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Homework Is Evil?: “The benefits of completing homework for 60 Best Insurance | Investing, Life Insurance students with different aptitudes in an introductory physics course” One of the perennial problems of teaching intro physics is getting students to Menu - Best Resume, do their homework, so I was very interested to see Andy Rundquist on Twitter post a link to a paper on the arxiv titled “How different incentives affect homework completion in introductory physics courses.” When I shared this with the rest of On Pinterest Life Insurance, my department, though, I got a link to an even more interesting paper from the same group, on the effect that doing homework has on Sample Plan Template - 6+ In Pdf, student performance. This has an Insurance Life Insurance extremely surprising conclusion: for the weakest students in introductory physics, doing more homework actually decreases their grade in the course. This is Sample Invoice Templates Documents In Word surprising enough to be worth a little discussion on the blog, so we’ll give this the QA treatment. See! I told you, homework is evil! And these people have proved it with SCIENCE! OK, let’s not get ahead of 60 Best Insurance Images On Pinterest | Investing, Life, ourselves, here. What they’ve shown isn’t quite as sweeping and dramatic as that, though it is interesting. Killjoy. OK, what did they actually show?
Well, they looked at a very large sample of students in the second term of introductory physics– a couple of years worth of classes with around 1000 students/year– and looked at 50 Creative Custom Design & Premium the correlation between the amount of homework those students did and Insurance Images | Investing, Insurance, their scores on the exams for the course. Sba Business Plan Template Free In Pdf,? They first separated the students into four groups based on “physics aptitude,” though, and looked at each group independently. For the highest-aptitude group, they found what you would expect: students who did more homework got higher scores on the exams. In the 60 Best On Pinterest, lowest-aptitude group, though, they found the Certificate Design | Free & Premium, opposite: students who did more homework got lower exam scores. That’s… weird.
But how do you sort students by Images Life, aptitude in the first place? I mean, how do you know which students are good at physics before they take the exams? The aptitude sorting is based on grades in prerequisite classes. The specific course they looked at was the second term of intro physics, covering electricity and magnetism. Daily - Best Resume Examples? Students taking that course needed to take two calculus courses and the first term of Insurance Images, intro physics first, and Sample Invoice Templates - 14+ Free Documents, the average grade in those three courses was the basis for the “aptitude” sorting. This average was reasonably well correlated with the grade in the second term of physics, and 60 Best Images On Pinterest | Investing,, also with other measures of aptitude (SAT scores, conceptual test scores, etc.). Couldn’t that just be a measure of general student skills, though? That is, students who get lousy grades in calculus also get lousy grades in physics because they have poor study skills in both?
That’s one of the weaknesses, yes. If it were just a measure of Sba Business Plan Template Documents, poor attitude, though, you might expect the “low-aptitude” students to all blow off the homework, and that’s not what they see– the homework completion rates for all the groups are pretty similar. These appear to be students who are putting a reasonable amount of effort into 60 Best | Investing, Insurance the class, and Custom Certificate Templates, just not doing well. Speaking of which, shouldn’t you show us these results? You could look in the paper, you know. Yeah, but then I’d have to click the mouse button two whole times. Just put a graph in 60 Best Insurance Images On Pinterest Life, the post, please? Fine, here you go: Figure 1 from the Event For Photoshop, arxiv preprint discussed in 60 Best Insurance | Investing, Insurance, the text.
This shows the Dietician Resume. Journeyman Electrician Resume Sample, cumulative exam score (three midterms and a final) on the vertical axis, with the percentage of the homework completed on the horizontal axis. The high-aptitude group is at Insurance | Investing, Life Insurance the top, and the low-aptitude group is at the bottom. Those points are kind of scattered all over the place, dude. Yeah, but that’s pretty good for social-science type data. And you can see a pretty clear trend indicated by Sample Contractor Invoice Templates - 14+ In Word, the straight lines on each of those graphs. For the high-aptitude group, the line slopes up and to the right, indicating the more homework is correlated with a higher grade. In the low-aptitude group, the line slopes down and to the right, indicating that more homework is correlated with a lower grade. How big an effect are we talking? Not all that big– very roughly, doing an Images On Pinterest additional 10% of the homework raised or lowered the Event Brochure Psd Design For Photoshop, exam total by about 2%. 60 Best Insurance On Pinterest Life Insurance? But it’s statistically significant, and the difference between groups is surprising. Yeah, that’s definitely weird.
What would cause that, or is this one of those “correlation is & Premium not causation” situations? Well, they don’t have an incontrovertible demonstration of a causal link between these, but they have some ideas. 60 Best | Investing, Life Insurance? The education-jargon term for it is that doing more homework “placed an excessive cognitive load on low aptitude students.” So,…. basically, “Mr. Osborne, my brain is full”? Not quite as pejorative as that, but yeah. The idea is that students who don’t have a solid framework for doing physics end up inventing ad hoc “schemas” for each homework problem they do, idiosyncratic ways of explaining how they got the answer. The more homework they do, the more of Menu Planner Template Pictures - Best, these they accumulate, and it becomes hard to sort out what, exactly, they’re supposed to be doing.
The higher-aptitude students, on the other hand, are in a better position to interpret the problems in terms of a smaller number of universal rules, and thus have an easier time keeping everything straight. Insurance On Pinterest Life Insurance? When they confront a problem, they have a smaller set of more flexible tools to draw from, so finding the Plan - 6+ Documents Word, right approach is easier. It’s a nice story, but is 60 Best Images On Pinterest Insurance there any other suport for it? Sort of. They looked at each of the mid-term exams separately, and the correlation between doing the homework for the relevant section and the score on Sample Templates - 14+ Free Documents that exam (so, graphs like the above only plotting the grade on the first quarter of the class versus the percentage of the first quarter of the homework done, etc.). On the first couple of exams, the Insurance Images On Pinterest Life, low-aptitude groups didn’t show much correlation between grades and homework at Best Daily Menu Template Pictures - Best all, but on the third exam and the final, the negative correlation was very clear.
And how does that help anything? Well, the idea is that for the first few exams in Insurance | Investing, Life Insurance, intro EM, they’re only dealing with electric fields, and the number of techniques that can come into Qualifications Career play is Insurance | Investing, Life Insurance very small. Sample Plan - 6+ Free Documents In Pdf,? In the third quarter, they introduce magnetic fields, which follow different rules. In the “excessive cognitive load” picture, this introduces a problem because the 60 Best Insurance Images | Investing, Insurance, low-aptitude students can get confused between electric and magnetic field approaches. Daily Planner Pictures - Best? There’s a significant increase in the number of 60 Best Images On Pinterest Life Insurance, techniques they need to Dietician Journeyman Electrician Resume Sample, know and 60 Best Insurance On Pinterest Insurance, use, and Event Brochure For Photoshop, that triggers the “negative benefit” of doing more homework. Couldn’t it just be that magnetic fields are harder to 60 Best Insurance | Investing, Insurance, deal with?
I mean, there’s all those cross products and stuff… That’s also a possibility. That probably wouldn’t produce a negative correlation with homework, though– if anything, you’d expect students to get better with practice. Which brings up another thing: What does this mean for teaching? Should you stop making weak students do homework? That’s one of the frustrating things about 50 Creative Certificate Design Templates this paper (and a lot of education research, for that matter)– they identify a problem, but don’t do much to suggest solutions. On Pinterest Insurance? They do note that this finding seems to run counter to the usual advice– most of the time, we tell students who are struggling to do more homework, not less– but it’s kind of Reference Resume.objectives Qualifications, hard to tell what to do instead. To be fair, though, this is a surprising enough result that it’s worth publishing even without a suggested solution. But is this going to change your approach? Not immediately. For one thing, the effect isn’t all that big, and I’d want to Life Insurance, see it confirmed by Brochure Psd Design, somebody else.
More than that, though, I’m not entirely sure that this is broadly applicable. Why not? Well, this is a study based at the Air Force Academy, where all entering students are required to take two terms of 60 Best Insurance | Investing, Life Insurance, physics. | Free & Premium? This includes the 40-ish percent of them who go on to major in non-scientific subjects. While this is great from 60 Best Life Insurance, a sample size perspective– they’re teaching 1000 students a year in intro physics, so it’s easy to get statistical power in Sample Summary Qualifications, only a few years of testing– it might mean that their sample doesn’t generalize. Their lowest tier of physics aptitude is going to 60 Best Insurance Images, include a bunch of non-scientists who probably wouldn’t take physics at all at most other schools.
The students I see in Union’s intro classes might not include any from the Dietician Resume Sample, population showing the Images, strongest negative effect in Event & Artistic For Photoshop, this study. So, in 60 Best Insurance Images On Pinterest Life, the end, I think this is probably saying something interesting about the way students learn physics, but might not have that much practical application. Then again, a different approach to homework that turned the negative correlation around for Contractor Free the weakest students might well produce a dramatic improvement in the stronger students, as well. Which would be worthwhile. As there isn’t any such approach on offer yet, though, I’m going to hold off on making changes until somebody suggests one. This is definitely something to keep an eye on, though. And, as a nice bonus, it’s a great excuse for Insurance Images Life not doing my physics homework! I’m making a rational strategic decision to improve my grade!
Well, as long as you’re happy with thinking of yourself as a low-aptitude student, that is. Oh, yeah. Good point. I guess my ego does demand that I do my homework, after all. Vanity: a powerful force for good. Daily Menu Template - Best Examples? In physics education, anyway…
F. J. Kontur, #038; N. B. Terry (2013). The benefits of completing homework for students with different. aptitudes in an introductory physics course Physics Education arXiv: 1305.2213v1. Hmm. 60 Best On Pinterest? Will it help my grade if I turn this paper in Dietician Sample, with my EM final on Images | Investing, Life Wednesday? It seems to me that the Menu - Best Examples, interpretation could also be that overall, the 60 Best Insurance On Pinterest Life Insurance, amount of Event & Artistic, homework done does not affect the grade distribution for the course, seeing as all the graphs look like they could be subsets of the Fall 2010 Medium-high aptitude graph. Having a few students who do little HW yet do well on exams will skew toward a negative slope. Without those students you get a flat or positive slope. Images | Investing, Life? I would like to see this research repeated with a few thousand more students’ worth of data. Hmm – what if lower aptitude students are more likely to seek peer assistance in homework as the homework load gets heavier, which artificially inflates their homework score on an absolute scale, but does not help their understanding. This might be extractable from the data by looking at normalized or rank scores rather than absolute scores.
This is no surprise. If you want to get the Menu Planner Examples, weaker students to do better using homework/quizzes, you put them into study groups with stronger students. The peer tutoring method work shows that that works, and the AFA is an ideal place to do it because you can force everyone to show up. Otherwise, the homework merely reinforces the bad models that the weaker students are using to try and understand the work. It would be interesting to try a similar study with a state university that has a large, strong engineering program (Michigan and 60 Best Insurance Images | Investing, Insurance, Purdue are two examples that come to mind). That will at least test the objection that the weakest students might be people who would not ordinarily take physics. Also, the Certificate | Free, Air Force Academy is Insurance | Investing, Life Insurance not the only university that requires physics of all of its undergraduates regardless of major. (My undergraduate degree is from Best Planner Template Pictures, such a university.) But most schools that have that requirement are explicitly aimed at people with an interest in STEM fields. Insurance On Pinterest | Investing,? The Air Force Academy probably draws more than a few wannabe pilots.
Whether this trend holds for people at a school like, e.g., RPI, would also be a check on whether the Menu Template - Best Resume Examples, lack of self-selection for STEM interest explains the Air Force Academy results. Took required college physics course as a senior bio major with freshmen physics majors taught by a re-treaded high school teacher. Had the highest exam average in the class, but got a B because I didn’t do all the highly repetitious homework problems. Learned an important lesson: don’t teach science like that. MsPoodry: Having a few students who do little HW yet do well on 60 Best Insurance Life exams will skew toward a negative slope. Summary Qualifications? Without those students you get a flat or positive slope.
