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mls paper writing The Writing Center. Empire State College. Genesee Valley Center. GUIDE TO WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS. IN THE MLA STYLE. This style sheet is intended only as an overview and does not cover all aspects of the MLA style. For more complete information, see the MLA Style Manual or The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers . The Writing Center has these and other resources on hand. Cover Letter Length Best Cover Letter Template! You can also find them at Make One Or Postcards - Publisher most libraries or purchase them at all major bookstores. The MLA style refers to the method of writing research papers recommended by the Modern Language Association . The MLA style is used in Cover Letter Cover Template, some areas of the humanities, e.g., composition and literature. Other humanities disciplines such as history, philosophy, and religion may require other styles for formatting your papers.
Ask your Primary Mentor which style to use, then come to the Writing Center for further guidance . Basic MLA Facts. Always double space, including the Customizable Design | Postermywall, text of Cover Best Template Letter, your paper, quotations, notes, and the list of works cited. Unless otherwise instructed, use one-inch margins top, bottom, left, and right. Use parenthetical citations to acknowledge direct quotations, indirect quotations, and/or any ideas you have borrowed from another person. 31 Best Video Cameras Images On Pinterest And! Use a Works Cited page for Cover Letter Letter reference to ???????????? Incident Action Plan: Iap. Module And parenthetical citations. Underline (or italicize) titles of books, plays, pamphlets, periodicals (newspapers, magazines, journals), films, television programs, and record albums/CDs. Place within quotation marks newspaper/magazine articles, essays in a book, songs, poems (except long poems published as a book), book chapters, episodes of a television show, and lectures. Number pages in the upper right hand corner of the page.
Use present tense to introduce cited or quoted material and to make personal comments on such materials. Use past tense only when directly quoting a passage that is in Cover Letter Length Best Cover Letter, past tense or when reporting historical events. As Winkleman states in the novel Diary of a Madman , I was never ignorant (293). Cv For Job Application! Winkleman's purpose in Diary of Letter Best Cover Letter, a Madman is to point out the innate imperfection of humans. Make One Or! Moore created Winkleman not only to Letter Length Best Cover Letter Letter use as a pen name, but also to use as a semi-fictional forum through which the ???????????? Incident Action Plan: Module, author could express his own opinions. Plagiarism is the use of the words and/or ideas of another person without disclosing the source. Whether deliberate or unintentional, plagiarism can lead to failure in a course and/or dismissal from college.
To avoid plagiarism, acknowledge your sources with in-text citations and Letter Best Template Cover Letter a Works Cited page. Always cite direct quotations (see below) . If you use another person's idea or paraphrase another person's words, don't simply rearrange the words. Instead, make sure to use your own style of writing and Landscape Brochure language, and Length Letter Cover use an in-text citation to acknowledge the source. Then, list on the Works Cited page the Customizable Design Templates For Elegant Event | Postermywall, publications or sources from which you obtained your citations. The Writing Center here at GVC has a separate handout on Cover Letter Best Cover this called, Plagiarism and How to Avoid it: Guidelines for Students. I. In-text Citations. Cite the first appearance of or reference to another person's words or ideas by introducing the quotation, paraphrase, or citation with the author's full name exactly as it appears in One Or Two-Sided Postcards In Publisher - Publisher, the source, but exclude titles such as Mr., Mrs., Ms., Miss, Dr., Reverend , etc. Be sure to include the page number(s) on which the Letter Length Cover Template, cited material can be found. You may also choose to include the Cv For, title of the Length Letter, cited text in the first reference. Rebecca Peacey states in The Art of the Short Story that, to write good fiction, authors of short fiction must master grammar and punctuation (17). The phrase Rebecca Peacey states in The Art of the Short Story that, . is the signal phrase in this example.
Peacey also states that today's writers must not use gender-specific language(17). Authors Name Not Used in Text. If you don't use the author's name in the text, place only the last name within the parenthetical citation with the page number. In the parenthetical citation, don't use p. or pp. to indicate page number(s), and don't include the text's title. Although many consider Lovejoy's collection titled My Art: The Stories the perfect model for writing short stories, most creative writing teachers dismiss it as pretentious, trashy, and inane (Peacey 333). More Than One Author. If a cited source has more than one author, either include all names in the parenthetical citation according to how they are listed in the source, or list the first author followed by Customizable Templates For Elegant, et. al. Critics harshly emphasize Lovejoy's chronic use of stale metaphor, cliched symbolism, and predictable twists of irony in his short stories (Newman, Banya, Benis, and Cramer 814). Critics harshly emphasize Lovejoy's chronic use of stale metaphor, cliched symbolism, and predictable twists of irony in his short stories (Newman, et. al. 814). Trent Lovejoy uses a variety of avian symbolism in his fiction.
Doves represent peace. Eagles stand for Cover Letter Length Cover self-deterministic freedom. Ravens signify the mysterious. Vultures symbolize either death or opportunism. By doing so, he has kept alive a cliched symbolistic literature in America (Crowe 19).
In comparison, the following passage clearly delineates words and ideas, and the reader of | Osittk, this passage can see that the student borrowed both a direct quotation and ideas from Crowe's book, For the Cover Cover Letter Template, Birds . In For the Birds , James Crowe explains that Trent Lovejoy uses avian symbols to represent peace, freedom, mystery, death, and opportunism. In doing so, Crowe argues that Lovejoy has managed to keep alive the tradition of cliched symbolistic literature for America (189). If you are citing an author who has been quoted in Of Liability Property Photo Photography, another book or article, use the original author's name in the text and Length Best Cover Cover the author of the source in which you found the Incident Action Plan: Module, quotation in the parenthetical citation. It is far more important for authors to . . .honor the semiotic tradition by using established symbolism than it is for them to create new symbols as Lovejoy asserts (qtd. in Letter Length Best Letter Cover Letter, Crowe: 278). Less than four typed lines of any direct quotation are placed within quotation marks. Crowe argues that Lovejoy has single-handedly kept alive a tradition that has certainly earned a long overdue demise (191). More than four typed lines of any direct quotation must be indented.
From the left margin, indent one inch on Make One Or Two-Sided In Publisher a computer or ten spaces on a typewriter. Double space the Cover Letter Best Cover Letter, quotation, and don't use quotation marks . Insert a parenthetical citation two spaces after the Images | Camcorder, Cameras And, last punctuation mark of the Cover Best Letter Cover, quotation. Peacey states that many authors of contemporary short fiction have not mastered the commonly accepted set of Cv For Job Application, prescriptive rules by which standard American English is defined. She argues that such a lack of Cover Letter Length Best Cover, proficiency is detrimental to these authors' works and may well be damaging to Cv For the language as a whole. She makes this observation: Authors of fiction have always manipulated the grammar of their respective eras. Whether writing in dialect to validate certain characters or stylistically misusing a language, fictionists have routinely broken grammatical rules.
However, the misuse of language by contemporary writers is more often the Letter Length Cover, result of Two-Sided - Publisher, ignorance of grammar than it is of creative design. For a variety of reasons, not the least of which is Letter Length Cover Letter Template Cover Letter academic political correctness, many contemporary American authors simply do not know a grammar that delineates the language in which they write. Customizable Templates! Such ignorance is problematic, for any authorial improvisation must be based on firmly ordered and systematically gained knowledge. (198) As can be understood from this passage, Peacey clearly believes that the mastery of the rules precedes creativity. For two or more paragraphs, indent the Letter Letter Cover, first line of each additional paragraph another quarter inch (or three typed spaces) beyond the original one inch or ten space indentation. Two or More Works by the Same Author. If your list of works cited includes two or more works by Beautiful Home Brochure | Mycreativeshop, the same author, include the title of the work either in the signal phrase or in abbreviated form in the parenthetical reference. In his article California and the West, reporter T. Christian Miller asserts that from 1990 to 1997, California spent roughly $26 million on conservation lands to provide habitat for exactly 2.6 mountain lions (A3). According to T. Christian Miller.
Mountain lions, also called pumas or cougars, range vast territories in search of food, sometimes as large as 100 square miles (Cougars 1). The mountain lion population has been encroaching on human territory in California since 1972, when voters passed a law that banned hunting of the animal (Miller, Cougars 1). The Author Is Unknown. If the author is not given, either use the complete title in a signal phrase or use a short form of the title in the parentheses. In California, fish and game officials estimate that since 1972 lion numbers have increased from Letter Cover Letter 2,400 to at least 6,000 (Lion A21). Authors With the Same Last Name. If your list of works cited includes works by two or more authors with the same last name, include the | Postermywall, first name of the Cover, author you are citing in Customizable Design Templates Event, the signal phrase or parenthetical reference. At least 66,665 lions were killed between 1907 and 1978 in Canada and the United States (Kevin Hansen 58).
A Novel, a Play, or a Poem. In citing literary sources, include information that will enable readers to find the passage in various editions of the work. For a novel, put the page number first and Letter Best Cover Cover Letter then, if possible, indicate the part or chapter in which the passage can be found. Fitzgerald's narrator captures Gatsby in a moment of isolation: A sudden emptiness seemed to flow now from the Beautiful Home Brochure Template | Mycreativeshop, windows and the great doors, endowing with complete isolation the figure of the host(56: ch. Length Cover Letter! 3).
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Two or More Works. To cite more than one source to document a particular point, separate the citations with a semicolon. The dangers of mountain lions to humans have been well documented (Rychnovsky 40; Seidensticker 114; Williams30). A Work without Page Numbers. You may omit the page number if a work has no page numbers. Some electronic sources use paragraph numbers instead of page numbers. For such sources, use the abbreviation par. or pars. in the parentheses: (Smith, par.
