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But when enemies differ greatly because of different religious beliefs, race, or language, and as such they see each other as “less than human”, war conventions are rarely applied. It is only when the enemy is Cover For I 751 Resume Cv Cover General, seen to be a people, sharing a moral identity with whom one will do business in the following peace, that tacit or explicit rules are formed for how wars should be fought and who they should involve and what kind of relations should apply in the aftermath of war. In part, the motivation for forming or agreeing to Canada Commercial Lease Forms | Legal, certain conventions, can be seen as mutually benefiting—preferable, for instance, to the deployment of any underhand tactics or weapons that may provoke an Desktop Personal Account Ledger For Access 2013 indefinite series of vengeance acts, or the kinds of action that have proved to be detrimental to the political or moral interests to both sides in the past. Regardless of the conventions that have historically formed, it has been the Commercial Lease Forms | Legal concern of the majority of just war theorists that the lack of rules to war or any asymmetrical morality between belligerents should be denounced, and | Resume And Resume, that the rules of war should apply to all equally. That is, just war theory should be universal, binding on all and capable in Canada Commercial Lease Forms | Legal And Business Templates, turn of appraising the actions of all parties over and above any historically formed conventions.
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Robinson (2006) notes that honor conventions are also contextually slippery, giving way to Thank | Pay Stub, pragmatic or military interest when required. Canada Lease Forms | Legal Forms And Business. Whereas the specifics of what is honorable differ with time and place, the very fact that one moral virtue is alluded to in the Tips To Writing A Standout - Story great literature (for example, Homer’s Iliad ) is sufficient for us to Canada Lease Forms Forms And Business Templates, note that warfare has been infused with some moral concerns from the Cover Letter For Resume And Resume Maker beginning rather than war being a mere Macbethian bloodbath. The just war theory also has a long history. Parts of the Bible hint at ethical behavior in war and concepts of just cause, typically announcing the justice of war by divine intervention; the Greeks may have paid lip service to Canada Commercial Forms And Business Templates, the gods, but, as with the Romans, practical and political issues tended to overwhelm any fledgling legal conventions: that is, interests of state or Realpolitik (the theory known as political realism would take precedence in declaring and waging war. Nonetheless, this has also been the reading of 12+ Sample Business Thank, political realists, who enjoy Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War as an example of why war is necessarily the extension of politics and hence permeated by hard-nosed state interest rather than “lofty” pretensions to moral behavior. Although St. Augustine provided comments on Lease Forms Forms And Business Templates the morality of war from the Christian perspective (railing against the love of violence that war can engender) as did several Arabic commentators in the intellectual flourishing from the 9th to 12th centuries, but the most systematic exposition in the Western tradition and one that still attracts attention was outlined by Saint Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century. In the Summa Theologicae , Aquinas presents the 30 Beautiful Examples Of Inviting Brochures general outline of what becomes the traditional just war theory as discussed in modern universities. He discusses not only the justification of war but also the kinds of Commercial Lease And Business Templates, activity that are permissible (for a Christian) in war (see below).
Aquinas's thoughts become the model for later Scholastics and Jurists to expand and to 30 Beautiful Examples Of Inviting Brochures, gradually to universalize beyond Christendom – notably, for instance, in relations with the peoples of Commercial And Business, America following European incursions into 12+ Sample | Pay Template, the continent. The most important of these writers are: Francisco de Vitoria (1486-1546), Francisco Suarez (1548-1617), Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), Samuel Pufendorf (1632-1704), Christian Wolff (1679-1754), and Emerich de Vattel (1714-1767). In the twentieth century, just war theory has undergone a revival mainly in response to Canada Commercial Forms Forms And Business Templates, the invention of nuclear weaponry and American involvement in the Vietnam war. The most important contemporary texts include Michael Walzer's Just and | Pay Stub, Unjust Wars (1977), Barrie Paskins and Canada Commercial | Legal And Business, Michael Dockrill The Ethics of War (1979), Richard Norman Ethics, Killing, and Format | Resume And Resume Maker, War (1995), Brian Orend War and International Justice (2001) and Michael Walzer on Forms War and Justice (2001), as well as seminal articles by Thomas Nagel War and Massacre, Elizabeth Anscombe War and Murder, and a host of others, commonly found in the journals Ethics or The Journal of Philosophy and Public Affairs . Since the terrorist attacks on Desktop Account Template 2013 the USA on Canada Commercial Lease Forms 9/11 in 2001, academics have turned their attention to just war once again with international, national, academic, and military conferences developing and consolidating the theoretical aspects of the conventions. Just war theory has become a popular topic in Microsoft Vulnerability Allowed Exploit Multiple, International Relations, Political Science, Philosophy, Ethics, and Canada Lease And Business Templates, Military History courses. Conference proceedings are regularly published, offering readers a breadth of issues that the topic stirs: for example, Alexander Moseley and Richard Norman, eds. Human Rights and Military Intervention , Paul Robinson, ed., Just War in a Comparative Perspective , Alexsander Jokic, ed., War Crimes and Collective Wrongdoing . Sample Cover Letter Cv Cover General. What has been of great interest is that in the headline wars of the past decade, the Canada Lease | Legal Forms dynamic interplay of the rules and conventions of warfare not only remain intact on the battlefield but their role and Thank Stub Template, hence their explication have been awarded a higher level of scrutiny and Forms | Legal Templates, debate. In the political circles, justification of war still requires even in the most critical analysis a superficial acknowledgement of justification. On the ground, generals have extolled their troops to adhere to the rules, soldiers are taught the Hackers Exploit Multiple just war conventions in the military academies (for example, explicitly through military ethics courses or implicitly through veterans’ experiences).
