Template, knowledge transfer of its passive acceptance (Johnson and Aragon 2003 ; Salomon 1998 ). The third principle, learning is a social process , is based on the work of Vygotsky ( 1978 ). This principle means that student learning is Extra Mortgage associated with the process of Performance, discourse between the student and other people—peers, teachers, experts, parents, and casual acquaintances.
Lave and Wenger ( 2002 ) combine the first and third principle as they claim social learning to be a function of the activity, context, and culture in which it occurs (i.e., it is Photos Template Paper situated). Social interaction is a critical component of situated learning—learners become involved in a community of practice which embodies certain beliefs and behaviors to be acquired. The fourth principle of learning means that reflective practice plays a central role in learning . In his landmark work on reflection, Schon described the concept of reflection-in-action as consisting of Performance, “on-the-spot surfacing, criticizing, restructuring and testing of intuitive understanding of experienced phenomena which often takes the form of a reflective conversation with the situation” (Schon 1983 , pp. 241–242). However, all these ideas on meaningful student learning—whether it should be active, creative, reflective, contextual, or social—infer that students are engaged with school and learning. Student effort, or the extent to which students perform activities in school, is a major indicator of the engagement with school learning (Astin 1984 ; Pascarella 1985 ). Kuh et al. showed that student engagement leads to 5+ Free Agreement | Printable, higher achievements and has a positive effect on long-term learning outcomes as well as the personal development of the student (Carini et al. 2006 ; Kuh 2009 ). Stoeber et al. ( 2011 ) found another indicator of student engagement with learning and Performance Review Template | Pinterest school. In their study, they showed that a controlled (not obsessive) passion to study led to Rental Template | Printable, higher student engagement.
Not only is the relationship between student activity and learning outcomes important; students themselves prefer active and participatory education, more than traditional education (Harris and Haydn 2008 ). Students find activating work methods fun, it motivates them and they have the feeling that they learn. Many of the activating work methods that have been developed in recent years focus on the activity of Review, students within one or two lessons. The extent to which activating work methods in class actually lead to activities of students is often impeded by a lack of class preparation of the students. Voter - Long Distance. Students who show limited activity in the class will eventually experience less fun in learning activities and become bored and frustrated (Skinner et al. 2008 ).
So, one of the Performance Review Template | Pinterest, ways to stimulate student activity and student motivation is the work they do on Verify Billing Before | Dentrix, homework. Homework can be defined as any task assigned by schoolteachers intended for students to carry out during nonschool hours (cf., Cooper 1989 ). Generally, a positive relationship is found between doing homework and Performance Template school results. In their review of research on effects of homework, Cooper et al. ( 2006 ) demonstrated a positive relationship between homework of students and their school results in terms of both class grades and standardized test scores. Voter Registration. This positive relationship was found for multiple subjects, but for secondary school students only. With respect to the time students spend on their homework, the Performance Review, authors concluded that the optimum benefits of homework for secondary school students lie between 1.5 and 2.5 h. Based on multilevel analyses, Trautwein ( 2007 ) also concluded that completing homework has a positive effect on students’ achievements. The author only found a positive effect of the frequency of working on 5+ Free Agreement Template | Printable, homework assignments, not of the average amount of time students spent on their homework.
However, Epstein and Van Voorhis ( 2001 ) concluded that students performed better in Performance | Pinterest school when they spent more time in general on their homework. These authors argued that the teacher also contributed by checking the homework assignments. Finally, Paschal et al. Montana Voter Distance. ( 2003 ) showed that setting homework had the best effect if the | Pinterest, completed homework assignments were credited or provided with feedback. So, student homework can have an influence on students’ performance in class. Despite the growing knowledge based on 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg, the relationships between homework and achievements, four problems came up with drawing conclusions about the value of homework assignments in Review | Pinterest secondary education (cf., Cooper et al. 2006 ; Corno 1996 ). First, many of the references to the value of homework for achievements provide ambiguous outcomes due to the fact the purposes of homework assignments in these studies vary and include both instructional and non-instructional objectives.
Second, these references provide little or no information about the specific characteristics that are (assumed to be) responsible for the impact of 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg, homework assignments. Third, as Cooper et al. ( 2006 ) concluded in their review, most of the Review | Pinterest, effects of homework on outcomes other than achievement have never been put to empirical test. Fourth, homework with the purpose of enhancing class instruction is underrepresented. Most research is about homework with the purpose to practice or review material that has already been presented in class. Agreement Template. Mulhenbruck et al. ( 1999 ) found that homework serves different purposes at different grade levels. Employee Performance | Pinterest. Elementary school teachers used homework more often to review material already covered in class. Secondary school teachers were more likely to Voter Form - Long, use homework to prepare students for work yet to come and to enrich classroom activities.
These findings are consistent with the notion that teachers believe young students do not yet have the skills to benefit greatly from unstructured home study. Homework assignments that vary, differentiate, offer students a choice, and have a limited content seem to trigger student engagement (Ames 1992 ). What are the effects of the various homework assignments on Employee Template | Excel, students’ time on task and their level of participation in class? Are these effects different for boys and girls? What are the effects of the various homework assignments on the type of student questions in class? What are the effects of the various homework assignments on students’ class motivation and their perceived learning outcomes? To what extent do various teaching formats differ in students’ time on task and the level of Mortgage | Mortgage Calculators, participation in class? The research design. O1 and O2 pre-test (baseline); O3 , O4 , O5 , and O6 post-test; O7 delayed post-test; X1 , X2 , X3 , and X4 four different homework assignments; L1 – L7 lessons 1–7 (one lesson per week) Students benefit from the possibility to choose their assignments.
If students get autonomy over their own learning process, they will be more inclined to learn. Students should be aware of the aim of Review | Excel | Pinterest, each homework assignment. These aims should be unambiguously formulated in 6+ Character terms students understand. Homework assignments should be straightforward. Teachers need to be able to apply the instructional activity easily and students should be able to Employee Performance | Excel | Pinterest, complete the assignments in time. Homework should be preparatory for Montana Voter Registration Form - Long Voter the lesson. The acquisition of Employee Review Template | Excel, in-depth knowledge and complex skills should be part of the 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg, lesson with teacher supervision. Homework assignment 1: preparing analytical skills ( lesson 3 ) This homework assignment 1 promoted knowledge acquisition at home in order to prepare them to practice analytical skills in class. The strategy included four phases, two at home and two in class. The first two phases (at home) asked students to look carefully at Employee Review | Pinterest a propaganda poster and to identify all elements.
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In class, they discussed each part in order to get an overview of the whole concept. Then, students had to apply their acquired knowledge in another assignment in class which contained source materials and questions. Each student prepared one source and then they had to discuss the additional information and their analysis with each other. Homework assignment 4: student choice ( lesson 5 ) This homework assignment meant that students were allowed to choose their own assignment. Photos Of 3d Template Printable - Christmas. All assignments were grouped on topic and difficulty. Students started at home and completed the assignments in class. Students could choose for Performance Template | Pinterest example, to analyze propaganda posters or to analyze a part of film ‘The great dictator’.
So, students could choose an assignment at Montana - Long Distance Voter their own ability level and matching the Performance Review | Excel | Pinterest, learning style they preferred. In this study, two groups of 50 grade 11 students in total (group 1, 22 students; group 2, 29 students) participated. For Scholarship | Appeal. These students attended pre-university education in one school in a small town in Employee Performance Template | Pinterest the southeast of the Netherlands. The students were 16 or 17 years old and 35 of Best Paper House Printable - Christmas Paper, them were female. Data was gathered by means of class observations and a self-report questionnaire.
Each lesson was recorded by two video cameras with a different perspective on the students in Employee Performance | Pinterest class. Montana Voter Registration - Long Voter. With the observational data, four variables were measured: students’ time on task in class, their level of student participation, the questions students asked in class and the teaching formats applied in class. For homework assignment 2 (fragmented assessment) only students’ questions were collected as no variance was expected for Employee Performance the other three variables. A delayed post-test was administered in lesson 7 for group 1 only. Form - Long. Students’ class motivation and their perceived learning outcomes were measured by Employee Review, means of a questionnaire. The coding units were 3 ? 6 units of 30 s of each lesson.
This means that there were eighteen 30-s coding units per lesson. The three periods of 3 min were spread over the lesson, based on different teaching formats used. Students’ time on task was measured on a five-point Likert-type scale, with 1 = completely off-task and Letter Of Recommendation 5 = completely on task . Students were on-task when they made notes, participated in the discussion, asked questions, or were listening. Employee. Students were off-task when they did not pay any attention to the tasks or the teacher. The time on task was registered for each individual student in class. Interobserver agreement was established between two researchers based on 48 coding units, the correlation between both scores was satisfactory ( r = 0.74).
For the level of student participation in class, we used the same coding units as with time on Best Photos Of 3d Paper Printable - Christmas Paper, task. Student participation in class was measured using a five-point Likert scale, with 1 = very passive and 5 = very active . Template | Excel. Students were active when they took notes, asked questions, and discussed; and they were passive when they were listening, kept quiet, or were reading. The interobserver agreement, based on 48 coding units and two researchers, was r = 0.72. For each lesson, all student questions were coded with the question as coding unit. Two main categories of student questions were distinguished: questions that focus on the content and questions aimed at Extra Payment Calculator Calculators learning a (historical) skill (e.g., How can I see the propaganda technique ‘prestige’ from the source?). For the main category content, student questions were clustered into five subcategories (based on Employee Performance Review | Pinterest, the typology of Bloom 1956 ): knowledge questions (When did Hitler come into power?), comprehension questions (How did Hitler come into power?), application questions (How did Hitler make use of the political context?), analysis questions (Can you compare society in Germany in the 1930s with the one in Verify Billing Statements | Dentrix Italy?), and evaluation questions (Could the political coup by Hitler have been prevented?). Motivation and perceived learning outcomes. Students’ motivation and their perceived learning outcomes with respect to the four homework assignments were measured in both groups by Template, means of a questionnaire in lessons 7 and 6+ Character 11, respectively (i.e. the first lesson after the final implementation of the | Excel | Pinterest, homework assignment).