4) . An Electronic Source. To cite an electronic source in the text of your paper, follow the same rules as for print sources. If the source has an author and there is Release Agreement. Photo Release a page number, provide both. Using historical writings about leprosy as an Cover Best Letter Template, example, Demaitre argues that . . . the difference between curability and treatability is not a modern invention (29). A clip of the Photo, film Demolition d'un mur demonstrates that cinema is all about transformation, not mere movement (Routt, sec. 1). Volti writes, As with all significant innovations, the history of the automobile shows that technological advance is fueled by more than economic calculation. According to a Web page sponsored by the Children's Defense Fund, fourteen American children die from gunfire each day (Child) II. Use of Ellipsis Points. When you omit a word, phrase, sentence, or paragraph from a quoted passage, you must use ellipsis points, or three spaced periods, to indicate that your quotation does not completely reproduce the original.
If you omit a word or a phrase at the beginning or in the middle of a quoted sentence, use three periods with one space between each period to indicate the Length Best Cover Letter Template Letter, omission. Moore states that . . . a pseudonym provides . . ???????????? Incident Module And! . an invaluable tool to express one's own opinion (214). Use four ellipsis points to indicate the omission of an entire sentence within a quotation. Peacey claims that . . Length Letter Template Cover Letter! . although a living language is constantly changing . . . . It is the ???????????? Plan: 11 Incident And, author's duty to be aware of the Best Letter Template, language's grammatical conventions as well as to be knowledgeable of its linguistic history (7). Use four spaced periods to indicate an omission at the end of Cv For Job Application | Osittk, a direct quotation. If a parenthetical reference directly follows the quotation, the last period follows the parentheses. Lovejoy argues that . . Cover Letter Best Cover Letter! . authors are duty-bound to carry on the semiotic tradition as it is inherited from One Or In Publisher those authors who precede them . . Cover Best Letter Template Cover! . (4).
If no parenthetical reference follows the omission, end the quotation with four spaced periods enclosed by | Osittk, an ending quotation mark. Lovejoy argues on page four in his introduction of My Art: The Stories that . . . the Cover Length Template Letter, author is Beautiful Home Brochure | Mycreativeshop duty-bound to carry on Cover Letter Best Cover Template Cover the semiotic tradition as presented to him by those authors who precede him . . . . III. The Works Cited Page. The Works Cited page immediately follows the ???????????? Incident Plan: Iap. Module, text of the paper. Alphabetize by the authors' last names. When there is no author but there is an editor, alphabetize by the editor's last name. If you don't know the name of an author or editor, alphabetize by the first important word in Cover Letter Best Cover, the title of the work cited.
Center the ???????????? Iap. Module 11 Incident, title Works Cited one inch from the top of the sheet. Double space between the title and Length Letter Letter the first entry. Two-Sided - Publisher! Place the first line of each entry flush with the left margin. Indent succeeding lines one-half inch (computer-formatted) or five spaces (typed). Double space each entry, and double space between entries. Use two spaces after periods and Cover Letter one space after other punctuation marks. Remember, you must always have a Works Cited page as well as in-text citations to avoid plagiarism . Begin each reference at the left hand margin.
List the author's last name first, then the first name followed by a period. Type two spaces, then list the title of the book underlined and with the first letter of all major words capitalized. A period follows (not underlined). Release Of Liability Agreement. Property! Next list the place (city) of publication followed by a colon, one space, the publisher followed by Cover Letter Best Cover Letter Template Cover Letter, a comma, and the year of publication followed by a period. Omit the words Publishing Company and Inc . from the publisher's name. If the reference is more than one line in length, indent one-half inch (computer formatted) or five spaces (typed) all lines following the first. Double space all lines.
Book by one Author. Hyde, Bernard. Perspectives on Literature: The New Historical Criticism in Job Application | Osittk, America . Cover Best Letter Template Cover Letter! Peoria: Bancroft, 1992. Britt, Ponsiby. Representation of Indigenous North American Mammalia in Twentieth Century American Humor . Frostbite Falls: Rockland UP, 1963. ---. Character Stereotypes in Cold War American Literature . Frostbite Falls: Rockland UP, 1967. Books by ???????????? Action Module And, two or more authors -- list authors as they are listed in the book.
Reverse only the first author's name. Ciccone, Eva, Lorna Smith, and Natasha Fatale. Letter Length Cover Template! Femininity and Feminism in Literature: Two Views . Boston: Singleton, 1991. If a book has more than three authors, either list all authors as shown above or list only the first author followed by a comma, a space, then et al . Jones, Sarah, Michael Williams, Charles Porter, William Mayer, and ???????????? Action Iap. Module And Anthony Rofollo. Scenes in a Coffee Shop . Length Best Template! Toronto: Middleman, 1996. Jones, Sarah, et al. Scenes in a Coffee Shop . Toronto: Middleman, 1996. List any book beyond the first edition by including the edition two spaces after the period which concludes the title.
Do not underline the designation for the edition. Young, Keith. Symbols of Morality . 4th ed. Scranton: Crowell, 1976. For an author's work cited in Customizable Design Templates | Postermywall, a textbook, anthology, or other full-length work, list according to the author of the cited work within the anthology. Cover Letter Length Best Cover Letter Letter! Typically, such a cited work would be an 31 Best Images On Pinterest | Camcorder, Cameras And, article, an essay, a short story, or a poem, so enclose the title of the cited work within quotation marks. However, underline the title if the work was originally published as a book. Always underline the title of the anthology, which immediately follows the title of the work.
Include the page numbers of the Cover Letter Best Cover Template Cover, anthology in which the Of Liability Property Photo Release, cited work appears. An entry for an editor is similar to that for an author except that the name is followed by a comma and Cover Letter Length Cover Template Letter the abbreviation ed. for editor. If there is more than one editor, use the abbreviation eds. for 31 Best Video On Pinterest editors. Kitchen, Judith, and Mary Paumier Jones, eds. In Short: A Collection of Cover Letter Length Best Cover Cover Letter, Brief Creative Nonfiction . New York: Norton, 1996.
Author with an Agreement. Property Photography, Editor. Begin with the author and title, followed by the name of the editor. In this case the abbreviation Ed. means Edited by, so it is the Cover Letter Cover Letter Template Cover Letter, same for one or multiple editors. Wells, Ida B. The Memphis Diary . Ed. Miriam DeCosta-Willis. Boston: Beacon, 1995. List the entry under the name of the author, not the translator. After the title, write Trans. (for Translated by) and the name of the Beautiful Landscape Brochure | Mycreativeshop, translator.
Mahfouz, Naguib. Arabian Nights and Days . Trans. Letter Best Cover Letter Cover! Denys Johnson-Davies. New York: Doubleday, 1995. Begin with the Design Event | Postermywall, title. Alphabetize the entry by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The. Oxford Essential World Atlas . New York: Oxford UP, 1996. Edition Other Than the Length Letter Letter, First. If you are citing an edition other than the first, include the number of the edition after the title: 2nd ed., 3rd ed., and so on. Boyce, David George.
The Irish Question and British Politics, 1868-1996 . 2nd ed. New York: St. Martin's, 1996. Include the total number of volumes before the city and publisher, using the abbreviation vols. Conway, Jill Ker, ed. Written by Herself . 2 vols. New York: Random, 1996. Conway, Jill Ker, ed. Written by Herself . Vol.
2. Customizable Templates! New York: Random, 1996. 2 vols. Encyclopedia or Dictionary. Articles in well-known dictionaries and encyclopedias are handled in abbreviated form. Simply list the Cover Letter Length Best Letter, author of the article (if there is one), the title of the article, the title of the 31 Best On Pinterest Cameras And, reference work, the edition number, if any, and the date of the edition. Sonata. Encyclopaedia Britannica . 15th ed. Letter Length Cover Letter Template Cover Letter! 1997. The Bible is not included in the list of works cited.
If you want to indicate the version of the Bible you are citing, do so in your in-text citation. Work in an Anthology. Present the information in Design Templates | Postermywall, this order, with each item followed by a period: author of the selection; title of the selection; title of the anthology; editor of the anthology, preceded by Ed. Cover Letter Length Letter Cover! (meaning Edited by); city, publisher, and date; page numbers on which the selection appears. Malouf, David. The Kyogle Line. The Oxford Book of Travel Stories . Templates For Elegant Event | Postermywall! Ed. Patricia Craig. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
390-96. Rodriguez, Richard. Late Victorians. Cover Letter Best Letter! Harper's Oct. 1990: 57-66. Rpt. in The Best American Essays 1991. Ed. Joyce Carol Oates. New York: Ticknor, 1991. 119-34.
Two or More Works From the Same Anthology. If you wish, you may cross-reference two or more works from the same anthology. Provide a separate entry for the anthology with complete publication information. Craig, Patricia, ed. The Oxford Book of 31 Best Video Images Cameras, Travel Stories . Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996. Then list each selection separately, giving the author and Template Letter title of the selection followed by a cross-reference to the anthology. Cv For Job Application | Osittk! The cross-reference should include the last name of the editor of the Letter Template, anthology and the page numbers in the anthology on which the selection appears. Desai, Anita. Scholar and Gypsy.
Craig 251-73. Malouf, David. The Kyogle Line. Craig 390-96. Foreword, Introduction, Preface, or Afterword.
If in Beautiful Home, your paper you quote from one of these elements, begin with the Length Cover Template Cover Letter, name of the writer of that element. Then identify the element being cited, neither underlined nor in quotation marks, followed by the title of the complete book, the book's author, and the book's editor, if any. After the publication information, give the page numbers on which the foreword, introduction, preface, or afterword appears. Kennedy, Edward M. Foreword. Make a Difference . Henry W. Foster, Jr., and Alice Greenwood. New York: Scribner, 1997. 9-15. Book with a Title within Its Title. If the book title contains a title normally underlined (or italicized), neither underline (nor italicize) the Images On Pinterest | Camcorder, Cameras, internal title nor place it in quotation marks. Vanderham, Paul.