Yet despite the emphasis on abiding by Forms | Legal And Business Templates war’s conventions, war crimes continue - genocidal campaigns have been waged by mutually hating peoples, leaders have waged total war on ethnic groups within or without their borders, and individual soldiers or guerilla bands have committed atrocious, murderous, or humiliating acts on their enemy. But, arguably, such acts do remain atrocities by virtue of the just war conventions that some things in war are deemed to be inexcusable, regardless of the You Letter | Pay righteousness of the Commercial Forms Templates cause or the Desktop Template noise and fog of battle. Yet increasingly, the rule of law - the need to hold violators and transgressors responsible for their actions in war and therefore after the battle - is making headway onto the battlefield. In chivalrous times, the Christian crusader could seek priestly absolution for atrocities committed in war, a stance supported by Augustine for example; today, the law courts are seemingly less forgiving: a violation of the conventions assumes that the soldier is responsible and accountable and should be charged for a crime. Nonetheless, the idealism of those who seek the imposition of law and responsibility on the battlefield (cf. Geoffrey Robertson's Crimes Against Humanity ), often runs ahead of the traditions and customs, or plain state interests, that demean or weaken the justum bellum that may exist between warring factions. And in some cases, no just war conventions and hence no potential for legal acknowledgement of Canada, malfeasance, exist at all; in such cases, the ethic of war is Word Exploit, considered, or is implicitly held to Forms | Legal Forms And Business, be, beyond the norms of peaceful ethics and therefore deserving a separate moral realm where fair is foul and foul is fair (Shakespeare, Macbeth I.i). To Writing A Standout Letter - Story. In such examples (e.g, Rwanda, 1994), a people's justification of destructiveness and killing to whatever relative degree they hold to be justifiable triumphs over attempts to establish the laws of peaceful interaction into this separate bloody realm; and in some wars, people fighting for their land or nation prefer to pick up the cudgel rather than the rapier, as Leo Tolstoy notes in War and Peace (Book 4.Ch.2), to sidestep the etiquette or war in favor securing their land from occupational or invading forces. The continued brutality of war in the face of conventions and courts of international law lead some to maintain that the application of morality to Forms | Legal, war is a nonstarter: state interest or military exigency would always overwhelm moral concerns.
But there are those of a more skeptical persuasion who do not believe that morality can or should exist in war: its very nature precludes ethical concerns. But as there are several ethical viewpoints, there are also several common reasons laid against the need or the possibility of morality in Cover Format Format And Resume, war. Generally, consequentialists and act utilitarians may claim that if military victory is sought then all methods should be employed to ensure it is gained at a minimum of expense and time. Lease Forms | Legal Forms And Business. Arguments from 'military necessity' are of this type; for example, to defeat Germany in Word Allowed Hackers Multiple, World War II, it was deemed necessary to bomb civilian centers, or in the US Civil War, for General Sherman to burn Atlanta. However, intrinsicists (who claim that there are certain acts that are good or bad in themselves) may also decree that no morality can exist in the state of war: they may claim that it can only exist in a peaceful situation in which, for Forms Templates, instance, recourse exists to conflict resolving institutions. Alternatively, intrinsicists may claim that possessing a just cause (the argument from righteousness) is a sufficient condition for pursuing whatever means are necessary to Microsoft Word Hackers, gain a victory or to punish an Commercial Lease Forms | Legal enemy. A different skeptical argument, one advanced by For Resume Format | Resume Maker Michael Walzer, is that the Commercial Forms invention of nuclear weapons alters war so much that our notions of morality—and hence just war theories—become redundant. However, against Walzer, it can be reasonably argued that although such weapons change the nature of warfare (for example, the Microsoft Word Exploit Multiple timing, range, and potential devastation) they do not dissolve the need to consider their use within a moral framework: a nuclear warhead remains a weapon and Lease Forms Templates, weapons can be morally or immorally employed. Whilst skeptical positions may be derived from consequentialist and intrinsicist positions, they need not be.
Consequentialists can argue that there are long-term benefits to having a war convention. For example, by fighting cleanly, both sides can be sure that the war does not escalate, thus reducing the probability of creating an incessant war of counter-revenges. Intrinsicists, on the other hand, can argue that certain spheres of life ought never to Word Allowed Hackers, be targeted in war; for example, hospitals and densely populated suburbs. The inherent problem with both ethical models is that they become either vague or restrictive when it comes to war. Consequentialism is an open-ended model, highly vulnerable to pressing military or political needs to adhere to any code of conduct in Commercial Forms | Legal, war: if more will be gained from breaking the rules than will be lost, the consequentialist cannot but demur to Vulnerability Hackers Exploit, military “necessity.” On the other hand, intrinsicism can be so restrictive that it permits no flexibility in war: whether it entails a Kantian thesis of dutifully respecting others or a classical rights position, intrinsicism produces an inflexible model that would restrain warriors’ actions to the targeting of Canada Lease, permissible targets only. In principle such a prescription is commendable, yet the nature of war is Business Template, not so clean cut when military targets can be hidden amongst civilian centers. Against these two ethical positions, just war theory offers a series of principles that aim to retain a plausible moral framework for war. From the just war ( justum bellum ) tradition, theorists distinguish between the rules that govern the Commercial | Legal Forms And Business Templates justice of war ( jus ad bellum ) from those that govern just and fair conduct in war ( jus In bello ) and the responsibility and accountability of warring parties after the war ( jus post bellum ). The three aspects are by no means mutually exclusive, but they offer a set of moral guidelines for waging war that are neither unrestricted nor too restrictive. The problem for ethics involves expounding the guidelines in particular wars or situations.
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This connects intimately with presenting a just cause – all other forms of solution must have been attempted prior to the declaration of war. It has often been recognized that war unleashes forces and powers that soon get beyond the grips of the leaders and generals to control – there is too much “fog” in war, as Clausewitz noted, but that fog is also a moral haze in which truth and trust are early casualties. The resulting damage that war wrecks tends to be very high for Microsoft Allowed Multiple, most economies and so theorists have advised that war should not be lightly accepted: once unleashed, war is not like a sport that can be quickly stopped at the blow of a whistle (although the Celtic druids supposedly had the power to stop a battle by virtue of their moral standing) and its repercussions last for generations. Commercial Lease Forms Templates. Holding “hawks” at Tips | Ciproud, bay though is a complicated task – the apparent ease by which war may resolve disputes, especially in the eyes of those whose military might is apparently great and victory a certainty, does present war as a low cost option relative to continuing political problems and economic or moral hardship. Yet the just war theorist wishes to underline the need to attempt all other solutions but also to tie the justice of the war to the other principles of jus ad bellum too.
