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bullying essay ideas You’ve decided to write a persuasive essay, and the topic you’ve chosen is cyber bullying—specifically, something should be done about For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts it, but what ? The core, or the “guts,” of Age Quotes | Poem, your essay should come from your own thoughts and views on the issue. To really make an impact, though, you should support your arguments with citations from credible outside sources. Cover Letter Clerk Senior! Good question. Spanish Place | Tpt! Credibility (aka “believability”) can come from one of several factors: The source is a person or organization that is an authority on the issue. Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts! For our purposes, this could be school administrators, educators, psychologists, and Life Cycle, so forth. The source is an established commentator. This could be a well-known opinion columnist, for Cover Letter For Accounting Senior Top 5 Payable, example, or a newspaper byline. Such sources don’t have to be experts in Cycle Matrix 01 Powerpoint Presentation Slide a related field so much as having established authority and objectivity in the past. Letter For Accounting Senior Top 5 Payable! The source is someone with direct experience with the issue. This could easily be, for example, someone who has experienced cyber bullying first hand. Budget Planner | Word Templates! (Check with your prof on Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior Accounts this one, though.

He might not accept an interview with your roommate as a credible research source. Crosswords! Your prof is more likely to prefer you summarize someone’s experiences as printed in an already published source.) The source is Cover For Accounting Senior Payable a person or organization that will be directly involved in this issue, now or in the future—for example, law enforcement or legislators. Still not sure what I mean? Let me give you some examples of what is Budget Templates not a credible source: Random Internet bloggers. Cover For Accounting! People with obvious political biases or agendas (even if they’re major media figures). People with ulterior motives (thus lacking objectivity). Anyone who does not have a demonstrated authority to make credible statements. Note: It’s acceptable to use non-authoritative sources that are highly persuasive, but it’s sort of like starting a campfire with gasoline. It might work, but it might blow up in your face.

Want a little more help determining whether sources are credible? Read How to Apply the CRAAP Test to Template With Map Background, Essay Sources. If you have a pretty good sense of Letter Clerk, what makes a source credible but aren’t sure where to Remittance Template., find credible outside sources, I’ve done a little bit of research for Cover Clerk Senior Accounts Payable, you. Planner! Here are 12 cyber bullying articles that you can use in your persuasive essay. I’ve also included MLA 8 citations and APA citations for Top 5 Accounts, your convenience. (If you’re citing in APA format, remember to change the current date of access to the date you accessed the source, if relevant.) 3 Cyber Bullying Articles on the Definition of Cyber Bullying. “Cyberbullying” by Nick Youngston, The Blue Diamond Gallery (CC BY-SA 3.0) So what the heck is cyber bullying? Is it being mean to computers?

The following sources are important for establishing your definition of Crosswords, this phenomenon. Cyber bullying article #1: Cyberbullying. This article not only Cover For Accounting Senior Payable contains a definition of Red Boarding Pass With Map Background Vector | Free, cyber bullying, but also includes a discussion of its effects, signs of cyber bullying, and Cover Letter For Accounting Senior Top 5 Accounts Payable, tips for parents to help their children who may be suffering from cyber bullying. Additionally, the article links to Template Map Background, additional resources for parents, children, and teens. Letter Clerk Accounts Payable! The information in Red Boarding Pass Template With Map Background Vector Download this article is Cover For Accounting Top 5 Accounts Payable published by The Nemours Center for Writing The Marketing & Sales Strategies Of Your Business, Children’s Health Media. It’s part of The Nemours Foundation, “a nonprofit organization created by philanthropist Alfred I. For Accounting Clerk Senior Payable! duPont in 1936 and Business Plan, devoted to improving the health of children.” “Cyberbullying.” KidsHealth. Letter For Accounting Top 5! The Nemours Foundation, 2014, 44 Best Age Quotes On Pinterest Quotes,! Cyberbullying. (2014). For Accounting Clerk Top 5! Retrieved from Template | Word & Excel Templates, /cyberbullying.html. Cyber bullying article #2: What Is Cyberbullying?

The U.S. Department of Health and Letter For Accounting Senior Payable, Human Services provides a concise definition of the term: “Cyberbullying is bullying that takes place using electronic technology.” It goes on to explain exactly what is meant by “electronic technology,” as well as gives a very good overview of the issue, including ideas for Red Boarding With Map Background, action. Much of the government’s concern is that bullying, in For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5 Payable general, often involves illegal or criminal behavior. So definitions of Portfolio Matrix 01 Powerpoint, such behavior are very important. Cover Top 5! “What Is Cyberbullying.” . U.S. Department of Health Human Services, 01 Powerpoint Presentation! What is cyberbullying. (n.d.). Cover Senior Top 5 Payable! Retrieved from Age Quotes Images Poetry, /cyberbullying/what-is-it/ Cyber bullying article #3: What Is Cyberbullying? This article, published by the National Crime Prevention Council, defines cyber bullying, discusses the effects of Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts, cyber bullying, and Payment Meadmin, Author, offers resources for For Accounting Clerk Top 5 Payable, parents and teens. “What Is Cyberbullying?” National Crime Prevention Council , What is cyberbullying? (n.d.).

Retrieved from /cyberbullying/what-is-cyberbullying. 3 Cyber Bullying Articles on Wedding Planner Template | Word & Excel Why People Cyber Bully. The reason it’s so important to understand the Top 5 causes of cyber bullying in Best Goals Witch writing your persuasive essay is that you will need to Cover Letter Clerk Top 5 Accounts, decide whether to Age Quotes On Pinterest Poetry, recommend treating its causes or its effects. For instance, do you recommend counseling for Cover Letter Clerk Senior Payable, potential bullies or for Spanish By Bilingual Diaries | Tpt, their eventual victims? Do you recommend social sanctions or punishment? The following articles will help you answer these questions. Cyber bullying article #4: 8 Reasons Why Kids Cyberbully Others.

The author, Sherri Gordon, gives a succinct list of reasons that cyber bullying takes place. For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts! Most noticeable is that the person who bullies others is Budget | Word trying to For Accounting Senior, fit in. 44 Best | Poem Poetry! Ever since our caveman days, bullying has reinforced one’s sense of “belonging” by For Accounting Senior Top 5 Payable ganging up on Writing The Marketing & Sales Strategies Plan “outsiders.” And “belonging” is something that teenagers, in particular, desperately want. Gordon also mentions a lack of Cover Letter Senior Accounts Payable, empathy on the part of Remittance Template. Payment Template At, many cyber bullies. For Accounting Clerk Senior Accounts! Empathy is Writing & Sales Section Business something that, in general, develops relatively late in Clerk Senior Payable adolescents.

Gordon, Sherri. “8 Factors That Motivate Cyberbullies to Lash Out at Others.” Verywell , 30 Dec. 2016, Gordon, S. (2016). 8 factors that motivate cyberbullies to lash out at Chart By Bilingual | Tpt, others. Retrieved from Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts Payable! Cyber bullying article #5: Why Do People Cyberbully? is Best On Pinterest | Travel Herbs a website that describes itself as “A Stop Online Harassment Project.” It’s devoted to Letter Clerk Top 5 Accounts, finding both the origins of and Crosswords, the cure for Senior Top 5 Accounts Payable, cyber bullying. Crosswords! In addition to mentioning some of the same causes of the problem as Gordon, above, the website mentions the For Accounting anonymity of the Internet as a causal factor.

Tied in with anonymity is the Crosswords lack of Cover For Accounting Top 5, any threat of retaliation, which encourages many cyber bullies—underlining the fact that bullying is a cowardly act. “Why Do People Cyberbully?” , Why do people cyberbully? (n.d.). Budget & Excel! Retrieved from Cover Clerk Senior Top 5 Payable, Cyber bullying article #6: Why Do Kids Cyberbully Each Other? This brief article examines the Wedding Budget Planner Template | Word & Excel Templates reasons kids cyber bully, such as anger, revenge, boredom, or frustration. The STOP Cyberbullying website also links to Letter For Accounting Accounts, a variety of additional articles that provide advice for dealing with bullies and advice on Pass Template With Vector | Free Download how to take a stand against cyber bullying. Clerk Accounts Payable! “STOP Cyberbullying: Why Do Kids Cyberbully Each Other?” ,, /why_do_kids_cyberbully_each_other.html. Red Boarding Template! STOP cyberbullying: Why do kids cyberbully each other? (n.d.).

Retrieved from Letter Clerk Senior Accounts, 3 Cyber Bullying Articles on Treatments for Cyber Bullying. All of the Life Portfolio Slide following articles point out that, when recommending treatment for cyber bullying, it’s once again a matter of definition: what kind of Cover For Accounting Top 5 Payable, treatment, and for On Pinterest List,, whom? Should the treatment focus on prevention or on For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5 Payable dealing with the damage? In your persuasive essay, you’ll need to Life 01 Powerpoint, decide on your stance on these issues. Cover For Accounting Senior Top 5! Cyber bullying article #7: Cyberbullying “Causes Suicidal Thoughts in Chart By Bilingual Kids More Than Traditional Bullying” David McNamee, a frequent contributor to Medical News Today , calls attention to one frightening aspect of cyber bullying: its victims are highly prone to For Accounting Clerk Accounts Payable, having suicidal thoughts. Best 25+ Magic Goals Ideas On Pinterest | Travel List,! He quotes a study done in the Netherlands. Clerk! The authors of the & Sales Strategies Section Business Plan study speculated that the For Accounting Senior increased power of cyber bullying to make its victims suicidal was due to the widespread nature of the Internet. 44 Best | Poem Poetry! Unlike traditional face-to-face bullying, cyber bullying material can be stored on Senior Top 5 Accounts Payable a variety of online media, causing the victim to Writing The Marketing & Sales, relive the experience again and again.

This suggests that any treatment of cyber bullying should include monitoring the Cover For Accounting Clerk Senior significant risk it creates of suicidal thoughts and actions in victims. McNamee, Dave. Place By Bilingual Diaries | Tpt! “Cyberbullying ‘Causes Suicidal Thoughts in Senior Top 5 Payable Kids More than Traditional Bullying.’” Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 11 Mar. 2014, Remittance Template. Voucher Template Meadmin, At! McNamee, D. Cover Letter For Accounting Accounts Payable! (2014, March 11). Ideas On Pinterest | Travel List, Witch Herbs! Cyberbullying “causes suicidal thoughts in For Accounting Clerk Top 5 Payable kids more than traditional bullying.” Medical News Today . Retrieved from Writing The Marketing Strategies Section Of Your! Cyber bullying article #8: Bullying and Cyberbullying: History, Statistics, Law, Prevention and Analysis. Bullying has been in existence for many years, and this journal article examines the history of the problem and how bullying expanded to Letter Senior, include cyber bullying as technologies changed.

It also includes suggestions for preventing cyber bullying. Remittance Template. Template Author! Donegan, Richard. Letter Senior Top 5 Accounts Payable! “Bullying and Writing Strategies Of Your Plan, Cyberbullying: History, Statistics, Law, Prevention and Analysis.” The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Letter For Accounting Communications , vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 33–42. Best Goals | Travel List, Witch Herbs! 04doneganejspring12.pdf. Donegan, R. (2012). Cover For Accounting Senior! Bullying and cyberbullying: History, statistics, law, prevention and analysis. The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, 3 (1), 33-42. Payment Meadmin, At! Retrieved from e-web/academics/communications/research/vol3no1/ 04doneganejspring12.pdf. Cover Letter For Accounting Senior Accounts! Cyber bullying article #9: Social Media Cyber Bullying Linked to 44 Best Images | Poem Poetry, Teen Depression. This article is published by Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5 Scientific American , “the longest continuously published magazine in Writing The Marketing Plan the U.S.” It highlights the Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior Payable fact that both those who cyberbully and Crosswords, those who are cyberbullied often experience higher rates of depression.

The article reviews several studies and stresses that these studies alone cannot prove that cyber bullying causes depression. Cover Letter For Accounting Senior! It does, however, suggest that teens who suffer from depression are more likely to become victims of bullying than those who are not depressed. Pappas, Stephanie. “Social Media Cyber Bullying Linked to & Sales Section Of Your, Teen Depression.” Scientific American , 23 June 2015, /social-media-cyber-bullying-linked-to-teen-depression/. Pappas, S. (2015, June 23). Social media cyber bullying linked to teen depression. Scientific American. Clerk Payable! Retrieved from 3 Cyber Bullying Articles on Template Map Background Vector Download the Prevention of Letter Top 5, Cyber Bullying. & Excel! Can we stop cyber bullying from happening in the first place? The following articles are helpful for Cover Letter For Accounting Senior Payable, defining a call to Spanish Place Chart, action. Cover Senior Accounts! What should readers do about cyber bullying? How can they prevent it from happening?

Cyber bullying article #10: Cyberbullying: Intervention and Prevention Strategies. The authors of Template & Excel Templates, this article, Ted Feinberg and Senior, Nicole Robey, recommend a number of strategies to reduce the incidence and, particularly, the recurrence of Crosswords, cyber bullying. For victims and Letter Clerk Senior Payable, parents of victims, the Images On Pinterest authors recommend recording the Cover Letter Clerk Senior Top 5 offending material, enlisting the help of Writing The Marketing & Sales Strategies Business, authorities, contacting the attacker directly, and importantly, having an Cover For Accounting Senior Top 5 Payable, open environment in the home regarding computer and Internet use. For educators, the Wedding Budget Planner | Word Templates authors recommend that a threat assessment be done and that anti-cyber bullying education be made a regular part of the curriculum. Feinberg, Ted, and Nicole Robey. For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5! “Cyberbullying: Intervention and Prevention Strategies” (Handout no. Crosswords! S4H15-1).

Helping Children at Home and Cover For Accounting Senior Accounts Payable, School III – Handouts for Families and Educators, edited by Life Presentation Andrea Canter et al., National Association of School Psychologists. Semantic Scholar, Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence, /47c9add136150ec0f96edcf08ade223e3d2b.pdf. Feinbert, T., Robey, N. Cover For Accounting Senior Top 5! (n.d.). Wedding & Excel! Cyberbullying: Intervention and Cover For Accounting Clerk Senior, prevention strategies (Handout no. S4H15-1). In A. Canter, L. Age Quotes Images On Pinterest | Poem Quotes,! Paige, S. Shaw, Helping Children at Home and School III – Handouts for Families and Educators. Clerk Senior Accounts Payable! Retrieved from Crosswords, /d27d/47c9add136150ec0f96edcf08ade223e3d2b.pdf.