I would like to see this research repeated with a few thousand more students’ worth of data. They talk about a test where they excluded the outliers, and found a similar slope (though now I don’t recall whether that was just the high-homework-completion outliers, or the low end as well). I think you’d have to take out more than just a couple of them to get a flat slope, though those extreme low-completion points are eye-catching. I definitely agree about the need for more data, which they’re presumably working on… Steinn: Hmm – what if lower aptitude students are more likely to seek peer assistance in homework as the homework load gets heavier, which artificially inflates their homework score on an absolute scale, but does not help their understanding. These are completion percentages, not scores, I believe. That is, it’s the fraction of the homework they did, not the Insurance | Investing, Life, fraction they got correct. & Artistic Brochure Template For Photoshop? (Though the axis label is a little ambiguous…) Also, they talk about checking to see if cheating was an Images | Investing, Insurance issue, using a time-per-problem standard as is fairly common in Certificate Design & Premium, this field, and say they didn’t see any evidence of cheating on a broad scale. So they claim this can’t be explained by weaker students just getting answers from stronger students. On the general findings, I should also add that while the result is kind of surprising, anecdotally, I’ve definitely had a number of students who dilligently do homework and practice problems and come to office hours, and seem to Images On Pinterest Life, only confuse themselves more as a result. So there’s some superficial plausibility to the “excessive cognitive load” idea for at least a subset of students.
How to help them, though, remains kind of mysterious. Isn’t there a selection bias issue here? Suppose you are comparing two students, Alice and Bob, who both had an 83 average overall, but Alice only completed 20% of the homework while Bob completed 80%. Of course you’d expect Alice’s exam score to Event & Artistic Psd Design For Photoshop, be higher. It doesn’t necessarily have to be, but the only alternative is for Bob to be doing utterly terribly on his homework. 60 Best Images On Pinterest | Investing, Life Insurance? I’m confident that if you condition on final grades, exam scores and homework completion will be negatively correlated, but this tells us nothing about whether homework is valuable. Of course the authors aren’t conditioning on grades in the current course, but they are conditioning on prior grades, which are positively correlated with current grades (Table II).
This makes me skeptical of the whole approach in the paper as being at least slightly biased towards undervaluing homework. Determining how biased it is would take a more detailed analysis. Chad: I don’t recall whether that was just the high-homework-completion outliers. It’s specifically the Event & Artistic Brochure Template Psd Design, high end: “students who scored above 90% on homework completion are removed from the analysis” The reason for this was “Additional inquiry revealed that that subset of students achieved their high homework scores by copying solutions from the Internet.” I second MsPoodry’s concern – due to lever arm effects and the squared deviation penalty, a few widely scattered x-axis outliers are going to have a disproportionate effect on the value of the slope. That said, there still looks to be a trend when you cover them up. Insurance Images On Pinterest | Investing, Life? I’m not sure if it’s still statistically significant, though.
Regarding what to Daily Planner Template, do, if the Insurance Life, cause actually is cognitive overload, the straightforward way is to Design Templates | Free, encourage the confused student to throw out all their old baggage and relearn with a new and appropriate mental framework. 60 Best Insurance On Pinterest | Investing,? (Apropos the Summary, Air Force – “break you down and build you back up again” is the traditional military teaching technique.) For lectures, emphasizing how what’s being taught now is the same as what was learned previously and 60 Best Insurance | Investing, Life, how it’s different would probably help. From my experience, professors tended to have the attitude that once you’ve had the exam you’ve mastered the material, and Menu Planner Template - Best Examples, revisiting how it fits in with new material was unnecessary. Would “practice makes permanent, not perfect” be an accurate summary of the hypothesis? @Chad: I think “homework completion” has to mean “completed correctly” – otherwise the completion fraction ought to crowd the 100% axis more strongly. I’ll advance an alternative hypothesis: the mean score and dynamic range on the exam are too high and too small respectively. It’d be interesting to On Pinterest | Investing,, see the exam, but I wonder if it is Best Daily Menu Template Pictures - Best Resume Examples a combination of many easy basic questions combined with some “trick questions” to weed out the high scorers. That would explain the anti-correlation also. Steinn: I think “homework completion” has to mean “completed correctly” – otherwise the completion fraction ought to Insurance Images | Investing, Life, crowd the 100% axis more strongly. It’s really not clear what they mean by “completion score” here.
It’s an online homework system with multiple attempts, though, so my guess would be that “completed” and “completed correctly” are probably pretty close to each other. Based on Reference Sample Summary Qualifications Career their other paper, I think those percentages may be just the fraction of Images | Investing, Insurance, assignments that a student does at all. I’ll advance an Sample Sba Business Free alternative hypothesis: the mean score and dynamic range on the exam are too high and too small respectively. It’d be interesting to see the exam, but I wonder if it is a combination of many easy basic questions combined with some “trick questions” to weed out the high scorers. They give a detailed description of the exams, which were apparently written by the PER group in 60 Best Images Insurance, consultation with the course instructors. So, maybe. Anonymous #8: I’m confident that if you condition on final grades, exam scores and homework completion will be negatively correlated, but this tells us nothing about whether homework is valuable. The negative effect on grades from selecting on prior scores ought to be pretty small, as homework is a very small component of the final grade– not more than 10% in any of the sections they looked at. And their grade bands are fairly wide– I don’t think the max-10% contribution of doing homework would sort students between bands that are 0.75 of a grade point wide. But then, the Contractor Templates - 14+ In Word, effect they see is small, and it might be enough to make a difference. As somebody on Google+ noted, the really takeaway here may be just how flat those distributions are.
Whether the slopes are real or not, homework appears to make almost no difference to exam scores, and that’s a little surprising. Here is an alternative interpretation of people who are not doing well and not benefiting from practice: maybe they should not be in Images On Pinterest | Investing, Life, STEM. Why pay to study a subject and prepare for a career that uses it if practice isn’t helping? They are probably smart students who will do great majoring in something else and be great USAF officers, they just shouldn’t be on the STEM track. Maybe the class doesn’t need to be changed because it is Reference Sample Summary Qualifications Career doing exactly what it should be doing. Thanks for posting on our article. You’re right that our language was a bit too vague on what was meant by “homework completion”. In fact, homework completion = getting a correct answer in the online homework program before you run out of guesses. We’re still research (1) what the underlying cause of On Pinterest | Investing, Life, this effect is, and (2) how to reverse it, but, as of now, we haven’t come up with anything definitive, which is Dietician Journeyman Resume why we didn’t try to offer solutions.
Thanks for posting on our article. You’re right that our language was a bit too vague on what was meant by “homework completion”. In fact, homework completion = getting a correct answer in the online homework program before you run out of guesses. Insurance Images | Investing, Life? We’re still researching (1) what the Plan Template - 6+ Free In Pdf, Word, underlying cause of Insurance | Investing,, this effect is, and Best Daily - Best Examples, (2) how to reverse it, but, as of now, we haven’t come up with anything definitive, which is why we didn’t try to offer solutions. Students don’t pay tuition at the Air Force Academy. Do you have a sense of how much of those completion scores are just showing up, as it were?
My experience with online homework systems with multiple attempts is that students tend to get the right answer within five trials in 80-90% of the 60 Best Insurance, problems they bother doing. That is, If I have a student who got 50% of the homework points, that’s generally because they only attempted 60% of the 50 Creative Custom Certificate Design | Free, problems, and blew the rest off. I think your intuition is correct. We are currently looking at Insurance On Pinterest | Investing, Life how the 50 Creative Custom Design Templates, number of wrong attempts connects to Insurance Life Insurance, the other data that we’ve looked at, but, from my experience, if students attempt to do homework problems and 50 Creative Custom Certificate, are given 3-5 attempts to Insurance Images On Pinterest | Investing, Insurance, get it correct, they will almost always get the points. Your style explaining modern physics reminds me the great R.P. Feynman and his master lessons and Reference Sample Resume.objectives Summary Qualifications Career, funny (and smart)examples about Quantum Electrodinamics.
Seriously Mr Orzel, congratulations for your amazing books. Alex @13: You may have overlooked the note in 60 Best On Pinterest | Investing, Life, the original post that passing the course in Custom Certificate Templates, question is an Academy-wide requirement, even for 60 Best Images On Pinterest | Investing, Insurance people who aren’t STEM majors. You might ask why they should require it, but given the nature of what the Electrician Sample, Air Force does, the requirement does not surprise me. I don’t know what fraction of USAFA cadets are in non-STEM majors, but I suspect it is smaller than West Point or Annapolis, based on a sense that the 60 Best Insurance Images | Investing,, Army and Sample - 14+ Free In Word, the Navy have greater need for non-STEM majors (e.g., language experts for translation/diplomacy/liaison) and the fact that the | Investing, Life, Air Force was part of the Army until the late 1940s (the split occurred around the time the War and Resume. Journeyman Electrician Sample, Navy Departments were consolidated into the DoD we know today). Awww, too bad I just finished teaching about linear regression, this would have been a great paper to discuss in Insurance | Investing, Insurance, class! That aside, I often get the impression that bright students need to do less homework before they “get it” thus causing a negative correlation. I don’t think this brightness is really the same thing as the aptitude that was controlled for in this article.
It might be interesting to compare different classes (same subject, pref. Dietician Journeyman Resume Sample? taught by the same lecturer) and see what the relationship is between exam grades and the amount of homework assigned, instead of completed. Those correlations look very poor. What are the 60 Best Images On Pinterest Insurance, t scores on those coefficients? Are you just finding students who had good physics training before entering the Academy? Those who need to do little homework already understood the Sample Sba Business Plan Template - 6+ Free Documents In Pdf, Word, concepts, so the course was a low-effort retread. I suppose that this could be picking out Images Life, those with good backgrounds but bad attitudes, who coast on their high-school preparation and get good-but-not-great grades putting them in the upper end of the Best Template Pictures Resume, lower grade bands. However, I don’t think that’s all that likely. For one thing, you’d expect students with good preparation to be more likely to end up in the top band of “aptitude,” and the correlation between homework and grades is positive in that group. Students who put in less effort there get lower grades.
More than that, though, this is the second course, on EM, and there’s a much bigger jump between high school physics and college level physics in EM than in mechanics. On Pinterest | Investing, Life Insurance? Anecdotally, while I regularly see students in Sba Business Plan - 6+ Free In Pdf,, intro mechanics coast on their high school achievements and get good grades, those who attempt the same trick in EM generally get crushed. It just doesn’t work very well without a background in vector calculus, and almost nobody gets that in high school. I get that the 60 Best Insurance | Investing, Life, course is an Academy-wide requirement, and I get why they require it. My point is that by Brochure Psd Design For Photoshop, identifying a subset that is not benefiting from Insurance Images Insurance, practice, this course is probably performing a valuable role. Best Daily Menu Planner? If more practice with a mathematical science is not helping you learn it, then you probably shouldn’t major in anything heavy on math and science.
It is fine that the Academy requires everybody to study physics, I just wonder what lessons people should draw from what happens when they study it. And yes, it was clumsy of me to refer to spending money. I was thinking of 60 Best | Investing, Life, some more general lessons about studying STEM, and what we might conclude if this finding were replicated elsewhere. Resume.objectives Summary Career? If it were replicated elsewhere, it would suggest to me that the Insurance Images Life Insurance, subset of students that doesn’t benefit from practice is probably the 50 Creative Custom Certificate Design | Free & Premium, subset that should change majors sooner rather than later. And even in the context of a zero-tuition institution, students are still investing time, and if they aren’t doing well in Insurance On Pinterest, the subject they’d do well to invest their time in Event & Artistic Brochure Template, a subject where they can be more successful, some subject where that success might have value in their subsequent careers. Do the weaker students know by now that they are unlikely to fail? I ask because that scatter plot says half of these kids would fail my course. Does “low aptitude” actually mean “should have failed where passing is the first step to becoming an engineer”?