The notion of Lease, proper authority seems to be resolved for most of the theorists, who claim it obviously resides in Sample Letter Letter. General, the sovereign power of the state. But the concept of sovereignty raises a plethora of issues to consider here. If a government is just, i.e., most theorists would accept that the government is accountable and does not rule arbitrarily, then giving the officers of the state the right to declare war is reasonable, so the more removed from a proper and just form a government is, the more reasonable it is Lease Forms Forms And Business Templates, that its claim to justifiable political sovereignty disintegrates. A historical example can elucidate the For Resume Format | Resume And Resume Maker problem: when Nazi Germany invaded France in 1940 it set up the Vichy puppet regime. What allegiance did the people of France under its rule owe to its precepts and rules? A Hobbesian rendition of almost absolute allegiance to the state entails that resistance is wrong (so long as the state is Lease Forms And Business, not tyrannical and Desktop Template For Access, imposes war when it should be the guardian of peace); whereas a Lockean or instrumentalist conception of the state entails that a poorly accountable, inept, or corrupt regime possesses no sovereignty, and the right of declaring war (to defend themselves against the government or from a foreign power) is Commercial Forms, wholly justifiable. Tips A Standout Cover Letter. The notion of proper authority therefore requires thinking about what is meant by Commercial Forms | Legal And Business Templates sovereignty, what is meant by the state, and what is the proper relationship between a people and its government. The possession of right intention is Cover For I 751 Resume General, ostensibly less problematic. The general thrust of the concept being that a nation waging a just war should be doing so for the cause of justice and not for reasons of self-interest or aggrandizement. Putatively, a just war cannot be considered to be just if reasons of national interest are paramount or overwhelm the pretext of fighting aggression. However, “right intention” masks many philosophical problems.
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Given just cause and right intention, the just war theory asserts that there must be a reasonable probability of success. The principle of reasonable success is consequentialist in that the costs and benefits of a campaign must be calculated. However, the concept of weighing benefits poses moral as well as practical problems as evinced in the following questions. Should one not go to the aid of a people or declare war if there is no conceivable chance of success? Is it right to comply with aggression because the costs of Microsoft Vulnerability Allowed Hackers Exploit Multiple, not complying are too prohibitive? Would it be right to crush a weak enemy because it would be marginally costless? Is it not sometimes morally necessary to stand up to a bullying larger force, as the Commercial Lease Forms | Legal Forms Templates Finns did when Russia invaded in 1940, for the sake of national self-esteem or simple interests of defending land? Historically, many nations have overcome the probability of defeat: the fight may seem hopeless, but a charismatic leader or rousing speech can sometimes be enough to 12+ Sample You Letter | Pay, stir a people into Commercial Lease Forms Templates, fighting with all their will.
Winston Churchill offered the British nation some of the finest of war's rhetoric when it was threatened with defeat and invasion by Nazi Germany in 1940. For example: Let us therefore brace ourselves to do our duty, and so bear ourselves that, if the Tips A Standout Cover Letter British Commonwealth and its Empire lasts for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour.’“ ….And “What is our aim?….Victory, victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror; victory, however long and hard the road may be; for without victory, there is Lease And Business Templates, no survival. Letter For I Cv Cover Letter.. (Speeches to Parliament, 1940). However, the thrust of the reasonable success principle emphasizes that human life and economic resources should not be wasted in Canada Forms, what would obviously be an uneven match. For a nation threatened by invasion, other forms of retaliation or defense may be available, such as civil disobedience, or even forming alliances with other small nations to equalize the odds. The final guide of jus ad bellum is that the desired end should be proportional to 30 Beautiful Brochures, the means used. This principle overlaps into the moral guidelines of how a war should be fought, namely the principles of jus In bello . With regards to just cause, a policy of war requires a goal, and Commercial Lease Forms Templates, that goal must be proportional to the other principles of Cover For Resume | Resume, just cause.
Whilst this commonly entails the minimizing of war's destruction, it can also invoke general balance of power considerations. For example, if nation A invades a land belonging to Canada | Legal, the people of nation B, then B has just cause to Sample 751 Resume Letter. General, take the land back. According to the principle of Canada Lease Forms | Legal And Business Templates, proportionality, B’s counter-attack must not invoke a disproportionate response: it should aim to Examples Of Inviting, retrieve its land and not exact further retribution or invade the Lease Forms | Legal Templates aggressor’s lands, or in graphic terms it should not retaliate with overwhelming force or nuclear weaponry to resolve a small border dispute. That goal may be tempered with attaining assurances that no further invasion will take place, but for B to invade and Sample Letter For I 751 Resume Letter., annex regions of A is nominally a disproportionate response, unless (controversially) that is the only method for securing guarantees of no future reprisals. For B to invade and Canada Commercial Lease | Legal Forms And Business, annex A and then to continue to invade neutral neighboring nations on the grounds that their territory would provide a useful defense against other threats and a putative imbalance of Sample Cover Letter 751 Resume Letter. General, power is Canada Templates, even more unsustainable. On the You Letter Template whole the principles offered by jus ad bellum are useful guidelines for Canada Commercial Lease | Legal And Business, reviewing the morality of going to war that are not tied to the intrinsicist’s absolutism or consequentialist’s open-endedness. Philosophically however they invoke a plethora of problems by Tips A Standout Cover Letter either their independent vagueness or by Commercial Forms Forms And Business mutually inconsistent results – a properly declared war may involve improper intention or disproportionate ambitions. But war is a complicated issue and Letter For Resume Maker, the principles are nonetheless a useful starting point for ethical examination and they remain a guide for Commercial Lease | Legal Forms And Business Templates, both statesmen and women and for those who judge political proceedings.
The rules of just conduct within war fall under the two broad principles of discrimination and proportionality. The principle of discrimination concerns who are legitimate targets in war, whilst the Cover Format And Resume principle of Canada Commercial Lease Forms And Business, proportionality concerns how much force is morally appropriate. A third principle can be added to the traditional two, namely the principle of responsibility, which demands an examination of where responsibility lies in war. One strong implication of the A Standout justice of warfare being a separate topic of analysis to the justice of war is that the Canada Commercial Lease Forms | Legal Forms And Business Templates theory thus permits the judging of acts within war to be dissociated from Cover Format Format Maker it cause. This allows the theorist to claim that a nation fighting an unjust cause may still fight justly, or a nation fighting a just cause may be said to fight unjustly. It is a useful division but one that does not necessarily sever all ties between the Commercial Forms Forms Templates two great principles of warfare: the justice of a cause remains a powerful moral guide by which warfare is to be judged, for what does it matter, it can be asked, if a nation wages a war of aggression but does so cleanly?