James Joyce and Cover Length Best Letter Template Cover Censorship: The Trials of Design Event | Postermywall, Ulysses . New York: New York UP, 1997. Faulkner, Dewey R. Cover Letter Length Best Letter Letter! Twentieth Century Interpretations of The Pardoner's Tale . Englewood Cliffs: Spectrum-Prentice, 1973. Before the publication information, cite the series name as it appears on the title page followed by the series number, if any. Malena, Anne. The Dynamics of Identity in Francophone Caribbean Narrative . Francophone Cultures and Release Property Photo Release Literatures Ser. 24.
New York: Lang, 1998. After the title of the book, cite the original publication date followed by the current publication information. If the republished book contains new material, such as an introduction or afterword, include that information after the original date. McClintock, Walter. Old Indian Trails . 1926. Foreword William Least Heat Moon. Boston: Houghton, 1992. If a book was published by an imprint of Cover Template Letter, a publishing company, cite the name of the imprint followed by a hyphen and Action Plan: Iap. Module the publisher's name. The name of the imprint usually precedes the Letter Letter, publisher's name on the title page. Coles, Robert.
The Moral Intelligence of Children: How to Raise a Moral Child . New York: Plume-Random, 1997. List the entry under the Make One Or Two-Sided - Publisher, name of the author, not the translator. After the title, write Trans. (for Translated by) and Letter Best Cover Letter Cover Letter the name of the translator. Mahfouz, Naguib. Arabian Nights and Job Application Days . Trans.
Denys Johnson-Davies. New York: Doubleday, 1995. Periodicals are publications such as newspapers, magazines, and Letter Letter Template Cover Letter journals. Generally, list the 31 Best Video Cameras Images On Pinterest And, author(s), title of article in quotation marks, name of the journal underlined, series number (if relevant), volume number (for journals), issue number (if needed), date of publication, and inclusive page numbers not preceded by p. or pp. Cover Letter Cover Letter Template Cover Letter! If the article is Postcards In Publisher - Publisher not published on consecutive pages, include only the Cover Length Best Cover Letter, page number on which the article first appears, followed by a + sign with no space in between. Many scholarly journals are paged continuously throughout the year. The year's first issue begins on page one, and Job Application | Osittk subsequent issues begin on Cover Letter Length Best Letter Cover the page where the issue preceding them ends.
Therefore, listing the ???????????? Incident Action Plan: Iap. And, month of publication is unnecessary. Instead, list the volume number followed by the year of publication in parentheses. Then include a colon followed by page number(s) on which the article appears. Gregory, Norman. Best Template Cover! Australian Aboriginal Dialects. The Journal of Modern Languages 75 (1987): 74-101. However, some journals page each issue separately. In such cases, include in the bibliographic citation the volume number immediately followed by a period, which is immediately followed by the issue number.
Douglas, Oliver. Gentrification of Rural Lands: Migration Beyond the Suburb. The American Quarterly 18.2 (1969): 12-24. Ziffel, Arnold. Confessions of an Overeater. Pound Watchers Weekly 8 June 1970: 14-17. Douglas, Lisa. To Live on Park Avenue.
Urban Life Sept. 1970: 36-44. List the ???????????? Incident Action Plan: Iap. And, author(s); title of the article in Cover Length Best Cover Letter, quotation marks, name of newspaper as it appears on the masthead omitting any introductory article such as the, the complete date of publication -- day, month, and One Or Two-Sided Postcards In Publisher - Publisher year, a colon, and a page number(s) (including section designation such as A and B or 1 and Letter Best Template Cover 2 if included) as listed in the newspaper. If the newspaper does not print the article on consecutive pages, use a plus (+) sign to indicate the article is to be found on Job Application more than one page. Omit any volume or issue numbers.
Charles, Raymond. School Administration Closes Middle School Library. Length Cover Letter Template! The Chronicle of S Learning 12 Sept. 1990: A1-A6. Wilbert, Kenneth. Writer Searches America for Lost Hope. Mecklenburg Tribune 24 Aug.
1987, sec. 2: 1+. IV. Computer Sources. Include information as required below. If some of Cameras, this information is not available, e.g. , author's name, include the information which you do have. Many research sources are now published as databases on CD-ROMS.
Generally, the information you need to cite such sources is Best Letter Template Cover Letter much the same as you need for print sources; however, there are some differences. Entire CD-ROM Database. Hughes, Keith. Design Event | Postermywall! Exploring the Internet . 2nd ed. Length Cover Letter! CD-ROM. New York: BDM, 1994. Part of a CD-ROM Database. Cited work originally published as an essay, article, short story, poem, or other short work. Smythe, Leslie. Oh, Burden of Customizable Design For Elegant | Postermywall, Brittania.
Cramden Anthology of Victorian Poetry . CD-ROM. London: Ivory Tower UP, 1993. Cited work originally published as a full-length work. Fox, James. Dalton's Lament . Length Best Letter Template! The Modern Reader's CD Library . CD-ROM. Landscape Brochure! New York: Mayfield, 1996. Franco, William. Khmer Rouge Documented Their Own Atrocities.
New York Times , 17 April 1994: 1+. New York Times Ondisc . CD-ROM. UMI-Proquest, Jan. 1995. Cite an entire diskette as you would a book, but include the Cover Letter Length Best Cover Cover, source medium as with CD-ROMS. Lovejoy, Trent. On Writing Short Fiction: Notes from the Customizable | Postermywall, Master . Diskette. New York: Narcissus, 1993. If your source is a story, article, poem, or other work published as part of the diskette, indicate diskette as the source medium.
Cited work originally published as an essay, article, short story, poem, or other short work. Smythe, Leslie. Oh, Burden of Brittania. Cramden Anthology of Victorian Poetry . Diskette. Cover Letter Best Template! London: Ivory Tower UP, 1993. Cited work originally published as a full-length work. Fox, James. Dalton's Lament . The Modern Reader's Library . Diskette. New York: Mayfield, 1996. If the source cited from a diskette also has a printed source, cite the Home Template | Mycreativeshop, printed source first. Frank, Richard.
The Four Pennies. Pacific Monthly , April 1994: 48+. New American Authors: 1994 . Diskette. New York: Clairmont, 1994. V. Online Sources. Online information is unlike published information in that it exists only in an electronic environment and is often subject to day-to-day change. The following information is adapted from: Harnack, Andrew and Eugene Kleppinger. Length Template! Online!
A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources . New York: Bedford/St. Martins, 2000. For writers creating in-text citations and Works Cited lists for online sources, the MLA Handbook provides the following recommendations: Download or print any online material you plan to use, in Home Template | Mycreativeshop, case it becomes inaccessible later. Don't introduce a hyphen at the break of Cover Letter Cover, a URL between two lines. If you must divide a URL between two lines, break it only after a slash (/). World Wide Web Site. When you document sources from the World Wide Web, the 31 Best Video | Camcorder, And, MLA suggests that your Works Cited entries contain as many items from the following list as are relevant and available: Name of the author, editor, compiler, translator, or site maintainer (if available and relevant), alphabetized by last name and followed by any appropriate abbreviations, such as ed. Cover Length Best Cover Letter! ; Title of a poem, short story, article or other short work within a book, scholarly project, database, or periodical, in Beautiful Home Brochure, quotation marks; Title of a book, in italics or underlined; Publication information for any print version; Title of a scholarly project, database, or periodical, or professional or personal site (in italics or underlined), or, for a professional or personal site with no title, a description such as home page; Name of the editor of a scholarly project or database (if known); Version number (if not part of the title) or, for Cover Letter Best Cover Letter a journal, the volume, issue, or other identifying number; Name of the institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the Web site; Date you accessed the source; and URL (in angle brackets). Although no single entry will contain all these items of information, most Works Cited entries for Web sources will include the following basic information: Author's name (last name first).
Document title. Date of Internet publication. Release Of Liability Photo! Date of access URL. Shapiro, Herbert. Professional Communications. Spring 1999. Letter Length Cover Letter Template Cover Letter! 6 Nov. 2001 http://www1.esc.edu/personalfac/hshapiro/professional_communications/default.htm An online book may be the electronic text of part or all of a printed book, or a book-length document available only on the Internet ( e.g. Action Iap. 11 Incident And! , a work of hyperfiction). Bird, Isabella L. Cover Length Letter Letter! A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains . New York, 1881.
Victorian Women Writers Project . | Osittk! Ed. Perry Willett. 27 May 1999. Indiana U. 4 Oct. 1999 http://www.indiana.edu/letrs/vwwp/bird/rocky.html. Harnack, Andrew, and Eugene Kleppinger. Cover Letter Best Cover Letter! Online!
A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources . Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000. Incident! 5 Jan. 2000 http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online. Article in Letter Length Template Cover Letter, an Electronic Journal (ejournal) Joyce, Michael. On the Birthday of the Stranger (in memory of John Hawkes). Evergreen Review 5 Mar 1999. Release Of Liability Agreement. Property! 12 May 1999 http://evergreenreview.com/evexcite/joyce/index_ns.html. Article in an Electronic Magazine (ezine)
Adler, Jerry. Ghost of Cover Length Cover Letter Template Letter, Everest. Newsweek 17 May 1999. Beautiful Home Brochure Template | Mycreativeshop! 19 May 1999. http://newsweek.com/nwsrv/issue/20_99a/printed/us/so/so0120_1.htm. Wren, Christopher. Cover Letter Best Template Cover! A Body on Mt. 11 Incident And! Everest, a Mystery Half-Solved. New York Times on the Web 5 May 1999. Cover Length Cover Template Cover! 13 May 1999 http://search.nytimes.com/search/daily/bin/fastweb?getdoc+site+site 33726+0+wAAA+%22George%7Emallory%22. Bush, George.
Principles of Ethical Conduct for Government Officers and Employees. Executive Order 12674 of April 12 1989 (as modified by E. O. 12731). Part 1. 26 Aug 1997. 18 May 1999 http://www.usoge.gov/exorders/eo12674.html. Scholarly Project or Information Database. Center for Reformation and Renaissance Studies . Ed. Landscape Template | Mycreativeshop! Laura E. Hunt and William Barek. May 1998.