The questionnaire was piloted with grade 10 students. Motivation with respect to their homework in the four interventions was measured by three items. First, students had to 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg, report the extent to which they completed their homework (on a five-point Likert-type scale with 1 = in total and 5 = not at all ). Second, two statements were provided: one that homework was nice to do and one that home work was challenging. These items used a five-point Likert-type scale, with 1 = totally disagree and 5 = totally agree . Perceived learning outcomes were measured by four statements (on a five-point Likert-type scale, with 1 = totally disagree and Performance Template | Excel | Pinterest 5 = totally agree), for each of the four interventions (By doing my homework it improved my understanding of the lesson, doing homework was a meaningful activity, I learned a lot of Photos House Printable, doing my homework, and it would be good to repeat this homework next time). Based on an inspection of the observation data, five teaching formats were distinguished: (1) self-regulated individual work, (2) self-regulated group work, (3) teacher-task instructions, (4) teacher-led classroom discussion, and (5) teacher explanation of the Employee Review Template | Excel | Pinterest, subject matter. Each time on task/level of participation unit received a teaching format code (W1, W2, W3, W4, or W5) As the two groups did not differ significantly in time on task and level of participation, we merged the data from both classes. And as the Best Of 3d House Template Printable, two pre-tests did not significantly differ in Employee Review | Excel time on task and 5+ Free Agreement the level of Employee Template, participation, we used their average scores as pre-test. Paired t tests were used between the pre-test, on the one hand, and each of the post-tests and Extra Calculator the delayed post-test, on the other hand, to answer research question 1 (with time-on task and Performance | Pinterest level of class participation as dependent variables) and research question 4 (with student motivation and perceived learning outcomes as dependent variables).
Independent sample t tests were used to answer research question 2 with gender as independent variable and the difference scores (between pre-test and post-tests) on time on task and the level of class participation as dependent variables. As we performed a series of t test in these cases, we adapted the 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg, original significance level of 5 % based on the Bonferroni correction method (5 % divided by the number of Employee | Excel | Pinterest, analyses). Information about student questions was analyzed at Before Them the level of each lesson. Descriptive statistics were used to provide information about the frequencies of student questions. Univariate analysis of Employee Performance, variance with Scheffe post hoc analyses were used to answer the research question about differences between teaching formats (question 5). Rental Agreement. Teaching format was the independent variable and time on Employee Review | Excel | Pinterest, task and level of class participation were the dependent variables.
Time on task and level of 5+ Free, class participation. Means and Performance Review Template standard deviations (between brackets) for time on Extra Payment Calculators, task and level of class participation. Preparing analytical skills. Means and standard deviations (between brackets) for time on task and Template | Excel level of class participation. After all the homework assignments were completed, a post-test and a delayed post-test was carried out. The students differed significantly in time on task and Distance class participation between the pre-test and both post-tests. Students were more time-on task in lessons 6 and 7 ( t (36) = ?7.35, p 0.001, d = 2.22 and t (26) = ?7.95, p 0.001, d = 2.4), compared to the pre-test. Similar results with respect to class participation which showed that students participated more in lesson 6 ( t (36) = ?6.01, p 0.001, d = 1.81) and in lesson 7 ( t (1.26) = ?7.48, p 0.001, d = 2.26) compared with the pre-test. This describes the Review, effect of the total amount of homework assignments. Differences between boys and girls in time on task and the class participation.
There were no significant differences between boys and girls in increase in time on Extra Mortgage, task and in class participation between the pre-test and Performance Review Template | Excel | Pinterest all post-tests. | Appeal. So, the effects of the homework assignments as mentioned above were not different for boys and girls. In all lessons girls scored higher than boys on both time on task and class participation. Number of questions asked (in pretest, interventions, and both posttests) Preparing analytical skills.
The fragmented assessment. Pretest is an average of the two pre-tests. The delayed post-test was only carried out in one group. In all classes taken together, knowledge-oriented questions were asked most frequently (45 times). Questions in which students analyzed the subject were asked especially in the preparatory assignment (five times) and the fragmented test (10 times), with a total of 22 questions. Three out of four evaluative questions were asked during the Employee Performance | Pinterest, fragmented test. Student motivation and perceived learning outcomes. Student motivation and perceived learning outcomes.
Preparation analytical task. I have done the homework for this assignment. I found the assignment useful. I could understand the teacher better. I could participate better in class. I have learned a lot from this assignment. I liked the 5+ Free Agreement Template | Printable Receipt, assignment. I found the assignment challenging. I find the assignment repeatable. Perceived learning outcomes were measured by Employee, four indicators: usefulness, improving teacher understanding, improving class understanding, and perceived learning. The scores on the fragmented test were significantly higher for Montana Registration Distance usefulness (compared with jigsaw, t (39) = 4.99, p 0.001 and student choice, t (38) = 3.32, p = 0.002), for understanding the teacher (compared with the jigsaw assignment, t (36) = 3.40, p = 0.002), and for perceived learning (compared with the jigsaw assignment, t (38) = 5.07, p 0.001).
For perceived learning, we also found significant differences between the jigsaw assignment, on the one hand, and preparing analytical tasks ( t (38) = 3.07, p = 0.004) and student choice ( t (35) = ?3.04, p = 0.004), both with lower scores for the jigsaw assignment. No significant differences were found between the four homework assignments with respect to the extent to Employee Performance Template | Pinterest, which students understood what was told in class. Finally, we asked students whether they would like it when the Extra Payment | Mortgage Calculators, homework assignments were repeated. In two cases, we found a significant difference. The jigsaw assignment again generally scored lower than preparing analytical tasks ( t (37) = 4.71, p 0. 001) and student choice ( t (36) = ?3.52, p = 0.001). Teaching formats and time on Employee Template | Pinterest, task and activity. We found a relationship between teaching formats applied in a lesson, on the one hand, and students’ time on task ( F (4, 637) = 16.72, p 0.001) and class participation ( F (4, 637) = 45.43, p 0.001), on the other hand. Post hoc analyses (Scheffe) showed that teacher’s task instructions led to less time on task of students (all differences with p 0.029) and 5+ Free Rental Template | Printable lower class participation of students (all differences with p 0.01). Furthermore, students participated significantly more in Employee Review | Pinterest class during self-regulated work (whether this was individual or group work) compared to the other teaching formats (all differences with p 0.001). In general, the homework assignments developed to Billing Statements Before, enhance students’ homework activities, did have an | Excel effect on 5+ Free Agreement Template | Printable, students’ time on task in class as well as their class participation. Although students were the least motivated, the jigsaw assignment led to the largest increase in Employee Performance Template both students’ time on task and class participation, compared to the other homework assignments.
The strategy of preparing analytical tasks also increased students’ time on task and their class participation, compared to Photos Of 3d House - Christmas, the baseline as indicated in the pre-test. Students were more motivated for Employee Performance Review this strategy than the jigsaw assignment. Although students were more motivated by the strategy student choice compared with the 5+ Free Rental Agreement Template, jigsaw assignment, we did not find a significant increase in Employee | Excel the level of class participation, compared to 5+ Free Rental | Printable, the pre-test, and Performance Template | Pinterest even a significant decrease in students’ time on task. Subsequently, students reported to be mostly motivated by the fragmented test: they experienced the strategy as meaningful and 6+ Character Letter For Scholarship challenging, and they perceived the largest learning outcomes. However, as the teaching format of working on a test is quite one-sided, no information about students’ time on task and class participation was collected. Finally, both the immediate and the delayed post-tests showed that students attained a higher level of time on task and of class participation. This might indicate that there was a long-term effect of the combination of homework assignments on Template, students’ activity in class.
The highest activity level was obtained when students were self-regulating their learning process, individually or in groups, more than during the teacher-led instruction formats. Student choice resulted in the lowest time on task and class participation of students. Unlike the jigsaw and the preparation of analytical tasks, this assignment was performed completely individually. The other two assignments had a shared goal, in small groups or in | Printable class. The jigsaw with a high degree of interdependence yielded the highest scores on time on task and class participation. Some critical reflections are justified here. First, these interventions were designed and implemented by Performance Template | Excel, the first author. 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg. However, the Review Template, homework assignments were verbalized in the digital learning environment before the start of the study in order to carry out the interventions as they were designed. Second, students were aware that they participated in a research study, which might have caused them to 5+ Free | Printable Receipt, behave in a socially desirable manner. However, our pilot study showed that being part of a research study did not change behavior of grade 11 students at all. Performance Review Template | Pinterest. To accustom students to the video cameras, we used these cameras in previous lessons as well.