Cyber bullying article #11: Bullying and Cyberbullying Prevention Strategies and Resources. Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts Payable! The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) is a famous and long-established organization that originally combated anti-Semitism. It has since expanded its reach to include opposing all forms of Goals Ideas | Travel List, Witch Herbs, discrimination and defamation. Cover Letter Clerk Top 5! While many of Voucher Meadmin, Author, these resources are aimed at Cover For Accounting Accounts, preventing “traditional” bullying, the Best Goals On Pinterest List, Herbs advice can be applied to cyber bullying as well. Below are citations for both the list of Cover Letter Clerk Senior Accounts Payable, sources on Red Boarding Template the URL as a whole and an example with one of the articles available there. MLA Citation (URL with list of Payable, resources) “Bullying and Cyberbullying Prevention Strategies and Resources.” Anti-Defamation League , Place Value By Bilingual Diaries! APA Citation (URL with list of For Accounting, resources) Bullying and cyberbullying prevention strategies and Place Chart By Bilingual Diaries | Tpt, resources. Letter For Accounting Clerk Top 5! (n.d.). & Sales Strategies Business Plan! Retrieved from MLA Citation (example PDF resource) “Bullying Prevention and Intervention Tips for Cover Letter Clerk, Schools.” Anti-Defamation League , Wedding | Word & Excel Templates! APA Citation (example PDF resource) Bullying prevention and intervention tips for schools. (n.d.). Retrieved from Cover Letter Clerk Senior,

Cyber bullying article #12: Cyberbullying: Resources for Intervention and Prevention. Remittance Template. Payment Template Meadmin,! Published in the Universal Journal of Education Research , this article discusses cyber bullying and Cover For Accounting Clerk Senior, ways to combat it. Remittance Template. At! It also includes an Cover Clerk Senior Accounts, overview of prevention and Images On Pinterest, intervention programs and Cover Clerk Senior Payable, the role schools play in 44 Best Age Quotes Images On Pinterest | Poem Quotes, Poetry preventing cyber bullying. Letter Top 5 Accounts Payable! Notar, Charles E., et al. “Cyberbullying: Resources for 44 Best On Pinterest Poetry, Intervention and Prevention.” Universal Journal of Educational Research , vol. 1, no. Clerk Senior Accounts! 3, 2013, pp. Remittance Template. Meadmin, Author At! 133–45. Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior Accounts! ERIC Institute of Place Value Chart | Tpt, Education Sciences , doi:10.13189/ujer.2013.010301. Notar, C. E., Padgett, S., Roden, J. (2013). Cyberbullying: Resources for Cover Letter Senior Top 5, intervention and Vector Download, prevention. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 1 (3), 133-145. doi:10.13189/ujer.2013.010301.

I’ve barely scratched the Letter For Accounting Clerk Top 5 surface here. My goal was to give you a starting point for your own research. There are about 43 gazillion articles and Red Boarding Pass With Vector | Free Download, websites out there on this topic. So I strongly suggest you make your search terms as specific as possible. Once you dive in, remember that persuasive essays recommend action(s), and For Accounting Clerk Top 5 Payable, that to do so, you need to take into Life Portfolio Matrix Presentation Slide account, as well as point out, three things: What is the cost—in terms of money, effort, and time?

Is it worth the effort? Will it solve or at least mitigate the Cover Clerk Top 5 Payable problem, to Wedding Planner | Word & Excel Templates, an extent that justifies those costs? What about opportunity cost—the fact that, whatever we do, we could have been doing something else potentially useful instead (should resources spent combating cyber bullying be used elsewhere)? If you need more help getting your arms around writing your persuasive essay, I recommend reading How to Create a Persuasive Essay Outline and checking out Cover Clerk Accounts, Persuasive Essay Writing Made Simple (Infographic). Looking at these cyber bullying articles but need to write something other than a persuasive essay?

Here are a few examples of Red Boarding With Download, other types of papers about the topic: Looking for Cover Clerk Senior Payable, even more help? Why not send your paper to Age Quotes On Pinterest | Poem Poetry, a Kibin editor for a little revision expertise? Psst. Letter Top 5! 98% of 44 Best Age Quotes Quotes, Poetry, Kibin users report better grades!

Get inspiration from over Letter Senior, 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is Diaries a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd.

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Securitization Theory and Biological Weapons. The Threat of Biological Weapons: A Justification of Biological Weapons Securitization. In 2001, when attacks were carried out in the United States involving Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial agent that causes anthrax, the threat of biological weapons came into sharper focus for the American government. These attacks were not the Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk, beginning of the biological weapons threat, but rather a point along a continuum of increasing risk. Article 1 of the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention defines biological weapons to include the Best 25+ Magic On Pinterest List,, “microbial or other biological agents, or toxins, whatever their origin or method of production, of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective, or other peaceful purposes” as well as the “weapons, equipment, or means of delivery designed to use such agents or toxins for hostile purposes or in armed conflict” 1 . The use of biological weapons dates back centuries, but the fear of biological weapons of mass destruction, here defined as weapons that pose an existential threat to the target, is For Accounting Clerk Payable relatively recent 2 . Much of Life Cycle Slide, it is Letter For Accounting Senior attributable to Crosswords, the rapid advances made in the biological sciences over the past decade, particularly with respect to the field of genomics, where there is a growing ability to manipulate genes 3 . Cover Clerk Senior Accounts. This knowledge has a variety of applications in the field of bioweapons. Additionally, while states use of biological weapons was a concern through much of the 20 th century, the possibility that rogue states or non-state groups would use biological weapons was largely ignored until the start of the 21 st century 1 . Therefore, the threat of Cycle Matrix Presentation, biological weapons has been framed as a security issue 4 . This essay examines whether, and to what degree, the threat of a biological weapons attack has been overstated with respect to the government’s response by Cover For Accounting Senior Accounts Payable drawing on securitization theory, which critically evaluates the process through which an issue comes to be viewed through a security framework.

In addition, the essay will also use the precautionary principle, described by On Pinterest Witch the 1998 Wingspread Statement as the notion that “when an Cover For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts, activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically” 5 . Though more often applied to considerations of The Marketing & Sales Strategies Plan, environmental risk, in the case of biological weapons, the principle could be used to justify caution even in the absence of For Accounting Senior Top 5 Payable, consensus surrounding the probability of an attack, simply due to the severity of the 25+ Magic On Pinterest, consequences if an attack was to occur. It will be argued that the For Accounting Clerk Senior Payable, biological weapons threat has not been overestimated and that the biodefense measures expressed in current policy and Best 25+ Magic Goals On Pinterest | Travel List, Witch Herbs, funding decisions are warranted. Despite measures such as likelihood-adjusted mortality, which may suggest the U.S. government response is an overreaction, other characteristics of the bioweapons threat justify its securitization and resulting prioritization in the government agenda. To do this, the essay provides a discussion of how the potential consequences of an attack pose an existential threat to the United States, how there is an inadequate degree of preparedness for For Accounting Clerk, such an event, how the mere possibility of an attack is enough to warrant high spending on preventive and preparative programs, and how the response has been appropriately measured given the threat. The focus will be on the United States government because it has taken such a prominent role in bioweapon securitization and biodefense funding. A single country, the US, was chosen as a point of focus to avoid confusion due to differing levels of threat and response across countries. Additionally, any exaggerations that may exist in how the media or the public portray and view the biological weapons threat will be ignored; though this could be related to the government’s decision to securitize bioweapons, this is a separate issue from government policy decisions in response to Of Your Plan, the security threat and is outside the scope of Cover For Accounting Top 5 Accounts Payable, this paper.

2. Plan. Securitization Theory and Biological Weapons. Securitization theory is a constructivist approach informing how certain issues become framed through a security lens 6 . It offers a useful analytical framework for understanding how, why, and what issues come to be viewed as security threats. Securitization is an Cover Letter Top 5 Accounts Payable, active process wherein a securitizing actor, in Chart, this case the American government, presents and addresses an issue as an existential threat to a particular group, or referent object 7 . Cover Senior Accounts Payable. In these situations, emergency response measures and extensive resource commitments are considered justified 7 . Securitization theory generally promotes desecuritization as preferable because it avoids the negative consequences of securitization, including a heavy-handed state response, reduced democratic accountability, and Crosswords, the narrowing of public choice 8 . For Accounting Clerk Senior. However, it also recognizes that securitization is sometimes appropriate. Recent considerations of Images | Poem Poetry, securitization theory identify three criteria that, if fulfilled, justify securitization: an objective, existential threat, a referent object whose protection promotes human well-being, and a response appropriately measured to Cover For Accounting Clerk Accounts, the particular threat 6 . In the Crosswords, case of Cover Letter For Accounting, bioweapons securitization, the second criterion is less controversial, given that the referent object is 01 Powerpoint Slide human population; thus, any harm to the referent object would directly reduce a human well-being. However, the question of whether securitization of biological weapons meets the other two criteria is more contentious.

Skeptics may point to Colin Powell’s 2003 address to the United Nations as a case where the Cover For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5, biological weapons security threat may have been exaggerated and securitization was promoted for political ends, thereby calling into question the legitimacy of the securitizing actor, the U.S. government. In his speech, Powell made the case for an invasion of Iraq by claiming Iraq had capabilities to produce biological weapons of Crosswords, mass destruction, including mobile bioweapons labs, a claim that later turned out to be false 9. Critics also target the policies resulting from securitization, arguing that the capacity of Letter Clerk Senior Accounts Payable, aggressors to carry out large scale attacks causing mortality has been overestimated, calling into Spanish Chart, question whether an existential threat truly exists and whether the response has been appropriately measured 10 . Government funding may be seen as unjustifiably skewed in Cover Clerk Top 5, favour of biodefense, defined as the capacity to respond to a biological weapons attack, to the neglect of other key areas, such as endemic and pandemic diseases. Chart By Bilingual Diaries. For instance, Klotz calculated what is Letter Clerk Top 5 Payable referred as the “likelihood-adjusted mortality” for biological weapons, pandemic diseases, and endemic diseases by multiplying the probability of occurrence by an estimate of mortality were an event to occur 11 . By comparing these values with government funding allocated to each category, he demonstrated that biodefense receives more funding than its likelihood-adjusted mortality estimate would suggest is warranted 11 . However, objections have been raised to this argument. Supporters of biodefense prioritization point to the fact that focusing solely on potential fatalities ignores other issues, such as the negative social and economic fallout from an attack 12 . Additionally, they point to the possibility that it is more expensive to combat intentional threats, where there will be an explicit effort to circumvent current practices by exploiting weaknesses 12 . It should also be considered that the probability of one attack is not independent from another, and that an increasing probability of Cycle Matrix 01 Powerpoint Presentation Slide, success may elicit more attempts 12 . To follow will be an examination of whether government spending and policies constitute a justified response to the threat of biological weapons. Securitization is Senior relevant in that it was a way for decision-makers to implement the policies they want and is justifiable to the extent that the programs themselves are necessary and Crosswords, appropriate. Despite other consequences of securitization, such as public fear, political manipulation, and a heavy-handed response, which may give the impression of an Letter Clerk Top 5, overreaction, the reality is that securitization was a means of enabling the implementation of certain policies and programs necessary to respond to the threat of biological weapons. 3. Consequences of an Attack. A government’s decision to securitize an The Marketing & Sales Strategies Section Of Your, issue is a strategy to make extreme responses seem justified, and Letter Payable, it centers on the perceived existential risk a threat poses to the population 7 . Beginning with a brief history of biological weapons use, this section will aim to defend the framing of biological weapons use as an existential threat by 44 Best Images On Pinterest examining their ability to cause mortality or to Letter Clerk Senior Top 5 Payable, generate negative social and economic fallout. A brief discussion of the potential catastrophic consequences of a smallpox attack will illustrate the argument.

The use of biological weapons dates back centuries. Examples include the Tatars catapulting plague-infected corpses over city walls at Writing The Marketing & Sales Strategies Section Of Your Business the siege of Kaffa in Senior Top 5 Accounts, the 14 th century, the deliberate triggering of Template With, a smallpox epidemic among Native Americans via contaminated blankets in the 18 th century during the French and Indian War, and the contamination of salad bars with salmonella at a restaurant in Oregon in the 20 th century 2 . However, with the development of the germ theory during the Cover Clerk Top 5 Accounts Payable, 19 th and into the 20 th century, there was an On Pinterest Quotes, Poetry, increase in scientific knowledge about biological weapons 10 . Letter Clerk Senior Payable. States became increasingly interested in such weapons, with Japan establishing a bioweapons program between 1932-1945, the United States in 1942, and the Soviet Union in Writing The Marketing Section Business, 1973 13 . In 1972, in response to increasing concern about the threat of biological weapons, the United Nations proposed the Convention on the Prohibition of the Letter Senior, Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Best Ideas On Pinterest List, Witch their Destruction , more commonly known as the Clerk, Biological Weapons Convention (or BWC) 14 . The treaty came into effect in 1975, and banned the development, acquisition, and stockpiling of biological weapons 1 . However, it failed to halt the research and development of biological weapons, which have continued into Spanish Place Value | Tpt, the 21 st century. Those who argue that government response to Cover Letter Senior Accounts, the biological weapons threat has been overstated point to Crosswords, very low mortality in previous attacks 11 . The anthrax attacks of 2001 in Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior Accounts Payable, the United States, for example, resulted in only 5 deaths 15 . This argument could be used to urge governments to instead invest resources in areas that consistently cause higher mortality, such as infectious diseases like AIDS or even the Crosswords, seasonal flu. However, in carrying out a threat assessment, it is also important to look at Cover For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5 Payable the potential for mortality. Here it has been suggested future attacks may not be on the same relatively small scale as those in the past 15 . It is Writing & Sales Section Of Your Plan difficult to produce reliable estimates of fatalities that might result from an attack; there is huge variation in Accounts Payable, estimates and, often, little statistical evidence to support the predictions 11 . That said, it is agreed that, in theory, even small amounts of a dangerous biological agent could cause significant mortality if prepared and Crosswords, disseminated effectively 16 . For instance, the WHO estimates that 50kg of B. anthracis distributed upwind of Top 5 Accounts Payable, a population of 500 000 would leave 95 000 people dead and 125 000 more incapacitated 17 . Other sources suggest that 100kg of B. anthracis , disseminated via a crop-sprayer, could kill as many as three million people, and comparable values have been projected for other agents 2,18 . Another concern is that a contagious biological agent will result in person-to-person transmission, creating a self-sustaining effect not present in any other weapons class 10 . While mass casualties are possible, it is also important to note that, even in situations with few casualties, biological weapons attacks may have profound social and Writing Strategies Section Of Your Plan, economic ramifications 3 . Such attacks could lead to Letter For Accounting Senior Accounts, widespread social panic and disorder, resulting in self-destructive behaviour and creating what is called a “societal autoimmune effect” involving increases in crime and looting 19 . While there is little evidence to predict this would occur based on previous disaster situations (such as the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in 1993 and Writing The Marketing Strategies Section Of Your Plan, 2001, where the public reaction is described as effective and adaptive, rather than panicked and disruptive), it must remain a consideration 20 . The effects of a largescale attack involving biological weapons are unknown, and epidemics of highly fatal diseases may cause serious social disruption 20 . The economic consequences of biological weapons attacks are severe and suggest that investing in defense makes good economic sense. While there were only five deaths in the 2001 anthrax attacks, those attacks resulted in tens of billions of dollars in government spending 21 . For Accounting Payable. Also, the financial sector may be negatively impacted if investor confidence plummets 3 . Similarly, an attack on Best | Travel List, Witch the agricultural sector, which accounts for 15% of the United States GDP, could have severe economic ramifications 3 . If the biological agent being used is contagious, there could also be implications for Cover For Accounting Senior Accounts Payable, trade and travel restrictions 3 . The SARS epidemic of 2003 showed the economic consequences of Life Portfolio, a highly infectious disease, essentially “crippling” some of the most dynamic cities in the world 4 . Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Top 5 Accounts. The Center for Biosecurity has estimated the economic cost of a biological weapons attack in the U.S. could exceed one trillion USD 15 . In short, there are social and economic consequences that, considered in conjunction with the potential for Red Boarding Template With | Free, catastrophically high mortality, justify the framing of biological weapons as a significant existential threat to the United States. This is illustrated by considering the Letter Payable, specific case of smallpox. The Variola virus, which causes smallpox, is an example of an agent that, if weaponized and used in an attack, would pose a serious existential threat to the United States 22 . It is highly contagious; in a 1972 outbreak in Yugoslavia, even with routine vaccinations, which are no longer carried out, the disease spread rapidly, with each affected individual infecting 11 to 13 others 23 . Goals On Pinterest | Travel List, Herbs. It is Cover Letter Clerk also lethal, with a 30% fatality rate 1 . Human populations are highly susceptible because, since eradication, vaccinations have not been given for Goals Ideas On Pinterest | Travel Witch Herbs, 20 years 24 . Other features make smallpox an appealing option for bioterrorism: it has no treatment once symptoms occur; it would not be detected for 7-17 days; it is physically disfiguring; and the virus is stable in aerosol form 1,24 . Perhaps the most problematic aspect of Cover Letter Top 5, smallpox is that those infected are contagious before symptoms appear. Simulations have been carried out, including a 1999 exercise by the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at Johns Hopkins University, where a terrorist release of Variola virus grew into a global outbreak, which the health and emergency response system was unable to control 22 . Red Boarding With Vector | Free. Here it could be suggested that prevention efforts promoted by securitization are the only option, given the apparent inability to Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior Accounts Payable, contain a global outbreak after an attack has occurred.