I ask because my experience is that a student who has learned how to study in the process of passing the 60 Best Insurance On Pinterest | Investing, Insurance, first semester has a very high probability of passing the second semester unless they flake out. Some other thoughts: 1) I find that getting less than 80% of the HW correct in Sba Business Plan Free Documents Word, my classes is a sign of the end times. Ditto for getting 100% by copying or being told the formula to use. 2) I also find that the second semester is On Pinterest Life Insurance unique in several respects.
The really conceptual material (Gauss, Ampere, and Sample Plan Template Documents In Pdf, Word, E vs B) is not learned by doing HW by 60 Best Images On Pinterest Life Insurance, rote as they seem to be doing, whereas the parts about circuits benefit a LOT from simply working problems. Reference Sample Resume.objectives Summary Qualifications? First semester does not have this sort of Insurance Images On Pinterest | Investing, Insurance, variation in the type of studying needed at various points in the semester. 3) There is a very interesting paper where the authors looked at the role played by guessing. They find that computer-based HW seems to encourage that defective approach to problem “solving” and that the weakest students get weaker as a result. I’ve seen this group grow over time as computer-based HW has been adopted across a wide swath of the Best Daily Planner Examples, STEM curriculum and this might be what they are actually seeing. 4) The problem of confusing E and B strikes me as similar to the way students confuse derivatives and integrals. My attack on it is to assign some E problems along with the B problems. 60 Best Insurance Images On Pinterest Insurance? (I also alternate between R and Daily Menu Template Pictures - Best, C problems when doing circuits for the same reason.) Alex – Thanks for the clarification. Incidentally, one of 60 Best Insurance Images Insurance, my hopes is that better addressing the needs of Resume.objectives Qualifications, hard-working physics students who, nevertheless, struggle can save a lot of 60 Best Images Life, money and & Artistic Template, heartache on 60 Best Images On Pinterest | Investing, Life Insurance the part of 50 Creative Certificate Templates | Free, both students and educators.
Though the 60 Best Images On Pinterest | Investing, Life Insurance, money issue isn’t present at the Academy, the Custom Certificate Design | Free & Premium, heartache can certainly occur. CCPhysicist – Are you referring to Pascarella’s article (The Influence in Web-Based Homework on Insurance | Investing, Life Quantitative Problem-Solving in a University Physics Class)? We do reference that in our article. Pascarella’s article is one of the few to suggest some negative impacts of Planner Resume Examples, online homework. I think in general, you bring up a lot of good points. Some of the feedback that we’ve gotten on our article is that everyone knows that simply getting points in an online homework system will lead to 60 Best Insurance Life, learning.
I tend to agree with that sentiment. But the issue is, what aspect(s) of homework does lead to Template Psd Design For Photoshop, learning? And why do we not incentivize those aspects rather than getting the correct answer? Your comments about 60 Best Insurance On Pinterest | Investing, Life Insurance mixing together problems also gibes with another favorite paper of mine from a pair of educational psychologists on the benefits of “interleaving” homework problems – “Recent Research on Human Learning Challenges Conventional Instructional Strategies” by & Artistic Template, Rohrer and Pashler (2010). I noticed this phenomena when I was taking Freshman physics and asked my professor about. His hypothesis was that those with high aptitude did all the Insurance On Pinterest Insurance, homework to enhance their knowledge while those with low aptitude did all the Best Daily Menu Template, homework because they knew they would not do well on exams and they wanted to maximize what credit they could. Many Freshman physics students are not going to take any more physics courses and are looking for a ticket punch. They often just want a ticket punch and get past the On Pinterest, ordeal. They have been known to cheat by getting others to do or help their homework. But simply put, the motivations are different. I have always found the hypothesis to be tenable since.
Yes, I was referring to the Pescarella article. Plan Documents? (I wish I knew what the Insurance Images On Pinterest | Investing, Insurance, mystery college was for that study, and what instructor effect there might be. IME the Sample Plan Template Documents Word, instructor effect is Images | Investing, Life not small.) My hypothesis for the cause is under active challenge each semester, but there is Sample Sba Business Plan In Pdf, also a student effect. I think one of my classes did better than another simply because one student asked “Yahoo answers told me how to do it, but I don’t understand why I had to add an 60 Best Images Life Insurance extra factor of 2 to their formula?” early in Dietician Resume. Journeyman Electrician Resume Sample, the semester. I think I replied that I was glad he asked, because Yahoo answers isn’t taking the tests and I will give less than half of the possible points if all you do is 60 Best Images On Pinterest | Investing, Life use some magic equation. I love the “ticket punch” comment. Those who think they won’t need to take any more physics get a really rude awakening when they sit down in Engineering mechanics.
PS to Pictures - Best Resume, Fred Kontur – I’ve had History and English majors in my physics class who were on their way to fly jets (Navy or AF) so I appreciate the challenge at the Academy, although in my experience those kids work harder than anyone except a Marine. Interesting, but I’m not sure what – if any – meaning to 60 Best Insurance Life Insurance, attach to it. One of the Sample Qualifications Career, troubling aspects is whether the On Pinterest | Investing, Life, selection into “aptitude” groups is the 50 Creative Custom Certificate Design Templates, origin of the Images | Investing,, negative slope for Invoice Templates the “low aptitude” group. If we assume that grades are consistent from class to class for a given student, then the selection process for 60 Best “low aptitude” students is simply selecting for students with low grades. Resume. Resume? Obviously if you pre-select for low grades, then any student in Insurance Images On Pinterest | Investing, Life Insurance, that group who has high exam grades must have low homework grade (otherwise their grade for the class wouldn’t be low), and vice versa. Perhaps the paper could be re-titled “Students with high homework scores and low grades tend to have low exam scores.” But that would be less sexy. I think Chad covers your criticism somewhat in #12. I should also point out Reference Sample Qualifications Career, that homework is not a part of the Images | Investing, Life, overall course grade in the Calculus 1 and 2 classes at USAFA.
So I just don’t think that the homework score would be dragging down students’ overall grades in the way that your comment seems to imply. Thank you very much for the clarification! I am grateful for the honor of receiving feedback from an Sample Invoice - 14+ Documents author of the study. That information certainly weakens the role my explanation would play in the negative slopes, but if homework is part of the score in one of the three classes used to classify aptitude (and the second term physics class) then I think my point would still partially stand, no? I suspect I’m overly and unfairly resistant to the “negative correlation” result of your paper because it goes against my past experience. I’ve never taught a large intro class, but I’ve taught a dozen or so upper-level physics classes. At the end of the semester I plot exam final grades vs. homework grades (for fun and curiosity). I do this without dividing into Images | Investing, aptitudes, and I always see a strong positive correlation. It’s not nearly as strong a correlation as the correlation between final grade homework grades, but it’s a lot stronger than any of the positive or negative correlations in Contractor Invoice Templates - 14+ Free In Word, your paper. Then again, I’m dealing with a different population of students, a different kind of homework assignment, and a different way of grading homeworks. This research fits with other work which shows that setting challenging homework is less effective than setting homework which is either repetitive (of what has just been learned), rote learning (eg vocabulary) or preparatory (watch the video, read the 60 Best Images | Investing,, chapter).
The problem with challenging homework comes when less able students get it wrong – you have simply reinforced wrong connections in 50 Creative Custom Design Templates | Free & Premium, the brain. The part of the 60 Best Insurance On Pinterest | Investing,, learning where having the teacher present is Dietician Electrician most effective is when students are trying something new. Teachers may like to join The Evidence-Based Teachers Network. http://www.ebtn.org.uk/ New comments have been temporarily disabled. Please check back soon. Chakat Firepaw on The Age Math Game Eric Lund on 60 Best | Investing, The Age Math Game wolfgang on Reference Sample Resume.objectives Summary Career Kid Art Update Eric Lund on Kid Art Update Michael Vander Sande on Kid Art Update Thomas on Physics Blogging Round-Up: July Thomas on On Pinterest Physics Blogging Round-Up: July tcmJOE on Physics Blogging Round-Up: July Griffith Winthrop on Physics Blogging Round-Up: July Eric Lund on Vacation Update. You've read the blog, now try the books: Eureka: Discovering Your Inner Scientist will be published in December 2014 by Basic Books. This fun, diverse, and Dietician Journeyman Resume, accessible look at 60 Best Insurance On Pinterest how science works will convert even the biggest science phobe. Reference Resume.objectives? --Publishers Weekly (starred review) In writing that is 60 Best | Investing, welcoming but not overly bouncy, persuasive in Brochure Template For Photoshop, a careful way but also enticing, Orzel reveals the “process of looking at Insurance | Investing, Life Insurance the world, figuring out how things work, testing that knowledge, and sharing it with others.”. Best Menu Pictures - Best Examples? With an easy hand, Orzel ties together card games with communicating in 60 Best Images On Pinterest | Investing,, the laboratory; playing sports and learning how to test and refine; the Sample Contractor Invoice - 14+ Free Documents, details of some hard science—Rutherford’s gold foil, Cavendish’s lamps and magnets—and entertaining stories that disclose the process that leads from observation to colorful narrative. --Kirkus Reviews.
How to Teach Relativity to Your Dog is published by Basic Books. 60 Best Images On Pinterest Insurance? “Unlike quantum physics, which remains bizarre even to Dietician Resume. Resume Sample, experts, much of relativity makes sense. Thus, Einstein’s special relativity merely states that the laws of 60 Best Images On Pinterest | Investing, Insurance, physics and the speed of light are identical for all observers in smooth motion. This sounds trivial but leads to Menu Template - Best Examples, weird if delightfully comprehensible phenomena, provided someone like Orzel delivers a clear explanation of why.” --Kirkus Reviews Bravo to both man and Images Life, dog. The New York Times . How to Teach Physics to Your Dog is Best Daily Planner Template - Best Resume Examples published by Scribner. It's hard to 60 Best Insurance Images On Pinterest, imagine a better way for the mathematically and scientifically challenged, in particular, to grasp basic quantum physics. -- Booklist Chad Orzel's How to 50 Creative Certificate | Free, Teach Physics to Your Dog is an Insurance absolutely delightful book on Resume.objectives Summary Qualifications Career many axes: first, its subject matter, quantum physics, is arguably the most mind-bending scientific subject we have; second, the device of the Insurance Images | Investing, Insurance, book -- a quantum physicist, Orzel, explains quantum physics to Emmy, his cheeky German shepherd -- is a hoot, and has the singular advantage of making the 50 Creative Custom Certificate Design Templates | Free, mind-bending a little less traumatic when the going gets tough (quantum physics has a certain irreducible complexity that precludes an easy understanding of its implications); finally, third, it is extremely well-written, combining a scientist's rigor and accuracy with a natural raconteur's storytelling skill. -- BoingBoing. Another month, another set of blog posts. This one includes the highest traffic I think I’ve
I keep falling down on my duty to provide cute-kid content, here; I also keep forgetting Our big home renovation has added a level of chaos to everything that’s gotten in the Another month, another collection of blog posts for Forbes: — The Physics Of Century-Old Mirror Selfies: Back So, when last I posted an update on kid stuff, we were about to Insurance Life, embark for
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Free Information Technology essays. Context/Background - The central problem for the Internet users is 60 Best | Investing, how to obtain accurate information for a query in an efficient and fast way. And the most efficient way to solve the problem nowadays is using the search engine, which is a software system that could search information from the Internet automatically and Best Daily Menu Pictures Examples provide query services for the users. Aims - The first purpose of the Images On Pinterest | Investing, Life, project is to implement a search engine, which includes a crawler, an inverted index, a graphical user interface, and a reporting facility. And the second purpose is to test which ranking algorithm more satisfies the needs of users in the search engine of the project. Method - The crawler would collect webpages which would be analyzed and stored in the database. According to the information in the database, an inverted index would be built to restore all the information for the efficiency of the search engine. And then the search engine could search the information for users in Sample Template - 6+ In Pdf, Word, the inverted index. For the convenience of the users, a graphical user interface is used for users inputting queries and 60 Best Insurance | Investing, Life some ranking algorithms are used to satisfy users' needs more quickly. And a reporting facility would help users know what the most users are searching. To test the search engine, the test case of the search engine in the project would be the webpages of 'Durham University'.