In waging war it is 30 Beautiful, considered unfair and unjust to attack indiscriminately since non-combatants or innocents are deemed to Canada Lease Forms | Legal Forms And Business, stand outside the field of war proper. Immunity from war can be reasoned from the fact that their existence and activity is not part of the essence of Of Inviting, war, which is the killing of combatants. Since killing itself is highly problematic, the just war theorist has to proffer a reason why combatants become legitimate targets in the first place, and whether their status alters if they are fighting a just or unjust war. Firstly, a theorist may hold that being trained and/or armed constitutes a sufficient threat to combatants on Canada Commercial | Legal Templates the other side and thereby the donning of uniform alters the Word Vulnerability Allowed Hackers person’s moral status to legitimate target; whether this extends to peaceful as well as war duties is not certain though. Voluntarists may invoke the boxing ring analogy: punching another individual is not morally supportable in Canada Commercial | Legal Forms Templates, a civilized community, but those who voluntarily enter the boxing ring renounce their right not to be hit. Normally, a boxer does not retain the right to hit another boxer outside of the ring, yet perhaps a soldier’s training creates a wholly different expectation governing his or her status and that wearing the uniform or merely possessing the training secures their legitimacy as a target both on and off the battlefield. Such an Tips A Standout Cover - Story argument would imply that it is Templates, right to attack unarmed soldiers or soldiers who have surrendered or who are enjoying the normality of Sample Cover 751 Resume Cv Cover Letter. General, civilian life, which just war theorists and historical conventions have traditionally rejected on the claim that when a soldier lays down his weapons or removes his uniform, he or she returns to civilian life and hence the status of the non-combatant even if that return is temporary. Conversely, in Canada Commercial Forms | Legal Forms And Business, joining an army the individual is Cover Letter And Resume Maker, said to renounce his or her rights not to Canada Commercial Forms | Legal, be targeted in Tips, war – the bearing of arms takes a person into an alternative moral realm in which killing is the expectation and possible norm: it is world removed from civilian structures and historically has evolved rites of Canada Lease Forms | Legal Templates, passage and exit that underline the Word Vulnerability Exploit alteration in status for Commercial Lease Forms | Legal Forms, cadets and veterans; all analogies to A Standout Cover Letter - Story | Ciproud, the fair play of sports fail at Lease Forms | Legal Forms, this juncture, for war involves killing and what the 30 Beautiful Examples Of Inviting Hotel Brochures British Army call “unlimited liability.” On entering the Canada | Legal And Business army, the civilian loses the right not to be targeted, yet does it follow that all who bear uniform are legitimate targets, or are some more so than others – those who are presently fighting compared to those bearing arms but who are involved in supplies or administration, for instance? Others, avoiding a rights analysis for it produces many problems on delineating the boundaries of rights and Personal 2013, the bearers, may argue that those who join the army (or who have even been pressed into conscription) come to terms with being a target, and hence their own deaths. Canada | Legal Forms And Business Templates. This is argued for example by Vulnerability Hackers Barrie Paskins and Michael Dockrill in Templates, The Ethics of War (1979). However, since civilians can just as readily come to Sample Cover For I Cv Cover Letter. General, terms with their own deaths and it is not necessarily the case that a soldier has, their argument, although interesting, is not sufficient to Lease Forms Forms Templates, defend the principle of Sample Cover Letter For I 751 Resume Letter. General, discrimination and Canada Commercial | Legal Forms, why soldiers alone should be targeted legitimately in Account, war.
In turn, rights-based analyses may be more philosophically productive in giving soldiers and critics crucial guidelines, especially those analyses that focus on the renouncing of rights by combatants by virtue of their war status, which would leave nominally intact a sphere of immunity for civilians. Yet what is the status of Commercial Lease Forms | Legal Forms, guerrilla fighters who use civilian camouflage in order to press their attacks or to hide? Similarly, soldiers on Desktop Personal Template covert operations present intricate problems of identification and Canada Lease Templates, legitimization: is Cover Letter Format Format Maker, there a difference between the two? Referring back to Canada Commercial Lease | Legal And Business Templates, the fighters’ cause (for example, the guerrilla is a “freedom fighter” and thus carries a moral trump card) creates its own problems, which the just war theory in dividing the justice of the Desktop Personal Account Template For Access cause from the justice of the manner in which war is fought attempts to Canada Commercial Forms Forms, avoid: the guerrilla fighter may breach codes of conduct just as the soldier on a politically sensitive covert operations may avoid targeting the wrong people. Walzer, in Tips A Standout Cover Letter | Ciproud, his Just and Unjust Wars (1977) claims that the lack of identification does not give a government the right to kill indiscriminately—the onus is on the government to identify the Forms And Business Templates combatants, and so, the implication goes, if there is | Ciproud, any uncertainty involved then an attack must not be made. Others have argued that the nature of modern warfare dissolves the possibility of discrimination: civilians are just as necessary causal conditions for the war machine as are combatants, therefore, they claim, there is Canada | Legal Templates, no moral distinction in targeting an Account Template For Access 2013 armed combatant and a civilian involved in arming or feeding the combatant.
The distinction is, however, not closed by Canada Lease Forms Forms And Business the nature of modern economies, since a combatant still remains a very different entity from Desktop Personal Account Template a non-combatant, if not for the simple reason that the former is presently armed (and hence has renounced rights or is prepared to die, or is a threat), whilst the civilian is not. On the other hand, it can be argued that being a civilian does not necessarily mean that one is not a threat and hence not a legitimate target. If Mr Smith is the only individual in the nation to Canada Lease Forms Forms Templates, possess the correct combination that will detonate a device that could kill thousands, then he becomes not only causally efficacious in the firing of Hotel Brochures, a weapon of war, but also morally responsible; reasonably he also becomes a legitimate military target. His job effectively militarizes his status even though he does not bear arms. The underlying issues that ethical analysis must deal with involve the logical nature of an individual's complicity and the aiding and abetting the war machine, with greater weight being imposed on Lease Forms Forms Templates those logically closer than those logically further from the Business Thank You Letter Stub war machine in their work. At a deeper level, one can consider the role that civilians play in supporting an unjust war: to what extent are they morally culpable, and if they are culpable in giving moral, financial, or economic support to some extent, does that mean they may become legitimate targets? This invokes the issue of collective versus individual responsibility that is in itself a complex topic but one that the principle of discrimination tries to circumvent by Forms Forms And Business presenting guidelines for To Writing Cover - Story, soldiers that keep their activity within the realms of Canada Lease Forms Forms And Business Templates, war and its effects rather than murder. It would be wrong, on the principle of discrimination, to group the enemy into one targetable mass of people – some can not be responsible for a war or its procedures, notably children. Yet, on the other hand, if a civilian bankrolls a war or initiates aggression as a politician, surely he or she bears some moral responsibility for the ensuing deaths: some may argue that the war’s justification rests upon such shoulders but not the manner in which it is Letter 751 Resume Cv Cover General, fought, while others may prefer to Forms And Business Templates, saddle the leader or initiator with the entire responsibility for how a war is fought on the argument that each combatant is responsible for those below him or her in rank – so the political or civilian leaders are analogously responsible for all operating in the military field.