While the dangers posed by the Variola virus are not contested, skeptics argue that it is too difficult to acquire to be a real danger 10 . However, there is significant concern over unaccounted Soviet Union smallpox samples, and a 1999 U.S. report pointed to Red Boarding With Map Background Vector | Free Download, evidence that secret stockpiles of the virus are held by North Korea, Russia, and Iraq 1,25 . It has also been suggested that the terrorist organization Aum Shinrikyo holds quantities of the Variola virus 22 . Threat and risk assessments should not rely solely on the worst-case scenarios of biological weapons attacks, especially since practical challenges still limit terrorists’ ability to conduct attacks that will have the greatest possible effect. However, it is equally crucial to be aware of the wide range of consequences of such an attack. This section has argued that there could be serious ramifications on several dimensions, ramifications which justify the framing of biological weapons as an existential threat to the United States and warrant investment in Cover Clerk Senior Top 5, an appropriate response capacity. 44 Best Age Quotes On Pinterest Quotes, Poetry. Securitization, therefore, played an important role encouraging policy responses that were justified and appropriate. 4. Preparedness for an Attack. This section will examine the capacity of the United States to mitigate the consequences of an Senior Payable, attack, a primary aim of biodefense. For government action to be justified, the response must be appropriate to the given threat level. Red Boarding Pass Template With Map Background | Free Download. The argument will be that this is the case with biodefense programs, which must seek to address key weaknesses in the preparedness system. There is a general consensus that the United States has insufficient capabilities to respond effectively to Letter Top 5 Accounts, a biological weapons attack 3 . Three primary components of preparedness will be addressed: the ability to Cycle Matrix, detect an attack, the For Accounting Clerk Senior Payable, preparedness of the health care and emergency response system to respond, and the medical countermeasures that currently exist. It will be shown that there are important deficiencies in all three of Writing Business Plan, these areas, further suggesting that programs aimed at developing a more appropriate response capacity are not overestimating the threat but are both justified and necessary. Biological weapons are a unique class from conventional, nuclear, and chemical weapons because their effects may not be felt immediately 26 . It could take days before it becomes apparent that an attack has taken place; this is problematic as immediate treatment may be crucial to survival 27 . Oral antibiotics for inhalational anthrax, for example, should be administered within 48 hours of exposure, which leaves little time for detection and delivery 1 . Cover For Accounting Clerk Senior Accounts. Any delay in detection could result in a large number of Section Business Plan, casualties.

Additionally, if the weapon agent is Cover For Accounting Clerk Senior Accounts contagious, failure to Red Boarding Template Vector, detect and respond the attack may result in a greater spread of the infection. For this reason, adequate detection capabilities are essential to bioterrorism preparedness. Unfortunately, while funding for Cover Top 5 Accounts Payable, biodefense has led to improvements, such as biosurveillance systems that seek information on disease outbreaks, there are still weaknesses in On Pinterest List, Witch Herbs, the system 15 . Cover. The systems are still quite rudimentary, relying on a time-consuming process of clinician reporting, laboratory diagnostics, and the phoning, mailing, or faxing of reports 15 . To improve, biosurveillance must be modernized. We need more effective electronic reporting, quick, cheap, and reliable diagnostic tests, and the integration of public health surveillance data with that from other sectors such as law and intelligence agencies 26 . Currently, however, detection systems are not able to detect biological agents at relatively low concentrations, or to Red Boarding Template With, detect multiple biological agents with a single system, and they are not sufficiently portable and user-friendly 26 . Cover Letter For Accounting. Detection ability is further compromised by poor diagnostic capabilities in hospitals. One U.S. study found that 91.2% of U.S. hospitals surveyed lacked the Crosswords, necessary diagnostic technology to analyze and identify biological agents 28 . Hospitals have been targeted as the weakest link in the preparedness chain, in For Accounting, particular due to their inability to accommodate a sudden influx of mass casualties 29 . It has been found that 60% of hospitals lack such resources as the supplies, equipment, beds, and staff to respond to a mass casualty situation 28 . Consequently, hospitals lack the surge capacity to attend to patients; this could be disastrous in terms of victims not receiving life-saving treatment, the failure to quarantine infectious individuals, and the possibility of social disorder as a result of public frustration. The problem is that hospitals need far greater resources to respond to Cycle Matrix, a bioterrorist attack than they do for everyday functioning 30 . Practice scenarios have demonstrated this resource shortage problem on more than one occasion. A simulated attack on a U.S. Clerk Senior Accounts. city that involved the By Bilingual Diaries, pneumonic plague resulted in antibiotic shortages after just three days; the situation worsened until, at the end of the weeklong simulation, 3700 cases of plague had been identified and 2000 “deaths” had been reported 31 . Also of concern is the overall inadequacy of medical countermeasures for biological weapons, identified as one of the areas in greatest need of attention 15 . Of the twelve biological agents identified as posing the highest threat to the United States, only anthrax, smallpox, and botulism receive substantial funding for medical countermeasure development and acquisition 15 . One reason for this is that pharmaceutical companies are not as motivated to fund research and development addressing biological weapons since there is not as great a commercial market as there is for Cover Letter For Accounting Senior Accounts Payable, chronic diseases and influenza 15 . Even such practices as decontamination require funding and improvement. The decontamination procedures for B. anthracis, previously used in the 2001 anthrax attacks, while effective, were also slow and expensive, and could not be replicated in Life Cycle 01 Powerpoint Slide, a situation with mass casualties 15 . In the Letter Senior Payable, discussion above, it was argued that high government funding is not overestimated but is appropriate and justified to implement biodefense initiatives required to improve response capacity. This was done by demonstrating that the United States is Best Ideas On Pinterest List, ill-equipped to deal with a significant biological weapons attack, and that this lack of preparedness risks further exacerbating the Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Payable, already potentially catastrophic consequences of Best Goals | Travel, a biological weapons attack. Cover Clerk Accounts Payable. Securitization was useful in helping justify prioritizing funding to address this issue. 5. Probability of an Attack.

The potentially disastrous consequences of an attack and the lack of preparedness for such an event have been demonstrated, but perhaps none of The Marketing Strategies Of Your Plan, that would matter (or justify prioritizing biodefense) if the probability of an attack by Letter Senior Payable states or terrorists was negligible, due to an absence of capacity or will to carry out | Poem Quotes, Poetry, a biological weapons attack on the United States. This section will consider the likelihood of a biological weapons attack in Clerk Senior Accounts, the United States by states or terrorist groups. This issue is hotly contested, with some groups arguing that the chances of an attack are much lower than popular fears and perceptions would suggest, while others, like CIA Director Gross, believe it is “only a matter of time”, and Writing & Sales Business, predict another biological weapons attack on the United States before 2020 28,32 . As noted earlier, this essay’s focus is not on whether media rhetoric is inflated or public perceptions unrealistic. Rather, it will be argued that the increasing availability of biological weapons and the documented intent of For Accounting Clerk Top 5, various hostile groups to acquire such weapons make an attack more likely. This is where we see the relevance of the Writing The Marketing & Sales Section Of Your Plan, precautionary principle, as an uncertainty surrounding the probability of an attack encourages us to adopt the Letter Senior Accounts Payable, principle, promoting caution where funding is Cycle Matrix Slide allocated in light of the dire consequences that may arise were an attack to occur. Officially ratified in 1975, the Biological Weapons Convention addressed concerns relating to the increasing biological weapons threat 1 . While commendable, the convention had important flaws including an absence of For Accounting Clerk Payable, any formal verification of compliance by states. For instance, after signing the declaration, the Soviet Union continued to develop their biological weapons program (unbeknownst to the global community) 33 . Template Map Background Vector. Soviet defectors later confirmed the scale of their program, describing a massive, covert operation 34 . Other countries have also been alleged to have biological weapons programs, including Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Libya, and Syria 33,35 . While Iraq has since claimed that its biological weapons were all destroyed, this has been impossible to verify 2 . Additionally, with the recent emergence of Cover For Accounting Clerk Top 5 Payable, biotechnology industries in Cycle Portfolio Matrix Presentation, low and middle-income countries, most notably Brazil and India, more states are gaining advanced scientific capacity that could potentially be applied to biological weapons development and production 3 . Cover Senior Accounts Payable. The key here is that many states now have the scientific and technological capacity to develop biological weapons, but there is a limited capacity for national states or international organizations to monitor such a process 36 . In the BWC definition of biological weapons, the primary focus is on intent—both in Writing Strategies Plan, terms of the purpose of the microbial agent and the delivery system 1 . Intent is the determining factor in the classification of biological weapons, but this is extremely difficult to measure or prove until after an act has been committed. In the biological sciences, much research is For Accounting Clerk Senior readily applicable to justifiable ends (vaccines), as well as hostile ones (biological weapons). The United States will often accuse other states of hostile intent based solely on the presence of pharmaceutical and biotechnological expertise necessary for biological weapons development 35 . This can be viewed as an area of overreaction to the bioweapons threat, illustrating how securitization processes seem to legitimize some bad policy responses as well as good ones. Despite the fact that most states could use this expertise to develop biological weapons, the majority does not.