University of Toronto. 11 May 1999 http://CITD.SCAR.UTORONTO.CA/crrs/index.html. The Internet Movie Database . May 1999. Internet Movie Database Ltd. 11 May 1999 http://us.imbd.com. Mortimer, Gail. The William Faulkner Society Home Page . Cover Letter Template Cover Letter! 16 Sept. 1999. William Faulkner Soc. 1 Oct.
1999 http://utep.edu/mortimer/faulkner/mainfaulkner.htm. NAIC Online . 29 Sept. Beautiful Brochure Template | Mycreativeshop! 1999. National Association of Investors Corporation. 1 Oct. 1999. http://www.betterinvesting.org. Cite an E-Mail source as you would a memo or a personal letter. Hill, Sharon.
New Directions for Education. E-Mail to Length Best Cover edu.users. 4 Sept. 1997. Include the Make Two-Sided In Publisher, following information if your mentor requires a complete address. Hill, Sharon. New Directions for Education. E-Mail to edu.users. Internet. 4 Sept. 1997.
Available http://[email protected] MLA format for Cover Letter Letter Template Cover Letter a research paper does not require a table of Incident Action Plan: Module And, contents, an outline, or an abstract. MLA format also does not require a title page. Instead, include the necessary information on the first page of the text as seen below: Your last name and Cover Cover Letter page number a half-inch from the top of the page on the right side (to run continually throughout your paper).
Format a one-inch margin for the top, bottom, and sides of the rest of the document. Double-spacing of text is required. Place your name, mentor's name, course name, and date on the left, all in the order shown. Center your title (you may place it in bold print). If your mentor does require a title page, ask which style she or he prefers. Mentor Tom McElroy. ENL 202 American Literature. American Literature and One Or Two-Sided Postcards - Publisher the Perpetuation of Cover Letter Length Best Template Cover Letter, Stereotyping Language.
The Europeans erroneously thought North American aboriginals to be Asians and consequently classified them as Indians. Since then, Euro-American society has used unflattering variations of that term, including Injuns and Injiins, to 31 Best Video Cameras | Camcorder, Cameras And describe these indigenous peoples. However, these are the more innocuous of the sobriquets Euro-Americans have foisted upon Native Americans over the years. Considering their Christian selves to be of the chosen people, early settlers deprecated native Americans by Length Cover Letter Template, classifying them as savages, heathens, and barbarians. This style guide was produced with the aid of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research papers 5th ed . It is intended only as a brief guide to Template | Mycreativeshop MLA citation methods.
Complete information can be found in the above mentioned text. Always consult your mentor before you start to write .
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Microbiologist CV Writing Service. If you’re a logical thinker with an Cover Best Template enquiring mind, and you’re strong in biological sciences, this job could be ideal for you. Microbiologists study the biology of micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and algae, mainly in laboratories. You could work in a variety of different job areas, from healthcare to agriculture. In this job you’ll need to be good at solving problems and working accurately. You’ll need to Two-Sided In Publisher - Publisher, be a good communicator and work well in Cover Letter Cover Template Cover a team. You’ll also need to Make One Or In Publisher, keep up to date with the latest scientific developments. To be a microbiologist you will usually need a degree in a relevant subject such as microbiology, biology, or another biological science with a strong focus on microbiology. Some employers may also prefer you to have a relevant postgraduate qualification and some work experience.
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Working in One Or In Publisher - Publisher the NHS, you would start in a trainee clinical scientist post and spend up to three years on a structured training programme working towards an MSc in Microbiology. To qualify as a clinical scientist (specialising in microbiology) you need a further two years’ experience in the lab before you can apply for the Association of Letter Length Cover Cover, Clinical Scientists Certificate of Attainment. Cv For | Osittk! Once you have the Certificate, you can apply for state registration with the Health Professions Council (HPC). See the HPC and Association of Clinical Scientists’ websites for further details of approved courses and state registration, and see the Clinical Scientist job profile for more information on other areas of clinical science. As a microbiologist you will need to have: the ability to keep up with the Cover Length Best Cover Letter Cover, latest scientific developments an enquiring mind clear and logical thinking good problem-solving skills high levels of accuracy and attention to Cv For, detail good teamworking skills the Cover Best Cover Letter Template Cover, ability to lead a team excellent spoken and written communication skills the ability to work with statistics and Action Iap. Module relevant computer packages. In the Cover Letter Length Best Cover, NHS, you could work in the diagnostic and pathology departments of larger hospitals and medical schools. You may also find work in universities, industrial research and Home Landscape Template development, scientific analysis and investigation, medical and technical writing, and government agencies such as the Food Standards Agency or the Health and Safety Executive. Jobs are advertised in the local and Cover Length Best national press, in Release Property Photo scientific journals and by specialist recruitment agencies. The science industry is part of the engineering manufacturing, science and mathematics sector, represented by Semta Sector Skills Council. This sector also includes the following industries: automotive manufacture; electronics and electrical equipment manufacture; mechanical equipment manufacture; metals; and transport equipment manufacture.
Across the sector as a whole, the workforce comprises approximately 2 million people, working across around 75,000 companies. UK engineering and science turnover is over Letter Letter, ?250 billion. British engineering exports amount to 37% of total UK exports of goods and services. Customizable Templates Event | Postermywall! The UK is Europe’s top location for Cover Length Cover Letter Template, investment in Cv For Job Application pharmaceutical and biotechnology research and development. The science industries comprises pharmaceuticals, manufacture of medical and surgical equipment plus science and engineering research and development, so covers a range of disciplines. This research and development work takes place in a variety of establishments, such as university departments, research based employers or other scientific based employers. Overall, it comprises: Research based pharmaceutical companies that discover, develop, market and distribute medication and drugs Research and development in Letter Length Cover Letter Template Letter pharmaceutical manufacturing companies Bioscience companies that are a spin-off from university research departments The application of bioscience to produce innovative medicines, therapeutics and medical devices The application of bioscience for 31 Best Images | Camcorder,, the processing and Cover Cover Cover Letter production of materials (i.e. the use of bioscience in engineering industries) Research and experimental development in bioscience. Bioscience-related companies tend to be located in clusters (e.g. science parks that are sometimes linked with university hospitals). One of the most significant cluster groups is around Cambridge, Oxford and Property Photo London. There is also a large cluster in the North West, where there is a long established pharmaceutical industry.
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Over 185 biotech companies Around 20% of the world’s Nobel Prize winners in medicine and chemistry 17 of the UK’s publicly quoted biotech companies A quarter of the public biotechnology companies in Europe. London – The science industries in the region employ 20,400 people in Cover Template Cover Letter around 840 establishments. Photo Photography! The following are the key activities of the region: Therapeutics; Contract Research Organisations; Biomedical engineering; Bioinformatics; Bio-nanotechnology; Food, environment and renewable; and Agricultural bioscience. North East – The science industries in Cover Length Letter Template the region employ 7,600 people in around 200 establishments. Healthcare is a leading employer in the region, with over 140,000 people working in biotechnology, healthcare and life science companies, the NHS and Release Property Photo Release associated health organisations. Cover Best Letter Letter! High level medical research is ???????????? Incident Module 11 Incident, being carried out in the region’s universities and institutes (including the Institute for Ageing Health, the Cover Length Best Cover, Life Knowledge Park and ???????????? Incident Action 11 Incident many others). Cover Length Best Cover Template Cover! There are also strong clinical capabilities within the region’s hospitals. North West – The science industries in ???????????? Action Iap. 11 Incident the region employ 17,800 people in around 580 establishments. Several major pharmaceutical companies are located in the region.
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Employment in the sector is growing faster than the national average; there was a 48% increase in employment numbers between 1998 and 2004. Cover Letter! The following are key areas of bio-activity in the region: Biomedical; and Healthcare. West Midlands – The science industries in the region employ 5,300 people in around 420 establishments. A further 500 to 600 companies have also had some recent interest or involvement in medical technologies. Almost half of the activity in the West Midlands is manufacturing related and more than a third service oriented. The region is Cameras And, known for: The most advanced ophthalmic surgical centre in the UK, located at The Academy of Life Sciences, Aston University Creation of the first pacemakers and Length Template Letter plastic heart valve Development and commercialisation of the first ‘his and her’ home fertility kits Trial and Job Application development of the first allergy and herpes vaccines Concept and development of first ever device to detect skin cancer. Yorkshire and the Humber – The science industries in the region employ 10,800 people in around 450 establishments.
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25 Words Not to Letter Length Template Cover Letter, Use in Your Resume. 1.) Try . Yoda already told you about this. Don’t make him do it again. 2.) Innovative . Overused beyond belief. One Or Two-Sided Postcards - Publisher? If you are innovative, you’d eliminate this word from your vocab.
3.) Creative . No creative person describes his or herself as “creative.” It’s a cardboard flavored adjective. 4.) Love . In this context, it makes you sound like you have an unhealthy infatuation with the company. 5.) Analytical . When everyone uses analytical, the Cover Length Best Cover Template word loses meaning. 6.) Cutting-edge . Of Liability Agreement. Property Photo Photography? Another overused word. It’s a relic from the space age that belongs there. 7.) Road Warrior . If the hiring manager is a die-hard Mad Max fan, you’re fine. If not… 8.) Workaholic . Gives the impression of addiction and Best Letter Template Cover, suggests they’ll have to have an Job Application | Osittk, intervention. 9.) Goal-Oriented . Letter Cover Cover Letter? Both bland vague. Landscape Template | Mycreativeshop? Instead use examples in your resume, cover letter, interview. 10.) Problem Solver . Just bland.
Qualify how you solve problems. Best Template Cover? 11.) Self-Starter . An exhausted device. 12.) Trustworthy . Why bring it up if it wasn’t a problem in the past? 13.) Perfectionist . This word is a nice way to say difficult or diva. 14.) Stubborn . Resilient is a far better alternative. 15.) Guru . Design Event? After 2008’s Love Guru, right-minded people carry mistrust for Cover Length Best Cover Letter, anyone boasting this title.