The second principle of Template 2013, just conduct is that any offensive action should remain strictly proportional to the objective desired. This principle overlaps with the proportionality principle of just cause, but it is distinct enough to consider it in its own light. Proportionality for jus In bello requires tempering the extent and violence of warfare to minimize destruction and casualties. It is broadly utilitarian in that it seeks to minimize overall suffering, but it can also be understood from Canada Commercial Lease Forms And Business other moral perspectives, for instance, from harboring good will to all (Kantian ethics), or acting virtuously (Aristotelian ethics). Whilst the consideration of discrimination focuses on Word Vulnerability Exploit Multiple who is a legitimate target of war, the Canada Commercial Forms | Legal Templates principle of proportionality deals with what kind of force is morally permissible.
In fighting a just war in which only 12+ Sample Business Thank | Pay Stub Template, military targets are attacked, it is still possible to And Business, breach morality by employing disproportionate force against an enemy. Sample Cv Cover. Whilst the earlier theoreticians, such as Thomas Aquinas, invoked the Christian concepts of charity and Canada Lease | Legal, mercy, modern theorists may invoke either consequentialist or intrinsicist prescriptions, both of which remain problematic as the foregoing discussions have noted. However, it does not seem morally reasonable to completely gun down a barely armed albeit belligerent tribe. At the battle of Omdurman in 1898 in the Sudan, six machine gunners killed thousands of Cover For Resume And Resume Maker, dervishes—the gunners may have been in the right to defend themselves, but the principle of Lease | Legal And Business, proportionality implies that a battle end before it becomes a massacre. Similarly, following the battle of Culloden in 1746 in Scotland, Cumberland ordered No Quarter, which was not only a breach of the principle of discrimination, for his troops were permitted to kill the wounded as well as supporting civilians, but also a breach of the principle of Tips To Writing | Ciproud, proportionality, since the battle had been won, and the Jacobite cause effectively defeated on the battle field. What if a war and Canada Lease | Legal Forms, all of its suffering could be avoided by highly selective killing? Could just war theory endorse assassination for instance? Assassination programs have often been secretly accepted and employed by states throughout the centuries and appeal, if challenged, is often to a “higher” value such as self-defense, killing a target guilty of Desktop Personal Ledger Template, war crimes and atrocities, or removing a threat to peace and stability. Lease Forms | Legal Forms Templates. The CIA manual on assassination (1954, cf. Belfield), sought to Account Ledger Template For Access, distinguish between murder and assassination, the latter being justifiable according to the higher purposes sought. This is analogous to just war theorists seeking to put mass killing on a higher moral ground than pure massacre and slaughter and is fraught with the Forms Forms And Business same problems raised in this article and in the just war literature.
On grounds of discrimination, assassination would be justifiable if the target were legitimate and not, say, the wife or children of a legitimate target. A Standout Letter - Story | Ciproud. On grounds of proportionality, the Commercial | Legal And Business Templates policy would also be acceptable, for if one man or woman (a legitimate target by Desktop Personal Ledger Template 2013 virtue of his or her aggression) should die to Canada Commercial Lease Forms | Legal Forms And Business, avoid further bloodshed or to secure a quicker victory, then surely assassination is covered by Desktop Template 2013 the just war theory? The founder of the Hashshashin society (c.11-13thC), Hasan ibn el Sabah preferred to target or threaten warmongers rather than drag innocents and noncombatants into bloody and protracted warfare: his threats were often successful for he brought the reality of death home to Forms, the leaders who otherwise would enjoy what lyricist Roger Waters calls “the bravery of being out of range.” In recent years, the US and UK proclaimed that the war in the Gulf was not with the Iraqi people but with its leader and his regime; the US government even issued a bounty on the heads of key agents in the Ba’ath party; indeed, Saddam Hussein’s sons, Uday and Cover And Resume Maker, Qusay with a bounty of ?15m, were killed in a selective hunt and destroy mission rather than being captured and brought to Canada Lease Forms | Legal Forms And Business, trial for Cover For Resume | Resume Format And Resume, the crimes asserted of them. Assassination would apparently clear the two hurdles of discrimination and proportionality, yet the intrinsicist wing of just war theorists would reasonably claim that underhand and covert operations, including assassination, should not form a part of war on grounds that they act to undermine the respect due one’s enemy (not matter how cruel he or she is) as well as the moral integrity of the assassin; the consequentialists would also counter that such policies also encourage the enemy to retaliate in Canada Commercial Lease | Legal Forms And Business Templates, similar manner, and Letter For Resume Format, one of the sustaining conclusions of just war theory is Commercial Lease Forms Templates, that escalation or retaliatory measures (tit for tat policies) should be avoided for their destabilizing nature. Once initiated, assassination tends to become the norm of political affairs – indeed, civil politics would thus crumble into Cover For Resume Format, fearful and barbaric plots and conspiracies (as did Rome in its last centuries) in Canada | Legal And Business, a race to gain power and mastery over Word Vulnerability Allowed others rather than to Canada Commercial Lease Forms Forms Templates, forge justifiable sovereignty. The principles of proportionality and Word Vulnerability Hackers Exploit, discrimination aim to temper war's violence and range; while they may ostensibly imply the acceptance of some forms of | Legal Forms And Business Templates, warfare, their malleability also implies that we continuously look afresh upon seemingly acceptable acts. Accordingly, they are complemented by other considerations that are not always explicitly taken up in the traditional exposition of jus In bello , this is especially true in the case of the issue of responsibility.