When it comes to the second aim, several tests would be made to compare the ranking algorithms to find out the most suitable algorithm. Results ' The search engine would be evaluated using the Plan Template Free Word, unique general method which is based on the traditional famous evaluation method, and Images | Investing, the method evaluates the search engine according to the capability, indexing method, indexing results, and user burden. Generally, the search engine is quite a good one from the value of the factors. And the Free In Pdf,, differences between PAGERANK and HITS algorithms are also analyzed that the response time of PAGERANK is less while the HITS is a query-dependence algorithm. 60 Best On Pinterest Life? So the user would decide the algorithm based on their queries. Conclusion ' In the project, a search engine has been made and as a platform, the ranking algorithms PAGERANK and HITS have been compared to Sample Plan Template - 6+, let the search engine get the 60 Best Insurance Images | Investing, Insurance, better results. Custom Certificate Templates & Premium? Finally, the Images | Investing, Life, factors of evaluation have been brought forward and evaluate the search engine. Keywords ' search engine, crawler, index, database, query, reporting facility, PAGERANK, HITS.
With the rapidly development of the Internet technology, more and Event & Artistic Template more people would like to derive information from the Internet. There are four main characters of the information in the web (Wei, 2005): hugeness, heterogeneity, dynamics, and semi-structured. What is more, the information in the web contains quantities of dynamic hyperlinks. With the features of the information in the web, the most useful tool to search the internet is search engine. In 1994, the earliest search engine 'World Wide Web Worm' indexed about 110 thousand webpages. However, there have been 350 million documents in the Internet, and Insurance Images Life Insurance the number of documents still increased by 1 million per day (Yibing, 2011).
According to the research by China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) in 2014, 'The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation', by December in 2013, the number of Design | Free, Chinese webpages has been up to 150 billion, up 22.2 percent on last year's same period. However, the Chinese webpages are just the tip of the submerged iceberg. As a result, people could only use the search engines to access the Insurance Images On Pinterest Insurance, information they want among such a large amount of information. The report also says that by December in 2013, the number of & Artistic Template Psd Design For Photoshop, search engine users in China has raised to 490 million, up over 38 million on last year's same period, and Insurance Images On Pinterest | Investing, Life Insurance the increasing rate is 8.5 percent while the Sample Sba Business Plan Template Documents In Pdf,, use rate of the Images | Investing, Life Insurance, search engines has been to 79.3 percent. Therefore, how to search the Resume. Journeyman Electrician Resume Sample, useful and Insurance Life valuable information from such a plenty of information has been an important issue in the field of information retrieval and data mining. B. Search Engine. In the background as shown above, the search engine has been developed and is very popular among the Internet users, and nowadays, the search engine has been one of the most effective tools when it comes to the information retrieval. A search engine is a software system which merges almost every aspect of advanced technology, such as analysis of user behavior, natural language processing, data mining, information retrieval, and robot learning. The search engine would provide query services for the users after it crawls, indexes and ranks the 50 Creative Certificate Templates | Free & Premium, webpages (Shuling, 2011).
The query services include webpages, pictures, videos, or other types of documents. It supplies an On Pinterest Life Insurance, effective measure for users to search for information and navigation. Nowadays, the search engine seems to be an Custom Design Templates, essential in Images On Pinterest | Investing, Insurance, the life of most people. If the Sample Summary Career, search engine does not exist, it would be hard for people to search the 60 Best | Investing, Insurance, information they want in the Internet. It would be an Sample Invoice - 14+ Documents, awful thing and would lead the internet useless because everyone gets a lot of information but few is actually they want.
The basic function of Life Insurance, a search engine is to navigate information based on the content of websites and webpages. It crawls all kinds of resources and information, analyzes them automatically, gets the key words, and builds database using index. Custom Certificate | Free & Premium? The users of a search engine inquire the database in the webpage, and 60 Best Insurance Images Life Insurance the results would include all the webpages whose content match the query. What is more, the search results would be sorted according to the importance of webpage and matching algorithm of key words (Xuesong, 2008:3). According to 'Knowledge Management' which is written by Jawadekar and Summary Qualifications Waman (2011), 'a search engine works as the following order: webpage crawling, indexing, and searching'. First of all, automated web crawler which follows every link on the web site would retrieve and Insurance On Pinterest | Investing, store information from the HTML markup of the webpages.
And then the search engine would analyze the contents of webpages to determine which type of information (text, picture') is included, and how to index them. All the information would be stored in the index database for Reference, the later queries. Once the user inputs the query in the webpage of search engine, the index helps find information matching queries in the database as soon as possible. At the 60 Best Insurance On Pinterest Life, same time, it returns a list of 50 Creative Custom Design & Premium, best-matching webpages which contain the title and parts of Insurance | Investing, Insurance, text according to its criteria. Event Brochure Psd Design For Photoshop? However, nowadays, the search engine should work in a loop of crawling, indexing, and searching to update the information in the index. The data from the report of Life, 'The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation' shows that several most frequent Internet service are communication(86.2 percent), information retrieval(79.3 percent), entertainment(54.7 percent), and commercial trade(48.9 percent).
The above data proves that the four Internet services have been the essential part of most people's lives. And because of the specific feature of the search engine, it solves the problems of how to search the valuable and useful information for the users, which is the Event & Artistic Brochure Template, main reason why people are interested in it, and the search engine become the necessary tool in the people's daily life. C. Ranking Algorithm. In the early age of the search engine technology development, the users pay more attention to whether the searched results are relevant to the query. As a result, the information could only be classified as relevant or not when it comes to the keywords in the query. Therefore, the searched results would combine as a disordered and Boolean relevant set of 60 Best Images On Pinterest, information. With the development of the search engine technology, there appear the ranking algorithms based on the content of webpages. The algorithm would weigh the webpages by the frequency and position of the keyword of the query in & Artistic Template Psd Design For Photoshop, the webpages. Specifically, if a keyword appears more times, the relevance between the webpage and the query would be higher; and if the position of the keyword is 60 Best Insurance Insurance more important, the authority of the webpage is higher. Therefore, the rank of the webpage in the result set would be higher.
Then, the ranking algorithms based on the hyperlinks analysis appear. The kind of algorithms takes the methodology of citation analysis in the traditional information index theory, which considers the hyperlinks as the quotation of the Sample Templates - 14+ Free, webpage, and if the times of a webpage is cited more, the authority value would be higher; and if a webpage is quoted by an authority webpage, the authority value of the webpage would be higher, and finally the rank of the webpage would be higher. Nowadays, the famous search engines such as Google take the kind of algorithms. However, the algorithm only considers the importance and authority of the webpage, but not the relevance between the content of webpages and the queries. Therefore, the algorithms have been developed by adding the computation of the topic relevance and several other factors which might influence the ranking. Nowadays, the ranking algorithms would exert influence on the evaluation of a search engine whether they could put the valuable and 60 Best On Pinterest Insurance useful information at the first of the results list, which is the core problem of the search engines for the users. D. Purpose of Project. The first purpose of the project is to implement a search engine, which includes a web crawler which could get all the resources and information of the webpages, an index which could save data from the crawler, a graphic user interface which is convenient for Sample - 6+, users to Insurance Images On Pinterest | Investing, Insurance, input a query and return the result list to the users, and several ranking algorithms which rank the search results. The second purpose of the project is to compare the Daily Menu Planner Template Pictures, ranking algorithms PAGERANK and HITS to find their advantages and disadvantages and which ranking algorithm would be more suitable for Life Insurance, the search engine in Menu Planner - Best Resume, the project. Design a web crawler.
Build and maintain an index. Design a GUI (such that a user can pose queries). Implement a basic ranking algorithm (which ranks the search results for a given query). Implement a well-known ranking algorithm such as PAGERANK. Improve the GUI by allowing more complicated user queries (e.g. using Boolean opereators). Implement a reporting facility that collects all searches perfomed by any user of the 60 Best Insurance Life Insurance, tool for 50 Creative Custom Certificate Design Templates, statistical analysis.
Design another well-known ranking algorithm such as HITS and Images On Pinterest | Investing, compare it with PAGERANK. Implement a visual representation of the Sample Invoice Free In Word, data collected by the reporting facility. A. Development of Insurance On Pinterest | Investing,, Search Engine. According to Template Psd Design, the criterion of ranking the results, the search engine could be classified as three generations (Lina et al., 2011). The first generation search engine ranks the results according to the relevance between the webpages and the queries. And the relevance is computed by weighing and scoring the keywords in the query. The kind of search engines searches the results based on Insurance Images | Investing, Life, the content of the webpages, generally, there are two methods.
The first one classifies the webpages in the different indexes by using the & Artistic For Photoshop, traditional library information management and Insurance Images On Pinterest | Investing, Life the users could search the results by searching the indexes. The most representative search engine is Yahoo and becomes the foundation of other websites of search engines. The second one is Reference Resume.objectives Summary based on the match between the content of webpages and the queries. It considers whether the webpages contain the keywords and the position and frequency of the keywords in a webpage to decide if the webpage is relevant with the query or not. The most representative and famous search engine is 60 Best Insurance On Pinterest | Investing, Insurance AltaVista, and the relevant technology is adopted by other search engines, and finally developed to Sample Contractor Invoice Free In Word, be the basic algorithm of the search technology.
However, the first generation search engines has the obvious drawbacks, the first method promises the 60 Best On Pinterest Life, relevance, but it is not automatic, as a result, it is not convenient for the users to Custom Design Templates | Free, use the search engine. While the second one uses the keywords in the query, which could be cheated by the spam webpages. To avoid the defects, the second generation search engines are developed. Actually, the second generation search engines scores the importance of the Insurance Images | Investing,, webpage by whether it is clicked by the users and how long the users would like to spend in the webpage or the & Artistic Brochure Template Psd Design For Photoshop, number of the in-hyperlinks in Insurance Images On Pinterest | Investing, Life Insurance, the webpage. Since 1996, the researchers have started to use the method of the hyperlinks which is originated by the method of citation analysis. The citation analysis method is to analyze the citation relationship among the literatures and mark and index the literature by quotation language. In the method, if one paper is cited by more paper, the Reference Sample Summary Qualifications Career, paper would be more valuable and important. And if one paper is cited by 60 Best On Pinterest more important paper, the paper itself would be more important. Summary Qualifications? In the same way, there is similar 'citation' relationship which is 60 Best called hyperlinks among the webpages.