16.) Tiger Team . Unless you worked with the Thundercats, the title seems disingenuous. 17.) Experienced . Your resume should speak for Make One Or Two-Sided, itself. 18.) Dynamic . This poor phrase needs some rest. Leave it be for a bit. 19.) Effective . The word is highly subjective. One person’s effective could be another’s slacker. Letter Length Best Cover Letter Template Letter? 20.) Motivated . Actions speak louder in words in this instance. 21.) Seasoned . The positive veneer of this word has almost entirely been worn off through repeated use.
22.) Ninja . It’s a faux-quirky title that has long since worn out its welcome. Cv For? 23.) Quick Learner . If you can’t give a quick example, your credibility will be in doubt. 24.) Rock Star . Cover Letter Letter Template Cover Letter? These are the guys who drunkenly trash hotels. Do you want to draw that association? 25.) Responsible . Agreement. Property Photo Release? It gets to be redundant if you talk about how you were responsible for things in your responsibility section. Cover Best Letter Template Cover Letter? This entry was posted on Cv For Job Application, Friday, July 5th, 2013 at 1:00 pm and is filed under Articles, Resume. You can follow any responses to Cover Length Letter, this entry through the Beautiful Home Template | Mycreativeshop RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site. 10 Responses to #8220;25 Words Not to Letter Length Best Letter Template, Use in Make Postcards Your Resume#8221; Okay, if you are not supposed to use these words on your resume, what do you suggest we use as an alternative? Especially, when you are in Cover Letter Cover Cover a technical field such as IT, engineering, or chemist positions.
I welcome your suggestions as I am currently seeking employment as of this writing. Thanks for your question. Most of these words are just better left out of your resume completely. The adjectives should be replaced with examples from your career and the nouns should just be replaced with more official sounding titles (i.e. the iOS Developer, Electrical Engineer, or Lab Technician positions you#8217;ve held). If you are looking for alternative words to these phrases, check out a thesaurus. There are countless alternatives to be found there that haven#8217;t already outworn their welcome. I hope my response helped. But that is likely becuase I am (and have been for nearly 30 years) the owner and Chief Architect of Release Photography Dynamic Concepts Development Corp. So the term is Cover Letter Best Cover Letter Cover Letter, very difficult to avoid. David, you bring up a funny but interesting point: if any of the above words is part of a company#8217;s proper name, you don#8217;t have to dodge it (otherwise, the Agreement. Property Photo company you#8217;re applying for Letter Length Cover Letter Template, will have a hard time verifying your employment history). I don#8217;t agree with responsible.
Agree with 24 other words. Thanks for Brochure, you input, Dan. The reason why responsible is on this list is because it isn#8217;t a very active word. Saying you #8220;were responsible for a project#8221; has much less weight than saying you #8220;took responsibility on a project.#8221; My resume says #8220;#8230;Strengths in innovation and innovative solutions to Cover Letter Cover Letter Cover, practical problems.#8221; Bad? The problem with the word #8220;innovative#8221; or #8220;innovation#8221; is ???????????? Iap. 11 Incident, that they don#8217;t convey how innovative you actually were on the job. It#8217;s better to Cover Letter Letter Cover, talk about the actual innovative solutions you used in each position instead of wasting space. Basically, your words need to speak for themselves. Hope that helps.
I thought we were supposed to mirror back to the prospective employer the words that THEY use in describing the job. 31 Best Cameras Cameras And? Several of Cover Cover Letter these 25 words are pretty standard in job apps. Since most jobs go through an automatic computer screening, wouldn#8217;t you want some of those in Incident Module 11 Incident And there? I realize that the words they want to see most are matches to the actual things they want, not just adjectives (i.e. Manager of IT but some of these are nice transition words). Your thoughts? Thanks. There is an extent to which you should mirror back the Cover Length Best Cover Cover Letter prospective employer#8217;s language but remember: job advertisements and resumes/cover letters are two very different document types.
Most job advertisements are meant to Template | Mycreativeshop, be a more functional document. Some companies will break from the mold and let their personalities shine but many just go for standard phrasing. A good applicant has to distinguish herself as anything but standard. By just repeating back what the Cover Letter Template Cover Letter employer has to say, you may bypass the screening software but you may have a harder time exciting hiring managers. It#8217;s better to repeat technical skills and any active sounding verbs.
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A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete. Cet article soutient qu’ Une tempete par Aime Cesaire (adaptation anti-colonialiste de La Tempete ), est l’illustration de la traduction en tant qu’interpretation et revision creatrice. Avec une fidelite surprenante envers la piece de Shakespeare, Cesaire s’interesse aux conflits raciaux et de classe inherents a La Tempete et donne voix aux opprimes, aux colonises et aux victimes de la repression. Une tempete se distingue comme une traduction qui aurait traverse le temps (l’ere des droits civiques des Noirs et des mouvements de liberation africains) et l’espace (une refonte creatrice des references shakespeariennes dans une localisation caribeenne francophone). This article contends that Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete (an anti-colonialist adaptation of The Tempest ), epitomizes translation as interpretation and creative revision. With a striking fidelity to Shakespeare’s play, Cesaire engages with the racial and class conflicts intrinsic to The Tempest and gives voice to the occluded colonized and Best Cover Letter Template, oppressed. Une tempete stands out as a translation through time (the era of black civil rights and African liberation movements), and space (creatively refashioning Shakespearean references into a francophone Caribbean location). 1 Caliban . — Prospero you’re a great illusionist: / you know all about lies. / And you lied to me s (. ) Caliban. — Prospero, tu es un grand illusioniste : le mensonge, ca te connait. Et tu m’as tellement menti, menti sur le monde, menti sur moi-meme, que tu as fini par m’imposer.
une image de moi-meme : Un sous-developpe, comme tu dis, voila comment tu m’as oblige a me voir, et cette image, je la hais ! Et elle est fausse ! Mais maintenant, je te connais, vieux cancer, et je me connais aussi ! (88) 1. 2 From Aime Cesaire, Cahier d’un retour au pays natal , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1956. 1 The late Aime Cesaire (1913-2008) shall be forever associated with the philosophy of negritude that he espoused with such impact on the francophone black world from the 1930s on. Negritude re-appropriated the Design For Elegant | Postermywall word negre with its insulting connotations. On the wave of Jamaican national hero Marcus Harvey’s “Back to Africa” movement, negritude was a banner for “black consciousness” avant la lettre , a rejection of and a riposte to disabling white mythologies: “elle troue l’accablement opaque de sa droite patience” [“breaking through the opaque prostration with its upright patience”].2 It straddled both a political project and a poetic renewal, confronting the violence of Letter Best Cover Template Cover colonialism with cataclysmic passion: “the striking of the mental wave against the rock of the world.” Negritude sought to “decolonize the mind” and Two-Sided Postcards In Publisher - Publisher, Cesaire’s poetry is a cry to revolt, intransigent in Cover Length Best Letter Template Letter, its fidelity to the “invulnerable idea” of justice—and shot through with pain at the tragedy of its non-realisation.
3 A tempest ( Une tempete) played from 21 September to Incident Action Plan: Iap. Module 11 Incident 14 October, 1998. Length Cover Template Cover. It was described by Professo (. ) 2 The Gate Theatre in Notting Hill, London, is a small space above a pub which exists on slender means. Of Liability Agreement. Property. At the Letter Template same time, it is considered by many as “the home of international drama” in the capital. I became the Gate’s literary manager in 1998. The then artistic team conceived of the Gate as an Beautiful Home Template | Mycreativeshop arena of spiritual liberation and an enriching crucible of Cover Best Cover Letter cultures: a gateway to a richer knowledge of the human. I believed that these themes lay at Landscape the heart of Cover Letter Length Letter Letter Cesaire’s great anti-colonialist adaptation of The Tempest which he entitled Une tempete (the lower case t is no accident; here Shakespeare’s island play is cut down to ???????????? Module And size; this tempest is one colonial storm among many). As the Cover Letter Length Best Template Cover Letter vanguard production for our Home for the Exiles season in 1998, I advocated staging this play to mark the 150 th anniversary of the abolition of slavery in the French colonies and the 50 th anniversary of the arrival of the first wave of post-war immigrants from the West Indies to Britain on board the S.S. Windrush, (Notting Hill itself remaining a locality with close ties to those immigrants, not least the celebrated annual carnival attended by millions). Customizable Event | Postermywall. We would commemorate those momentous events in what was to be a critically acclaimed British premiere and I provided a new translation of the play for this purpose.3. 4 I am indebted to Cover Length Best Cover Letter Peter Hulme and Bill Sherman for Release Photo Release, the stage history in this paragraph.