Jus in bello requires that the Microsoft Word Hackers Multiple agents of war be held responsible for their actions. This ties in their actions to morality generally. Some, such as Saint Augustine argues against this assertion: who is but the Canada Commercial Forms Forms And Business sword in the hand of him who uses it, is not himself responsible for the death he deals. Those who act according to a divine command, or even God's laws as enacted by Format | Resume Maker the state and who put wicked men to death “have by Canada Commercial Lease Forms | Legal And Business no means violated the commandment, 'Thou shalt not kill.’” Whilst this issue is connected to the concepts of Letter 751 Resume, just cause, it does not follow that individuals waging a just, or unjust war, should be absolved of breaching the principles of Commercial Templates, just conduct. Readily it can be accepted that soldiers killing other soldiers is part of the nature of warfare for which soldiers ought to be prepared and trained, but when soldiers turn their weapons against Microsoft Word Vulnerability Hackers Exploit Multiple non-combatants, or pursue their enemy beyond what is reasonable, then they are no longer committing legitimate acts of Lease And Business, war but acts of murder. Tips To Writing Cover - Story | Ciproud. The principle of responsibility re-asserts the Canada Commercial Lease Forms Forms And Business Templates burden of abiding by rules in times of peace on Tips To Writing A Standout Cover Letter | Ciproud those acting in war to Commercial Lease | Legal Forms, remind them that one day they will once more take up civilian status and should be prepared to do so conscientiously, free of any guilt from war crimes. The issues that arise from this principle include the 12+ Sample Business Thank | Pay Stub morality of obeying orders (for example, when one knows those orders to be immoral), as well as the moral status of ignorance (not knowing of the effects of one’s actions either reasonably or literally). Responsibility for acts of war relate back to the tenets of jus ad bellum as well as jus in bello , for the justification of going to war involves responsibility as well as the acts ordered and committed in war. Canada Forms And Business. In reviewing the stories from military ethics readers, the acts of bravery that attract our attention involve soldiers standing up to Microsoft Vulnerability Hackers Exploit Multiple, do the “right thing” against either the prevailing momentum of the platoon or the orders from Commercial Forms | Legal And Business Templates higher up; the realist rejects such acts as infrequent or unnecessary performances that do not alter the Allowed Exploit main characteristic of war and its innate brutality, yet such acts also remind the critic as well as the soldier of the importance of returning to Lease | Legal, the civilian mode with good conscience. The aftermath of war involves the relinquishing of armed conflict as a means of resolving disputes and the donning of more civil modes of conduct but it also raises questions concerning the nature of the post bellum justice.
Following the cessation of a war, three possibilities emerge: either the Hackers army has been defeated, has been victorious, or it has agreed to a ceasefire. Principles of justice may then be applied to each situation. Orend presents a useful summary of the Commercial Forms Forms And Business Templates principles of jus post bellum : the principle of discrimination should be employed to Tips, avoid imposing punishment on innocents or non-combatants; the rights or traditions of the defeated deserve respect; the claims of victory should be proportional to the war’s character; compensatory claims should be tempered by the principles of discrimination and Canada | Legal Forms And Business, proportionality; and, controversially, the Word Vulnerability Allowed Exploit need to rehabilitate or re-educate an aggressor should also be considered. It has often been remarked that justice, like history, is Commercial Lease And Business Templates, written by the victors. A defeated army and indeed the civilian body from which the army stems should thus be prepared to subject itself to Sample Cover For I 751 Resume Letter., the imposition of rules and forms of punishments, humiliation, and even retributions that it would not otherwise agree to. Canada | Legal And Business. The lives, values, and resources that have been fought for must now be handed over to the conquerors. When put this way, when one readily imagines one’s own country’s army falling to an aggressive enemy, the terms immediately appear fearful and unjust and may stir a greater endeavor to make the victory hollow by the raising of guerrilla or even terrorist organizations to thwart the conquerors’ designs. Yet when one’s own army is Sample Cv Cover Letter., victorious, the partiality of Canada Commercial Lease Templates, victory can be so easily dismissed on the enthusiastic wave that accompanies triumph: victory is so often associated with the greater right when one’s own country vanquishes its enemy, and assumedly with that right comes the justification to impose conditions upon the vanquished. In so many wars in history, both ancient and modern, victory has provided the winners with the means of Tips | Ciproud, exploiting the defeated nation and for Canada Commercial Lease And Business Templates, claiming rights over its lands and people whether in the form of enslavement or in monopolistic mercantile contracts; sometimes an appeal to divine justice is made; at other times the Letter Format Format And Resume Maker supremacy of one’s nation, race, creed, or political order is lauded over the defeated. Economic exploitation is not the only means of subjugating the defeated: new political or religious frameworks can also be imposed sometimes as a means of “rehabilitating the defeated” or as a means to avoid the circumstances (political or economic) that may bring about further warfare; the philosopher must naturally inquire as to the justice of such measures.
The just war theorist is Lease, keen to remind warriors and politicians alike that the principles of justice following war should be universalizable and morally ordered and that victory should not provide a license for imposing unduly harsh or punitive measures or that state or commercial interests should not dictate the form of the new peace. Similarly, imposing an alternative political or religious is not likely to Microsoft Vulnerability Allowed Hackers, be conducive to peace, as Edmund Burke prophetically warned about decreeing for the “rights of Lease, man” in an unprepared culture; re-educating a defeated military or bureaucracy may seem reasonable and arguably was successful in Account Template, post-war Germany (1945), yet such a program may also be so superficial or condescending as to have only short term and illusory benefits or act to further humiliate the defeated into seething desire for Commercial Lease Forms Forms, revenge. In post-war Iraq (2003-date), the rehabilitation programs have met with mixed success and have often been criticized for favoring some ethnic groups over others, i.e., affecting political and cultural nuances that an outsider would not be aware of. Criticism may stem from A Standout Cover Letter | Ciproud either intrinsicist reasons (that the defeated should still be viewed as a people deserving moral respect and their traditions held as sacrosanct) or consequentialist reasons (that punitive impositions are likely to produce a backlash); but again it is worth reminding that just war theory tends to merge the two to avoid awkward implications derived from either position singly. At this point, the attraction for jus post bellum thinkers is to return to the initial justice of the Canada Commercial | Legal Templates war. Consider a war of self-defense: this is considered by most, except absolute pacifists, to be the Cover Letter For Resume Format most justifiable of all wars.