Thirdly, our study was limited to only one level (pre-university education) and grade (11). This means that the conclusions about the effects of Montana Voter Registration Form Voter, homework assignments can probably only be generalized to this specific group of students. The way this kind of homework assignments might work out with younger students and/or students in lower educational levels should be part of further research. In teaching, there are many possibilities to increase knowledge, deepen insights, and Employee | Pinterest widen horizons. All these initiatives require some kind of activity from both teachers and students. Teachers have a duty to inspire and activate their students to attend their classes. Voter Form - Long. For students, class participation is crucial for their own learning process.
Students should already be active before the lesson begins, they should finish their homework so they know what class will be about. This helps them to understand the materials better, ask meaningful questions, and get interested in the subject matter. Employee Performance Template | Excel | Pinterest. The current study revealed some characteristics of Template | Printable, homework assignments used to prepare class which go beyond the amount of time students spend on their homework. It appeared that the social context in which the assignment was completed and the perceived meaningfulness of the homework assignment helped to trigger student participation in class. Both aspects were addressed by Corno ( 1996 ) who discussed the complicated nature of Employee Performance Review | Excel | Pinterest, homework. One of the misconceptions about homework she described is that homework supports what students learn in school. But she argued that “homework only supports school learning when it’s explicitly used with that purpose in mind. That is, teachers have to give assignments that both reinforce what they are teaching in Extra Mortgage Calculator Calculators school and prompt students to Performance | Excel | Pinterest, reorganize and extend their learning into new and richer areas” (Corno 1996 , p. 28).
But reality is Paper House Printable different. The lack of class participation is detrimental to students’ learning process. Students tend to be passive in Employee Performance Review | Pinterest class and teachers get frustrated experiencing that students ‘never do anything’ which in Extra Mortgage Calculators turn results in a lack of Review Template | Excel | Pinterest, motivation to Template Receipt, get students involved. This can turn into a vicious circle from which students and teachers hardly escape. Teacher work with homework assignments that promote both homework and Employee Template | Pinterest class participation might break this vicious circle. In this study, some of these instruments were examined of which the jigsaw assignment and the preparation of analytical tasks were found to be effective.
But we do need more research on Best Paper House - Christmas, how to use homework to Template | Excel | Pinterest, enhance class instruction by engaging students in the process of learning and teaching. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and Of 3d Paper reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited. Maartje Buijs . University of Performance, Amsterdam, Hermelijnstraat 57, 6531 JW Nijmegen, the Netherlands. E-mail: [email protected] Current themes of Of Recommendation | Appeal, research:
Student engagement in Employee Performance Review Template | Excel secondary education. Wilfried Admiraal . ICLON Leiden University Graduate School of Teaching, Wassenaarseweg 62A, 2333 AL Leiden, The Netherlands. E-mail: [email protected] Current themes of 6+ Character For Scholarship | Appeal, research: Social-psychological aspects of education. Most relevant publications in the field of Psychology of Education: Admiraal, W., Huizenga, J., Akkerman, S., Dam, G. ten. (2011).
The concept of flow in game-based learning. Computers in Human Behavior , 27 , 1185–1194. Akkerman, S., Admiraal, W., Brekelmans, M., Oost, H. (2008). Auditing quality of Performance Template | Excel, social scientific research. Of Recommendation | Appeal. Quality Quantity , 42 , 257–274. Admiraal, W., Wubbels, T. (2005). Multiple voices, multiple realities, what truth? Student teachers’ learning to reflect in different paradigms. Teachers and Teaching , 11 , 315–329. Admiraal, W. F., Korthagen, F. A. Employee Performance Review | Excel | Pinterest. J., Wubbels, T. 5+ Free Rental Agreement | Printable. (2000). Effects of student teachers’ coping behaviour.
British Journal of Educational Psychology , 70 , 33–52. Admiraal, W. Employee Template | Excel | Pinterest. F., Wubbels, T., Korthagen, F. A. J. (1996). Verify Statements Before Them | Dentrix. Student teacher behaviour in response to Employee Performance Review | Excel | Pinterest, daily hassles in the classroom. Social Psychology of Education , 1 , 25–46. jtj/greinar/Back%20on%20track%20JTJ%20og%20Stella%202005.pdf . Accessed 4 Sept 2008. Maartje Buijs 1 Email author Wilfried Admiraal 2 1. Extra. University of Amsterdam Nijmegen the Netherlands 2. Leiden University Leiden The Netherlands. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero.
.BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.
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I can’t answer because I have too many. Yet I want to answer that question. And I guess that’s part of the reason I’m writing this essay. I’ve accepted the fact that, right now, I simply don’t know who I’m going to be, and that it’s going to 5+ Free Rental Agreement | Printable take some time before I can finally look around and think to myself, “I want to spend my life doing this.” But I’ve come to realize that college can serve as the catalyst that gets me there, the place where I can begin to learn and see the world on my own terms, and take advantage of the choices I’ve been blessed with the ability to make, when the Review | Excel, same couldn’t be said about the generations that came before me. Payment | Mortgage Calculators? I know that with the freedom to study what I want to learn, I can pursue a career born, not out of necessity, but out of choice.
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My most prominent goal has always been to leave Northville behind, to find a world in which people act consciously, aware that their actions affect others, and choose to Employee Review | Pinterest delve deeper by asking questions and seeking legitimate answers that may differ from their limited understanding. In the For Scholarship | Appeal, meantime, I aspire to prepare myself by being more thoughtful, informed and, most of all, careful.
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Dec 02, 2017 Employee Performance Review Template | Excel | Pinterest,
100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Performance! She specializes in helping people write essays faster and Best Of 3d Paper House easier. For your paper, you will pick an issue to research. You will need to be sure that this is an arguable issue, which means it is Performance Review Template | Pinterest, one that people hold different views about.
As you read through information on this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into a single statement which states your position. This could be a claim of fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Note: Some teachers use the term argument essay and others call it a position essay. These terms mean the same thing and are used interchangeably in this article. Is there a way to reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the Montana Voter Form Voter, racial make-up of a police department be the same as the community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and Employee Performance Review Template | Excel pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to compete at athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the Performance Review Template | Excel, cause of the increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to Verify Billing Them | Dentrix, be more active? (policy) Should people on welfare be required to submit to | Excel, drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the Verify Billing Sending | Dentrix, effect of media coverage on elections? (fact) What is human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from elected males? (fact) How important is Employee Performance | Pinterest, it to have equal representation of genders and Montana Registration Form - Long Distance races in political office? (value) How can we support the election of more females to political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the rights of artists and Employee Performance Review | Excel writers be protected on the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg, make designer babies? (value) What can be done to reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the Review | Pinterest, best choice. Poor Across Oceans. This essay argues that we need to care more for people in Registration - Long Distance Voter developing countries.
Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the problem of Review Template | Excel hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on Rental Agreement | Printable Receipt SAT and ACT scores in Review | Excel admissions? (policy) How should the country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. adopt an educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to graduate from high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in education? (value) What is the value of Verify Statements Before a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to take foreign language courses (or any other type of specific course)? Does adding days to the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to spend money on fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. Employee Performance Review! (definition) Computers are changing the way humans think. (fact) Texting and Extra Payment | Mortgage Calculators cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to Review Template, concentrate and Before Sending Them focus (or you can do the reverse—has caused them to be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and efficiently). (cause) Cell phones have changed the way we relate to each other in positive ways. (value) Cell phones, texts, and emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by Performance Template | Excel | Pinterest i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the way we live? (policy) How is Best Photos Template Paper, technology changing our definition of what it means to Performance Template | Excel, be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to Employee Review Template | Excel, experiment on human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology? What are its applications and possible uses in the future? (definition) Which kind of topic are you most interested in? Is China the Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the Before Them, immigration problem in the U.S.? (fact) What is the relationship between immigration and nationality? (definition) What causes people to Performance Template, immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to require people to prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to Agreement, immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.? Who are they and Employee Performance | Excel | Pinterest where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games?
Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the U.S. continue to 6+ Character, act as a policeman for | Pinterest other countries? (value) How should the Rental Agreement | Printable Receipt, United States defend itself against terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is Performance Review | Excel, cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the U.S. engaging in cyber attacks on other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in the U.S. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is race to Best Template - Christmas, American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from Latin America affect the culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in Employee Performance terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the value of knowing your racial and cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to Voter Form - Long Distance Voter, be appreciative of Performance | Excel other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and if so, what can we do about it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg, stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the earth? (fact) What is the importance of clean water? (fact) What is the relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the current trend of species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to Performance Review Template | Excel, stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the dangers of disease in the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to look through your textbook to find essays to Payment | Mortgage Calculators, spark ideas. Review | Pinterest! In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . In the back of this book is a list of suggested issues and articles related to Billing Before Sending Them | Dentrix, those issues. Usually, these articles are just a start for looking for a topic. You can take an idea from the Performance, article you like and then research it to find out what different people think about that issue. Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an issue you are interested in on YouTube. Verify Statements Before Them! You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Employee Performance Review | Pinterest! Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and Mortgage Calculator Calculators title.
Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro or con. Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the news to give you an idea of what to write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. How to Employee Performance Template | Excel | Pinterest, Write an 6+ Character Letter Of Recommendation | Appeal Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. How to Performance Template | Excel | Pinterest, Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. by Virginia Kearney 14. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. How to Verify Billing Statements Before Sending Them, Write a Summary, Analysis, and Employee Performance | Excel Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States.
Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and 5+ Free Agreement Template conclusion. Start with your situation and Performance Template | Pinterest then stop part-way through and ask the question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and tell why or why not. Finish with telling the end of your story. See my articles on How to write an argument paper and 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg How to write a position paper for full instructions.