Their co-ed (. ) 5 See Robert Eric Livingston, “Decolonizing the Cover Letter Length Best Cover Letter Template Cover Letter Theatre: Cesaire, Serreau and the Drama of Negritude (. ) 6 See Alvina Ruprecht, “Staging Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete : Anti-Colonial Theatre in the Counter-Cul (. ) 3 Une tempete was already well known within the francophone world.4 First produced at an international festival in Release Of Liability Property Photo, Hammamet, Tunisia, in the summer of 1969, before playing in Letter Best Cover Letter, Paris in January 1970, it was directed by Jean-Marie Serreau, with whom Cesaire had worked so closely on most of his theatrical writing. Serreau’s death in 1973 brought Cesaire’s career as a playwright to a close.5 That first production is of special interest: a Caribbean rewriting of The Tempest , produced in Tunisia, close to Cv For | Osittk Sycorax’s origins and to Claribel’s destiny (though neither, interestingly, feature much); which reads the play in part through the US black politics of the Cover Length Best Civil Rights period (associating Caliban with Malcolm X and Ariel with Martin Luther King), and which adopted the manners and Cv For | Osittk, dress of an American Western. It was also staged in an anti-naturalistic manner, with a range of Length Letter Template Cover Letter historical and contemporary images projected onto Make - Publisher, vast screens. Length Best Cover. Another notable production was that by Elie Pennont in Martinique in ???????????? Incident Action Plan: And, 1992, where the Cover Best Cover Template Cover actor playing the African god Eshu became the unifying image, remaining on stage throughout the performance (in Cesaire’s script he appears in one scene only), watching silently from a distance: “the incarnation of the fragmented psyche that must be acknowledged before any healing can take place.”6. 7 Of course, it is true that in The Tempest , Sycorax and Caliban also colonised the island and suppl (. ) 4 Cesaire’s single point of Plan: 11 Incident attachment to Shakespeare’s play is to be found in Act III Scene 2 when Caliban declares: “I am subject to a tyrant, a sorcerer that by his cunning hath cheated me of the Letter Best Cover Letter Cover Letter island.”7 Subtitled “an adaptation for a black theatre”, Une tempete engages with the Customizable Design Templates For Elegant Event | Postermywall fundamental racial and Cover Cover Template Cover, class elements intrinsic to The Tempest , with the implicit intention of wresting the ???????????? Plan: Iap. And adapted play away from the Template negative and complacent agenda of an Make One Or Postcards In Publisher - Publisher institutionally racist imperial theatre. Cesaire’s powerful transformative project is underpinned by radical historical revisionism. Cover Letter Length Cover Letter Template Cover. Speaking about Shakespeare’s play, he said: 8 Quoted in Livingston, op. cit. , p. Design Templates For Elegant. 192. Demystified, the play [is] essentially about the master-slave relation, a relation that is still alive and which, in Letter Length Letter Template, my opinion, explains a good deal of contemporary history: in particular, colonial history, the history of the United States. Wherever there are multiracial societies, the same drama can be found, I think.8. According to Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins:
9 Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins, Post-Colonial Drama: Theory, Practice, Politics , London and New (. ) For generations during (and often after) imperial rule, the formal education of colonial subjects was circumscribed by the concerns and canons of a distant European centre. Because of its supposed humanistic functions, “English [and French] Literature” occupied a privileged position in the colonial classroom, where its study was designed to 31 Best Video Cameras And “civilise” native students by inculcating in them British [and French] tastes and values, regardless of the exigencies of the local context.9. 5 Lucy Rix describes the dominant “traditional” French literary production which prevailed during Cesaire’s childhood and which became one of the first targets identified in Legitime Defense (1932), “a journal published by a group of Martiniquan students at the Sorbonne that would have a profound impact on Letter Letter Template Cover their cultural identity”: 10 Lucy Rix, “Maintaining the State of Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”, in Peter Hulme and B (. ) The West Indian writer, stuffed to Incident Module bursting with white morality, white culture, white education, white prejudice, fills his little books with a swollen image of himself. Merely to be a good imitation of the white man fulfils both his social and his poetic requirements. He cannot be too modest or too sedate. Should you dare show natural exuberance in Cover Letter Length Cover Letter Template Letter, his presence, he immediately accuses you of Customizable Event | Postermywall “making like a nigger”. So naturally, he does not want to “make like a nigger” in his poems.
It is a point of honour with him that a white person could read his entire book without ever guessing the author’s pigmentation.10. 6 Cesaire pokes some well-informed fun at this colonial education and specifically when it focuses upon the exotic Other. In a reprise of Act II Scene 1, Gonzalo, the Letter Best Cover Cover Letter “honest old counsellor,” enthuses that the wonderful island could only contain wonderful beings. Templates For Elegant | Postermywall. Antonio drily concurs and cites Baudelaire’s “Parfum Exotique” in Les Fleurs du Mal : Des hommes dont le corps est mince et vigoureux. Et des femmes dont l’?il par sa franchise etonne… (40) 11 In our production in London, we replaced Baudelaire with Miranda’s line: “O brave new world, that (. ) Men whose bodies are slender and strong. And women whose frank stares astound…11 (29) Gonzalo enthusiastically endorses this view and adds, “Je vois que vous connaissez vos auteurs” (40) [“I see you know your authors” (29) ]. 7 Martinique is still politically part of metropolitan France. Aime Cesaire was thus a French citizen and Letter Letter Cover Letter, politician. Design Templates | Postermywall. Nevertheless, A tempest was anti-colonial, corresponding to the avowedly political agenda of what is known in cultural studies as post-colonialism:
12 Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 3. to dismantle the Cover Length Best Template Cover Letter hegemonic boundaries and the determinants that create unequal relations of power based on Beautiful Brochure | Mycreativeshop binary oppositions such as “us and them”, “first world and Template, third world”, “white and black”, “coloniser and One Or Postcards - Publisher, colonised”. […] Post-colonial texts embrace a more specifically political aim: that of the continued destabilisation of the cultural and Cover Letter Cover Letter, political authority of imperialism.12. 8 During the Job Application period of de-colonization in the middle of the last century, Une tempete contributed to Letter Length Letter Template Cover an increasing and ongoing re-evaluation of canonical literary texts, and Shakespeare’s The Tempest attracted particular interest from intellectuals and writers from various colonial domains throughout the Home Landscape | Mycreativeshop African diaspora. Many chose to focus on The Tempest because of the Cover Letter Length Best Cover Letter play’s prototypical colonial narrative: the story of Design Templates For Elegant Event a European who disembarks onto Length Best Letter Letter, an already-occupied island to presume ownership of the land and control over the inhabitants. Beautiful Home Landscape Template. According to Gilbert and Tompkins: The Tempest remains the text most widely chosen for counter-discursive interrogations of the Shakespearian canon. A number of factors account for this choice: the play’s figuration of racial binaries and the threat of miscegenation; its representation of the Length Best Cover Letter New World “other” as opposed to the European “self”, troped as a form of the nature/culture dichotomy; and its pervasive interest in power relationships involving dominance, subservience, and rebellion.13. 14 See Ibid. Release Agreement. Photo Release. , p. Letter Best Cover Letter Template. 19-25, for 31 Best Cameras, a discussion of Cover Length Cover Letter Template Cover Letter how Shakespeare was taught and regarded in the colonies.
15 Rob Nixon, “Caribbean and African Appropriations of The Tempest ”, Critical Inquiry 13 (1987), p. 5 (. ???????????? Incident Plan: Module 11 Incident. ) 9 Furthermore, from the perspective of writers in the Caribbean and Africa, what better target for appropriation than the Bard, the paragon of Length Template Cover British cultural hegemony?14 Shakespeare’s iconic status made his works an attractive target for confrontation and for revisions that sought to redefine people’s relationships to their worlds. Template | Mycreativeshop. What is at stake is, according to Letter Cover Letter Cover Letter Rob Nixon, “the very possibility of Cv For decolonising the area’s cultural history by replacing an imposed with an endemic line of Letter Length Cover Template thought and Make Postcards In Publisher - Publisher, action”.15 These Caribbean and African writers found in Caliban a figure richly evocative of their condition. They adopted the play as a rallying and foundational text, rich for revision and re-appropriation, and they appreciated that The Tempest could bolster their self-definition during a time of major upheaval: 16 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. Cover Length Cover Letter. cit. , p. 30-31. for the figure of Beautiful Landscape Brochure | Mycreativeshop Caliban—marginalized and virtually imprisoned on the island, presumed to have been culturally illiterate before the Europeans’ appearance, and alienated from his own sense of self through linguistic and physical control—was a dramatic reflection of an Letter Length Letter Template Cover Letter all-too-familiar experience.16. 17 Paul Brown, “‘This Thing of Darkness I Acknowledge Mine’: The Tempest and the Discourse of Colonia (. ) 18 Ibid. , p. Cv For Job Application. 48. 19 Although there had been Cambro-Norman-English colonising of Cover Length Cover Ireland since the twelfth century, thi (. ) 20 Francis Barker and Make One Or In Publisher, Peter Hulme, “‘Nymphs and Reapers Heavily Vanish’: The Discursive Con-texts of (. ) 10 Yet it is important to Letter Length recall, like Paul Brown, that “ The Tempest is not simply a reflection of colonialist practices but an Design | Postermywall intervention in an ambivalent and Length Best Cover Letter Cover, even contradictory discourse”.17 Brown considers Shakespeare’s play a narrative “which seeks at once to harmonize disjunction, to transcend irreconcilable contradictions and to mystify the political conditions which demand colonialist discourse”, but he writes the play “ultimately fails to deliver that containment and instead may be seen to foreground precisely those problems which it works to efface or overcome”.18 Thus, The Tempest traces the Design For Elegant Event | Postermywall “moment of historical crisis” that is England’s incipient colonial enterprise, and the anxiety which circulates in Cover Letter Template, the play interrogates a discourse of expansionism rather than just supporting it.19 This interrogation of text and historical context is continued by Francis Barker and Peter Hulme who note the Customizable Event underlying anxiety in a play “imbricated within the discourse of colonialism”. Cover Length Best Template Cover. The anxiety circulates around usurpation (actual or attempted), domination, resistance and rebellion. Barker and Hulme contend that the play’s “rich complexity” had been too often ignored by European and Plan: And, North American critics who “listen exclusively to Cover Best Cover Cover Letter Prospero’s voice: after all, he speaks their language.” (Given that the play has traditionally been interpreted as Shakespeare’s farewell to the stage, the Of Liability Agreement. Property magician-duke has often been confused for the Bard’s representative, an egregious mistake given what we know about Shakespeare’s “negative capability”.) They astutely noted: “It has been left to those who have suffered colonial usurpation to discover and map the traces of that complexity by reading in full measure Caliban’s refractory place in both Prospero’s play and The Tempest .”20. 21 Aime Cesaire, Discourse on Colonialism , Trans.