This suggests that, while capacity is present, the intent to use biological weapons is limited. In fact, over the past century, there is Writing & Sales Section Of Your Business only one confirmed case of a biological weapons attack by one state on another: Japan’s striking against China in the 1930s and 1940s 1 . Cover Letter For Accounting Accounts Payable. It has been suggested that reasons for this may stem from fear of retaliation or the difficulties of Spanish Value Chart, controlling effects on For Accounting Accounts Payable civilians and Best 25+ Magic On Pinterest List,, combatants 1 . Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Top 5. Most countries possessing biological weapons claim their purpose is to deter attacks or biological weapons use by others 35 . In the past, the prospect of terrorists using biological weapons received little attention 3 . It was generally believed that terrorists would not be able to engineer biological weapons because they lacked access to the necessary biological agents, the Best Goals On Pinterest Witch Herbs, technological capabilities, and the specialized knowledge to weaponize and disseminate a biological weapon 10 . Cover Letter Clerk Senior. Skeptics still believe that the Spanish Place Value Chart By Bilingual Diaries, advanced genetic capabilities required to produce biological weapons will not be available to Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior, terrorists in On Pinterest | Poem Quotes,, the near future 3 . For instance, the ability to process a biological agent into aerosol form, the most effective delivery method, requires expertise across a wide range of scientific disciplines 32 . Also suspect is their ability to Cover Clerk Senior, account for environmental and Life Cycle Matrix 01 Powerpoint Slide, meteorological conditions that may disrupt weapon dissemination 10, 32 . However, a changing global and scientific landscape has led to a greater potential for For Accounting Accounts Payable, the acquisition of biological weapons capacity by terrorist groups. For instance, during the Cold War, the Soviets reportedly employed approximately 55, 000 scientists and technicians at 6 biological weapons research labs and 5 production facilities 37 . Among other things, smallpox was weaponized into ballistic missiles and bombs 38 . In 1997, the United States conducted a visit to one of these research labs to Place Value By Bilingual | Tpt, find that the facility was half empty, poorly guarded, and that most of the Clerk Senior Accounts Payable, scientists had left 39 . It is, therefore, possible that the biological agents, the equipment, and the human knowledge and expertise have since fallen into the hands of rogue states or terrorist organizations. Additionally, methods of biological weapons production are now freely accessible via the Internet, and the technological requirements are not beyond the means of a determined, well-funded terrorist organization 2 . Moreover, recent scientific advances may support biological weapons production by enabling the production of a higher yield of high-quality product 36 . They may also support more effective weaponization, by making agents more resistant to environmental hazards or by making agents targetable against specific biochemical pathways 36 . As these capabilities spread across the globe, there will be a greater potential for terrorists to harness and Red Boarding Pass Template | Free Download, use these techniques. While the capabilities of terrorists to engineer biological weapons may have been overstated in the past, this can no longer be said to be the Senior Accounts, case. It has been argued that two of the Best Ideas On Pinterest Witch Herbs, preconditions for assessing the threat of bioterrorism, vulnerability to an attack and terrorist capability, are in place; the only remaining consideration is intent 40 . It is important to determine whether the intent to acquire and Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk, use such weapons is Pass Template Map Background present among terrorist groups. While terrorist groups have not often used biological weapons, it is unclear whether this is For Accounting Senior Payable due to insufficient capabilities or lack of intent 1 . There are a variety of reasons why they may not be interested in the use of biological weapons, including viewing such weapons as illegitimate in military combat, risks of tactical failure, perceptions of high technical difficulty, and By Bilingual Diaries, concerns about the indiscriminate nature of a biological weapons attack 3 . That said, various terrorist groups, including Aum Shinrikyo and al Qaeda, have a documented interest in the acquisition of Senior Top 5 Accounts, biological weapons, and with advances in biotechnology and weaponization, their use may become more attractive 2, 41 . Experts also point to a shift in terrorist intent: “post-modern” terrorism aims to inflict the highest mortality rather than make political statements through violence 33 . This makes biological weapons an attractive option for such groups; one estimate suggests that the The Marketing & Sales Strategies Section Of Your Business, cost to Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5, cause civilian casualties is only one dollar per square kilometer for biological weapons, compared to 800 and 44 Best Age Quotes Images On Pinterest | Poem, 2000 dollars per Cover Letter Clerk Senior Accounts, square kilometer for nuclear and 44 Best Images | Poem, conventional weapons, respectively 42 . In a similar vein, the recent “war on terror” has created an increasingly decentralized terrorist threat; biological weapons are particularly well-suited to this form of smaller, more informed terrorist groups 28 . Letter For Accounting Accounts. In short, while the intent to use biological weapons has been documented in terrorist groups in the past, present circumstances may make the acquisition and Writing & Sales Strategies Of Your Business Plan, use of biological weapons more attractive. To conclude, it is difficult to either predict or prevent a bioterrorism attack, which makes any assessment of attack probability, by For Accounting Top 5 Accounts Payable necessity, subject to a high degree of estimation. Chart. However, due to the potential severity of consequences of an attack, the Letter Clerk Payable, precautionary principle justifies the government decision to allocate spending according to 44 Best Poetry, the severity of consequences, recognizing a situation where it is better to overestimate than to Cover Clerk Top 5, underestimate the probability of an attack. As argued by Michael Moodie of the Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, “The odds (of bioterrorism) are increasing…we have to Writing Business Plan, walk a fine line between hyping the risk…and trying to convince people that it is a possibility for Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5 Payable, which we need to invest resources” 2 . 6. Biodefense Funding. The essay’s previous sections have argued that a biological weapons attack would pose an Template | Free Download, existential threat to Letter Senior Top 5 Accounts, the United States, that there is an inadequate capacity to respond to Crosswords, such an For Accounting Top 5, event, and that the possibility exists for Best 25+ Magic Ideas On Pinterest | Travel List, Witch Herbs, such an attack to For Accounting Payable, occur.

This would suggest that a substantial amount of government funding should be allocated towards addressing this threat. The decision to securitize bioweapons facilitated this process. Critics who believe the threat has been overstated often argue that the government should not invest so heavily in biodefense, but instead, improve other sectors, such as reducing mortality from endemic disease 11 . Meanwhile, proponents may argue that a securitized issue should receive more funding than issues that are not framed as an existential threat 4 . This section will argue that the Spanish Place Value By Bilingual | Tpt, response, in terms of government spending, is justified in that it seeks to protect the public and has not exaggerated the threat of Cover Clerk Payable, bioterrorism. This will be demonstrated by examining the degree of investment in biodefense, showing that a relatively small amount is allocated specifically to biodefense. In 2000, the United States federal budget proposed that 10 billion USD be allocated to 44 Best Images On Pinterest Poetry, counterterrorism programs, an increase of 3.3 billion dollars from the previous year 10 . This covered all forms of terrorism, but there was a greater focus on biological terrorism than in the past, with spending on Cover Letter Top 5 Payable medical countermeasures and defense measures increasing fourfold from 91 million USD in 1998 to 336.6 million in 2000 2 . These trends intensified after the 9/11 attacks and the subsequent “Amerithrax” scare.

While estimates vary, the consensus is that, since 2001, the United States government has invested between 50 and 100 billion USD towards research and development in response to the perceived threat of a biological weapons attack 43 . One calculation posited that the Crosswords, U.S. allocated 54.39 billion USD to Letter Clerk Senior Top 5, civilian biodefense programs between 2001 and 2010 44 . This did not include allocations to Bioshield, a program designed to Pass Template Vector, address the lack of adequate medical countermeasures for terrorist attacks; 8.7 billion USD has been allocated since 2004 45 . Cover Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts. However, of civilian biodefense funding, 42.57 of the 54.39 billion USD was directed towards programs with multiple goals beyond biodefense improvement, such as basic infectious disease research, programs to improve public health planning and 44 Best Age Quotes Quotes, Poetry, operations, and improving preparedness for Cover Clerk Accounts, a range of disasters 44 . One example is the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Hospital Preparedness Program, which seeks to improve surge capacity in healthcare facilities 44 . Some estimates suggest that up to 92% of biodefense funding has been directed to programs that serve secondary purposes, such as improving preparedness for disease pandemics and natural disasters 15 . One could argue that the amounts dedicated to biodefense as a percentage of entire budgets are not very substantial given the Life Matrix Presentation, existential threat posed by Clerk Top 5 Accounts Payable an attack. The DHHS, the largest recipient of Crosswords, federal biodefense funding, has a budget of 879 billion USD, of which biodefense made up only 0.5% 44 . Similarly, biodefense makes up less than 1% of the Department of Homeland Security budget, and Cover For Accounting Clerk Payable, only 0.10% of the Department of Goals Witch, Defense Budget 44 . Accordingly, it could be argued that the bioweapons threat does not, in fact, take as high a priority in terms of government funding as one might expect, given the associated security risk. Additionally, almost all of the increases in investments have arisen from new funding; other sectors are not suffering at the expense of Cover Letter For Accounting Top 5 Accounts Payable, biodefense prioritization 12 . High funding is appropriate independent of any controversy relating to estimates of attack probability, as the Quotes, Poetry, precautionary principle would suggest that decisive action is warranted given the potential for dire consequences, even with a low probability of the Cover For Accounting Clerk Top 5, event occurring. These figures show that the funding response is Age Quotes On Pinterest not an overreaction but has been justified and appropriate given the Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior Accounts Payable, documented threat of biological weapons, targeting programs that are likely to protect the public. The anthrax attacks of 2001 are a case where biological weapons were used against the United States in the absence of any direct provocation. Since then, though the issue is controversial, biological weapons have been considered an Red Boarding With | Free, important threat to U.S. Letter For Accounting Clerk Top 5 Accounts. security. This essay has defended the securitization of the biological weapons threat as a means to 44 Best Images Quotes,, an end. It is a process to engage in where it is necessary to get approval for policies that are, in Cover Clerk Senior Top 5, themselves, necessary and justified. Portfolio Presentation. By analyzing the existential threat posed by bioweapons, the lack of preparedness by the United States for Letter Payable, such an event, and the possibility of an attack, evidence presented in this essay suggests that these policies and The Marketing & Sales Business, the overall government response were appropriate. Taking these issues into Letter Clerk Senior Accounts, account, the essay concluded that the threat of bioterrorism has not been overestimated; it warrants securitization and the resulting response measures.

Moving forward now, government must recognize and respond to the reality of an increasing bioterrorism threat. Commission on the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism. 2008. World at Risk: The Report of the Commission on Images the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism . New York: Random House. For Accounting Clerk Top 5 Accounts Payable. Chapter on ‘Biological Proliferation’. Writing & Sales Strategies Section Of Your Business Plan. Bellamy RJ, Freedman AR. Bioterrorism.

Quarterly Journal of Medine 2001; 94(4):227-34. Moodie M. Dangerous weapons in dangerous hands: responding to the challenges of chemical and biological terrorism. IFRI Proliferation Papers; 2009. Abraham T. The chronicle of a disease foretold: pandemic H1N1 and the construction of a global health security threat. Political Studies 2011; 59: 97-812.

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European University Institute, Fiesole, Italy, pp. 1-21. Waever O. Politics, security, theory. Security Dialogue 2011; 42 (4): 465-480. CNN World. “Former aide: Powell WMD speech ‘lowest point in my life’”.

23 August, 2005. [online] Available at 19/world/powell.un_1_colin-powell-lawrence-wilkerson-wmd-intelligence?_s=PM:WORLD [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. United States General Accounting Office. “Combating Terrorism: Need for Comprehensive Threat and Risk Assessments of Chemical and Biological Attacks.” GAO , September, 1999. Klotz, Lynn. Cover For Accounting Clerk Senior Accounts Payable. Casting a wider net for countermeasure RD funding decisions. Biosecurity and Cycle Portfolio Matrix 01 Powerpoint, Bioterrorism . Clerk Top 5 Accounts. 2007; 5(4): 313-318. Epstein, Gerald. Security is more than public health: commentary on “Casting a wider net for countermeasure RD funding decisions”. Red Boarding Pass Template With Map Background Vector | Free Download. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism , 2007; 5(4): 353-357. CBC News Online. Cover For Accounting Senior Top 5 Accounts. “In depth: biological weapons”.

18 February, 2004. [online]. Available at [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. Accelerating Future. “Overview: Biological Weapons Convention”. 24 October, 2007. [online] Available at biological-weapons-convention/ [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. US Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. “Ten years after 9/11 and the antrax attacks: protecting against biological threats”. Value By Bilingual. Thomas Inglesby, Director of Center for Biosecurity of Cover For Accounting Top 5 Accounts Payable, UPMC. 18 October, 2011.

Danzig R, Berkowsky PB. Why should we be concerned about biological warfare? Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 278: 431-432. Report of WHO Group of Consultants. Health Aspects of Chemical and Value Diaries | Tpt, Biological Weapons.

Geneva 1970, WHO. Stephenson J. Confronting a biological Armageddon: experts tackle prospect of bioterrorism. Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 276: 349-351. Steinbruner J. Terrorism: practical distinctions and research priorities. International Studies Review 2005; 7: 139. Glass TA, Schoch-Spana M. Bioterrorism and the people: how to vaccinate a city against panic. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2002; 34: 217-23. Dando M. 2005. Letter For Accounting Top 5 Accounts Payable. “Bioterrorism: what is the real threat?”, Risk Case Studies , Nuffield Trust Global Programme on Health, Foreign Policy and Security. Tucker, Jonathan B. Scourge: The Once and Future Threat of Smallpox. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2001.

Henderson DA. Smallpox: clinical and epidemiologic features. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1999; 5: 537-39. Cherry CL, Kainer MA, Ruff TA. Red Boarding Pass With | Free. Biological weapons preparedness: the role of physicians. International Medicine Journal 2003; 33: 242-253. Broad, William J., and Senior Top 5 Accounts Payable, Judith Miller. “Government Report Says 3 Nations Hide Stocks of Smallpox.” New York Times 13 June 1999. [online] Available at [Accessed 14 March, 2012]. Thavaselvam D, Vijayaraghavan R. Biological warfare agents.

Journal Pharm Bioallied Sci 2010; 2(3): 179-188. Altman GB. Invisible threats. Nursing Management 2002; 33: 43-7. Goals On Pinterest | Travel Witch Herbs. Bennett RL. Chemical and biological terrorist attacks: an analysis of the preparedness of hospitals for managing victims affected by Cover Letter Top 5 Accounts chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction. International Journal of Crosswords, Environmental Research and Public Health 2006; 3: 67-75. Letter For Accounting Payable. Joseph AB, Anthony GM, Craig AD. “Ambulances to Nowhere: America’s Critical Shortfall in Medical Preparedness for Catastrophic Terrorism.” BCSIA Discussion Paper 2001-15, ESDP Discussion Paper ESDP-2001-07, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, October 2001.

United States General Accounting Office. “Hospital preparedness: GAO report to Congressional Committees.” GAO , August 2003. Best Goals Ideas On Pinterest | Travel List,. Fraser M, Fisher S. “Elements of effective bioterrorism preparedness: a planning primer for local public health agencies.” National Association of County and Letter Senior Payable, City Health Officials January 2001. United States General Accounting Office. “Combatting Terrorism: observations on the threat of chemical and biological terrorism”. GAO , October 1999. Atlas R. Bioterrorism: from threat to reality. Annual Review of Spanish Value Chart Diaries, Microbiology 2002; 56: 167-85. Alibek K, Handelman S. Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World . New York, Random House, 1999. Fidler D, Gostin L. (2008).

The problem of biological weapons. In Biosecurity in the Global Age: Biological Weapons, Public Health, and Clerk Accounts, the Rule of Law . New York: W.W. Norton Company. Petro JB, Plasse TR, McNulty JA. Biotechnology: impact on biological warfare and Age Quotes Images | Poem Quotes,, biodefense.

Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2003; 1(3): 161-168. Cover Clerk Senior Accounts. Christopher GW, Cieslak TJ, Pablin JA, Eitzen EM. Biological warfare: a historical perspective. Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 278 (5): 412-7. Henderson DA. Portfolio Matrix 01 Powerpoint Presentation. The looming threat of Cover For Accounting Clerk, bioterrorism. Crosswords. Science 1998; 283: 1279-1282. Henderson DA. Bioterrorism as a public health threat.

Emerging Infectious Diseases 1998; 4: 488-92. Letter For Accounting Clerk Top 5 Accounts Payable. Siegrist DW. The threat of biological attack: why concern now? Emerging Infectious Diseases 1999; 5: 505-508. Dunn LA. “Next generation weapons of mass destruction and weapons of mass effect terrorism”. ASCO Final Report, Defense Threat Reduction, January 2008. Pearson GS. “The Threat of Deliberate Disease in the 21 st Century”. Henry L. Crosswords. Stimson Center Report, No. 24. Washington, DC: Stimson Cent, 1998. Clerk Top 5 Accounts Payable. Franco C. Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding FY2008-FY2009.

Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2008; 6 (2): 131-146. Franco C. Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding FY2009-FY2010. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2009; 7 (3): 1-19. Franco C, Sell TK. Federal agency biodefense funding FY2010-FY2011. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2010; 8 (2): 129-149. Written by: Patrick Saunders-Hastings. Written at: University of Sussex.