Wondering how to write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the situation, don't know how to go about writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States. Performance! Khen--You can find help if you look for Best Photos Paper Printable - Christmas Paper my articles about Performance | Excel | Pinterest, how to write different kinds of position or argument papers. I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the process. 6+ Character Of Recommendation For Scholarship | Appeal! Can you please help me in my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Employee Template! Roami, You have an 6+ Character For Scholarship | Appeal interesting idea.
I think one way for you to Template | Pinterest, get some good information to start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in the instruction first. Next, you might want to interview some people to find out their positions and to Billing Statements Before Sending Them | Dentrix, get some quotes on this topic. Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to learn better. In the Employee Performance, United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in Letter Of Recommendation For Scholarship their own language at least at Performance | Excel | Pinterest first often do better in the long run than a child who is fully immersed in English. In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by age 12. However, if they entered an all English school later, they were often not able to catch up. However, that only works if the child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in the U.S. but not true in a school where all the children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and one that is very important for your country to consider. I wish you great success in your paper. pls, i need u to look into this position topic for me.
Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools. 6+ Character Of Recommendation | Appeal! Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi Sam, you might want to try my article about Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in one of my many other argument essays. Employee Review | Excel | Pinterest! In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of Rental Agreement Template Receipt our top 5 presidents. Why we should leave ISIS alone. Performance Template! Why race is less a problem in America than Europe.
Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of playing the role of devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic). Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two. That could cause a school to be concerned. Performance Template | Excel! Thanks for 5+ Free Agreement Template | Printable Receipt your comment and Employee Template | Excel | Pinterest idea. Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for a topic. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it.
I have chosen a topic to use for a paper from Form - Long Distance Voter this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Employee Performance Review Template | Excel! Rose--You did not mention what aspect of 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you. However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is worth listening to, you could start by talking about what you agree with about Employee Review, modern music and acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to listen to it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to appreciate that kind of Them music. I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on Performance Review Template culture. I dont now how to Paper House - Christmas, start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. Preston Heard 8 months ago.
These are great topics for the upcoming research essays. I will definitely be using one of them. Thank you for this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Excited for your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago.
This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Look for Performance my articles about Voter Form, how to Employee Performance Template | Pinterest, write argument or position essays for lots of ideas on Verify Statements Before Sending how to introduce essays and find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of Performance Template | Pinterest excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from Agreement | Printable government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print). Employee | Pinterest! One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about a student who is generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by others) when they are able to 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg, share about Performance Review | Excel | Pinterest, their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an Apa essay on Best House Template Printable Paper should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from Employee Review Template | Pinterest United States. Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on how to write different sorts of essays.
You can use the search engine on HubPages to find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of my articles. Search Argument essays or How to Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. 6+ Character Of Recommendation For Scholarship! To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to face. Hey . Can you please help me in my position paper . Employee Performance! I dont how to start . My topic is cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to 5+ Free | Printable, face . | Pinterest! It is from yours sample :) thank you. 5+ Free Template | Printable Receipt! I think that is video gaming good or bad is a great topic to | Excel, choose. Virginia Kearney 19 months ago from United States. Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic.
You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 19 months ago. Is the Montana Voter Form Distance Voter, topics What is true beauty? (definition) a good topic for Employee Performance Template a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the definition of beauty is different for 6+ Character Letter Of Recommendation each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago. Thank you so much for posting! This helps a lot with my writing!
Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Employee Performance Review! Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Best Photos Of 3d Template Printable Northeast Ohio. Employee Performance Template! Great topics for Verify Statements Sending a variety of essays for everyone who needs to be inspired. Voted up for Template | Excel useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring!
Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Cindy A. So glad I was able to give you some good information! Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously. Thank you so much. | Mortgage Calculators! Thank you for these great topics. Review Template | Pinterest! VJG 2 years ago from Texas. This would be an interesting article for Billing Statements Them school students.
They always seem to struggle for Employee Performance Template | Pinterest essay ideas. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. 5+ Free Rental Agreement! Hi Safa--Here are the main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to Employee Performance Template | Excel | Pinterest, write about. Then think about what your answer to Voter Registration Form Voter, the question is going to be. 2. Decide what you want your reader to think, do or believe after they read your essay.
That is your thesis (the answer to your question). Performance Review! 3. Decide who you want to persuade to believe this (that is your reader or audience). Think about what that reader already knows and Statements believes about your topic. That will help you develop your arguments. Employee Review Template | Pinterest! The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at 6+ Character Letter Of Recommendation For Scholarship | Appeal least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. Those reasons will be the Review Template, main body part of your essay. Photos Template! 5. Think of examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons. Performance Review Template | Excel | Pinterest! That is what you will use to support those three reasons. 6. What objections will your reader have?
Write those out and also your answers to those objections. This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 5+ Free Rental! 7. For your conclusion think of Performance Review | Excel what good will come if your reader believes you. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the links to sample essays. These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on hubpages. Maybe I should move these up on Extra Payment the page so you can find them more easily. Performance Review | Pinterest! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic. You can also narrow that to particular types of vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the Letter | Appeal, HPV. Another possible argument on this topic is whether or not it is true that vaccines are the Performance Review Template | Pinterest, main reason for better health in 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg people today than in the past.
Is the Employee Performance Template | Excel | Pinterest, right to vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. I think you can do something related to obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for Registration Form Distance Voter your health. Employee | Excel! Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to look at all sides of things and that is great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to just nail down my own point of Review | Pinterest view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon. A great how to Voter Registration Form - Long, for position papers. I have not written one for years, though I have a position on almost everything.
Useful Hub and well done as usual. Employee Review | Pinterest! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Best Of 3d Paper House Template Paper! HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on Employee Performance Review Template | Excel affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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Feature Articles - The Causes of World War One. We'll start with the facts and work back: it may make it all the easier to understand how World War One actually happened. The events of July and early August 1914 are a classic case of one thing led to Performance Review Template | Excel | Pinterest another - otherwise known as the treaty alliance system. The explosive that was World War One had been long in the stockpiling; the spark was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, in Sarajevo on Photos Of 3d Template Printable - Christmas Paper, 28 June 1914. | Excel | Pinterest? (Click here to 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg view film footage of Ferdinand arriving at Sarajevo's Town Hall on 28 June 1914.) Ferdinand's death at the hands of the Black Hand, a Serbian nationalist secret society, set in train a mindlessly mechanical series of events that culminated in the world's first global war. Austria-Hungary's reaction to the death of Review | Pinterest, their heir (who was in any case not greatly beloved by the Emperor, Franz Josef, or his government) was three weeks in Best Photos Paper House Template Printable Paper coming. Arguing that the Serbian government was implicated in Template | Pinterest the machinations of the Black Hand (whether she was or not remains unclear, but it appears unlikely), the Austro-Hungarians opted to take the opportunity to stamp its authority upon Letter, the Serbians, crushing the nationalist movement there and cementing Austria-Hungary's influence in Employee | Excel | Pinterest the Balkans. It did so by Mortgage Calculator Calculators issuing an ultimatum to Serbia which, in the extent of its demand that the assassins be brought to justice effectively nullified Serbia's sovereignty. Sir Edward Grey, the British Foreign Secretary, was moved to comment that he had never before seen one State address to another independent State a document of Employee | Pinterest, so formidable a character. Austria-Hungary's expectation was that Serbia would reject the remarkably severe terms of the ultimatum, thereby giving her a pretext for 6+ Character Letter, launching a limited war against Serbia.
However, Serbia had long had Slavic ties with Russia, an altogether different proposition for Austria-Hungary. Employee Performance | Excel? Whilst not really expecting that Russia would be drawn into 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg, the dispute to any great extent other than through words of diplomatic protest, the Austro-Hungarian government sought assurances from her ally, Germany, that she would come to Performance Template | Excel | Pinterest her aid should the unthinkable happen and Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary. Germany readily agreed, even encouraged Austria-Hungary's warlike stance. Quite why we'll come back to later. So then, we have the following remarkable sequence of events that led inexorably to Template | Printable the 'Great War' - a name that had been touted even before the coming of the conflict.
Austria-Hungary , unsatisfied with Serbia's response to her ultimatum (which in the event was almost entirely placatory: however her jibbing over a couple of minor clauses gave Austria-Hungary her sought-after cue) declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914. Russia , bound by treaty to Serbia, announced mobilisation of its vast army in her defence, a slow process that would take around six weeks to complete. Germany , allied to Austria-Hungary by treaty, viewed the Russian mobilisation as an act of Review | Pinterest, war against Austria-Hungary, and after scant warning declared war on Russia on 1 August. France , bound by treaty to Russia, found itself at war against 5+ Free Agreement Germany and, by extension, on Performance Template | Excel, Austria-Hungary following a German declaration on 3 August. Germany was swift in invading neutral Belgium so as to reach Paris by the shortest possible route. Britain , allied to France by a more loosely worded treaty which placed a moral obligation upon her to defend France, declared war against Germany on 4 August. Verify Statements Them? Her reason for Performance | Pinterest, entering the conflict lay in another direction: she was obligated to Extra Mortgage defend neutral Belgium by Template | Excel the terms of a 75-year old treaty. With Germany's invasion of Belgium on Voter Registration Distance, 4 August, and the Belgian King's appeal to Britain for assistance, Britain committed herself to Employee Performance Review Belgium's defence later that day.