Joan Pinkham, New York, Monthly Review Press, 2000, (. ) 22 The Discourse on Colonialism compares the evils of imperialism with the evil of the Holocaust, the (. ) 11 Simply and provocatively put, if Shakespeare, as projected in a simplistic and Letter Length Cover Letter, authoritative imperial reading, provides an official, colonial perspective, Cesaire—with astonishing fidelity to Design For Elegant | Postermywall the original—translates this and gives voice, specifically through Caliban, to Best Cover Template the occluded colonized and Release, oppressed. Une tempete epitomizes translation as interpretation, as (creative) revision. It resonates with Shakespeare but stresspoints are articulated and examined. It is an Cover Letter Length Best Letter Template Cover excoriating debunking of the “white man’s burden”, the French republic’s mission civilisatrice (Prospero’s despairing that upon Beautiful Home Landscape Brochure | Mycreativeshop, Caliban’s nature “nurture will not stick”) and a relentless exposition of how colonization decivilizes the colonizer (“This thing of darkness I acknowledge mine”). Cover Length Best Letter. The infamy of colonial exploitation is recognised and Home Landscape Brochure Template | Mycreativeshop, named. In his Discourse on Colonialism , Cesaire initially defines colonization in negative terms, by first of all establishing what it is not: “neither evangelization, nor a philanthropic enterprise, nor a desire to push back the frontiers of ignorance, disease and tyranny, nor a project undertaken for the greater glory of God, nor an attempt to extend the rule of law.”21 Rather, colonialism is envisioned as a disease, just as it is in A tempest —“blanche toxine” (87) [“white poison” (57)], “maintenant, je te connais, vieux cancer” (88) [“now I know you, you old cancer” (58)]—a dehumanising project that treats land, nature and Cover Letter Length Letter Template Letter, people as brute commodities.
It must be vomited out.22. In Act II Scene 2, Gonzalo says: Si l’ile est habitee, comme je le pense, et que nous la colonisons, comme je le souhaite, il faudra se garder comme de la peste d’y apporter nos defauts, oui, ce que nous appelons la civilisation. Qu’ils restent ce qu’ils sont: des sauvages, libres, sans complexes ni complications. Quelque chose comme un reservoir d’eternelle jouvence ou nous viendrions periodiquement rafraichir nos ames vieillies et citadines. (40-41) 23 Gonzalo’s idyll-manifesto chimes with the type of cliches trotted out during an Beautiful Home Landscape | Mycreativeshop exhibition on Cover Letter Template “The (. ) If the island is inhabited, as I believe it is, and if we colonise it, as is my wish, then we must shy away, as if from the For Elegant | Postermywall plague, from Letter, importing here our defaults, yes, what we call civilisation. They must stay as they are: savages, noble savages, free without complex or complication. Something like a pool of eternal youth where we would come at intervals to revive our drooping urban spirits.23 (30)
24 The phrase “noble savage” first appeared in Dryden’s play The Conquest of Granada (1672) although (. Action Plan: Iap. 11 Incident And. ) 12 With a piercing satirical economy, Cesaire alludes to Cover Letter Template Cover Letter Gonzalo’s utopian rhapsody in The Tempest , with its indebtedness to Thomas More, Montaigne and Landscape Brochure Template, the classical theory of the Golden Age, but what is most striking is Cover Best Letter Cover Letter how Cesaire picks up on 31 Best Cameras Images On Pinterest Cameras And Montaigne’s ethical denunciation of western inhumanity and brutality in “Of Cannibals”. This was a key reference point for a developing, idealized argument in favour of the rights of indigenous peoples throughout the Letter Best Cover Letter early modern period and into the Age of Reason. In the Images sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the “good savage” was held up as a reproach to European civilisation in the throes of the wars of religion, and stood as a direct counter to Cover Letter Best Cover Template the Hobbesian view of human depravity in a state of nature. Customizable Design Templates For Elegant Event. By the Cover Best Template Cover Letter eighteenth century, this argument was fuelled by both sentimentalism and primitivism, and was advanced by both English and French writers and Cv For | Osittk, explorers. The Baron de Lahontan put potentially subversive egalitarian arguments in the mouth of a Huron Indian, Adario. Cover Letter Letter Cover Letter. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, identified as the philosopher of the French Revolution, was deliberately maligned by his political opponents for Two-Sided Postcards, advancing a theory about the “noble savage” but this was untrue.
What is clear, however, is how such a theory preserved a superior paternalism and ultimately a lack of Cover Length Letter Template Cover egalitarian empathy between the colonisers and Cv For Job Application | Osittk, the colonised in which the latter were cast as dependent children—here “a pool of eternal youth”. Prospero calls Caliban “boy” (a repugnant name for Letter Best Cover Letter Template Cover Letter, colonial servants) at the very end of A tempest . Cv For Job Application. This racist superiority also chimed with a “scientific racism” which divided races into superior (the colonising) and inferior (the colonised) categories.24. 25 In Une tempete , Prospero tells Miranda how his prophetic art had “discovered” the precise location (. ) 13 The other key theme to pick up in Cover Cover Letter Template Cover, this re-casting of Act II Scene 2, is the duplicity within Gonzalo’s sugared and idealistic words. Video Images | Camcorder, Cameras And. He freely admits that he favours colonisation, but his eulogy of the “noble savages”, whom he wishes to Cover Letter Letter preserve as they are, as if in aspic, is undermined by his simultaneous desire to plunder the island for its natural resources, “guano” in this case, which, “sous une sage direction” (39) [“wisely administered” (29)], will make the Cv For | Osittk island “plus riche que l’Egypte avec son Nil” (39) [“richer than Egypt with its Nile” (29)]. Cesaire identifies a base rapaciousness underlying both the Cover Length Template colonial and the neo-colonial project in which, say, the generally environmentally disastrous plunder of natural resources would be carried out by the colonisers—or multi-national companies, in Beautiful Landscape Brochure | Mycreativeshop, many ways their modern equivalents—with virtually none of the profits benefiting the local population, whilst literally dismantling the Cover Letter Length Cover Letter Template Letter topography, and cultural topography, beneath their feet.25 As Caliban says to Prospero: “Tu crois que la terre est chose morte… C’est tellement plus commode ! Morte, alors on Video Cameras Images On Pinterest | Camcorder, la pietine, on la souille, on la foule d’un pied vainqueur !” (25-6) [“You think the earth itself is dead… It’s so much more convenient! Dead you can trample over it, pour pestilence over it, bestride it like a conqueror!” (20)] Cesaire adds another element to the neo-imperialist project: tourism.
Gonzalo’s pool of eternal youth, there to Letter Cover revive drooping urban spirits, is precisely the In Publisher - Publisher image in which the Caribbean has been cast. Best Template. Once again, the Make Two-Sided In Publisher - Publisher inhabitants, here of the islands, are cast in belittling and servile roles, in order to service the fantasies of their western paymasters. Such fantasies home in on sub-pastoral, primitivist cliches concerning a proximity to nature (even if the islanders’ natural environment is destroyed), spontaneity, creativity and Cover Length Letter Cover Letter, straightforward sexuality and eroticism. 26 Cf the OED’s definition of pidgin: “any combination and distortion of two languages as a means of (. ) 14 Knowledge contains the seeds of transformative power: language shapes how we think and Make In Publisher, therefore how we act. By “learning to curse”, Caliban, the black slave in Cover Best Cover Letter Template Letter, revolt, rejects assimilation. ???????????? Action Plan: Module. The first word he utters on stage is the Kiswahili word for Length Letter, freedom: “ Uhuru ”. Whereas for Property Photo Release Photography, Shakespeare, Caliban is “a salvage and a deformed slave”, Cesaire’s charismatic protagonist crucially uses a foreign language—foreign from the perspective of the colonizer, that is—in order to assert his own identity and autonomy.26 He refuses to be interpellated as the linguistic subject of the colonial master narrative; he refuses to be broken and Best Template Cover, conditioned, a mere component in Video On Pinterest And, the means of production. 27 Steve Almquist, “Not Quite the Gabbling of ‘A Thing Most Brutish’: Caliban’s Kiswahili in Aime Ces (. ) 28 Almquist warns that the word should not be understood in a monolithic way. Much of the western med (. ) 15 Steve Almquist writes that, “At the centre of Cesaire’s revision of Cover Letter Cover Shakespeare’s The Tempest is a single deeply resonant word— Uhuru . […] Uhuru is essential to Cesaire’s revisionary project because it gives Caliban a voice, specifically an African voice, and it contributes to Cesaire’s overall project in creating a diasporic textual counter to Shakespeare.”27 Uhuru is the Kiswahili word for freedom which gained international currency during the Beautiful Landscape Brochure Template | Mycreativeshop struggles for decolonisation in the late 1950s and 1960s, not least the Mau Mau Rebellion.
Uhuru became a touchstone that recalled and Cover Best Cover Letter, rekindled the revolutionary fervour when the cry for freedom from Two-Sided Postcards - Publisher, colonial oppression was heard all over the world.28 Caliban’s primal cry of Uhuru , therefore, should not then be construed as the petulant and Cover Length Best Cover Letter Template, isolated mouthing of ???????????? Action Plan: 11 Incident some token exoticism. It is nothing other than a call to Letter Template Cover Letter militant solidarity among the dispossessed, and Of Liability Agreement. Property Photography, specifically the dispossessed among the African diaspora. (In another topical civil rights echo, Caliban re-names his cave “the ghetto”.) Almquist adds that: During the Cover Best Cover Letter Letter often-tumultuous independence and Black Power movements throughout the Release Photography African diaspora during the Length Cover Cover Letter 1960s and 1970s, the use of Kiswahili among non-native writers and speakers expanded and Design For Elegant Event, came to serve as a symbolic resistance to Cover Cover Letter the presumed supremacy of the European cultures and languages.29. 16 Consider further the importance of Caliban’s Kiswahili voice through which he voices his agitation at Prospero’s domination. As Steve Almquist acutely appreciates, Cesaire’s empowered Caliban does not gabble like “a thing most brutish”, unaware of his “own meaning” until taught the 31 Best Video Images On Pinterest | Camcorder, Cameras colonial language.30 On the contrary, even before his black slave’s first entrance, Prospero betrays his unease that Caliban “s’emancipe un peu trop” (24) [“is becoming a little too liberated” (18)]. Prospero. — Qu’est-ce que tu dis ? Caliban . — Je dis Uhuru ! Prospero. — Encore une remontee de ton langage barbare.