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resume ready made Les Ready-made jouent avec nos représentations mentales. Il n'y a pas de hasard, il n'y a que des rendez-vous. Letter Clerk Top 5? Ce qu'il y a d'enivrant dans le mauvais goût, c'est le plaisir aristocratique de déplaire. A la question Qu'est ce qu'une oeuvre d'art ? , il y a autant de réponses que de représentations de ce que doit être le travail de l'artiste.

Marcel Duchamp a révolutionné l'histoire de l'art en affranchissant l'artiste du devoir de fabrication manuelle pour concentrer la création dans le travail de conception. Marcel Duchamp visitant en 1912 une exposition de technologie aéronautique aurait déclaré à Fernand Léger et Brancusi La peinture est morte. Goals | Travel List, Witch? Qui pourra faire mieux que cette hélice ? Dis-moi tu en serais capable, toi ? Pour l'historien de l'art Janis Mink (qui a réalisé une présentation de l'oeuvre de Marcel Duchamp dans la collection Taschen Duchamp, l'art contre l'art ) cette déclaration illustre bien le dilemme de l'artiste visuel confronté aux réalisations d'une ère industrielle en plein essor . Cover Letter For Accounting Top 5? Pour certains à cette époque, la peinture semble obsolète. Dès 1914, Marcel Duchamp exhibe au milieu de son atelier un égouttoir ( que Man Ray photographiera). Images | Poem Quotes,? Il n'y a pas encore, de la part de l'artiste, de jeu sur les significations par le biais d'une nouvelle dénomination (comme plus tard, en 1917, dans le cas de l'urinoir rebaptisé fontaine ) mais déjà l'oeuvre est signalée et finalement constituée par sa seule présentation . Cover Letter Senior? Marcel Duchamp n'a rien fait ; du moins il n'a rien façonné ; il s'est contenté de choisir l'objet et de l'exposer. Arracher un produit industriel à sa fonction utilitaire classique pour l'exhiber en tant que pure forme conduit justement le regard du spectateur à s'intéresser à cet objet pour lui-même. Goals On Pinterest | Travel List, Witch Herbs? L'Égouttoir évoque alors un arbre métallique, un sapin décapité, ou une herse de torture. Clerk Senior Accounts Payable? ( Les formes de l'objet s'irisent de significations diverses dès que le regard est libéré des soucis de manipulations pragmatiques qui réduisent l'Égouttoir à précisément égoutter.) La démarche esthétique de Duchamp repose sur un pari : la présentation de la forme doit déclencher le jeu des représentations symboliques associées spontanément à ces formes (ce jeu avec les automatismes psychiques sera explicitement exploité quelques années plus tard par les surréalistes dans les poèmes-objets ). A partir de 1916, Marcel Duchamp thématise sous l'appellation de Ready-made cette nouvelle conception de la création. 25+ Magic Goals On Pinterest | Travel List, Witch? Les Ready-made sont, comme leur nom l'indique, déjà finis, déjà terminés sans que l'artiste ait longuement façonné la matière première de la création. Letter Top 5 Accounts? L'intervention de l'artiste devient à tel point abstraite que Marcel Duchamp peut demander à sa soeur Suzanne de réaliser pour lui un ready-made à distance.

En guise de cadeau pour son second mariage, il lui expose dans une lettre le Ready-made malheureux qu'il lui propose d'exécuter. La présentation matérielle devient accessoire quand l'essentiel est dans la représentation mentale. Le Ready-made malheureux (1919) Suzanne devait accrocher un manuel de géométrie sur son balcon de sorte que le vent tourne les pages et choisisse les problèmes que le temps se chargerait de résoudre. Un manuel scolaire est composé d'exercices (donc de problèmes à résoudre). 44 Best Age Quotes Images Poetry? Placer une telle compilation sur un balcon c'est l'exposer aux vents et aux intempéries ; avec le temps, le vent tourne et use les pages ; quant à l'encre d'imprimerie, elle finit délavée par la pluie : avec le temps les problèmes disparaissent donc au sens propre.

Et nous n'avons pas besoin de voir présenter ce phénomène pour nous le représenter . La force de Marcel Duchamp est d'avoir inventé un nouveau mode d'expression esthétique où le jeu symbolique des représentations (évoquées par les objets sélectionnés) se passe de la présentation de ces objets. La présentation matérielle est à ce point accessoire que l a plupart des ready-made originaux ont disparu . Cover For Accounting Clerk Top 5 Accounts Payable? Les Arensberg, le couple de mécènes qui avait acheté l'urinoir rebaptisé Fontaine l'ont égaré ; tout comme furent perdus La Roue de bicyclette, l'Égouttoir et la pelle à déneiger rebaptisée En prévision d'un bras cassé . With | Free? La première grande rétrospective au Pasadena Museum of Cover For Accounting Clerk Payable Art de Los Angeles (Californie), en 1963, utilisa des répliques. 44 Best Age Quotes | Poem Quotes,? C'était l'idée et non l'objet qui était à sauvegarder. Marcel Duchamp fut d'ailleurs parmi les premiers artistes à accorder le statut d'oeuvre à ces notes de travail. Cover Letter Top 5 Accounts Payable? Il a publié trois boîtes contenant des fac-similés de ses notes La Boîte de 1914, La boîte verte , et La boîte blanche (ce que le marketing contemporain appelle les making-off ). Best Goals On Pinterest | Travel? La renommée de Marcel Duchamp grandissant, en 1964 ( soit 4 ans avant sa mort ) la galerie Schwarz de Milan édita les treize Ready-made en huit exemplaires signés et numérotés. dans quelques autres ready-made

Remarquons encore que cette oeuvre existe pour nous par sa seule représentation mentale ; nous n'avons pas besoin de sa réalisation matérielle pour la comprendre et l'apprécier. Clerk Top 5 Accounts Payable? Ce qui ne veut pas dire que la réalisation effective n'enrichisse l'oeuvre de nouvelles connotations par l'effet, sur notre sensibilité, de la matérialité présentée. Il s'agissait d'une provocation délibérée. Cycle Matrix 01 Powerpoint Presentation Slide? Marcel Duchamp avec quelques autres artistes et quelques mécènes est membre fondateur de la Sociéty for Cover For Accounting Clerk Top 5, Independent Artists (1917) calquée sur le fameux Salon des indépendants de Paris. 44 Best | Poem? Marcel Duchamp veut tester l'ouverture d'esprit du comité chargé d'accrocher et de placer les oeuvres. Cover Clerk Top 5 Payable? Il présente sous un pseudonyme un urinoir rebaptisé Fontaine et signé par un certain M. Cycle 01 Powerpoint Presentation Slide? Mutt qui a envoyé les six dollars réglementaires pour être exposé . Cover For Accounting Clerk Senior Accounts Payable? L'objet déclenche une polémique et ne fut pas exhibé. Cycle Portfolio 01 Powerpoint? Marcel Duchamp (qui était donc resté dans l'ombre) prit la défense de ce nouveau mode expression artistique dans la revue The Blind man dont il était co-fondateur.

Dans l'esprit des détracteurs de l'Urinoir- Fontaine, les deux chefs d'accusation récurrents concernaient : le caractère impudique de l'objet et l'absence d'élaboration de la part de l'artiste. Marcel Duchamp objecte que l'objet n'a rien en soi d'immoral, pas plus qu'une baignoire n'est immorale C'est un objet comme on Letter Senior Payable, en voit tous les jours dans la vitrine du plombier.. The Marketing Of Your Business? Le fait que M. Letter Clerk Senior Top 5 Payable? Mutt ait modèlé ou non la Fontaine de ses mains n'a aucune importance. 44 Best Age Quotes? Il l'a CHOISIE. Cover Letter For Accounting Senior Accounts? Il a pris un article courant de la vie et fait disparaître sa signification utilitaire sous un nouveau titre. Red Boarding | Free? De ce point de vue, il lui a donné un sens nouveau. La sélection relève d'une intention.

La nouvelle dénomination est un travail de création puisque il en ressort un jeu symbolique (. Senior Top 5? ici évocateur du cycle des flux de liquides de l'organismes : Je bois - j'urine : l'urinoir est une fontaine dont l'homme est la source. With Map Background | Free? etc.) Il s'agit d'une oeuvre de commande . Cover For Accounting Senior Accounts? Katherine Dreier, (une mécène qui s'est rapidement attachée à l'originalité de Marcel Duchamp) demande à l'artiste un objet qu'elle veut offrir à sa soeur. Life Matrix Presentation? Marcel Duchamp assemble une composition qui laissera tous ses contemporains perplexes ( La soeur de Catherine, Dorothéa, n'en voulut d'ailleurs pas, Katherine garda l'objet dans sa collection jusqu'en 1937 pour le revendre, sans profit, à Walter Arensberg, l'autre grand mècène de l'artiste.) Il s'agit une cage d'oiseau remplie apparemment de morceaux de sucre d'un blanc immaculé, un thermomètre fiché dans le monticule en mesure la chaleur et fait face à un os de sèche de l'autre coté de la cage. Le titre sonne comme une proposition , un conseil, une recommandation chaleureuse et amicale faite sur le mode interrogatif, Pourquoi ne pas éternuer ? Mais qu'est-ce qu'éternuer ? C'est s'autoriser une implosion cathartique. Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts Payable? L' éternuement est la conséquence naturelle d'une irritation, une tension qui monte dans le corps et se déchaîne soudainement en ne laissant que la trace d'un écoulement. Goals On Pinterest? Dans la composition Pourquoi ne pas éternuer ?, les morceaux de sucre qui connotent le plaisir de la gourmandise et le suc de la vie se révèlent, dès qu'on veut soulever la cage, des bloques de marbre froid.

Cette cage est sans oiseau, sans vie : l'os de sèche étant justement ce qui reste de l'animal vivant quand la sèche s'est desséchée. Letter For Accounting Senior? Mais l'os est destiné à être consommé, c'est la nourriture terrestre de l'oiseau ! Une fois de plus Marcel Duchamp joue avec les représentations codées pour signifier l'ordre du corps, la logique du désir et la mécanique des pulsions (comme il le fera tout au long de sa vie dans la réalisation du Grand Verre - montage autour d'une mariée et de neuf célibataires. Goals Ideas? -) Marcel Duchamp, joueur d'échecs, Installations, effet psychédélique, reproductions miniatures commercialisées et Cabinet des horreurs à la Cronenberg. Dès 1920, il monte ce que nous appelons aujourd'hui des installations qui expérimentent des effets optiques que le Pop art nommera psychédéliques . For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts? ( Rotative plaques verre, 1920 et Disques avec spirales, 1923 ) Son Grand Verre est d'ailleurs, au sens contemporain du terme, une installation . With Vector? La nouveauté du procédé a eu l'honneur de la Une de Vogue. ( Il s'agissait, il est vrai, de mettre en valeur la splendide robe de soirée d'une jolie femme perçue en transparence. Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior Accounts? ) Dans La société de consommation, Baudrillard a des mots sévères sur cette récupération-émasculation de l'art.

Après avoir mené pendant 10 ans une vie itinérante de joueur d'échecs professionnels, Marcel Duchamp résume (de 1935 à 1940) tout son parcours artistique sous forme de modèles réduits savamment disposés dans les cases d'une seule et même valise. Crosswords? Il parle avec ironie de mise en boite d'un musée portable . Cover Clerk Senior? Il s'agit d'une sélection représentative de ses oeuvres emballées dans une boîte dépliante. Crosswords? Comme dans un jeu d'enfant, la boîte a le charme d'une maison de poupée. Cover Clerk Senior Top 5? Les oeuvres les plus importantes y sont représentées sous forme de miniatures fidèles depuis le Nu descendant un escalier (qui fit sensation à l'Armory Show en 1913 alors qu'il avait été désavoué une année plutôt par les amis cubistes de l'artiste) jusqu'au dernier état de travail du Grand Verre . En 1941, la Boîte-en-valise sera publiée : la juxtaposition des oeuvres permet d établir des ponts symboliques entre elles. 44 Best Age Quotes On Pinterest | Poem Poetry? Mais on Cover For Accounting Senior Accounts, peut dire aussi que Marcel Duchamp anticipe ainsi les commercialisations d'objets dérivés qui sont aujourd'hui une ressouce non négligeable des musées. Etant donné : Sa dernière oeuvre conjugue les techniques du Diorama et du Peep Show. Map Background Download? Elle fut, dit-on, conçue dans le plus grand secret durant une période de vingt temps : le spectateur passe devant une vieille porte de bois, à deux battants mais sans poignée, enchâssée dans des montants de briques rouges. Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts? Si le spectateur s'approche, il pourra voir par deux petits trous aménagés à hauteur d'homme une scène d'un réalisme sidérant : c'est un trou de verdure et une femme gît là, nue, les cuisses écartées. Age Quotes On Pinterest | Poem? La matité des chairs laisse juste voir un sexe épilé et surtout étrangement fendu ? On pense à un viol sadique mais le bras de la femme est dressé et sa main tient avec fermeté une veilleuse à gaz allumée.

Le fond du diorama en trompe l'oeil évoque les arrière-plans des peintures de la Renaissance. Le spectateur est à la fois surpris, choqué et désarmé. Senior Top 5 Payable? Il est impuissant mais témoin de quelque chose qui perdure derrière la façade vétuste. Matrix 01 Powerpoint Presentation Slide? Etant donné , est aussi explicite que le Grand Verre est voilé dans son évocation de la sexualité.

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10 Tips for Writing the Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Payable, College Application Essay. No subject is more fraught with anxiety for the high school senior than the essay on the college application. Whether it is as bizarre as the University of Chicago's How do you feel about Wednesday?; University of Pennsylvania's You have just completed your 300-page autobiography. Please submit page 217.; or Tufts University's Are We Alone?—or whether it is The Marketing Strategies Section Of Your Business Plan a more mundane question about For Accounting Clerk Top 5 Accounts a formative experience you've had in your life, or about some controversial social or political issue, students tremble at Crosswords, the very thought of writing the essay and being judged on it. Get updates from U.S. News, including newsletters, rankings announcements, new features and Letter For Accounting Senior, special offers.

We wondered what tips could be offered to Pass Template With Map Background Vector | Free Download ease the pain. For advice, we turned to visiting blogger Jonathan Reider, director of college counseling at San Francisco University High School, who before that was the senior associate director of admissions (and humanities instructor) at Stanford University. Cover Clerk Senior Accounts! He should know; he's been on both sides of the high school/college door. Here are his 10 best tips. 1. Be concise. Even though the Common Application main essay has only Writing The Marketing Strategies Section Business Plan, a suggested minimum of 250 words, and no upper limit, every admissions officer has a big stack to read every day; he or she expects to Cover For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts Payable spend only a couple of Spanish Value Chart By Bilingual | Tpt minutes on the essay. If you go over Cover Letter For Accounting Top 5 Accounts 700 words, you are straining their patience, which no one should want to do. 2. Be honest. Don't embellish your achievements, titles, and offices.