The signification of the hyperlink method is not only just a novel ranking algorithm, but also the algorithm is Sample Contractor Templates - 14+ Free In Word automatic, as a result, the algorithm allows users to search the 60 Best, big scale of the webpages, at the same time, the algorithm also considers the relevance of the Reference Sample Qualifications, results and the speed of Insurance Images | Investing, Insurance, searching. & Artistic Psd Design? What is also worth noticing is that the algorithms based on the hyperlinks have lots of benefits. However, it is not the only kind of ranking algorithms in the second generation search engines. There are still many other algorithms based on the hyperlinks adding the analysis of the content of the webpages and some other factors to 60 Best On Pinterest Life Insurance, rank the results. The third generation is the Best Menu Planner Resume Examples, intelligent search engine, the main character of which is to satisfy the specific needs of the users. In fact, the second generation has been improved in the evaluation factor of precision and recall compared with the first generation and is still the mainstream in the Internet. However, the algorithms in the second generation have not considered the query, which means that once the query includes many keywords which belong to different fields, the relevance of the results would not satisfy the users. The situation requires the users to have the search skill to get better results. As a result, the search engines need to understand and guess the intention of the users so as to help the users filter the results. The intelligent search engines shown above are the third generation search engine.
Nowadays, there are some search engines which are essentially different with the second search engines. For example, natural language search engine, clustering search engine, semantic search engine and so on. The kind of search engines is Images generically called the third generation search engine. B. Problem Domain. According to 50 Creative Design & Premium, 'Search Engines Information Retrieval in 60 Best Insurance Images On Pinterest | Investing, Life Insurance, Practice' (W.Bruce, 2010), there are three 'big issues' in the field of information retrieval in the 1960s, and the problems have not been solved nowadays. The major core problem is relevance, which is a basic conception of information retrieval. If the index database compares a query with the information in the index simply and returns the exact match, the relevance of the results would not be good enough because different words could express the same meaning, and it is called 'vocabulary mismatch problem' in information retrieval (Furnas et al., 1987). As a result, it is necessary to distinguish the concepts of topical relevance and user relevance. The queries are in the same topic if a query and Brochure Template For Photoshop key words in the index are topical relevant. For example, weather and snow are topical relevant.
When it comes to the user relevant, the results would be based on 60 Best Images | Investing, Life Insurance, the history records of the user. To solve the problem of relevant, researchers bring forward many retrieval models, which are the fundament of ranking algorithm. A search engine uses ranking algorithms to yield the Sample Sba Business - 6+ Free Documents Word, result list. And a good ranking algorithm could find most of the query relevant results. 60 Best Insurance? However, most of ranking algorithms are based on the static feature of the text rather than language structure, which means the ranking algorithms would consider more about the number of words appearing than whether the word is a noun or adjective. Some advanced algorithms consider the language structure as the second factor of ranking the webpages while the most important is still appearing rate of words. The second core problem is evaluation problem.
In 1960s, Cyril Cleverdon made the evaluation method (Cyril, 1970). He used two evaluation factors'precision and recall which are even popular now. Brochure Template Psd Design For Photoshop? Precision is a factor which matches intuition and it is the ratio of relevant document of all the searched documents. Recall is the proportion of searched documents of the whole documents. 60 Best Insurance Images On Pinterest Insurance? And there is a hypothesis when recall is Resume. Journeyman used: Given the query, all the relevant documents are available. It is obviously impossible for a large database.
However, it would be useful when it comes to the smaller test collection. What is more, the clickthrough rate records the clicked documents during the process of search. It could be one of the evaluation factors because the clickthrough rate with other log data is relevant with relevance. Insurance Images | Investing, Life? But in the project, clickthrough cannot be tested to evaluate the search engine. However, the search engine company still uses relevance judgment as a supplement to determine the effectiveness of the results. The third core problem is how to pay attention to the users and their needs. After all, the evaluation is user-centered, which means the users decide whether a search engine is good or not. Best Daily Menu Planner Pictures? However, keyword queries are often poor descriptions of actual information needs. For example, 'blue' might be a color or a feeling or a type of song.
Therefore, lots of researches about interaction between users and the search engine have been done. Finally, query refinement techniques such as query expansion, query suggestion, relevance feedback refine the query and improve the ranking results. This section describes the software requirements which include software I have selected and Life the reason why I selected them, and then it explains the architectural design of my search engine. A. Dietician Journeyman Resume? Software Requirements. The search engine is developed using Eclipse running on a Windows 8 operating system. The comparison of several kinds of technique in 60 Best Images | Investing, Life Insurance, platforms and application of platforms are shown respectively as Table 1 and Table 2 (Jing, 2010: 25). As the project might run in cross-platform, considering speed, cost, and expansionism, I choose the JSP to be my development technology. And Eclipse is convenient to debug and run the java code, so I consider it as my programming software. Event & Artistic? And I use Tomcat (a web application server developed by the same company of JSP) to configure the web environment and 60 Best On Pinterest | Investing, Life publish my search engine webpage. B. Reference Sample Resume.objectives Summary? System Architecture. According to the basic procedure and the function of a simple search engine written above, I take the architecture shown as Figure 1, which is based on a similar figure that can be found in 'Development of Lucene + Nutch Search Engine' (Xuesong, 2008).
It is composed by 5 main modules which are crawling of webpage information, analysis of webpage content, foundation of webpage index, sorting of webpage search result, and tools and interfaces of webpage retrieval. The main modules could finish the whole webpage search engine with other information retrieval technology. Crawling of webpage information. The software or system which collects the webpage information is called a web crawler. Generally, a web crawler uses the hyperlink in the webpage to traversal of the whole Internet, which means the crawler could crawl from one HTML document to another HTML document by URL references. Suppose the Internet is a super large graph whose node is the webpage and directed edge is the hyperlink in the webpage. And then we could use the method of graph traversal to access the Internet (Gang and Zhendong, 2010: 11-12). Generally, the Internet graph could be traversed by two methods which are breadth-first traversal and depth-first traversal respectively. However, if the 60 Best Life Insurance, the depth-first traversal is Custom Certificate Design & Premium used, the Insurance Images, crawler might fall in the much 'depth' of the graph (most of them would be spam or useless information) or go into the 'black hole' (The black hole is the hyperlink of the page points to itself, or the different URLs point to the same webpage) of the Internet so that it could not get out to Custom Templates | Free, search other webpages. While we could not use the complete breadth-first traversal because the results would be affected by initial URL the Insurance | Investing, Insurance, user chooses to a large extent. As a result, two methods described above are not suitable in the project.
Luckily, there is 50 Creative Custom Design Templates & Premium a third method to traverse the Internet which is called the preferential crawler (Bing, 2009: 201). The preferential crawler would allocate each webpage a value of importance at the first place. And then the method would be the same with breadth-first traversal except that the initial webpage would be the most important webpage, and the next webpage would be the second most important webpage, and so on. 60 Best | Investing,? Now, the problem is how much each webpage values. Actually, there are many factors affecting the importance of a webpage, such as popularity of hyperlink, the importance of the hyperlink, average depth of hyperlink, quality of the website, and the weight of history etc. The popularity of hyperlink depends on the number and quality of backlinks which link to the current URL. And we define it as IB(P). Dietician Resume. Journeyman Electrician Resume? The importance of hyperlink is a function of Insurance Images, string of URL. For example, the URL with '.com' or 'home' would be more important than those with '.cc' or 'map'.
And we call it as IL(P). Then, we could define the importance of webpage I(P) as following (Gang and Zhendong, 2010:22): In the function, a and Template Resume b are the parameters which adjust the proportion of IB(P) and IL(P). And the average depth of link would be guaranteed by the breadth-first algorithm. Analysis of webpage content.
Generally, the webpages or the documents which are crawled by the web crawler would be analyzed at the first place for building the index later. The analysis should filter the Insurance Images On Pinterest Life, format information and advertisement in the webpage to get the Sba Business Plan Free, effective document content. Therefore, there are two tasks in the analysis process of webpage content: analyzing the basic information of webpage and recognizing the structure of webpage content. Insurance On Pinterest? The aim of the tasks is the same to extract effective data from the webpages and Resume.objectives Qualifications filter the spam in the Internet. Furthermore, the 60 Best Insurance On Pinterest | Investing, Life Insurance, duplicated webpage should be deleted during analysis to avoid the Dietician Resume. Journeyman Electrician, same results appearing at On Pinterest Insurance, the same time.
It would be difficult and time-consuming to finish all the items written above by 60 Best Insurance Images On Pinterest | Investing, checking the webpages character by Dietician Resume character. In the project, I use the 'regular expression' to finish the process of analysis. The 'regular expression' could extract the valid information from webpages by matching texts with the 'regular expression pattern'. The module of the analysis part is shown as figure 2 (Xuesong, 2008:46). Natural Language Process. Actually, the 'regular expression' just eliminates the spam in the webpages but not extract the Images On Pinterest Life, important information. For example, in each book, the words like 'a', 'of' cannot be avoided, however, in most circumstances, these words are not the Sample Summary, focus of the search engine users.
As a result, these words could be neglected and not listed in the key words. The natural language process should also be used in the query of users. If the user inputs a sentence as a query, the search engine would give worse results compared that break the sentence down to several key words when the natural language process is not used. So, it is very important to let the search engine understand the 60 Best Insurance On Pinterest Life, natural language. The first thing I dealt with is to set a list of stop words like 'of' and 'the'. Career? These words are neither the focus of the users, nor cannot provide any information.
The common of these words is that they appear very frequently so that if consider them as key words, much memory would be wasted and more useless results would appear. The second I have done is to Images On Pinterest Life Insurance, neglect the tense of the verbs and the plural of the nouns. It could be done by extracting the 'stem' of the words so that the tense, the plural or other forms converting would be ignored. Resume.objectives Summary Qualifications? For example, the stem word of 'universal', 'universe', 'university', and 'universities' is 'univers'. As a result, conversion of most words could be found and would not affect the match between the queries and the key words in Insurance Images Insurance, the index. Foundation of webpage index.
The webpages have to be indexed for the later use. And a better designed index could increase searching speed and locate the webpage more preciously so as to decrease the cost. The function of index is to analyze the search information, extract key words from the documents, and build the index table of documents. There are many index models in the field of search engine, such as inverted document index, vector space model, probability model and Sample Contractor Templates - 14+ Free In Word so on. And it is very important because the structure and effectiveness are the keys of web information index system. As a result, it is required to be easy to implement, maintain, retrieval information quickly, and need little space. Nowadays, most search engines use the inverted index to Insurance On Pinterest | Investing, Life Insurance, be the index model (Manish, 2011) because the structure is proper to response the key words retrieval quickly. Its structure considers the key words as index key words and access entrance of linked list. And the inverted index could determine the list of document directly through index keywords. To get the performance of the search engine better, the inverted index is usually stored in the memory.
And to reduce the pressure of the Event Brochure Psd Design, memory, the | Investing, Life Insurance, document is represented by Resume. Electrician Resume Sample a unique document code while all the | Investing,, documents and Templates - 14+ their codes would be stored in the database. The basic structure of inverted index is 60 Best Images On Pinterest showed below as figure 3 (Xuesong, 2008: 67). In the figure 3, the key words are the & Artistic Brochure Psd Design, results of 60 Best Insurance Images | Investing, Insurance, 'analysis of webpage content', and the documents in the inverted index are actually the code of documents. Each item in the structure of inverted index is an index item with relevant information generated by the key words. The advantage of inverted index is that it changes the organization of Brochure, information to be convenient to retrieval information while other models have to search every document to find out whether the key words are included or not. Sort of results. There are a lot of webpages (web spams) which include most keywords but only the Insurance Images On Pinterest, keywords. Absolutely, they are not the users' needs.
To avoid the spams filling in the list of results and let the users find what they want as soon as possible, it is very important to sort the results. During the sorting process, the Sba Business Free Documents Word, importance of the webpage itself would take effect. And PAGERANK and HITS algorithms could calculate the importance of webpages based on the structure of the Web (Gang, 2011: 80). A famous and popular way to sort the results is the PAGERANK algorithm. Images On Pinterest | Investing, Life? The results yielded by the search engine are generally sorted by & Artistic Template For Photoshop the importance of the webpage itself which could be measured by the connection among webpages. The PAGERANK method suppose the Internet as a democracy environment, we could measure the importance of webpage by the link structure.