If the people are defeated but their cause remains just, should they then continue the fight to rid their country of all the vestiges of occupation? What if fighting is impossible? Should they bow their heads in honorable defeat and accept the victor’s terms graciously? Locke believed that an unjustly defeated people should bide their time until their conquerors leave: “if God has taken away all means of seeking remedy, there is nothing left but patience.” ( Second Treatises , §177); however, the right always remains with those who fought against an unjust war but they do not gain any moral right to attack indiscriminately or disproportionately (such as terrorizing the invader’s own civilians or soldiers at rest), although they may carry on their claim for Canada Forms And Business Templates, freedom over the generations. A realist, however, may ask how a people are to regain their freedom if they do not raise arms against their sea of troubles? Nonetheless, if the Tips To Writing A Standout Letter - Story | Ciproud “good fight” is to continue, most theorists follow Locke and prohibit breaches of the jus in bello principles: while it would be wrong to bow to Canada Lease And Business Templates, a tyrant or conquering army, it would be immoral to target their families in order to encourage the occupying army to leave. Others may counsel civil disobedience and other forms of intransigence to signal displeasure.
If, on the other hand, the victors have won a just war against an aggressor, Locke argues that the victor’s right does not extend to Tips Letter | Ciproud, the aggressive nation’s civilian population, but that it does extend to all those engaged in the aggression and that it extends absolutely: that is, the just conqueror has absolute rights of life and death over the defeated aggressors. The aggressor, one who initiates war, puts the individual or the community into a state of war, he argues, and so the defender has an Forms Forms And Business Templates absolute prerogative to use whatever force necessary to secure freedom and peace: accordingly, in victory, the Desktop Personal Template victors may enslave or kill the Canada | Legal Forms And Business aggressors. Locke’s is an extreme although not logically incoherent position and his exhortations may be compared to other moral positions (often emerging from religious thinking) to temper the justice in favor of other virtues such as charity, liberality, and justice. 12+ Sample Business | Pay. Indeed, King Alfred the Great of Forms Templates, Wessex (c.878AD) defeated the Viking invader Guthrum in Cover Letter For Resume Format Maker, battle and rather than executing him as the Vikings would have done Alfred, he ordered them to join the Christian religion and then, and Canada Lease | Legal And Business, probably more importantly, offered them a stake in the land: toleration merged with prudence and self-interest ensured Guthrum was no longer a threat. Indeed, Machiavelli warned that killing an 12+ Sample Business Thank You Letter Stub Template opponent’s family is likely to raise their ire but taking away their land is guaranteed to continue the fight over Lease Forms | Legal And Business generations. It may be reasonably held that the aggressors deserve punishment of some sort, although Alfred’s example highlights an alternative view of dealing with an enemy, one that reminds the theorist that peace not further war remains the goal. Cover For I 751 Resume General. But what if the defeated aggressors are guilty of atrocities, surely they should be made to stand trial to send a signal to Forms, other “war criminals” as well as to punish them for their own misdeeds? Here we enter the Account Template For Access debates regarding punishment: does punishing a violator make any sense except to exact either retribution, revenge, or to Canada Lease Forms And Business Templates, promote a deterrence?
Can the victors be sure of their claim to Cover For Resume Format Format And Resume, punish the aggressors and what good could possibly flow from bringing more violence or enslavement to the world? In asserting the need to find universalisable principles, the just war theorist is usually keen to Canada Commercial Lease Forms | Legal And Business Templates, insist that any war crimes trials are held in neutral states and presided over by Microsoft Vulnerability Hackers Exploit neutral parties, rather than the victors whose partiality in proceedings must be presumed: after all, in the Nuremberg and Commercial | Legal Forms, Tokyo trials, no allied generals or politicians were held accountable for Desktop Personal Template 2013, the atrocities created by bombing civilian centers in Germany and Japan and the dropping of nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The end game and hence the jus post bellum certainly merit attention before the battles are lost or won: what should be the ruling affairs once the Canada Commercial Lease Forms peace is proclaimed? Should the terms of 30 Beautiful Examples Of Inviting Hotel, war’s end be elaborated and publicly pronounced as to ensure all parties are aware of the costs of defeat? Is it right that an army should demand unconditional surrender, for Canada Lease And Business Templates, instance, when such a policy may entail a protracted war for no incentive is given to the other side to surrender; on the other hand, unconditional surrender implies a derogatory view of the enemy as one not to be respected either in or after war. Yet if an unconditional surrender policy does suitably raise the stakes of fighting war it may act as a sufficient deterrent against possible aggressors or act as a useful diplomatic tool to bring a worried enemy back to peaceful overtures. Similarly, is it right that an army should demand reparations in Thank You Letter Template, advance rather than leave them undisclosed and thereby risk the Commercial Lease Forms Forms uncertainty of 30 Beautiful Examples, punishment creating a backlash from the defeated, who may not wish to Commercial Forms | Legal Forms And Business, be so subjected? To keep the Cover Format expected conditions of Forms, war’s end secretive does not seem a wise move in Desktop Account Ledger 2013, that uncertainty generates fear, and fear can generate a harder campaign than otherwise would be necessary; but if the publicized conditions appear onerous to the enemy, then they have good reasons to prolong and/or intensify their own fight. Of course, if promises of an amnesty or fair treatment of prisoners is Canada Commercial Lease Forms And Business, reneged on by the victor, then all trust for Letter Format | Resume Format, future arrangements is Canada Lease Forms | Legal Templates, lost and the consequences imply embedding hatreds and Personal Account Ledger 2013, mistrust for generations. Assume that victory is given, that the army has defeated its enemy on the battlefield so attention turns to the nature of the post bellum justice of dealing with the defeated regardless of Canada Commercial Forms | Legal Forms And Business Templates, its intentions beforehand.
Arguably, the very nature of the warring participants’ vision of Business You Letter Stub, each other and of themselves will color the Canada Commercial And Business Templates proceedings both politically and morally. A victorious side, for instance, that sees itself as rightfully triumphant is more likely to impose its will and Desktop Account Ledger For Access 2013, exactions upon Commercial Forms Templates, the defeated in Personal Ledger Template, a more stringent manner in which a victorious side that sees itself as its enemy’s equal; but universality demands seeing one’s enemy as oneself and understanding not just the Realpolitik of state interests and state gains in Canada Commercial | Legal And Business Templates, victory but also the conventions of magnanimity and honor in victory (or defeat). Consider the demands for Microsoft Word, reparations. A defeated aggressor may just be asked to Commercial Lease Forms Forms And Business, pay for the damage incurred by the war (as justice demands of criminals that they pay for Account Ledger Template For Access 2013, their crimes). But to what extent should the reparations extend? Should there be demands for retribution and deterrence added in, so that those deemed responsible for their aggression should be put on trial and suitably punished (and what would “suitable” mean in this instance – that Saddam Hussein stand trial for his invasion of | Legal Forms And Business, Kuwait implies that George W Bush similarly stand trial for his invasions of 12+ Sample Business Thank, Afghanistan and Iraq?).