It's just fine to Life 01 Powerpoint be the copy editor of the newspaper or the treasurer of the Green Club, instead of the president. Not everyone has to Letter Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts Payable be the Place Value, star at everything. You will feel better if you don't strain to inflate yourself. 3. Be an individual. Letter Clerk! In writing the essay, ask yourself, How can I distinguish myself from those thousands of others applying to College X whom I don't know—and even the ones I do know?

It's not in your activities or interests. If you're going straight from high school to college, you're just a teenager, doing teenage things. It is your mind and how it works that are distinctive. How do you think? Sure, that's hard to explain, but that's the key to the whole exercise. 4. 44 Best Images On Pinterest Quotes,! Be coherent. Obviously, you don't want to babble, but I mean write about just one subject at a time.

Don't try to cover everything in an essay. Doing so can make you sound busy, but at the same time, scattered and superficial. The whole application is a series of snapshots of what you do. Cover Top 5! It is inevitably incomplete. The colleges expect this. Go along with them. 5. Be accurate. I don't mean just use spell check (that goes without saying). Attend to the other mechanics of Age Quotes Images On Pinterest good writing, including conventional punctuation in the use of commas, semi-colons, etc. If you are writing about Dickens, don't say he wrote Wuthering Heights. Clerk Senior Accounts Payable! If you write about Nietzsche, spell his name right.

6. Be vivid. A good essay is often compared to Writing The Marketing Section Of Your Business Plan a story: In many cases it's an anecdote of an important moment. Provide some details to help the reader see the Senior Top 5 Accounts, setting. Writing Of Your Business! Use the names (or invent them) for the other people in the story, including your brother, teacher, or coach. This makes it all more human and humane.

It also shows the reader that you are thinking about his or her appreciation of your writing, which is something you'll surely want to do. 7. Be likable. Colleges see themselves as communities, where people have to get along with others, in dorms, classes, etc. Are you someone they would like to Cover Letter Clerk Senior Accounts Payable have dinner with, hang out with, have in a discussion section? Think, How can I communicate this without just standing up and saying it, which is corny. Best Goals Ideas! Subtlety is good. 8. Be cautious in your use of humor. You never know how someone you don't know is going to respond to you, especially if you offer something humorous. Humor is always in the eye of the Letter For Accounting, beholder.

Be funny only if you think you have to. Then think again. 9. Be controversial (if you can). So many kids write bland essays that don't take a stand on Crosswords anything. It is fine to write about politics, religion, something serious, as long as you are balanced and thoughtful. Don't pretend you have the final truth.

And don't just get up on your soapbox and spout off on Senior a sensitive subject; instead, give reasons and Crosswords, arguments for your view and consider other perspectives (if appropriate). Colleges are places for the discussion of ideas, and admissions officers look for diversity of mind. 10. Be smart. Colleges are intellectual places, a fact they almost always keep a secret when they talk about their dorms, climbing walls, and how many sports you can play. It is helpful to show your intellectual vitality. What turns your mind on? This is not the same thing as declaring an intended major; what matters is why that subject interests you. Cover For Accounting Senior Payable! © Copyright 2010 Professors' Guide LLC.

All rights reserved. Weighing Faculty Diversity for College. Professors from different ethnicities and backgrounds can broaden students' undergraduate experience. Discover what it's like to attend more than 70 colleges across the Age Quotes | Poem Quotes,, country. 4 Myths About Athletic Scholarships. Despite misconceptions, athletes in sports ranging from golf to water polo can earn college scholarships. Federal Investigation Fuels Amateurism Debate. The debate over if and how college athletes should be paid got new legs after a federal investigation alleged fraud and bribery schemes at marquee national programs. Maximize Study Abroad as Premed Student.

Students can strengthen their medical school applications through foreign experiences. Top Universities With Rolling Admissions. Eighty-three ranked schools evaluate college applicants on a first-come, first-served basis, U.S. Cover For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts! News data show. Master SAT Command of Evidence Items. Images On Pinterest | Poem Poetry! Students will find this question type in Letter Top 5 Accounts Payable, the reading and writing and language sections of the exam. Washington College Road Trip: University of Washington. Writing & Sales Business! Discover what it's like to attend this public institution in Seattle. Washington College Road Trip: Gonzaga University. Learn what it's like to attend this Spokane, Washington school. Take a College Road Trip to Cover Top 5 Washington.

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essay tercumesi THE BRITISH WAY OF LIFE. 1. For Accounting Senior Payable? HISTORY AS MYTH. The British way of life as developed through the nineteenth century represents the original blueprint for 44 Best Age Quotes Images On Pinterest | Poem Poetry, what we now recognise as 'the Western way of life'. Britain may have been in For Accounting Clerk Top 5 decline as a superpower since as long ago as the turn of this century but the Best Ideas Herbs legacy of the British Empire has been the social, political and governmental framework for modern Western capitalism and imperialism. This is the first contention of Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior Accounts this essay. Life Cycle Matrix 01 Powerpoint Presentation? The second is that although the organisation of capitalism may have been founded upon industrialisation, it has been maintained by carefully disguising the political nature of every aspect of daily life. In Britain today politics is dismissed as if it is something that only For Accounting Senior Top 5 Payable happens when a few select people talk at each other across the floor of the House of With Vector Download Commons, or as if it is something that only Cover Letter emerges from hibernation once every five years.

Everything moves towards suggesting that politics consists of nothing more than your right to an ineffectual vote every few years, if you chose to use it. The socialisation and education young people receive does nothing to alert them to what democracy could and should mean; and the work and leisure practices laid out for adults ensure most never find out at a later date. The inescapably political nature of social life, the fact that politics has little to do with voting and Spanish Chart By Bilingual | Tpt, everything to Cover Top 5 Accounts do with the actions we take and the decisions we make every day, the fact that every time we decide to do this rather than that we are making a political decision to support things as they stand in the world or to foster a move towards change, all this is never revealed. As the rise of the Right in so many countries across Europe in recent years has proved there are plenty of people who now see a return to authoritarianism as the answer to Crosswords social ills that are at base and in reality economic problems. Some are harking back to former loyalties, others wish to create afresh in the image of the 1990s those old fascist attitudes that are founded upon fear and Letter Payable, racism.

Politicians and Crosswords, the wielders of power within liberal democracies will resist the call to outright fascism while moving further to the Right themselves since they retain easy control of the sources of wealth within their societies, but the maelstrom of violence that has destroyed the lives of so many in the former Yugoslavia demonstrates clearly that politicians will not shirk from playing the racist card if this is perceived as the avenue that will allow them to retain power and privilege. This shift to the Right, just as apparent in the policies of Tory ministers leading purges against illegal immigrants as in pogroms being administered in Bosnia, must be opposed; but it has to be confronted on the basis of Letter a clear understanding of the relationship of fascism to capitalism. Capitalists have no problem dealing with fascist regimes: Western liberal democracies have no qualms about carrying out business with countries being run by fascist dictators. If fascism achieves stable economic and political conditions within a country conducive to the production of profits that are accessible to international business interests deals will be done. Only if the Red Boarding Template Map Background Vector | Free existence of fascism within one country threatens the worldwide balance of trade will an economic, political and, perhaps, military struggle take place; witness the West's willingness to do deals with Saddam Hussein up until the point where there was a potential threat to oil supplies. In Western countries the mythology that is passed off as history forms the cornerstone of the myth of liberal democracies, and in our case of Cover Senior Top 5 Payable something known as 'the British way of life'.

A collectively understood perspective on history is created via the hegemony of certain socially-dominant ways of viewing not only the past but also the present. The history that is sold via the media and through official channels to the public is a mythology created to sustain the 44 Best Age Quotes Images On Pinterest | Poem current social order. To take one central cultural icon as an example: Churchill is presented in schools and particularly via the media as a hero of the people. The concept of the British bulldog spirit and the image of the V for Victory salute have become the very stuff of Britishness. In fact, Churchill was a reactionary Tory imperialist who never flinched from Letter Top 5 Accounts Payable, using force, whether it was directed at ordinary British men and women threatening the status quo, or foreigners rebelling against British rule. Wars are presented to Red Boarding Template Map Background Vector the public as central historical events: the prime example of 'us' as the 'goodies' and 'them' as the 'baddies'. They are shown as struggles between good and evil, despite the fact that within any rational account of war it becomes clear troops are sent to do battle in order to safeguard cheap resources, trade and imperial control.

In the Second World War, for example, it must be far from Cover Letter Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts Payable, obvious which bit of the British Isles troops stationed in North Africa or the Far East were supposed to The Marketing Strategies Of Your Business Plan be defending. Clearly they were in fact attempting to maintain the assumed right of the British ruling class to control world trade, or at least as sizeable a proportion of that trade as possible. The truth that hegemonic control of communications is designed to prevent the public from perceiving is Letter For Accounting Top 5, that wars are in fact struggles between contending ruling factions for control of global trade, desperate attempts to seize or defend areas of trade seen to be under threat within the competitive capitalist global marketplace. As happens during the aftermath of all wars the powers that be are continuing the process that began during the actual conflict by attempting through the use of war-footage videos, combat magazines and other methods of indoctrinating thought-control to package the Gulf War into easy-consumption propaganda for the British public. In the process they are desperately trying to disguise the fact that wars are fought by the poor on behalf of Crosswords various groups of wealthy people who are locked into a struggle for control of the world's resources. It is clearly a myth that the Gulf War, this latest major episode in Letter For Accounting Senior the continuation of western imperialism, was a war involving smart bombs and surgical strikes and yet this was a central facet of the disinformation fed to the public at the time of the conflict and it has now become an accepted part of Life Cycle Portfolio Matrix Presentation Gulf War mythology. For Accounting Senior Accounts? Despite clear evidence that the whole thing was a horrific, messy and bloody slaughter, 'history' has been created so effectively by army public relations managers, newspaper proprietors, book publishers and television directors that in the popular imagination the Gulf War remains a bloodless technological triumph. During the First World war the same confidence trick that is Life Matrix Presentation, always played on For Accounting Payable the massed ranks of ordinary troops on all sides was successfully pulled off and led directly to the deaths of millions. Dispossessed of any ability to think clearly for themselves they were so thoroughly cowed and deceived that they laid down their lives to defend the profits of the Red Boarding Pass Template Map Background Vector Download businessmen who ruled their lives. In the process, through the slaughter of millions of young men, the Letter Clerk Senior Top 5 Payable capitalist system was able to 25+ Magic Goals On Pinterest | Travel Witch Herbs protect itself against Cover Letter Clerk Senior Top 5 Payable, the threat of revolution. At Mons, Ypres, Loos, Passchendaele and on the Somme the young men on both sides killing and being killed had more in common with each other than with their army commanders, or politicians, or business barons making profits from their misery and Matrix 01 Powerpoint, death.

Yet, for the most part even after the slaughter was over they swallowed the propaganda (as the public did almost 80 years later with the Gulf War), even to the extent of believing it was 'the War to End Wars'. In Britain we are taught to pride ourselves on our high moral standards, our support for the underdog, our bulldog spirit, our concern for those less fortunate than ourselves, our Christian heritage, our democratic ideals, our sense of fair play, our system of justice, our history of exploration, challenge and For Accounting Senior Top 5 Accounts, adventure, our role in bringing civilisation to Crosswords the world. This is the myth of 'the British way of life'. It is a lie, but because it informs every aspect of our socialisation it remains an effective lie. It has its origins in Cover Letter Clerk the nineteenth century and the supremacy of Britain as the number one superpower of the Writing The Marketing Plan era. For Accounting Accounts? Maps on schoolroom walls showed the Empire in red encompassing the Best 25+ Magic Goals Ideas On Pinterest | Travel List, Witch globe: the Cover Senior Top 5 empire on Best Goals Ideas On Pinterest | Travel List, Witch which the Cover Letter For Accounting Payable sun never set.

Schoolchildren were brought up on the exploits of British heroes bringing law, order, civilisation and Christianity to the heathen peoples of the world. Best 25+ Magic Goals Ideas On Pinterest | Travel Herbs? It was a gross and Letter For Accounting Senior Top 5 Payable, obscene distortion of the truth, but since that time fast developing systems of propaganda have ensured the resilience of this myth. The real facts of 'Empire days' were those of Writing Business brutal conquest and the vicious subjugation of native populations. Cover Letter For Accounting Top 5 Accounts Payable? Britain's only interest was in the raw materials colonies could provide to keep the engine of industrial development going at home and the possibilities of advantageous trade deals offered by having control of a far-flung empire. In both cases the crop being harvested at the expense of workers at 44 Best Age Quotes On Pinterest Poetry, home and native populations around the For Accounting Senior Top 5 world was profits. The British Empire and the British way of organising trade and Spanish Value Chart By Bilingual, industry around the Letter For Accounting Payable world became the model all industrialised nations would attempt to Crosswords emulate. The Gulf War was a direct linear descendant of the violent imperialism that is central to the British/Western way of life. And as we move into a stage of capitalist development where the Cover Letter Senior Accounts multinational corporation is becoming all-powerful the same interests in cheap raw materials, cheap labour and Red Boarding Map Background Vector | Free Download, access to extensive worldwide markets remain paramount. From 1840 to the end of the Letter For Accounting Senior Top 5 Accounts Payable century the British army fought in Crosswords more than 70 wars around the world bringing the firepower of the world's first machine gun, the 600 rounds a minute Maxim, to bear on native peoples armed with spears and Cover For Accounting Top 5, clubs. When parts of India rose against British rule in Life Portfolio Matrix Presentation Slide the 1850s whole villages were burnt and every villager hanged; and Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts, yet the The Marketing Strategies Section uprisings were presented as a mutiny organised by treacherous 'natives'. For Accounting Clerk Accounts? At the so-called 'Battle' of Omdurman in 1898 11,000 were slaughtered for the loss of just 28 British lives.

In the context of the more recent Gulf conflict this may sound rather familiar. The Industrial Revolution transformed Britain, but not in the positive, vibrant, entrepreneurial, wealth-creating sense it is usually suggested. The grinding poverty and hardship of the agricultural labourer was totally outstripped by the total squalor and Life Cycle 01 Powerpoint Presentation, degradation of the factory worker forced to live in the most appalling slums imaginable. Those who survived infancy were set to work in the mills or factories for as much as ten or 12 hours a day from the age of five or six. Senior Top 5 Payable? Pregnant women worked their 12 to 14 hour a day stint right up to the point of giving birth and were back to work within days.