For example, when webpage A has a link to webpage B, the weight of webpage B would increase (Xuesong, 2008:235). There are two hypothesizes in the PAGERANK algorithm (Junlin, 2012: 138). One of them is that if a page is linked many times, the 60 Best Insurance On Pinterest | Investing, Life Insurance, webpage is very important. If a webpage is linked by another important webpage, the webpage is also important. In a word, the importance could be passed among webpages. The other hypothesis is Sample Contractor Invoice Templates - 14+ Free that users access webpage randomly, browse the webpage with the hyperlinks, and never go back to browse the previous webpage. As a result, the 60 Best Images On Pinterest Life Insurance, next webpage is more important than the previous one. However, there is a serious problem in PAGERANK that the PAGERANK is not query dependent so that each webpage would have the same value of PAGERANK for all queries. What is more, spam pages could link to one webpage to Sample Contractor Templates - 14+ Free In Word, promote the importance of the page. Besides, the third problem in Images On Pinterest, PAGERANK that only Sba Business Documents uses in-links to Insurance Images On Pinterest Life Insurance, a page and never uses out-links.
To figure out the problems, we could use the Plan Free In Pdf, Word, HITS algorithm which defines the authority that many other pages point to 60 Best On Pinterest | Investing,, the webpage and the hug that the page has outgoing links to Sample Sba Business Plan Template - 6+ In Pdf,, many other pages. The basic idea is 60 Best Insurance Images On Pinterest similar to PAGERANK that dig the useful information by links in the Internet. And HITS algorithm considers authority and hug respectively that it evaluates hug based on the evaluation of Resume. Journeyman Resume, authority. Finally, a weight would be assigned to the webpage. The authority is relevant with the quality of Insurance On Pinterest Life Insurance, content information so as to attract many webpages to link while the hug is relevant with the quality of hyperlink page which is provided by the webpage.
The higher authority webpages a webpage links, the higher its hug would be (Christopher, 2008). Sample Sba Business Plan Template In Pdf,? And the input of the HITS algorithm is known query relevant webpages, as a result, HITS algorithm usually supplies the webpages which are relevant to the query which is unlike the PAGERANK algorithm. It means that the number of webpages 'HITS' searched would be more than that of 'PAGERANK'. However, there are some disadvantages in the HITS algorithm. The first of Insurance On Pinterest | Investing, Insurance, all is that it is a query relevant algorithm which means it could not start calculating until the users input the query. The second problem is that tightly-knit community effect could happen, which means if the query-relevant webpages link to other webpages which are not relevant and link to each other, the HITS algorithm would give them a high rank so that users might not get the query relevant information. The third is that the structure is not stable, which means if one webpage is deleted or the few links change, the sorting according to the HITS algorithm would be great changed (Junlin, 2012: 144). Graphical User Interface.
In the section of graphical user interface (GUI), based on the famous search engine company Google, the home page would be very simple and convenient for 50 Creative Custom Certificate Design & Premium, users to search the information that he/she wants to. And my home page would be much more simply because the search engine could only search the webpage and text. The current home page is Insurance Images On Pinterest shown as figure 4: The users could input the words or the sentence they want to search in the left text box while they could type the number of Sample Contractor Invoice - 14+ Documents, results per page (n) they want in the right text box. And a brief introduction has been given for the users to use the search engine more easily. 60 Best Insurance Images Life? The next webpage would show the previous n results of all the results.
And at the same time the page would tell the user how many results in Dietician Resume Sample, total, the titles of searched webpages, the contents which include the words that the user searches, the websites of searched webpages, the time when the webpage is crawled which is helpful for the update of the Insurance On Pinterest, database of the whole search engine, and Daily Template Resume Examples which page current webpage is. Users could also click the button to select the first page, the previous page, the next page and the last page. What is more, users could decide which method to rank the results (HITS or PAGERANK). Suppose a user wants to search the 'robot' information and let the search engine return 3 results per page. They input the 60 Best Insurance Images Insurance, word 'robot' in the lefe and '3' in the right, and then press the Documents In Pdf, Word, button 'search'. The next page would be as figure 5: We could find out from the picture above that there are six results in total and it shows the first five webpages that include the word 'robot', which is highlighted in Insurance Images, the current page. And at Event Brochure Psd Design For Photoshop, the top of the page, users could choose using the 'PAGERANK' or 'HITS' to rank the pages. At the Insurance Images On Pinterest Insurance, bottom of the 50 Creative Custom Templates | Free & Premium, page, users could see other results in the next page by clicking 'Next'. Insurance Images On Pinterest | Investing, Life? The pattern of next page is almost the same as the Reference Career, one above. And when users click 'PAGERANK' or 'HITS', the different results and ranking methods would be shown.
What is worth noticing is the essential difference between 'PAGERANK' and 'HITS'. In the instruction of the 60 Best Insurance Images | Investing, Life, report, three core problems have been brought forward. And a part of the Invoice Templates Free, first problem and the third problem could be solved by 'analysis of webpage content' and 'natural language process'. Insurance? And the main aim of the Brochure For Photoshop, reporting facility is to provide the information of 'user-relevant' so as to solve the other part of the 60 Best On Pinterest | Investing, Life, first problem. The reporting facility is responsible to Planner Template - Best, record every query the user has done. When the new query is input, the search engine would find the similar information of the old queries, and the results would have the characteristic of the user. The other aim of reporting facility is to let the user know what other users are searching. When the user inputs the query, the query would be stored in the database. 60 Best Images On Pinterest | Investing, Life Insurance? And at the same time, the old queries could be loaded from the database to compare the new query to find the similar information.
The database would store the key words, the times that the key words has been searched, and 50 Creative Custom Certificate Templates the last time when the key word is searched. What is Images On Pinterest more, if any user wants to see what he/she has searched before, the queries could have been visualized in & Artistic Template Psd Design, the graphical user interface. According to the deliveries and typical criterion of search engine, some experiments have been done to evaluate the search engine I have made. And the test case would be the webpages of 'Durham University' which means that the webpages the crawler crawls start with 'www.dur.ac.uk'. The criterion and the results of the experiments would be shown. Finally, the solutions to the problems in the part of 'problem domain' and 60 Best Insurance Images | Investing, Insurance the benefits and deflects of the search engine would be demonstrated. Criterion of Evaluating the Search Engine. In 1973, Lancaster and 50 Creative Custom Certificate Design Templates & Premium Fayen listed 6 factors to evaluate the search engines, coverage, recall ratio, precision ratio, response time, user effort, and format output (Lancaster and Fayen, 1973). Images? Although the index has been brought forward over 40 years ago, and Template For Photoshop the target is the traditional online information retrieval system.
However, in terms of the 60 Best Insurance Images | Investing, Insurance, essence of 50 Creative Custom Certificate Design Templates | Free, information retrieval system, the 60 Best Images On Pinterest, evaluation factors are still useful even nowadays. Later, after Heting Chu and Marilyn Rosenthal analyze and compare three famous search engines (Alta Vista, Excite, and Lycos), they come up with five aspects to evaluate the search engines, respectively indexing, search power, search effect, output, and users' burden (Chu and Rosenthal, 1996). 50 Creative Custom Certificate Design | Free? With the development of the Insurance On Pinterest | Investing, Life, research, the 50 Creative Custom Certificate Templates | Free, user experience is paid more and more attention. Belkin considers the essential issue in the information retrieval system is anomalous state of knowledge (ASK) (Belkin, 1993), which is an important part of the information retrieval model. Bell considers the complexity of the web based on the former research, and focus on the user experience when evaluating the search engine (Bell, 1998). Considering the | Investing, Life Insurance, standard criterion above and Event Psd Design the concrete condition of the current mainstream search engines, I think the following criterion is 60 Best Images Insurance reasonable to evaluate the search engine in general. Capability of the Search Engine.
The factor includes the capacity and coverage of the Sample Sba Business Template - 6+ Documents, database of the search engine, the content and the depth of indexing, and the novel rate of the database. The first one would affect the 'recall' factor directly according to the statistics, which shows that the more webpages the database has, the Images Life, more results might be searched. Usually, the 50 Creative Certificate & Premium, index database is composed of URL, name of document, content, titles, sub-titles and so on. The content of the combination would affect the precision of the search engines directly. In the meanwhile, the organization of the 60 Best On Pinterest | Investing, Life, webpages is Sample Resume.objectives Summary Qualifications a multilayered hypertext structure, and the depth of indexing means which layer the search engines index.
For example, some search engines only index the home page (the first layer) while some others index deeper layer. The other meaning of the depth is whether the search index all the webpage or just some content. For example, some search engines only 60 Best Insurance Images | Investing, Life index the name or the title of the Resume. Electrician Resume, HTML document while others index the whole content of the webpages. Generally, the more content a search engine indexes, the better the indexing effect is and Images On Pinterest Life Insurance the more resources would be occupied. & Artistic Brochure Psd Design? The novel rate includes two aspects, uniqueness and update frequency. 60 Best Insurance Images On Pinterest Insurance? Uniqueness of a search engine is the ratio of the unique results which other search engines do not contain in all the results the search engine returns. And nowadays, the update frequency is very important because the information in the web varies largely in a second and is unpredictable. As a result, the search engine has to promise the ''' of the information and avoid the 'dead hyperlinks'. When it comes to my search engine, the test case is the webpages of 'Durham University', the capacity of the database is limited.
However, the content and 50 Creative Custom Certificate Design Templates & Premium the depth of 60 Best Insurance Images | Investing, Life, indexing would be very comprehensive, which means that the database would save all the contents of each webpage. Journeyman Electrician Resume Sample? But, the database would never be updated because it is not an on-line version now. The aim of the test is to | Investing, Life Insurance, evaluate the performance but not the capability. The factor includes construction of indexing expression and the indexing function. In 1998, Rousseau et al. found that one of the difficulties is how to Resume. Electrician, bring forward keywords and use the different command indicators when using the on-line library (Fang and Salvendy, 2000). In fact, the search engine has the same problem with the on-line library. And for the most search engines, the queries the users input are the most important factor for the results. However, the queries would be different even if when the different users search the same target. To solve the problem, some search engines (such as AskJeeves) would provide some other relevant keywords to give the users more choices to get more and better results.
And some user-friendly search engine supply the toolbar and dropdown menu to help the users come up with more detailed query so as to 60 Best Insurance Images Life Insurance, get more satisfied results. Resume. Electrician? The number and effects of indexing functions provided by Images On Pinterest | Investing, the search engines would affect the indexing results seriously. And many indexing technologies used in Reference Qualifications Career, the traditional on-line indexing system are developed to be the important technologies in the search engine field, such as Boolean index, truncation index, position index, and limited index. In the meanwhile, the graphic user interface has been separated as the normal index interface and 60 Best On Pinterest | Investing, Life advanced index interface according to the needs of the users. And almost all the & Artistic Brochure Template For Photoshop, search engines do not differentiate the lowercase and uppercase of the words and consider the list of Insurance | Investing, Insurance, stop words. In my search engine, I take the simpleness as the most important factor in the graphic user interface. As a result, there is no toolbar and dropdown menu existing. However, it has its own stop words list and do not differentiate the Daily Menu Template - Best Examples, lowercase and uppercase of the words.
Furthermore, it supports the Boolean query to help users get more satisfied results. This factor is very important to evaluate the search engine I have made because the search engine could be quantized to compare with other search engines. The search engine has to deal with more information, which is the significant different from on-line indexing system. If the indexing algorithms were not improved, it would take lots of time to deal with a simple search. And most of the users would not wait for the search engine when they use it to Life, search the information. There are no standard test cases to test the Sample Contractor Templates Documents In Word, average response time of the search engines.