Like France, she was by extension also at war with Austria-Hungary. With Britain's entry into the war, her colonies and dominions abroad variously offered military and financial assistance, and included Australia , Canada, India , New Zealand and the Union of South Africa . 6+ Character Letter For Scholarship | Appeal? United States President Woodrow Wilson declared a U.S. Employee Performance Template? policy of absolute neutrality, an official stance that would last until 1917 when Germany's policy of 6+ Character Of Recommendation | Appeal, unrestricted submarine warfare - which seriously threatened America's commercial shipping (which was in Employee Review | Pinterest any event almost entirely directed towards the Allies led by Voter Britain and France) - forced the U.S. to Employee Performance Review Template | Pinterest finally enter the war on 5+ Free Rental Agreement | Printable, 6 April 1917. Japan , honouring a military agreement with Britain, declared war on Germany on 23 August 1914. Two days later Austria-Hungary responded by declaring war on Japan. Italy , although allied to Performance Template | Excel | Pinterest both Germany and Austria-Hungary, was able to Photos Of 3d Paper House Template Printable - Christmas Paper avoid entering the fray by citing a clause enabling it to evade its obligations to both. In short, Italy was committed to defend Germany and Austria-Hungary only in the event of a 'defensive' war; arguing that their actions were 'offensive' she declared instead a policy of neutrality. The following year, in May 1915, she finally joined the conflict by siding with the Allies against her two former allies.
Click here for more extensive information detailing who entered the war - and when. Such were the mechanics that brought the world's major nations into the war at one time or another. It's clear from the summary above that the alliance system was as much at fault as anything in bringing about the scale of the Employee Review Template | Pinterest conflict. What was intended as a strictly limited war - a brief war - between accuser and accused, Austria-Hungary and Serbia, rapidly escalated into 6+ Character Of Recommendation For Scholarship | Appeal, something that was beyond the expectations of even the most warlike ministers in Berlin (and certainly Vienna, which quickly became alarmed at spiralling events in late July and sought German reassurances). It's possible to delve deeply into European history in the quest to Performance Review unearth the roots of the various alliances that were at play in 1914. Billing Statements Before Them? However, for our purposes it serves to date the origins of the core alliances back to Employee Performance Template | Excel | Pinterest Bismarck's renowned intrigues, as he set about creating a unified Germany from the Payment Mortgage | Mortgage Calculators loose assembly of German confederated states in the 1860s. Bismarck, first Prime Minister of Prussia and then Chancellor of the German Empire (once he had assembled it), set about the construction of Germany through high politics judiciously assisted by Employee Review Template | Excel war against Austria and France. Appointed Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Prussia by Kaiser Wilhelm I in 1862, Bismarck was consumed with a desire to achieve the Letter | Appeal creation of Review | Excel | Pinterest, a German Empire out of the collection of smaller German states largely led by Austria's influence (another German-speaking nation). His first step was to oust Austria as the prime influence among these German states.
He achieved this by engineering war with Austria in 1866 over disputed territory in the duchy of Holstein (much against the wishes of Verify Billing Statements Sending Them | Dentrix, his own Kaiser). The resulting war lasted just seven weeks - hence its common title 'The Seven Weeks War' - and ended with the complete dominance of the supremely efficient Prussian military. In a peace mediated by the French Emperor, Napoleon III, Bismarck extracted from Austria not only Schleswig and Holstein, but also Hanover, Hesse, Nassau and Performance Template | Excel Frankfurt, creating the North German Federation. As importantly, Bismarck had successfully displaced Austria in the spheres of influence over the many small German states. Having assembled a united assembly in the north Bismarck determined to achieve the same in the south - and so unite all of the 5+ Free Rental | Printable German states under the Prussian banner. How to achieve this? Bismarck resolved that war with the French, a common enemy, would attain his aims. First, he needed to engineer a credible reason for war. Thus, in 1870, Bismarck attempted to place a Hohenzollern prince on the throne in Performance Review | Pinterest Spain. Napoleon III, fearful of the prospect of theoretical war on two fronts - for the Hohenzollern prince was a relative of Kaiser Wilhelm I - objected.
Bismarck turned up the diplomatic heat by releasing, on 14 July 1870, a doctored version of a telegram ostensibly from the Kaiser to Rental Template | Printable Receipt Bismarck himself, called the Ems Telegram. The effect of the telegram was to simultaneously insult both France and Employee Performance Template | Pinterest Prussia over their inability to resolve the Verify Billing Statements dispute over the Spanish throne. Napoleon III, facing civil revolt at Template | Excel home over quite unrelated matters, and receiving encouraging noises from his military commanders, responded by declaring war against Prussia five days later, on 19 July 1870. Once again, as was the case against Austria, the Best Photos Of 3d Paper House Template - Christmas Paper Prussian military machine demolished the Performance Review French forces. Napoleon III, who personally led his forces at the lost Battle of Sedan, surrendered and was deposed in the civil war that boiled over in 5+ Free Agreement | Printable Receipt France, resulting in the Third French Republic. Meantime the Prussian forces laid siege to Review Template | Excel | Pinterest Paris between September 1870 and Of 3d Paper House Template - Christmas Paper January 1871, starving the city into surrender. The consequences of the war were numerous. Employee Performance? Aside from the usual territorial gains - France ceded both Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia and was forced to pay swingeing reparations (equivalent to Extra Mortgage Calculator Calculators around $1 billion today) - the southern German states agreed to an alliance with their northern counterparts, resulting in Employee the creation of Bismarck's cherished German Empire. Bismarck's creation of a unified Germany was of direct relevance to the outbreak of war some 43 years later, since it resulted in 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg the assembly of the Performance | Pinterest key alliances that later came into play. For, having achieved his life's aim, Bismarck's expansionary plans were at an end. 6+ Character Letter Of Recommendation? He had secured what he wanted, and his chief desire now was to maintain its stability.
He therefore set about building European alliances aimed at protecting Germany from potentially threatening quarters. He was acutely aware that the French were itching to revenge their defeat at the earliest opportunity - and the loss of Employee | Pinterest, Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia would prove to | Mortgage be a lasting sore. Indeed, the French plan for Review Template, war in Extra Calculator | Mortgage Calculators 1914, Plan XVII, was largely based around the recapture of Alsace and Lorraine in the shortest possible time - with disastrous consequences. Bismarck did not initially fear an alliance between France and Britain, for the latter was at that time in the midst of a self-declared 1870s policy of splendid isolation, choosing to stay above continental European politics. If not Britain then, how about Russia and, conceivably, beaten foe Austria-Hungary? The Three Emperors League Dual Alliance. He began by negotiating, in 1873, the Employee Performance Template | Excel | Pinterest Three Emperors League, which tied Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia to each other's aid in Letter Of Recommendation For Scholarship | Appeal time of Employee Performance Review Template | Excel, war. This however only lasted until Russia's withdrawal five years later in 1878, leaving Bismarck with a new Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary in 1879. This latter treaty promised aid to each other in the event of an attack by Russia, or if Russia aided another power at war with either Germany or Austria-Hungary. Should either nation be attacked by another power, e.g.
France, they were to remain - at the very least - benevolently neutral. This alliance, unlike others, endured until war in 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg 1914. It was this clause that Austria-Hungary invoked in calling Germany to her aid against Russian support for Employee Performance | Excel, Serbia (who in Of Recommendation | Appeal turn was protected by treaty with Russia). Two years after Germany and Austria-Hungary concluded their agreement, Italy was brought into Performance | Pinterest, the fold with the signing of the Triple Alliance in 1881. Under the provisions of this treaty, Germany and Verify Statements Before | Dentrix Austria-Hungary promised to assist Italy if she were attacked by France, and vice versa: Italy was bound to Employee Performance Template | Pinterest lend aid to Germany or Austria-Hungary if France declared war against either. Additionally, should any signatory find itself at 6+ Character Of Recommendation For Scholarship war with two powers (or more), the Performance Review Template | Pinterest other two were to provide military assistance.
Finally, should any of the three determine to launch a 'preventative' war (a euphemism if ever there was one), the Letter Of Recommendation others would remain neutral. One of the chief aims of the Triple Alliance was to prevent Italy from declaring war against Austria-Hungary, towards whom the Review | Excel | Pinterest Italians were in dispute over territorial matters. In the event the Triple Alliance was essentially meaningless, for Italy subsequently negotiated a secret treaty with France, under which Italy would remain neutral should Germany attack France - which in the event transpired. In 1914 Italy declared that Germany's war against France was an 'aggressive' one and so entitled Italy to claim neutrality. 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg? A year later, in 1915, Italy did enter the Employee Review Template | Excel First World War, as an ally of Britain, France and Russia.
Austria-Hungary signed an alliance with Romania in 1883, negotiated by Germany, although in the event Romania - after starting World War One as a neutral - eventually joined in Letter Of Recommendation For Scholarship with the Allies; as such Austria-Hungary's treaty with Romania was of no actual significance. Potentially of greater importance - although it was allowed to Performance | Pinterest lapse three years after its signature - Bismarck, in 1887, agreed to a so-called Reinsurance Treaty with Russia. This document stated that both powers would remain neutral if either were involved in a war with a third (be it offensive or defensive). However, should that third power transpire to be France, Russia would not be obliged to provide assistance to Germany (as was the case of Germany if Russia found itself at war with Austria-Hungary). Bismarck's intention was to avoid the possibility of a two-front war against both France and Russia.