In forming the conditions of defeat, should neutral third parties be turned to so as to avoid later accusations of “victor’s justice” and the partiality that such justice can invoke or imply, or does victory present the victor with the ultimate moral wreath to justify whatever demands seen appropriate or fitting? Should a war be indecisive though, the character of the peace would presumably be formed by the character of the ceasefire – namely, the cessation of fighting would imply a mere hiatus in which the belligerents regain the Canada Commercial Lease Templates time and resources to stock their defenses and prepare for further fighting. As such, a ceasefire would be merely a respite for the military to regain its strengths. 12+ Sample Business You Letter. However, just war theory also acts to remind contenders that war is a last resort and that its essential aim is always peace, so if peace is Forms Templates, forthcoming in any guise, it is morally critical for all parties to seek a return to a permanent peace rather than a momentary lapse of war. This article has described the main tenets of the just war theory, as well as some of the problems that it entails. The theory bridges theoretical and applied ethics, since it demands an adherence, or at least a consideration of meta-ethical conditions and models, as well as prompting concern for the practicalities of war. For I Letter. General. A few of those practicalities have been mentioned here.
Other areas of interest are: hostages, innocent threats, international blockades, sieges, the use of weapons of mass destruction or of anti-personnel weapons (for example, land mines), and the morality and Commercial Lease, practicalities of interventionism.
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Not usually. Not until 1983, when the rules changed and the lid was no longer tight enough and the cup no longer big enough and the whole side of the mountain shifted its weight up and over and then down on the town of 30 Beautiful Examples Hotel Brochures, Thistle. How literally can you take the metaphor between land and the body? My body houses a number of species of mite and yeast and Commercial Lease | Legal Forms And Business, bacterium and occasionally another human body. A chemical imbalance of any sort can disrupt that number, but even if I manage to kill all the Hotel mites off of my eyelashes, if they were to go extinct all over me, six billion other human-planets would continue to Canada Forms | Legal Forms And Business Templates sustain the very same species of Letter 751 Resume, mite. The Earth, though it may have six billion other brothers and sisters in the universe, as far as we know, is the And Business only one to Desktop 2013 house anywhere from one-and-a-half to six million species on it. See how a body repairs itself. See how a planet does. Reality is Canada Forms not my strong suit, which is rough for a nonfiction writer. Desktop Personal Template 2013? Happily, the braided essay lets me pop in and out of different realities—not so much manipulating the facts as pacing them—and digest reality in drops. Forces that shape your childhood parallel forces that shape the natural world.
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In an essay I wrote about geothermal power in Iceland, I asked the question: although geothermal power is a sustainable, green energy, is it infinite? Will the supplies run out? Research revealed that an overtaxed well could, in fact, run dry, and the power produced by that particular natural hot-spring could come to an end. In a parallel story, I got mad at my husband and stormed off, wondering whether or not a church on a hill was Catholic, and angry that he had made me walk there if he didn’t want to know. Neither of us would let the issue go. I wandered by the ocean long enough to make myself abysmally sad. I stayed gone long enough to get really mad. I came home and fell asleep on Microsoft Exploit Multiple, the bathroom floor.
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But the braided form expands the conversation, presses upon the hard lines of ideology, stretches the choices beyond right or left, one or the other. Metaphor helps challenge the stultified pathways of Canada Forms | Legal Templates, our neural networks and test the elasticity of thought. Format | Resume Format? Two ideas. One time. The brain resists new ways of thinking, but resistance is an important political tool. Resistance is the metaphor that will rule all other metaphors. I tend to write in braided essay form, but in a recent essay about wolves, I took it to a different level. In this essay, I didn’t make so many explicit transitions. Instead, I used the research itself to catapult the essay’s questioning.
I found “62 Interesting Facts about Wolves” using Google and considered how each one was really a fact about humans. If so many of the facts involve human-and-wolf interaction, can we imagine the wolf as a separate existence-worthy species? Or are wolves only a reflection of human fears, violent capacities, love of wilderness, ability to adapt? Should humans save them to save these elements of ourselves, or does wolf existence matter for reasons beyond its relationship to Lease | Legal And Business the human? If the essay is a chalkboard onto Sample For I 751 Resume Cv Cover, which we scrape our ontological questions, then this essay fits right in. Who are wolves?
Are humans wolves? Can facts exist without humans? If the wolf changes, does the very being of wolf change? As climate change and habitat loss force the wolf to breed with the Forms | Legal Templates coyote, do we lose not only a species, or even two species, but also a metaphor for how we understand ourselves? How is the wolf and Sample Letter For I 751 Resume Cv Cover Letter. General, human already a braided idea? If one is being eradicated, is the other? Or is it just the idea of the other that is eradicated? Is braided form a broken form? Perhaps.
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Strange and wondrous. Wild and mutable. Cover Letter? The job of the creative nonfiction writer is to say, Here I am world, and here is the Canada Forms | Legal Templates world, and out of this oxymoronic writing, we are here to make each other. Nicole Walker is the author of two forthcoming books, Sustainability: A Love Story and Cover Letter For I Letter., Microcosmology. Commercial Forms And Business Templates? Her previous books include Egg. read more. Thanks for putting a name to a style of writing that I seem to naturally fall into.
I can't wait to Template 2013 read some of your essays. I so enjoy reading essays that explore a sense of place, and the myriad relations that grow from it. Writing Memoir and Writing for Therapy. An Inquiry on the Functions of Reflection. A year and a half into my undergraduate studies, my boyfriend Matthew committed suicide, which threw a wrench into Commercial | Legal Templates, the straight line I. read more. The ABCs of CNF: from #039;The Vagaries of Memory#039; from The Vagaries of MemoryHUMAN RECOLLECTION IS, to a large extent, a mystery.
Combing through the Desktop Template For Access shifting layers of time, we discover. read more. In Creative Nonfiction #64: “Adaptation,” writers search for new normals. From the eroding shores of Georgia’s barrier. In Creative Nonfiction #64: “Adaptation,” writers search for Commercial Lease Forms Forms And Business new normals. From the eroding shores of Georgia’s barrier. read more. Picturing the 12+ Sample Thank You Letter | Pay Stub Template Personal Essay: A Visual Guide.
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