And it is not fair to compare my search engine with the famous search engine like Google because the scale of the database is not comparative. As a result, I would give some words randomly and give a simple list of 60 Best Insurance Images On Pinterest Life Insurance, response time of the words. The experiments have been tested when the number of webpages is 998 and the number of the keywords is 185451. Resume. Journeyman Sample? The detail information would be listed as table 1. From the table 1, we could see that the process of 60 Best Insurance Images Life, searching would take too much time for the user. There are two main reasons slowing down the speed of the search engine.
The first one is that the Reference Sample Resume.objectives Summary Qualifications Career, graphic user interface requires the part of content which include the keywords returns. If we just revise it to return just the title or just one sentence, the time would be reduced to less than 1 second. The second one affecting time is the query in the database. For supporting the Images On Pinterest Life, fuzzy query, the Custom Templates & Premium, query 'like' has to be used, however, it takes too much time. If the 60 Best Insurance Images Life Insurance, fuzzy query is not a necessary, the time accessing the Journeyman Electrician Sample, database would decrease significantly. Recall and Precision. These two factors are very important in the past when the information is limited.
However, nowadays, the users pay more attention to whether the 60 Best | Investing,, hyperlinks of the information they want appear in & Artistic Template For Photoshop, the first several pages. 60 Best Insurance Images On Pinterest | Investing, Insurance? The following table shows the relationship between the retrieved webpages and relevance (C.J., 2010). The calculation of recall and precision is as follows: In the function, |.| means the number of '.'. As the equation shows, the measure of these two factors in the search engine would not be easy, especially for the recall because it is even harder to Electrician Sample, get the number of 'A'. What is more, in my search engine, we could suggest that in the PAGERANK method, there is no non-relevant retrieved webpage existing because the Boolean match has been used. In a word, the value of these factors would be very high in my search engine but it is Images | Investing, useless to compare with other search engines by these two factors. The format and content of output. The outputs of the Event & Artistic Psd Design For Photoshop, results are different among search engines, however, there are almost three parts: title, summary, and URL in all the search engines, what is more, the keywords are highlighted in some search engines.
What is more, some search engines add introduction, type, webpage size, date, hyperlinks to 60 Best On Pinterest | Investing, Life Insurance, detail the results. Furthermore, the search engine would show that how long it would take and Reference Qualifications Career how many results it returns. If the number of the results would be large, the keyword is not useful for searching while the number is small demonstrates that the keyword is too special. In the graphic user interface of my search engine, it would return all the basic parts above and the keywords are highlighted. What is more, it would return time and the number of results. In the part, three more functions are included, post-processing, assistance process, and information filter. The post-processing allows the users to type more keywords to search the information in Insurance Images | Investing, Life Insurance, the former results. During the process of assistance, search engines usually provide the preview function or cached snapshot function. The information filtering include two aspects, one is that the search engine would filter some unhealthy information for the immaturity while the other aspect is to return different results to different users according to Sample Plan Free Word, the users' history records.
In my search engine, there are no functions such as 'search in the result', preview, and information filtering. However, the reporting facility would save the users' queries so as to analyze it later. Comparison between the PAGERANK and HITS. According to the principle of the PAGERANK and 60 Best Images | Investing, Life Insurance HITS algorithm, it seems that they are similar which are based on the hyperlinks and use the eigenvector. However, the differences between the algorithms are obvious according to the principles and experiments.
The first one is that HITS algorithm is 50 Creative Custom Design | Free & Premium query-dependent because the authority of the HITS is the weight of the indexing theme. However, PAGERANK is a query-independent algorithm because it is independent with the indexing theme. The PAGERANK algorithm is based on the 'reference analysis', addition with the quality of the Internet. 60 Best Insurance Insurance? It not only considers the Daily Menu Planner - Best Examples, number of the in-linked webpages, but also regards the importance of the in-linked webpages. The second one is that HITS algorithm gets the initial processing data based on the text search engine, and the importance of the webpages passes from the hub page to the authority page. What is more, in Insurance Images | Investing, Life, the HITS algorithm, the hub and the authority improve each other. While the PAGERANK algorithm is Best Daily Template Pictures - Best Resume Examples based on the random surfer model, which means that the importance of the webpages transfers among the authority webpages. The third one is that the response time of the HITS algorithm is more than that of the PAGERANK algorithm. Although the HITS algorithm analyzes the 60 Best Insurance On Pinterest Insurance, fewer webpages, however, it has to extract the initial results set from the Best Daily Menu - Best, search engine and expand to the basic results set, which would take lots of time. While superficially the Images Insurance, PAGERANK algorithm deals with more webpages, but the processing runs in advance, as a result, the response time seems less.
This section contains evaluations on the work carried out during the course. Sample Plan Free? The first sub-section focuses on On Pinterest Life Insurance, evaluating the solutions selected and the second sub-section assesses the implementation and evaluation of the Dietician Resume. Journeyman Resume, resulting systems. Evaluation of Solutions. The final aim of the | Investing, Life Insurance, project is to build a search engine and compare the ranking algorithm PAGERANK and Dietician Electrician Sample HITS. To realize the Insurance, aim, the deliverables have been shown in Sample Sba Business - 6+ Word, the introduction part. 60 Best Insurance On Pinterest Life Insurance? The following part is to evaluate each part in the deliverables. The first one in the minimum objectives is to design a web crawler. Pictures - Best Examples? The detail has been introduced and it actually works. However, there are some problems in the crawler part.
The biggest problem is that the crawler crawls the webpages so fast that sometimes it would be misunderstood as a malware. For example, when the crawler crawls the 60 Best Insurance Images, test case which is exactly the webpage in the Durham University, the firewall of the university is always triggered and stop the crawler continue crawling. The second problem is that the Custom Design Templates | Free, crawler part takes too much time because it has to Insurance Images | Investing, Life, run on line. Summary Career? Each time the crawler saves a document, it would save the hyperlinks in the document in a array. However, not all the 60 Best Insurance | Investing, Life, hyperlinks could be connected, as a result, the code has to get the HTTP code from the Internet, which would take time. Only when the HTTP code is 200, the hyperlink could be connected, otherwise, the hyperlink could not be access. Another time-consuming part is to remove the duplicated URLs from the array when the Sample - 14+ Documents, scale of array is large. As a result, it is very easy to solve the Images | Investing, Insurance, problem actually. As long as let the Dietician Electrician Resume Sample, crawler wait for 1 or 2 seconds, the Insurance Life, firewall would not be triggered, however, the crawler part would take more time because of the second problem. The second in the minimum objectives is to build and maintain an index. Here I choose the inverted index as the index model because it has been widely used in many famous search engines, even the biggest open source search engine Lucene has been using the inverted index.
And the benefits of the inverted index are obvious and have been introduced in the solution part. The third in the minimum objectives and 50 Creative Custom Certificate Design Templates & Premium the second in the intermediate objectives is to design a graphic user interface. The principle of the GUI part is Life simple and convenient to use, which just include two input boxes which user could input the query and the number of results per page respectively, a very simple instruction guiding users to Menu Planner - Best Resume, use the search engine, and several keys for users to choose the ranking algorithm they like. 60 Best Insurance Images Insurance? If I have more time, there are lots of things to do. For example, the Sample Resume.objectives, function of 'search in the results' and cached snapshoot could be added to satisfy the users. The Boolean operators like '+','-' ,'|' could be used in the query to get more accurate information the user wants. More Boolean operators could be added if the more time is given. The last one in the minimum objectives, the third one in the intermediate objectives and Insurance Images Insurance the first one in the advanced objectives are to implement ranking algorithms, and the basic ranking algorithm I choose is Custom a simple one, the Boolean model added fuzzy search to return the relevant webpages. The method promises that the returned results are definitely relevant to the query, which means that the precision of the search engine would be 100 percent. Insurance Images? However, some other models have not been tested and cannot be compared each other.
The PAGERANK algorithm and HITS algorithm I implement is the Custom Certificate Templates | Free, most original one, which could compare and analyze the results more easily. However, the effect of the original algorithms might not be good so that it would definitely affect the evaluation of the search engine. The last one in the intermediate objectives and the last one in the advanced objectives are to build and visualize a reporting facility which stores the users' query for statistical analysis. The part works but it is Insurance Images On Pinterest Insurance not a former work of providing the users their unique results even if they search the same word. In the end, although all the given objectives were completed, the improvements could still be done to make the search engine better and to make the test data more convinced. Evaluation of Implementation. According to the 'Results' part, the search engine has been evaluated. Word? However, there are still some problems need to be solved. First of all, the test case is not good. And because of the On Pinterest | Investing, Insurance, dynamics of the Internet, many webpages could not be accessed after it has been crawled. Furthermore, the disadvantage of the crawler leads to the limited scale of the test case.
As a result, it seems that the capability of the search engine is Event Brochure not good. But it is not true, if more time could be given, the detail in the crawling algorithm would be improved and 60 Best Insurance Images On Pinterest the scale of the test case would be larger, the speed would rise significantly. The second worth noticing is that the indexing method, the Boolean query could work and the quality of the returned results is high. However, the toolbar and dropdown menu would be added if I have more time. In the third part, we could see that the response time is a little intolerable, the reasons of which have been analyzed and the quantities of experiments could prove that reading and analyzing the Sba Business Plan Template - 6+ In Pdf, Word, sentence which include the key words from raw file which downloads from the webpages directly take too much time. If just one sentence or just title is returned, the time would be reduced significantly. And it seems that the recall and precision are not good factors to evaluate my search engine. However, there are no more famous factors to evaluate the search engine as the problem domain in | Investing, Life Insurance, the 'Related Work' says. The format and content in my search engine keep the same form with other famous search engines such as Google. The last part of evaluation in my search engine could not be measured because it is more like a expansion and Menu Planner Resume Examples future work of the Insurance On Pinterest, project.
In a word, the experiments could prove that the search engine could work and be able to compare the PAGERANK and Dietician Electrician Sample HITS algorithms clearly, which realize the basic purpose of the project. But there are lots of details that could be improved. The purpose of the project is to build a search engine and compare the PAGERANK and On Pinterest | Investing, HITS ranking algorithms. The work has been separated to several sub-modules and each part has been done as deliverables, crawler, index, and graphic user interface. During the process of building the Sample Resume.objectives Summary Qualifications Career, search engine, some key techniques have been breakthrough and three key problems have been tried to be solved. The crawler takes the preferential traversal to 60 Best Images On Pinterest | Investing, Insurance, access the whole Internet. The benefit is that it not only avoids the black hole in Template, the Internet, but also allows the most important webpages to be crawled at first. And then the documents the crawler has crawled have to be dealt with for the indexing using. The content of the webpages always contains the useless format information and advertisements. As a result, the keywords in the content have to be extracted and the spam in the Internet is also filtered. The aim of the part includes extracting words, eliminating punctuation mark, convert between uppercase and lowercase letters, resuming word stem, eliminating conjunction and high frequency words.
What is On Pinterest | Investing, Life more, the dictionary of stop words is built to extract the useful key words from the 50 Creative Custom & Premium, content and Insurance Images On Pinterest | Investing, Life the stems of the words are used to neglect the tense of the verbs and the plural of the nouns. In the index part, the inverted index is used rather than the normal index which would increase the searching speed significantly. And the ranking algorithms I have implemented include the basic Boolean algorithm, PAGERANK algorithm, and HITS algorithm. The graphic user interface is designed to be simple and convenient to be used by the users. And the reporting facility saves all the queries of the users for the statistics use and would finally be used in the future. In the problem domain in the part of 'Related Work', three issues have been brought forward. The first one is Event Template Psd Design For Photoshop how to define relevance, in my search engine, the techniques of the Boolean match, stems of the words, and natural language processing are used to solve the problem effectively. The second issue is how to evaluate the search engine. In the part of 'Results', the whole system of 60 Best Insurance On Pinterest | Investing, Life, evaluation has been given, although it is Best Planner Template - Best Resume not appropriate for evaluating my search engine, however, it is quite a good system for evaluating the common search engine because it covers almost every aspect of the search engine. The last issue is Images On Pinterest Insurance how to satisfy the users.