A decidedly tangled mesh of alliances; but the Russian Tsar, Nicholas II, allowed the Reinsurance Treaty to Verify Billing Before Sending Them | Dentrix lapse in Review Template | Excel 1890 (the same year the new German Kaiser, Wilhelm II, brought about the dismissal of his veteran Chancellor, Bismarck). The year after the Reinsurance Treaty lapsed Russia allied itself with France. Both powers agreed to consult with the other should either find itself at war with any other nation, or if indeed the Of 3d Paper stability of Template | Excel, Europe was threatened. This rather loosely worded agreement was solidified in 1892 with the Franco-Russian Military Convention, aimed specifically at counteracting the potential threat posed by the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. In short, should France or Russia be attacked by Extra Payment Mortgage one of the Triple Alliance signatories - or even should a Triple Alliance power mobilise against Employee Performance Template | Excel either (where to mobilise meant simply placing a nation on - Long Distance, a war footing preparatory to the declaration of Employee | Excel | Pinterest, hostilities), the Montana Voter Voter other power would provide military assistance. British Emergence From Splendid Isolation. Meanwhile, Britain was awaking to the emergence of Employee Review | Excel, Germany as a great European power - and Montana Voter Registration Form - Long a colonial power at that.
Kaiser Wilhelm's successor, Wilhelm II, proved far more ambitious in | Excel | Pinterest establishing a place in the sun for Germany. With the effective dismissal of Bismarck the new Kaiser was determined to 5+ Free Rental Agreement establish Germany as a great colonial power in the pacific and, most notably, in Africa. Wilhelm, encouraged by naval minister Tirpitz, embarked upon a massive shipbuilding exercise intended to produce a naval fleet the equal of Britain's, unarguably by Review Template | Excel far and away the 6+ Character Of Recommendation For Scholarship | Appeal world's largest. Britain, at that time the greatest power of all, took note. In the early years of the twentieth century, in 1902, she agreed a military alliance with Japan, aimed squarely at limiting German colonial gains in Performance Review Template | Excel the east.
She also responded by commissioning a build-up in her own naval strength, determined to outstrip Germany. In this she succeeded, building in just 14 months - a record - the enormous Dreadnought battleship, completed in December 1906. By the time war was declared in 1914 Germany could muster 29 battleships, Britain 49. Despite her success in the naval race, Germany's ambitions succeeded at the very least in pulling Britain into the European alliance system - and, it has been argued, brought war that much closer. Cordial Agreements: Britain, France - and Russia. Two years later Britain signed the Entente Cordiale with France. This 1904 agreement finally resolved numerous leftover colonial squabbles. More significantly, although it did not commit either to the other's military aid in time of war, it did offer closer diplomatic co-operation generally. Three years on, in 1907, Russia formed what became known as the Triple Entente (which lasted until World War One) by signing an agreement with Britain, the Anglo-Russian Entente. Together the two agreements formed the three-fold alliance that lasted and effectively bound each to the other right up till the outbreak of world war just seven years later. Again, although the two Entente agreements were not militarily binding in any way, they did place a moral obligation upon the signatories to aid each other in time of Montana Registration Form - Long Distance Voter, war.
It was chiefly this moral obligation that drew Britain into the war in defence of France, although the Performance Review | Excel | Pinterest British pretext was actually the terms of the largely forgotten 1839 Treaty of Of Recommendation For Scholarship | Appeal, London that committed the Performance Review Template | Pinterest British to defend Belgian neutrality (discarded by the Germans as a scrap of paper in 1914, when they asked Britain to ignore it). In 1912 Britain and France did however conclude a military agreement, the Anglo-French Naval Convention, which promised British protection of France's coastline from German naval attack, and French defence of the Suez Canal. Agreements Set, The Occasional Minor War. Such were the alliances between the major continental players. There were other, smaller alliances too - such as Russia's pledge to protect Serbia, and Britain's agreement to defend Belgian neutrality - and each served its part in 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg drawing each nation into the coming great war. In the Employee Template interim however, there were a number of 'minor' conflicts that helped to stir emotions in the years immediately preceding 1914, and which gave certain nations more stake than others in entering the world war. Russian War With Japan: Shock Japanese Victory. Ever since Russia declined Japan's offer in 1903 for | Dentrix, each to recognise the other's interests in Manchuria and | Excel | Pinterest Korea, trouble was looming.
The Japanese launched a successful attack upon Extra Payment Calculators, Russian warships in Performance | Pinterest Korea, at Inchon, and in Port Arthur, China. This was followed by a land invasion of both disputed territories of 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg, Korea and Manchuria in 1904. Among other set-pieces, the Japanese astonished the western powers by Review Template destroying the entire Russian fleet at Registration Form Distance Voter the Battle of Tsushima (27-28 May 1905) for the loss of Employee Performance Template | Pinterest, two torpedo boats - a humiliating Russian defeat. The U.S. President, Theodore Roosevelt, mediated a peace agreement between Japan and Russia, one that resulted in material gains for Japan and with note being taken in Berlin of the For Scholarship fallacy of the myth of Russian invincibility. The scale of Russia's defeat in part contributed to the attempted Russian Revolution of 1905, and the battered and shaken Tsar, Nicholas II, was determined to restore Russian prestige (not least in the Romanov dynasty itself): and Employee Review | Excel what better way to achieve this than through military conquest? The Balkans, 1912: Italy Versus Turkey. Strife in the Balkans was nothing new. Montana Form? In 1912 it continued with war between Italy and Turkey, over the latter's African possessions.
Turkey lost and was forced to hand over Libya, Rhodes and the Dodecanese Islands to the Italians. The Balkans, 1912 (Part II): The First Balkan War. Turkey's troubles were not yet over. Having concluded peace with the Italians it found itself engulfed in war with no fewer than four small nations over the possession of Employee Review Template | Excel, Balkan territories: Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria - and later Montenegro. The intervention of the larger European powers brought about an Extra Calculator | Mortgage, end to this the First Balkan War of Employee Template | Pinterest, 1912-13. Again Turkey lost out, shedding Crete and all of its European possessions.
The Balkans, 1913: The Second Balkan War. Later in the 1913, conflict erupted again in Registration Form - Long Distance Voter the Balkans, as Bulgaria, unsatisfied with its earlier spoils, fought with its recent allies in an attempt to control a greater part of Macedonia; and Performance | Excel when the so-named Young Turks - Turkish army officers - denounced the earlier peace as unfair. Between May and July 1913 Bulgaria's former allies beat back the new aggressor, Bulgaria, and Montana Voter Registration - Long Voter Romania captured the Review Bulgarian capital Sofia in August. Beaten and having surrendered on 10 August 1913, Bulgaria also lost Adrianople back to Turkey. Despite the re-establishment of peace in | Printable Receipt the Balkans, nothing had really been settled and tensions remained high. The numerous small nations that had found themselves under Turkish or Austro-Hungarian rule for many years stirred themselves in Template nationalistic fervour. Yet while these Balkan nations sought their own individual voice and Best House Template Printable - Christmas self-determination, they were nevertheless united in identifying themselves as pan-Slavic peoples, with Russia as their chief ally. The latter was keen to encourage this belief in Performance Review | Pinterest the Russian people as the Slav's natural protectors, for aside from a genuine emotional attachment, it was a means by which Russia could regain a degree of lost prestige. Come 1914, trouble was not restricted to the smaller nations outlined above.
The Austro-Hungarian empire was directly impacted by troubles in the Balkans and, under the ageing Emperor Franz Josef, was patently struggling to maintain coherence of the various diametrically opposed ethnic groups which fell under the Austro-Hungarian umbrella. As such, the assassination of Franz Ferdinand by the Serbian nationalist secret society, the Black Hand, provided the Rental Agreement Austro-Hungarian government with a golden opportunity to stamp its authority over the region. Russia, ally of the Slavs - and therefore of Serbia - had been struggling to hold back full-scale revolution ever since the Japanese military disaster of 1905. In 1914, while the Employee Performance | Pinterest Tsar himself was reluctant, his government saw war with Austria-Hungary as an opportunity to restore social order - which indeed it did, at least until the continuation of repeated Russian military setbacks, Rasputin's intrigue at court and food shortages combined to 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg bring about the long-threatened total revolution (which, encouraged by Germany, brought about Review | Pinterest, Russia's withdrawal from the war in 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg 1917). Then there is France. Almost immediately following her defeat by Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, together with the humiliating annexation by the newly unified Germany of the coal-rich territories of Employee Performance Review Template | Excel, Alsace and Lorraine, the French government and military alike were united in thirsting for 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg, revenge. To this end the French devised a strategy for a vengeful war upon Employee Performance Review Template | Pinterest, Germany, Plan XVII, whose chief aim was the defeat of Germany and the restoration of Alsace and 5+ Free Agreement | Printable Lorraine. The plan was fatally flawed, and relied to an untenable extent upon the lan which was believed to form an integral part of the French army - an irresistible force that would sweep over its enemies. As for Germany, she was unsettled socially and militarily.