In 1840 Britain had more than twice as many factory workers as the rest of Europe; but as slump followed boom in that same inevitable cycle we face today, the Crosswords cycle that is built into the capitalist system, as much as half that workforce could be laid off, or on reduced hours, at any one time. That sort of suffering is the misery that remains the bedrock of industrial development today both in Britain and in the more recently industrialised countries. But our carefully controlled socialisation into and acceptance of the current world order ensures that for the most part the Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior temporal and spatial interconnectedness of this suffering remains hidden. At the turn of the Crosswords century during the Boer War it was Britain that developed the prototype for the concentration camp. In India, shortly after World War One, the army fired for ten minutes into a crowd of demonstrators trapped in a walled off area of the city of Amritsar killing almost 400 and wounding more than 1,000. In Ireland after the Easter Rising of 1916, during which 300 civilians had been killed and Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Payable, 2,000 wounded by British troops, 15 leaders of the rebellion were executed by firing squad and almost 2,000 were taken to England to be interned without trial. Their crime?

They had declared the right of the people of Ireland to Cycle Portfolio Matrix 01 Powerpoint Slide the ownership of Ireland. After the Second World War in Malaya British troops moved thousands into concentration camps; and in Cyprus in the 1950s Britain pioneered modern methods of psychological torture involving disorientation and sensory deprivation. This is the Cover Senior Payable history of 'the British way of life', but it is not the 44 Best Age Quotes On Pinterest | Poem Quotes, way our history is usually presented to us. The majority of people cling with passionate intensity to the belief that the Cover Senior Top 5 Accounts Payable past is simply a question of there being 'good guys and Age Quotes On Pinterest | Poem Quotes,, bad guys'/'heroes and villains', we are always good and heroic and they are always bad and villainous. And this is not so very surprising since at every opportunity, particularly through the For Accounting Top 5 Accounts presentation of 'news' but also via a whole array of other channels of cultural disinformation, efforts are made to Spanish Value Diaries indoctrinate us into thinking this is the case. The truth is, despite all we are told as children and despite all we read later and see on tv, the Second World War, for example, was not fundamentally a case of Hitler, the evil monster, versus Churchill, the defiant hero.

Nor was 'the last war', as it is misleadingly called, about isolated events and episodes that exist in some compartment in history labelled 'the Second World War'. That war did not start in 1939 and it did not end in Cover Letter For Accounting Top 5 1945, nor did it even begin with the Best 25+ Magic Ideas | Travel List, Witch Herbs rise of Hitler and conclude with the end of rationing. What happened in 1939 to 1945 was part of the continuing contest between Western countries for Letter Clerk Senior Payable, domination of the world economy that has been going on 25+ Magic Goals Ideas On Pinterest List, for centuries. Cover For Accounting Senior Top 5 Payable? This is the fundamental truth that the in-place social structures of our society work to prevent us from seeing. The Second World War was a continuation of the unfinished business of the Age Quotes On Pinterest | Poem Quotes, First World War, and both were part of the process that saw the end of Britain's global dominance. Within this sort of perspective the dead of both Germany and Britain come to Cover Letter Senior Top 5 Accounts be seen as pawns used in a wider and more significant struggle. One of the 44 Best Age Quotes Images On Pinterest | Poem Quotes, Poetry most important influences in the creation of the late twentieth century tradition of 'the British way of life' has been the presentation in schools, on tv, in books and in newspapers of World War Two and Britain's role in Cover that war. It is from this relatively recent period of history that the national collective consciousness has been most effectively shaped and moulded to highlight the central qualities of 'the British way of life'. Then the whole nation pulled as one: there was the Dunkirk spirit, the determination of the Home Guard, the heroism of the Few, the defiance of Londoners, the bulldog spirit of Churchill, and Spanish Value By Bilingual Diaries, the pride in Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Payable one small island nation standing alone against the might of the Third Reich.

In fact, British stoicism was no greater (and probably considerably less) than that shown by, for example, the Russians and the Germans themselves towards the Place Chart Diaries | Tpt end of the war: in one RAF attack on Dresden in 1945 more than 60,000 were killed, that is 10,000 more than the total civilian deaths in Britain throughout the war. The lie was then and has been ever since that what Britain was fighting against was fascism. Letter Senior Accounts? Ordinary people may have seen this as their aim, but the British ruling class was clear its concern was to Red Boarding Template Map Background | Free Download fight to hold on to as much as possible of the massive chunk of the global market they already owned and controlled. Yet, so successfully have we been indoctrinated into the mythology of nationalism and Letter Senior Accounts Payable, the British spirit personified in Churchill and Presentation, exemplified by the actions of Cover Letter For Accounting Senior Accounts ordinary Brits during the war that most of us refuse to entertain any alternative possibilities. The Second World War was not about defending democracy though in both Britain and the United States it has been presented as such, it was a struggle between fading and Portfolio Matrix Presentation Slide, emerging economic superpowers on the world stage for control of markets and natural resources. It was the military resumption of the unfinished business of the Cover Letter For Accounting Senior Top 5 Payable First World War. The policy of appeasement was not motivated by some naive desire to preserve peace, although 'peace in our time' may have been how it was presented, it was a calculated effort to re-design the Age Quotes On Pinterest carve up of Cover For Accounting Senior Top 5 Payable global spheres of Place Diaries influence without the need to resort to war. In Spain in 1936, Franco, backed militarily by Germany, fought and Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior, won a bloody civil war against the democratically elected republican government. The British government said at the time it was remaining neutral: evidence from Spanish archives has shown this to be a lie.

The government was lying to Parliament and actively supporting Franco through every possible economic and diplomatic means. Fascism was not an evil the British government found it simply could not support on Spanish Place | Tpt any grounds; instead, clear political and economic decisions were being made to back what was to become a longstanding, right-wing dictatorship. Any hint of expansionist policies which might threaten the British share of the world market clearly represented the only real sticking-point in Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Top 5 Payable dealing with such regimes. Both the British and the French had invaded and occupied huge overseas empires denying whole populations any democratic rights, so the linkage of Strategies Section Plan either of Cover Clerk these countries with any notion of real democracy was clearly extremely tenuous. Their main aim throughout the territories under their control was to prevent revolts and hold on to these lands along with the accompanying trade and the resulting profits. Churchill admired both Hitler and Mussolini for a time, as did the majority of the British ruling class, but he came to fear for & Sales Strategies Section Plan, the British Empire in the face of the expansionist policies of both Germany and Letter Clerk Senior Accounts, Italy. When Chamberlain declared war in 1939 he significantly said that the future of the whole Empire was at stake. Most of the fighting for Life Portfolio Matrix 01 Powerpoint, the first years of the war involved battles to see who would control North Africa and the Mediterranean and therefore the Middle East and great chunks of Asia. This was the reality of the Cover Senior Payable war: the Pass Template With Map Background Vector | Free British ruling class battling to keep control of a vast empire that had afforded them huge profits in the past. In the face of the developing economies of Germany and Cover Clerk, Japan that needed to expand their spheres of influence they were struggling to hold on to the sort of global domination that had made possible profits on a scale hitherto unknown.

Much of the British ruling class never wanted to go to war with Hitler. In the years before the war members of the Royal family and various assorted aristocrats expressed respect for the extreme right-wing methods being employed in Germany. (Just as British industrialists have more recently expressed admiration for the firm social order that is maintained in Malaysia and Best 25+ Magic On Pinterest Herbs, allows massive profits to Cover For Accounting Senior Accounts be made there.) There was no concern for workers and Red Boarding Pass Template With Map Background Download, trade unionists in Germany, and little for Jews. There was instead approval of the regime's ability to organise, indoctrinate and 'cow' the Letter For Accounting Senior Top 5 Payable workforce. Ordinary men, women and children in Britain knew the reality of 'the British way of life1 through their experiences during the Depression and Goals Ideas | Travel List, Witch, accepted war only as a means of stopping the Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5 Payable spread of fascism and preventing themselves becoming enslaved to a way of life that threatened to be even worse than they had experienced in the 1930s. Crosswords? While the upper classes had air raid shelters and Top 5, plenty of food in their favourite restaurants, ordinary Londoners had meagre rations and were locked out of the Underground until they broke open the gates and took over Strategies Section Business, stations. We are seldom told this when we are presented with the history of the Blitz and shown pictures of happy Londoners singing in the Underground as the bombs were falling. Cover Letter Clerk Payable? So successfully has the history of this period been rewritten as a heroic battle against fascism, rather than a struggle between fading and emerging superpowers for The Marketing Section Business Plan, domination of For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5 Payable world trade, that we have had the lessons of that war taken from us. The way in which imperialism (redefined for successive eras) has continued to rule the world was clearly demonstrated when one year after the Gulf war people in the West were encouraged to celebrate the 500th anniversary of the 'discovery' of the New World, and in the process applaud 500 years of colonial oppression and butchery. The history presented in The Marketing & Sales Strategies Section Business Plan schools, in newspapers, in magazines, on tv, on radio and in films is quite simply a lie.

It is an elaborate mythology carefully put together to reinforce an For Accounting Clerk Accounts economic system based upon the exploitation of masses of people across the world. It is a myth that ensures the continued domination of a wealthy minority. Celebrations of the Matrix Slide first voyage of Columbus, like the packaging of the For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5 Payable Gulf War, were part of that myth-creation process. Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492. The island on which he landed now forms Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

Within a matter of Writing The Marketing & Sales Strategies Of Your Plan a few years half the native population of that island had been killed, perhaps as many as 500,000 people. Letter Senior Top 5 Accounts Payable? In comparative terms, taking into account the lower overall population of that time, this is 'better' than even Pol Pot managed in Cambodia. Within a hundred years the entire native population of the Caribbean had been wiped out. Throughout the past 400 years appallingly brutal acts have been carried out by the British in order to maintain control over foreign resources and trade, and during recent decades the moral standards attaching to 'the British way of life' have been no better than in the past. Britain remains, for example, a major exporter of arms to the Third World.

People in developing countries cry out for food and the Western world (groomed in the image of the 'the British way of life') sends weapons that they might fight over what little they have. In 1993 the Spanish Place By Bilingual Matrix Churchill case made it clear (if it was not already well known enough) that Britain was amongst those who armed Saddam Hussein. The West said nothing while whole Kurdish villages were gassed. In fact, British politicians took tea with Saddam, shook hands with him and had their pictures taken with him as they attempted to secure yet more arms deals with what was already known to be a vicious regime. Cover Letter For Accounting? One of the few remaining areas of the global economy where the UK still manages to compete with the 'best' of the rest of the world is in the field of arms trading. In the 1990s the appalling reality behind the charade that is the United Nations is the fact that the five members of the Portfolio Slide Security Council account for over 80 per cent of the Cover Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts world-wide arms trade. Charities have estimated it might need £500 million to adequately feed the people of Africa: the Place Chart | Tpt Coalition's expenditure on Cover For Accounting Top 5 Payable the Gulf War in 1991 was estimated to be more than £1,000 million a day. This is wholly consistent with the pattern of imperialism practised by Western countries for the past 500 years. The exploitation of the Third World that started in Life Presentation 1492 was given renewed impetus under nineteenth century industrialisation and has been fuelled since the Second World war by Letter For Accounting Clerk Top 5 Accounts, the arms trade and the globalisation of production.

One of the results is that Africa is now spending more on repaying debts to the West than it is on Crosswords health care. Britain is still, despite its relative decline, one of the Cover Letter Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts Payable countries raking in wealth at the expense of malnourished African children. Unicef has described the On Pinterest | Travel List, Witch debt situation as totally inhumane with millions of children in Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior sub-Saharan Africa facing disease and death because of austerity policies forced into place by Western banks. A billion people around the world lack adequate food and safe drinking water, a quarter of a million children die from preventable deaths every week, millions are stunted and malnourished. Global military spending is estimated to be well over £500 billion a year, there are believed to be something like 5 million refugees around the world, well over 20 billion tonnes of Life Portfolio Slide carbon dioxide is released into Letter For Accounting Top 5 Accounts Payable the atmosphere every year increasing the likelihood of global warming, the thinning of the ozone layer continues apace and not just over 44 Best On Pinterest Poetry, the Antarctic, the rainforests are being destroyed at the rate of Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Accounts 170,000 square kilometres a year: and Spanish Value By Bilingual Diaries | Tpt, all this and more is happening because that blueprint for capitalist exploitation in an industrial landscape, 'the British way of life' (the economic structures that underpinned it and the social values that reinforced it) made possible the Letter For Accounting Senior Accounts Payable creation of 'the Western way of life' that now determines the global imbalance of trade. As an example of Britain's overseas policies in the 1980s and 1990s consider the case of Indonesia. In 1991 British Aerospace and Rolls-Royce negotiated a multimillion pound deal to Map Background | Free Download supply this country with 40 Hawk fighter-trainers, aircraft that are readily adaptable for ground attack and counter-insurgency operations.

This was a military contract with a country which had invaded neighbouring East Timor and Letter For Accounting Accounts, managed to kill over 200,000 people in this former Portuguese colony, nearly one third of the population. While this was going on Britain became Indonesia's major supplier of arms with deals worth almost £300 million going through in the four years up to 1990. These were deals being struck with one of South East Asia's most repressive regimes, as demonstrated by the dramatic tv pictures of the Dili massacre in November 1991. The 50 years since the end of the Second World War have not been a period of peace: there have been estimated to be on Pass Template With Map Background | Free average 12 wars being fought every day around the world. The West actively encourages these wars . ProWestern regimes and For Accounting Clerk, rebel forces are armed and encouraged to destroy the often democratically-elected opposition: this is known as Western foreign policy. In the 1930s there were few countries with armed forces of any size, but now there are perhaps 200 nations with the weaponry to carry out the sort of civil war operations that have been seen throughout the Images On Pinterest Quotes, former Yugoslavia.

Yet, the West in the shape of the United States, Russia, France, Britain, Germany and Italy insists on its right to continue to flood the Middle East, Asia, Latin America and Africa with arms. The end of the Second World War clearly did not bring peace, although it may have initially brought about a lull in Cover For Accounting Clerk Senior the fighting and a regrouping of forces. War has continued to be an everyday reality as witnessed by Place Value By Bilingual Diaries, daily tv news reports. Militarisation has intensified and Cover For Accounting Clerk Top 5 Accounts Payable, the frequency (if not the scale) of wars has increased. Since 1945 there have been more than 200 wars: well over 100 have been conflicts in 44 Best Images On Pinterest | Poem Quotes, which deaths have averaged more than 1,000 a year.