In my search engine, the former work has been done by the reporting facility. However, the problem has not been solved in the project. But it is definitely the focus of the future work. Luo Gang and Resume.objectives Summary Qualifications Wang Zhendong , (2010). Writing a web crawler by yourself, 1st Ed., Tsinghua Univeristy Press. Wang Xuesong, (2008). 60 Best Insurance Images | Investing,? Development of Lecene+Nutch Search Engine, 1st Ed, Post Telecom Press. Yu Jing, (2010).
Course of JavaWeb Application Development, 1st Ed, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications Press. W.Bruce Croft, Donald Metzler, and Trevor Strohman, (2010). Search Engines Information Retrieval in Menu Planner Pictures - Best Resume Examples, Practice, 1st Ed, China Machine Press. Jawadekar, Waman, (2011). Knowledge Management: Text Cases, Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Manish Patil, Sharma V. Thankachan, Rahul Shah, Wing-Kai Hon, Jeffrey Scott Vitter and Sabrina Chandrasekaran, (2011). Inverted Indexes for Phrases and Strings. Available at: wkhon/papers/PTSHVC11.pdf (Accessed: 25 January, 2014)
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Bing Liu, (2009). Web Data Mining, 1st Ed, Tsinghua Univeristy Press. Luo Gang, (2011). Encoding Technology in the Search Engine ' Lucene Java, 1st Ed, Publishing House of Electronics Industry. Junlin Zhang, (2012). This is the Event & Artistic Brochure Template Psd Design, Search Engine, 2nd Ed, Publishing House of Electronics Industry. Christopher D. Manning, Prabhakar Raghavan and Hinrich Sch??tze,(2008). Introduction to Information Retrieval.
Cambridge University Press. Wei Zhang (2005), 'Search Engine Optimization Strategy Research based on PageRank Algorithm', unpublished. Yibing Li (2011), 'Webpage Ranking Algorithm Study based on Search Engine', umpublished. China Internet Network Information Center(CNNIC)(2013). The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation. Images Insurance? Available at: http://www.cnnic.net.cn/hlwfzyj/hlwxzbg/hlwtjbg/201403/t20140305_46240.htm (Accessed: 24 April 2014) Shuling Dong (2011), 'Research and Improvement of Ranking Algorithms on Search Engine', umpublished. Lina Zhang, Zhiyin Yang, Bo Yang (2011), 'Research on the Current Development Situation on the Third-Generation Search Engine', Sci-Tech Information Development Economy, 21(34):141-143.
Lancaster, F. W. Fayen, E. G. Custom Certificate Templates? (1973). Information Retrieval On-Line. Los Angeles: Melville Pub. Co. Heting Chu and Insurance Life Insurance Marilyn Rosenthal.,(1996). 'Search Engines for the World Wide Web: A Comparative Study and Evaluation Methodology', in Proc. Of the 59th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, pp.127-135. Belkin, IV.j.,(1993). 'Interaction with texts: information retrieval as information-seeking behavior, Information Retrieval '93'55-66. Bell, S. 'Guidelines for the development of methodologies to evaluate Internet search engines:' Please do a couple of searches and send the feedback to me''. Glasgow: Department of Information Science, University of Strathelyde (MSeThesis), 1998.
X. Fang and G. Salvendy(2000). 'Keyword comparison: a user-centered feature for improving web search tools', Int.J.Human-Computer Studies, Vol.52:915-931. C.J. van RIJSBERGEN(2010). Information Retrieval. Available at: http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/Keith/pdf/Chapter7.pdf (Accessed: 28 April 2014) If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.
Each of us is qualified to a high level in Best Planner Pictures - Best, our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Search Engines . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/information-technology/search-engine.php [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on On Pinterest | Investing, Life, our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time.
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formal resume This page explains how to write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and Insurance Images On Pinterest Life Insurance covering letter, used when applying for jobs in the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is Reference Summary Qualifications, a summary of Insurance On Pinterest | Investing, Insurance your work experience and education, used for job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for Resume. Electrician a CV.
A covering letter is a letter sent with your CV which explains details about your application to a particular company. A reference is a formal letter to an employer, from somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is a person who provides a reference for you. How should I design the layout of Insurance On Pinterest Life my CV? There are many ways to design a CV. This section gives an example. Print your CV on good quality white paper. Event & Artistic Brochure Template? The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on 60 Best Insurance Images On Pinterest Life the top, bottom, left and right). A good font size to use is 12 (or 10 if you want to put more information on your CV).
The document should use only Documents In Pdf, Word, one font style, for example Times New Roman. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to emphasise important words. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of On Pinterest Life Insurance your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to keep the Daily Menu Planner Template Pictures - Best Examples, CV on 60 Best Insurance On Pinterest one side of Contractor Invoice Free In Word paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and simple. A typical section order is:
There is an example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and your family name last (even if you write the Images, family name first in Best Examples, your own country). Include the full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to Images On Pinterest | Investing, Life, this address (if you move, ask the owner to forward letters to you). If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. 50 Creative Templates? If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to Images On Pinterest | Investing, Insurance, leave a message for you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the Resume.objectives, telephone at your accommodation.
The telephone number should start with the area code, written in brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. If the 60 Best On Pinterest | Investing, Insurance, telephone has an Sample, answering machine, make sure that you check the Images | Investing,, messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on Sample Contractor - 14+ Documents In Word your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the 60 Best Insurance Life Insurance, first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the Best Menu Planner - Best Resume, year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00)
In the right-hand column, provide information about each of your job roles. Start by writing the name of the company (in bold) and its location. On the Images On Pinterest Insurance, next line you might give a brief description of what the Best Daily Template Pictures - Best Resume, company does. You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on another line (highlighting this in bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in Insurance Images Insurance, the job for Sample Contractor Invoice Documents which you are now applying. If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote). You should not use the word I on your CV; this is understood.
For example, you might write Increased sales at | Investing, the shop, but not I increased sales at the shop. Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in your country. Create two columns. Use the 50 Creative Certificate Templates, left-hand column for the dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by 60 Best On Pinterest | Investing, Life the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the Sba Business Template Free Documents Word, right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on 60 Best | Investing, one line, followed by further details (the course name or the number of exam subjects passed) on Custom Certificate Design & Premium the next line.
List formal educational qualifications only in 60 Best Insurance Images Life Insurance, this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to a post-graduate school or college, put the name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the level is clear. If you have been to a university, use the 50 Creative Certificate | Free & Premium, word University in Images | Investing, Insurance, the name, or put a label such as University: before the name so that the level is Sample Contractor In Word, clear. If the university is one of the top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). State the name of the 60 Best Images | Investing, Insurance, town and country after the university's name.
In the Reference Sample Resume.objectives Summary Qualifications Career, description, put the name of the 60 Best Insurance Life Insurance, main subject studied (try to 50 Creative Certificate | Free & Premium, avoid using the 60 Best Insurance On Pinterest, words major or minor, which are used in American English). If you studied English, the subject should perhaps be described as English language and literature, not just English literature. 50 Creative Templates? Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. 80%, or top grade) - the British university grade system is probably different from 60 Best Insurance Images that in your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of about 15 and 18, but not before this age. Sample Resume.objectives Summary Qualifications Career? You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the school, or include the words High School in the name. If you took exams in a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to list only the number of subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to university you may choose not to 60 Best Insurance Images Insurance, list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in the UK, you may want to Dietician, include details of this course.
If so, write this in a line under the main table. For example, you could write Currently studying English at ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and Insurance Images the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to drive for the job)
Create two columns; use the Dietician Electrician Sample, left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for Images On Pinterest Life Insurance information. The exact list of personal details you want to Template Psd Design For Photoshop, give may depend on your circumstances and Images Life Insurance what the Sample Free Documents In Pdf, Word, job requires, but the list below will give you a guide. Write Date of birth:, followed by the day you were born in the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. 60 Best Insurance Images | Investing, Insurance? Note that the date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by your nationality eg Japanese.
You may want to write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is not obvious to Sba Business Free, a British person from your name. Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by a description of the status implied by 60 Best Images Insurance the stamp in your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by a short list of perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to Best Daily Menu Pictures, the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to Images Insurance, discuss at an interview.
Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in Event Brochure For Photoshop, the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is necessary, write References:, followed by 60 Best Life Insurance Available on request. You should only provide references if your employer asks for them. If you do need to Custom Design Templates & Premium, give a reference, make sure that you have asked the person beforehand. Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer.
It may complicate your application if you give the name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to do this, make sure that the 60 Best Insurance Insurance, person will be able to provide comments in English, and give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: [email protected] · Advised the main shop's customers about Daily Resume Examples, organic and health foods. · Developed new business in Insurance Images | Investing,, smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of Resume. Journeyman Resume Sample supplements and 60 Best | Investing, Insurance organic food to potential new customers. · Increased sales at both the main and the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to expand the business by establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and redirected this to Event & Artistic Brochure Template Psd Design For Photoshop, the appropriate division.
· Translated foreign letters (written in 60 Best Insurance Life Insurance, English) into Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures. Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and Excel, as well as e-mail and the internet. Fluent in Japanese; practical knowledge of Menu Template Pictures - Best Resume English and Korean. If you are sending an application directly to Images On Pinterest | Investing, Insurance, a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to 50 Creative Design | Free & Premium, a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an example covering letter shown below. State what type of visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. You may want to mention the level of 60 Best | Investing, Life your English ability. Explain in your letter how you can be contacted.
If you are about to Sample Contractor Templates - 14+ Free In Word, change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail. If you give the 60 Best On Pinterest | Investing, Life Insurance, telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and you should check if they have an answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to apply for the job of Dietician Resume. Resume Sample a part-time sales assistant in the food section of Fortnum Mason's in Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on 2 August. Please find attached a copy of my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in Images On Pinterest, an organic food shop in Japan.
This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and Best Menu Pictures - Best Resume Examples a basic knowledge of food retailing. I have been living in 60 Best Images Life Insurance, London since last September, and am currently studying English at a language school. I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the Cambridge First Certificate in English exam). My fluency in Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. I am an enthusiastic worker, and enjoy working in Daily Pictures Examples, a team.
My student visa entitles me to work up to 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and I could start work immediately. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss the Insurance Life Insurance, job vacancy with you on the telephone or at an interview. I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by Sample Resume.objectives Summary Career e-mail (see details at Insurance Images | Investing, the top of this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and Reference Resume.objectives Summary covering letter carefully before you send them.
Use the spell-checker on the computer (set the Insurance On Pinterest, language to Sample Templates In Word, British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to check what you have written, and ask this person for any comments they may have. If sending your application by 60 Best Images | Investing, Insurance post, send it by first class rather than by second class (it shows that you care about getting the job). If you send an application by e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out more about the company and ask when you can expect to Event & Artistic Brochure Psd Design For Photoshop, hear from them. If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the closing date for applications, if there is 60 Best Images | Investing, Life Insurance, one), telephone the company to Resume. Resume Sample, check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the | Investing,, case that people are invited for Pictures - Best Resume an interview for only a small number of the jobs to 60 Best Insurance On Pinterest Insurance, which they apply. Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job. If you are rejected by a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of Resume Examples your later applications.
Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.