The 1912 Reichstag elections had resulted in the election of no fewer than 110 socialist deputies, making Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg's task in liaising between the Employee Review | Pinterest Reichstag and the autocratic Wilhelm, not to mention the rigidly right-wing military high command, next to impossible. Bethmann Hollweg, who became most despondent, came to believe that Germany's only hope of avoiding civil unrest sooner rather than later lay in war: preferably a short, sharp war, although he did not rule out a European-wide conflict if it resolved Germany's social and political woes. This outlook on life fuelled his decision of Billing Before | Dentrix, 6 July 1914 - whilst the Austro-Hungarian government was weighing its options with regard to Serbia - to offer the former what has been commonly referred to as a blank cheque; that is, an unconditional guarantee of support for Austria-Hungary no matter what she decided. Germany's military unsettlement arose in the sense that Kaiser Wilhelm II was finding himself largely frustrated in Performance Template | Excel | Pinterest his desire to carve out a grand imperial role for Germany. 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg? Whilst he desired a place in the sun, he found that all of the bright areas had been already snapped up by Employee Performance Template the other colonial powers, leaving him only with a place in the shade. Not that Wilhelm II was keen upon a grand war. Rather, he failed to foresee the Agreement | Printable Receipt consequences of his military posturing, his determination to construct both land and naval forces the Employee Performance Template equivalent - and better - than those of Britain and France (with varying success). However his government and his military commanders assuredly did anticipate what was to come. 6+ Character | Appeal? A plan to Employee Review | Excel | Pinterest take on both Russia and France, a war on two fronts, had long been expected and taken into account. The so-called Schlieffen Plan, devised by former Army Chief of Staff Alfred von Schlieffen, had been carefully crafted to deal with a two-front war scenario. | Printable Receipt? The plan, which very nearly succeeded, outlined a plan to conquer France, to knock her out of the war, on a 'Western Front', within five weeks - before, the Germans calculated, Russia could effectively mobilise for war on the 'Eastern Front' (which they estimated would take six weeks).
It is often speculated - and argued - that the plan would have succeeded but for the decision of the then-German Chief of Staff in Performance Template 1914, Helmuth von Moltke, to authorise a critical deviation from the plan that, it is believed, stemmed from a lack of nerve, and crucially slowed the path towards Paris - with fatal consequences (and which ended in static trench warfare). Still, the German plan took no real account of Britain's entry into the war. The German government gave no credence to the possibility that Britain would ignore her own commercial interests (which were presumably best served by staying aloof from the conflict and maintaining her all-important commercial trading routes), and would instead uphold her ancient treaty of obligation to Extra Calculator | Mortgage recover violated Belgian neutrality. For a fuller explanation of the powers' war plans, and of their upshot, click here. It is also suggested that Germany would have backed away from war had Britain declared her intentions sooner. Performance Review Template | Excel | Pinterest? Believing that Britain would stay out of the coming conflict, and would limit herself to diplomatic protests - after all, Britain was under no strict military obligation to France - Germany, and Austria-Hungary, proceeded under the belief that war would be fought solely with France and Billing Before Sending | Dentrix Russia. The British Government, and its Foreign Minister, Sir Edward Grey, attempted to mediate throughout July, reserving at all times its right to Employee Review Template | Pinterest remain aloof from the dispute. It was only as the war began that the Extra | Mortgage British position solidified into support for, ostensibly, Belgium. Hence the oft-levelled criticism that had Britain come out clearly on the side of Belgium and France earlier in July, war would have been avoided: Germany would have effectively instructed Austria-Hungary to settle with Serbia, especially given the Employee Performance Template | Excel latter's willingness to co-operate with Austria-Hungary.
Whether this would have transpired given the German war machine's determination for Before | Dentrix, war is Review | Excel, of course unknown. The First World War has sometimes been labelled, with reason, a family affair. This is derived from the reality that many of the European monarchies - many of Of Recommendation, which fell during the war (including those of Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary) - were inter-related. The British monarch George V's predecessor, Edward VII, was the Employee Performance | Pinterest German Kaiser's uncle and, via his wife's sister, uncle of the Russian Tsar as well. His niece, Alexandra, was the For Scholarship | Appeal Tsar's wife. Edward's daughter, Maud, was the Norwegian Queen, and his niece, Ena, Queen of Spain; Marie, a further niece, was to become Queen of Romania. Despite these familial relations - nine Kings attended Edward's funeral - European politics was all about power and influence, of Employee Review Template | Excel | Pinterest, protection and encirclement. Thus the tangled web of Montana - Long Distance, alliances which sprung up in the wake of the Employee Performance Review rise of the newly united German Empire in 1871. This article has not by any means encompassed all of the Printable - Christmas Paper suggested contributory factors that led inexorably to world war. It has however attempted to pull together the main strands: Austro-Hungarian determination to impose its will upon the Balkans; a German desire for greater power and international influence, which sparked a naval arms race with Britain, who responded by building new and greater warships, the Dreadnought ; a French desire for Performance Review Template | Pinterest, revenge against Germany following disastrous defeat in 1871; Russia's anxiety to restore some semblance of national prestige after almost a decade of civil strife and a battering at the hands of the Japanese military in 1905. Having dealt with these topics, however briefly, feel free to further explore the First World War.com site to gain a wider perspective of what happened, when, and to whom.
The How It Began section is probably as good a place as any to start. Click here to view a map of pre-war Europe. Saturday, 22 August, 2009 Michael Duffy. Suicide Ditch was a term used by British soldiers to refer to the front-line trench.
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Custom Blink by Employee Performance Review | Excel, M Gladwell essay paper writing service. In the age of organizational complexity, managers need to develop unique thinking abilities and decision making talents, in order to catch up with the changeable demands of business reality. More and more professionals develop recommendations to improve managers’ decision making skills. This paper provides a brief report on Malcolm Gladwell’s Blink: The Power of 5+ Free Rental Agreement Template | Printable Thinking without Thinking. The paper discusses possible reasons for writing the book, its main themes and tasks, its strengths and weaknesses, as well as possible implications for managers. Blink by M. Gladwell. Rapid changes in business and market environments place new demands on managers.
Contemporary managers must think fast and act fast, in order to be a step ahead of their competitors. Only the most creative, innovative and decisive will have a chance to succeed in the era of business complexity, and it comes as no surprise that more and more professionals publish their recommendations to improve managers’ decision making skills. Malcolm Gladwell’s Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking is a bright example of the so-called “easy-to-read” textbook on how to develop and improve thinking and decision making abilities. Gladwell tries to Template | Pinterest, expand the Best Photos, boundaries of Employee Review | Excel human imagination and prove that even unique human talents can be learned and taught. Unfortunately, much of what Gladwell writes in his book lacks empirical support and requires further scientific validation; for this reason, Gladwell’s recommendations can hardly become a foundation for developing practical decision making strategies for managers. Malcolm Gladwell’s book is titled Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking. The book was first published in 2005.
The author does not share his reasons for writing the book, but it seems that the book is an attempt to close the existing gap in literature and expand the boundaries of managerial decision making in contemporary organizations. Gladwell (2005) begins his book with a story of the J. Paul Getty Museum in California and the statue of a Greek kouros that stirred huge controversy among art professionals, scholars and critics. 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg! Despite the abundance of scientific evidence supporting the Employee Performance Template | Pinterest, authenticity of the statue, the prevailing majority of outside experts felt that something was wrong with it. 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg! Some experts called it uniquely ‘fresh’, whereas others claimed that the Performance Review Template, statue looked as if it had been dipped in the very best Starbucks’s caffe latte (Gladwell, 2005). Gladwell (2005) describes experts’ reactions as a moment of revelation, an intuition that blinks, and an impression that falls on 5+ Free Rental Template | Printable Receipt them out of the blue and has no rational explanation. Yet, everything has its explanation. It would be fair to assume that the reason why Gladwell (2005) writes his book is because he wants everyone to know that this professional intuition is Employee | Excel | Pinterest called the “adaptive unconscious”, and it can be taught and used by managers to meet their professional and organizational goals. This “adaptive unconscious” is the central thread of Gladwell’s (2005) story and the theme around which all events, tales and 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg, anecdotes in Gladwell’s book actually revolve. The author investigates the numerous sides of human consciousness and unconsciousness and tries to prove that the “adaptive unconscious” carries an Employee Review | Pinterest, unprecedented decision making potential.
According to Gladwell (2005), the adaptive unconscious is not to be confused with the unconscious described by Sigmund Freud, which has a dark and murky place filled with desires and memories  this new notion of the adaptive unconscious is  a kind of giant computer that quickly and quietly processes a lot of the data we need in order to keep functioning as human beings. (p.11) Every day during their lives, humans experience moments when, the faster they think the more likely they are to escape troubles. These are the Best Photos Paper House Printable - Christmas Paper, moments when, according to Gladwell (2005), there is no time to gather and process evidence. These are the moments when decisions should be made quickly. Gladwell (2005) is convinced that, without the “adaptive unconscious”, humans would have never survived as a species. This “adaptive unconscious” is a kind of higher-level thinking, an Review Template, auto-pilot of consciousness and cognition that does not require any input from humans (Gladwell, 2005). According to Gladwell (2005), the whole world judges the quality of Billing Sending Them decisions, based on the time and effort spent on investigating the alternatives. Yet, the “adaptive unconscious” has the potential to speed up decision making processes and become the source of the most relevant decisions, when there is Performance Review Template | Excel | Pinterest no space for thinking. Gladwell’s (2005) book is intended to fulfill three important tasks. First, Gladwell (2005) tries to convince the public that decisions made quickly and immediately can be as good as those made cautiously and deliberately.
However, not all human instincts are inherently good, as they often have to 5+ Free Rental | Printable Receipt, compete with other emotions, interests, and sentiments. For this reason, the Employee Review Template, second task of the book is to teach the reader how and when to trust their instincts and when to be wary of them (Gladwell, 2005). The author believes that it is possible to Verify Statements Sending, learn when to trust the “adaptive unconscious” computer and when to avoid its instinctive recommendations. The third, and most important, task of Gladwell’s (2005) book is to prove that the “adaptive unconscious” is Template | Excel a skill that can be learned, taught, educated, managed and controlled. Gladwell (2005) claims that as humans are able to develop better decision making capabilities, they can also teach themselves to make better snap judgments. Whether or not Gladwell (2005) succeeds in Extra Calculator | Mortgage this mission will become clear by Performance, the end of the book.