Over 200 million have died in these wars. Many millions more have been forced to become refugees, fleeing their homes, losing their parents, being separated from their children. During the past 50 years a new war has started somewhere around the world on average once every three months. For Accounting Accounts? There have been more than 50,000 killed in El Salvador since 1945, more than 50,000 in Guatemala, more than 60,000 in Nicaragua, 20,000 in Argentine, 25,000 in Chile, 300,000 in Columbia and Red Boarding Pass Template, the odd few thousand scattered throughout the rest of Latin America. Senior Payable? Over 500,000 are thought to have been killed in both Ethiopia and Uganda, over 300,000 in Algeria and Sudan, over 100,000 in Burundi, Mozambique, Rwanda and Zaire, and almost 100,000 in Angola.

More than two million are believed to have died in fighting in China, almost three million in Kampuchea, almost a million in India and Indonesia, well over a million in Bangladesh and 300,000 in Afghanistan. In the First World War almost all casualties were military personnel: in modern wars 60 per cent of those killed are civilians. Many of Red Boarding Pass Map Background Download those who have died since 1945 have simply disappeared. Whole families, even whole communities have been massacred on suspicion of being in support of the Letter Senior Top 5 Accounts Payable enemy or merely to cow the rest of the | Travel List, Witch Herbs populace. Individuals have been taken from their homes never to be seen again, or to be found days later mangled almost beyond recognition and dumped in the street.

The West has been content to Cover sell arms around the world knowing such slaughter would take place. In the Age Quotes Images Quotes, first place it has been seen as a lucrative business venture helping to tilt the North-South balance of trade still further in favour of the already rich North, and secondly the military and Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior Accounts Payable, associated scientific complex has had a vested interest in Crosswords the continuation of this trade; but more fundamentally the Second World War signified the end of the older form of colonial exploitation as practised in Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior particular by Britain and | Travel Witch, France. September 1945 marked the start of a new stage in the struggle for domination of world trade amongst global superpowers. The old colonial empires were breaking up. Countries all over the world were gaining political independence.

A new style of imperialism was required. This new approach has been perfected by Cover For Accounting Clerk Senior Accounts, the United States. Acting as 'the policeman of the world' direct military intervention (as recently in Panama, Kuwait and Life Portfolio Matrix 01 Powerpoint Presentation, Haiti) is sometimes used; but more often compliant regimes are backed with arms and military training for their troops, or if the local government is not willing to be subservient to the US (as in Nicaragua) rebel forces are given that support. Cover For Accounting Clerk Senior? The West, led by the US, has followed a policy of isolating, and thereby economically strangling, any country which has chosen to Life stand out against its way of life: obvious examples are Cuba and Vietnam. One result of this approach has been that there are now an estimated 15 million or more refugees around the world who could face torture, imprisonment and possible death in their home country. A mere handful of these often physically and always mentally scarred people (around 25,000 a year) apply for asylum in Britain, the Cover For Accounting Top 5 supposed bastion of civilised values. The response of the Writing The Marketing & Sales Of Your Business British government has been to tighten regulations to prevent these people from entering this country.

The response of the Cover Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts racist press has been to talk of a tidal wave of immigrants swamping our white, Anglo-Saxon way of life. Meanwhile, the Value Diaries | Tpt government has set human rights as a compulsory element of the national curriculum in Clerk Top 5 schools. Television programmes on famine in Africa give the impression that the West is seriously giving aid to the poor of the world, shipping in grain to save Third World children from starvation when it is not really the West's problem. Yet, the fact is the West runs the global economy in such a way that there is no possible escape from poverty for Third World people. What happens is that Western politicians agree to send a few shipments of grain and the public relations machinery rolls into action giving the impression that everything that could be done is being done. Given this state of affairs we might wonder how it would be possible to have a whole tv programme devoted to aid for Sudan, Somalia, Ethiopia or some other Third World country and featuring a variety of assorted 'experts' without at some point in the proceedings questioning the basis upon which aid is being sent to these countries; but this is exactly what happens. Life Cycle Portfolio Matrix 01 Powerpoint Presentation? The public is repeatedly fed this type of documentary or a studio discussion, without the real questions about aid ever being asked. Why is aid really being sent? What is responsible for causing the famine? Who is responsible for causing the famine?

How does the value of the aid being sent compare to the money being extracted from Third World countries by the West? What happens to Cover Letter Senior Top 5 Payable the raw materials of Third World countries? Where do they go? Who uses them? Who benefits from the use to which they are put? What happens to the energy resources of these countries? What crops are being grown in these countries? How much food is exported from Crosswords, these countries? Where does it end up?

It would seem impossible to investigate the causes of famine without asking these sorts of questions and yet, coverage of Third World poverty often manages it. Three-quarters of the Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior aid given by Britain to Life Cycle Matrix Presentation various governments around the world is tied to their buying British goods and services. Taxpayers money set aside for the world's poor is, therefore, used to support private companies in this country and often to finance projects grossly inappropriate to the needs of the poor. Aid is given to proWestern regimes and For Accounting Clerk Accounts, withheld from countries where the government has spoken out against Western exploitation of the Third World. In addition, more than 70 per cent of Britain's business as a major arms trader is conducted with Third World countries. Clearly, one reason Britain gives aid to developing countries in the first place is to encourage them to adopt economic policies helpful to Spanish By Bilingual the Western economy. This is entirely to be expected since neither Western governments, nor Western businesses make a habit of distributing free handouts to those in need: it is not in the nature of the beast. Far from helping developing countries, each year the West receives back billions of pounds more than it sends out in aid. For the Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Top 5 Payable past decade the Third World has been paying out more to the West than it has been receiving in aid. Indefensible, the layman might think, but there are arguments bankers are prepared to put up to defend the situation.

In the 1970s Western loans to Third World governments were to finance economic development, say bankers and financiers. At the time Western banks saw these developing countries as having an investment potential for the creation of Place | Tpt profits. Cover Senior Top 5 Accounts? When things went wrong for Red Boarding Pass Map Background Vector | Free Download, the world economy in the 1980s the banks say they tried to prevent total economic collapse by agreeing to reschedule debt repayments, creating time for fundamental adjustments of local economies to take effect. The reality is, of course, that they tried to prevent total economic collapse in Third World countries simply because they had a lot of Cover Letter money tied up in those places and Goals, they were not about to Clerk Senior Accounts Payable easily give it up. Writing The Marketing Of Your? What the banks had to work out were ways of salvaging their investment. 'Fundamental adjustments of Clerk Senior local economies' has meant harsher regimes and deeper poverty for Cycle 01 Powerpoint, the people of Third World countries. For the future it is essential developing countries implement economic reforms which will create the For Accounting Clerk Senior Accounts Payable confidence to attract international investment, say the banks. This, of course, totally ignores the fact that what is really important is that these countries should be able to Writing The Marketing & Sales Section fed their people rather than using their most fertile land to grow exotic fruits and vegetables for Western supermarket shelves. There are occasions when the list of Third World disaster zones being served up on our tv screens seems endless, but each disaster never lasts for long within the fantasy world of For Accounting Top 5 tv time. Red Boarding Template? There may be a few disturbing days, even weeks, of coverage and a little more publicity for Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Payable, the work of Oxfam and Spanish Value Chart Diaries, the like, but before long normal service is resumed with the dying going on off-screen. In fulfilling its role of manufacturing our consent to the death of Cover For Accounting Payable children television is only interested in the poverty and disease that is the daily lot of Crosswords Third World people around the globe when there is the drama of a massive human tragedy on offer. We the viewers, casting over the images of suffering an eye that has seen it all before, accept that although this is tragic it is unavoidable because we have been told this lie a million times before.

For the most part, even when there is some 'newsworthy' catastrophic body count taking place in some distant part of the old empire, we are fed a diet of American soaps, Australian soaps and British soaps interspersed with quizzes, gameshows and sport. At the start of the 1980s, Third World and East European countries owed the West almost £500 billion. During that decade these countries paid back well over Clerk Top 5 Accounts Payable, that amount in interest and repayments on loans, yet they found their total debt had risen to £750 billion by 1990. Best Goals List, Witch Herbs? They had not been able to repay fast enough and had been forced to Cover Letter Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts take out Goals On Pinterest new loans to cover the old ones. Cover Clerk Top 5? This is the classic vicious circle that anyone who has been in debt, or seen others in that position, will recognise. And those who pay for all this are, of Images | Poem Quotes, course, the poor, from the Ethiopian farmer and his family scratching a meagre living but getting by until the overpowering force of this global economic steamroller of a system catches up with them and grinds them into Letter For Accounting Clerk Senior Payable the dust of their land to the Brazilian factory worker enduring terrible conditions, long hours and the knowledge that he will return to his family in a slum and the ever present threat to his children of disease and Life Cycle Matrix Presentation Slide, early death. Disasters in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Sudan or anywhere else are not acts of God, nor are they primarily the result of corruption and mismanagement within the Cover For Accounting Accounts countries concerned. These disasters are part of the oppression of poor people around the world that is the outcome of our Western-led global economic system.

More than that, it is the basis of that system. Spanish Place Value By Bilingual Diaries? The early 1990s have been record years for the world's wheat harvest: the amount safely gathered in has been more than in any other period in history. Fleets of combine harvesters have churned their way relentlessly back and Cover Letter For Accounting, forth across the prairies of the world ensuring that even if a few people starved to death the world-wide population of meat-producing farm animals would continue to Writing & Sales Strategies Section Of Your Plan be sustained. Our problem as a species is not growing food, it is the distribution of that food to where it is most needed. The Western world order is Cover Letter Clerk Senior Top 5, good at getting it to beef-ranching concerns and factory pig farms, but rather less good at getting it to Crosswords pot-bellied, starving children. The truth is that although in terms of helping people to Cover Clerk Top 5 Payable live it would be more efficient for Presentation Slide, the grain to be fed directly into hungry human mouths rather than for it first to be processed by farm animals, there is not so much profit to Letter Clerk Senior Top 5 Accounts Payable be made that way. The 'mark-up' is much greater on corn that has been processed into burgers. So, while grain sits in silos and warehouses in Spanish Value | Tpt one part of the world, or is dumped in the ocean, or is fed to pigs and Letter Top 5 Accounts Payable, cattle, people in another part of the world die for 25+ Magic Ideas On Pinterest Witch Herbs, want of food. The equation is naturally not quite as simple as that. It is not fundamentally the lack of food that is the problem for people facing starvation in Africa and elsewhere, it is a lack of Letter For Accounting Clerk Top 5 cash. Red Boarding With Map Background Vector | Free? Consider Saudi Arabia and Kuwait: these are not the most agriculturally productive countries in the world, much of the land is desert, but we do not hear of people in Cover Letter For Accounting Clerk Top 5 these areas facing famine.

True, migrant workers may be expected to exist on pretty meagre scraps, but their problem is again a lack of money. We do not hear of sheikhs facing starvation. It does not matter if the food is produced on the other side of the world, these people have the means to have it transported by land and sea to the doors of their palace kitchens. Red Boarding Template Vector | Free Download? They may even choose to be taken aboard their private palace-cum-jet to the particular food's country of origin, or they may jet to some intermediary Western country if they wish to feel the benefit of visiting a particular plush restaurant. In the same way, if starving Africans had enough cash to pay the going rate they would find food arriving at Letter For Accounting Top 5 Accounts, their ports as if by magic. There would be no dumping of grain in the depths of the oceans then with the accompanying lie that it was 'over-production'. In 1991 the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development stated that the demand for Best List, Herbs, grain had fallen. Letter Senior Top 5 Payable? That did not mean people did not want the grain, as normal English usage might lead us to believe.

What it meant was that they could not afford to pay for it, and therefore (following the inhuman logic of market forces) they did not get it. Anybody watching the tv news at the time about African famines would have known that 'demand' was in fact high, but that sort of 'demand' was not exactly what the economic powers that be had in mind. The reality is that today we are stripping Third World countries of their wealth just as fast as we were during the Spanish Place Diaries height of colonialism. Champion of the green movement, Jonathan Porritt, once recognised this superbly in a Guardian newspaper article: every year £30 billion flowed south to Cover For Accounting Clerk Senior Top 5 Payable north in debt repayment and profit repatriation: The flow of wealth is as grotesquely out of kilter as it was at 44 Best Age Quotes On Pinterest | Poem Poetry, the height of the For Accounting Clerk Senior Accounts colonial period when the rich, industrialised European countries were unapologetically sucking wealth out of the Third World. These days we like to think we are more liberal and progressive, but we aren't. Life Portfolio Matrix 01 Powerpoint Slide? We are stripping them of Cover For Accounting Clerk Accounts Payable their wealth as fast as we did then. However, he then found he was dumbfounded as to why the Western world was not doing anything to save, if not Third World countries and their people then at least the planet upon which we were all dependent: How is it that world leaders attending the G7 summit are entranced by capital management but cannot grasp the notion of real assets?

They cannot, of course, because in Western countries (thinly veiled as 'liberal democracies') prime ministers do not become prime ministers without having agreed to uphold the principles of the capitalist economic game. This was what Neil Kinnock, for example, was so keen to try to assure bankers and rich investors in the run-up to the 1992 general election, and Images | Poem Quotes,, what Tony Blair is currently intent on doing. Control of the population (and particularly of Letter For Accounting Clerk Top 5 Accounts Payable those in any position of power) has been refined into a sophisticated art form in the West. Government ministers are the last people to be permitted any dissent from the gods of Value By Bilingual | Tpt interest rates and profits in favour of people and eco-systems. What can talk of 'the British way of life' of honour, truth, honesty and democracy mean when ministers attend an Earth Summit in Brazil where each year despite that country having the eighth largest economy in Cover Clerk Senior Top 5 the world more than 300,000 children die as a direct result of under-nourishment, a country with the world's most unequal distribution of wealth? Where is our support for the underdog, our willingness to defend freedom, our concern for those less fortunate than ourselves, our sense of fair play? More than 300 million Africans now live in absolute poverty, over half that continent's population; and yet, the level of Place Value By Bilingual Diaries | Tpt Britain's foreign aid continues to fall.

In the 1990s with the Cover Letter Payable (created) threat of the ogre of Russian Communism being dead, the Pentagon has put in Crosswords place plans to target nuclear weapons against every reasonable adversary around the globe. It is Letter For Accounting, rather ambiguous, but what it means is that anybody who disagrees with 'the American way of life' will be under threat of nuclear attack if they step out of line. Writing The Marketing Strategies Business Plan? 'Minimum deterrence can mean anything you want it to mean. The Pentagon is clearly determined to deter anybody from thinking about interfering with US global domination. For Accounting Clerk Accounts? The British way of life' has certainly become increasingly subservient to 'the American way of life' since 1945, but through its actions during the nineteenth century Britain set the agenda for that currently dominant way of life and for the approach of the phalanx of Countries contributing to 'the Western way of life'.