As of now, the author makes a very promising beginning and implies that the book may have far-reaching implications for managers. What Gladwell (2005) writes in 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg his book holds a promise to teach managers to make better use of their abilities and talents. Basically, Gladwell (2005) implies that the “adaptive unconscious” can teach managers to Employee Performance | Excel, find patterns in behaviors and situations, based on extremely narrow slices of evidence, experiences and Calculator | Mortgage, impressions. Performance | Excel! Simply stated, Gladwell’s (2005) book can become a guide for Paper Printable - Christmas Paper managers who want to learn how to make fast but reasonable decisions. This is also what Gladwell (2005) calls “thin-slicing” a unique ability to make fast decisions in a short time. However, not all decisions are good by nature. At times, the chain of thinking is interrupted by impressions and feelings that have nothing to do with rationality (Gladwell, 2005). Review | Excel! Gladwell (2005) promises to teach readers to Billing Statements Before Sending, deal with their experiences in Template ways that distinguish rationality from prejudice and bias in the most controversial situations. For example, managers need to take fast decisions when they try to pick up the best candidates for a job. Gladwell (2005) claims that, in Best Photos House Template Printable - Christmas these situations, the first impression can be equally beneficial and Review Template | Pinterest, damaging for business.
Gladwell (2005) writes that prejudice and bias represent the Mortgage Calculators, dark side of the “adaptive unconscious”, and Performance | Excel, his book can teach managers to make a difference. Letter | Appeal! Bearing in mind the importance of human resource decisions in organizations, these skills and abilities can eventually lead managers to become perfect leaders, perfect followers, and perfect human resource specialists. With the help of the “adaptive unconscious”, managers can avoid the unconscious bias affecting employee selection decisions and sustain perfect relations with customers (Gladwell, 2005). All these things are possible if managers learn to change and regulate their first impressions. They can do it, by altering the way they thin-slice their experiences and changing the scope of experiences comprising these impressions (Gladwell, 2005). Gladwell (2005) assumes that rapid cognition has an enormous decision making power, both for good and bad, and it is imperative that managers take active steps to Review, regulate and control their impressions. Again, whether or not the book can become a real source of knowledge and learning for managers will be discussed later. At this point of analysis, the book is Verify Billing Before Sending Them filled with interesting stories and anecdotes, whose main intention is to confirm the validity of Gladwell’s adaptive unconscious assumptions and teach managers to manage their cognitive and emotional resources more wisely.
One of the Template | Excel, most interesting aspects of the book is in the way Gladwell (2005) describes the “adaptive unconscious” experiences. It seems that the “adaptive unconscious” phenomenon transcends all aspects of human activity. Gladwell (2005) describes managers, architects, art experts and doctors, and the “adaptive unconscious” seems to be affecting the prevailing majority of routine decisions and Extra Calculator Calculators, acts. Employee Review! Even more surprising is the fact that Malcolm Gladwell, a professional journalist with no psychological education or background, tries to discuss the subject that requires a deep psychological insight. This is also one of the major strengths and Statements Before Sending Them, weaknesses of Employee Performance | Excel | Pinterest Gladwell’s book. On the one hand, the lack of psychological education reduces the risks of professional bias and enables the Receipt, writer to present his findings in Performance | Excel an easy-to-read format. Extra Mortgage | Mortgage! On the other hand, with no degree in Employee Performance | Pinterest psychology, Gladwell (2005) cannot grasp the Best Of 3d Paper Template Printable, complexity of the emotional, cognitive and unconscious processes in the human brain. Gladwell’s (2005) book is unique in the sense that it expands the Employee Review Template | Pinterest, boundaries of managerial thinking and motivates managers to achieve new decision making frontiers.
Gladwell (2005) discovers a new side of managerial thinking that has been obscured from the nonprofessional public. The knowledge provided by Gladwell (2005) can lay the Montana Registration Form Voter, groundwork for the creation and implementation of new “adaptive unconscious” models. Unfortunately, Gladwell’s (2005) book is only potentially useful for managers. Potentiality is the Performance Review | Excel, key source of criticism in Gladwell’s Blink. Reasons why the book is only potentially useful for managers are numerous and diverse. To begin with, the Voter Registration Form Distance Voter, absence of Employee Template | Pinterest theoretical and empirical support is the main weakness of Gladwell’s book. Included in his argument are numerous situations, cases, experiments and examples, which lack solid theoretical and 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg, empirical support. Certainly, it is Employee Performance Review Template | Pinterest possible to say that the 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg, current state of Employee | Excel | Pinterest research into the “adaptive unconscious” is still in its infancy, and no theories of the “adaptive unconscious” have been devised so far.
However, the abundant examples in Photos Of 3d Template Printable Paper Gladwell’s book suggest that the theoretical point is still missing. As a result, and with no theoretical systematization, these examples and cases are nothing but a sequence of anecdotes that fail to create a developed plot. Another major weakness of Gladwell’s book is in the radical statements and assumptions made by Performance Review | Pinterest, the author. At the beginning and in the middle of his book, Gladwell (2005) discusses the main implications of the “adaptive unconscious” for medical practice. From what Gladwell (2005) writes, medical professionals no longer need to ground their decisions on Verify Billing Statements Sending Them | Dentrix the evidence coming from numerous blood counts, ECG, and other investigations. Gladwell (2005) claims that snap judgments can suffice to produce relevant diagnoses.
The tragic consequences of snap judgments in medicine are not difficult to predict; therefore, much of what Gladwell (2005) recommends in his book should be taken with caution. Apparently, the book is more flawed than flawless and more challenging than useful. As a talented journalist, Gladwell (2005) was able to produce a piece of writing that is Employee Performance Review Template | Excel | Pinterest wordy but refined in its language, but language and wordiness alone cannot make the book useful for readers. Gladwell (2005) shows that snap judgments can be as good as the decisions taken slowly and deliberately, but he fails to teach the reader how to make snap judgments work in real-world situations. Rental Agreement Template! Gladwell (2005) fails to teach the reader how to | Pinterest, deal with the dark side of the Best Of 3d Template Printable Paper, “adaptive unconscious” and to distinguish positive instincts from negative ones. Performance Review | Excel | Pinterest! Gladwell’s book (2005) is merely a suggestion that something in this world can improve the quality of organizational decisions and enhance managers’ ability to make fast and correct judgments. Yet, again, this is merely a suggestion that requires further analysis and validation. Despite these weaknesses, I would recommend the book to the rest of the current and future managers.
The book can help them to discover how and why they make snap judgments and Extra Payment Mortgage Calculators, why these judgments lead to the desired or undesired results. For many readers, the book can become a worthy object of pleasant reading and a unique way to Employee Performance Review | Pinterest, look behind the human unconscious. Simultaneously, taking it seriously is the biggest mistake the reader can make when faced with Gladwell’s Blink. 6+ Character Of Recommendation! Intuition and snap judgments are not as good as Gladwell (2005) tries to show. Love at first sight can have tragic consequences for marriage. More serious are the consequences of intuitive decisions in multinational business, politics and international relations. Contrary to Employee Template, what Gladwell (2005) tries to say, taking deliberate decisions based on evidence and thorough analysis is still a preferable option for many managers. In the world of rational decisions and information availability, blaming intuition for the major strategic failures is a nuisance, as well as the sign of unprofessionalism. When everything is becoming interconnected, even the slightest interruption with the 6+ Character Letter Of Recommendation For Scholarship, “adaptive unconscious” processes can cause a domino effect, a chain reaction leading to irreversible consequences for hundreds and thousands of people. Thus, think twice before you take a snap judgment that can potentially affect the future of your business. The book is structured as follows:
Introduction: The statute that didn’t look right. Chapter One: The theory of thin slices: How a little bit of knowledge goes a long way. Chapter Two: The locked door: The secret life of Employee Performance Template snap decisions. Chapter Three: The Warren Harding error: Why we fall for tall, dark, and handsome men. Chapter Four: Paul van Viper’s big victory: Creating structure for Rental Template | Printable Receipt spontaneity. Review Template | Excel | Pinterest! Chapter Five: Kenna’s dilemma: The right and wrong way to ask people what they want. Chapter Six: Seven seconds in the Bronx: The delicate art of mind reading.
Conclusion: Listening with your eyes: The lessons of Of Recommendation For Scholarship Blink. Afterword. Gladwell’s Blink was called an outstanding parade of anecdotes and scientific research. Employee Review Template | Pinterest! However, the latter seems to be the biggest problem of Gladwell’s book. With so many stories and anecdotes, scientific research is Rental Agreement Template | Printable pushed to the background of the author’s unconscious realities. By the end of the book, many readers may find themselves tired of Performance | Excel numerous stories, impressions and situations that are too abundant to be useful.
Simultaneously, Gladwell’s contribution to understanding human cognitive and decision making processes should not be disregarded. 09192012-Comparison-Chart_tcm23-157286_tcm23-158049.jpg! Blink implies that snap judgments have the potential to speed up organizational decision making and expand the cognitive boundaries of organizational growth. Yet, years may pass before snap judgments become a rational supplement to the existing decision making models used by managers to advance themselves and their organizations.