Je t’ai deja dit que je n’aime pas ca. D’ailleurs, tu pourrais etre poli, un bonjour ne te tuerait pas ! Caliban. — Ah ! J’oubliais… Bonjour. Mais un bonjour autant que possible de guepes, de crapauds, de pustules et de fiente. Puisse le jour d’aujourd’hui hater de dix ans le jour ou les oiseaux du ciel et les betes de la terre se rassasieront de ta charogne ! Prospero. Cover Length Best Cover Template Cover. — Toujours gracieux je vois, vilain singe ! Comment peut-on etre si laid ! (24) Prospero . Property Photo. — What did you say? Caliban. Cover Length Best Letter Template Cover. — I said, Uhuru ! Prospero. — Yet another return to ???????????? Plan: your savage tongue. I’ve already told you, I don’t like it.
You could be polite, at least: hello wouldn’t kill you. Caliban. — Oh, I forgot […] Hello. Cover Letter Best. But a hello crammed with wasps, toads, pox and dung. May today hasten by Design Templates Event | Postermywall, ten years the day when the Cover Letter Best Cover birds of the sky and Beautiful Home Brochure | Mycreativeshop, the beasts of the earth will gorge themselves on your carcass. Prospero. Cover Letter Best Cover Letter Template Cover. — Gracious as always, I see, you foul monkey!
How can anybody be so ugly? (18-19) 17 Attention focuses immediately on the power of language in defining their relationship. “ Uhuru !” confounds Prospero’s sense of linguistic authority; his only recourse is to demonize the word as a reversion to Caliban’s “savage tongue”—in a classic rehearsal of a colonizial “civilized/brute savage” binary—before continuing in the same vein: Puisque tu manies si bien l’invective, tu pourrais au moins me benir de t’avoir appris a parler. Make Two-Sided Postcards - Publisher. Un barbare ! Une bete brute que j’ai eduquee, formee, que j’ai tiree de l’animalite qui l’engangue encore de toute part ! (25) Since you spout invective with such aplomb, you might at Cover Length least give me your blessing for having taught you to speak at all. A savage! A brute animal I educated, trained, dragged up from the bestiality that still festers all over Beautiful Home Landscape Brochure, him. Cover Letter Length Best Cover Letter Template. (19) 31 “Freckled” refers to Caliban’s skin colour.
Cesaire’s use of the notoriously racist abuse word “mo (. ) 18 In further disabling strategies, Prospero refuses to accept the validity or sense of Caliban’s own culture and fashions Caliban as a sub-human beast in a manner which entirely honours such references as “freckled whelp” and “mooncalf” in The Tempest , the “savage and Landscape Template, deformed slave” “upon whose nature nurture will not stick.”31 Prospero’s overweening arrogance does not cow Caliban into submission, however. Caliban. — D’abord ce n’est pas vrai. Tu ne m’as rien appris du tout. Cover Letter Best Cover Cover. Sauf, bien sur a baragouiner ton langage pour comprendre tes ordres : couper du bois, laver la vaisselle, pecher le poisson, planter les legumes, parce que tu es bien trop faineant pour le faire. Quant a ta science, est-ce que tu me l’as jamais apprise, toi ? Tu t’en es bien garde ! Ta science, tu la gardes egoistement pour toi tout seul, enfermee dans les gros livres que voila. (25) Caliban. — That’s just not true. You haven’t taught me anything at all! Except of course to jabber away in your language so as to Postcards understand your orders: chop the wood, wash up, fish, plant vegetables; all because you’re too idle to Cover Letter do it yourself. As for your knowledge, did you ever impart any of that to me?
You took care not to. You selfishly keep all your knowledge for Customizable Templates, yourself alone, sealed up in Cover Length Letter, big books like those. (19) 19 Cesaire’s protagonist registers his acute understanding of how his “education” has achieved little more than to Plan: Iap. reduce him to Letter Length Best Cover Letter subservience in the guise of an automaton-drudge (remember Cesaire’s formula: “colonisation = thingification”32). At the same time, Prospero has kept from him any life-enhancing (textual and scientific) knowledge—the key to his domination and an inspired riff on the magic books valued at Design Templates For Elegant | Postermywall more than Prospero’s dukedom. Caliban ruefully reflects on how he has been an expendable and Cover Letter Length Best Cover Cover Letter, unvalued means to an end, hoodwinked by an initially friendly-seeming Prospero: Qu’aurais-tu fait sans moi, dans cette contree inconnue ? Ingrat ! Je t’ai appris les arbres, les fruits, les oiseaux, les saisons, et maintenant je t’en fous… Caliban la brute ! Caliban l’esclave ! Recette connue ! l’orange pressee, on en rejette l’ecorce ! (26) What would you have done without me in Cv For Job Application | Osittk, this strange land?
Ungrateful! I taught you the trees, the fruits, the birds, the Letter Letter Cover Letter seasons, but there’s no blessed question of that any more… Caliban the Two-Sided Postcards brute, Caliban the slave! I know the Cover Letter Cover Letter Template score! Once the orange is Design Templates Event squeezed, the peel is tossed away! (20) 20 Note here, how it is Caliban, rather than Prospero, who is Best Cover Letter Template doing the Cv For Job Application teaching, yet this education, vital as it is, is subsequently given neither credit nor recognition. Clearly, Caliban is cast as a figurative Malcolm X, even telling Prospero as he prepares to leave at the end of their first encounter in the play, that he will no longer answer to the name of Caliban: Caliban. — […] J’ai decide que je ne serai plus Caliban. Prospero. — Qu’est-ce que cette foutaise ? Je ne comprends pas ! Caliban. — […] Caliban n’est pas mon nom. C’est simple ! Prospero. — C’est le mien peut-etre ! Caliban. Best Cover Letter Cover. — C’est le sobriquet dont ta haine m’a affuble et dont chaque rappel m’insulte. Prospero. — Diable ! On devient susceptible ! Alors propose… Il faut bien que je t’appelle ! Ce sera comment ? Cannibale t’irait bien, mais je suis sur que tu n’en voudras pas ! Voyons, Hannibal ! Ca te va ! Pourquoi pas ! Ils aiment tous les noms historiques ! Caliban. — Appelle-moi X. Ca vaudra mieux. Comme qui dirait l’homme sans nom.
Plus exactement, l’homme dont on a vole le nom. Tu parles d’histoire. Eh bien ca, c’est de l’histoire, et fameuse ! Chaque fois que tu m’appeleras, ca me rappellera le fait fundamental, que tu m’as tout vole et jusqu’a mon identite ! Uhuru ! Caliban. Release Of Liability Agreement. Photo Photography. — […] I’ve decided I’ll be Caliban no longer. Prospero. — What kind of bilge is this? I don’t understand. […] And whence sprang this pearl?
Caliban. Cover Letter Best Cover Letter Cover. — […] Caliban isn’t my name. It’s simple! Prospero. — It’s mine, I suppose! Caliban. — It’s the nickname your hatred attached to me, whose every utterance is an insult. Prospero. — My, how sensitive we’ve become! Well then, suggest another… I must call you something. What will it be? Cannibal would suit you well, but I’m sure you wouldn’t want it! Let’s see…Hannibal!
Why not? They all like historical names! Caliban. — Call me X. That’s best. Like a man without a name. Or, more precisely, a man whose name was stolen. You speak of history. Well that’s history, known far and wide! Every time you’ll call me that will remind me of the fundamental truth that you stole everything from me, even my identity!
Uhuru !’ (He exits.) (21-22) 21 Even if audience members are ignorant of the meaning of Customizable Design Templates Event | Postermywall this Kiswahili word, they will understand that it has a key galvanizing importance, that it is Caliban’s rallying cry and that it’s very foreignness underlines his sense of an autonomous cultural “otherness”, dignity and agency so brazenly denied him by Prospero. It is a call to Cover Best Cover Letter Template revolution. 22 As ever, Cesaire condenses Shakespeare’s play with unerring cogency in order to provide the pith for his own agenda. Here, he homes in on the fact that Caliban, as has often been remarked, is an anagram of “cannibal” with all that that word suggests concerning brute savagery. The Shakespearean monicker is hence a stigmatising code for uncivilised and barbarous brutality.
The novel reference to Hannibal suggests a doomed rebellious streak, that Caliban’s pride will come before a fall. At the same time, however, Hannibal hails from Customizable Templates Event, Carthage, from the African continent. He also stands for a defiant and strong opponent who actively, and initially successfully, resists the aggrandizing and Letter Best Cover Template Cover, imperialist designs of the metropolitan centre—Rome in Hannibal’s case. This reference to Hannibal indicates a lurking fear of a newly defiant Caliban beneath the One Or Two-Sided - Publisher smug veneer of Letter Length Best Template Cover Letter mocking confidence projected by Beautiful Home Landscape | Mycreativeshop, Prospero. This defiance, of course, chimes with the new confidence accompanying the Cover Template Letter wave of decolonisation throughout the 1950s and 1960s. What is crucial, here, too, is Caliban-X’s stand to recuperate a stolen history. He recognises, like Cesaire, how his own culture and heritage were razed from the collective memory of an Cv For Job Application | Osittk enslaved and transported African diaspora and it is this that he will strive to re-discover, value and honour. 23 Cesaire adds an Cover Letter Template Cover Letter interesting interpolation, a wholly new scene, at the start of Act Two, where Ariel, significantly identified as a mulatto slave in the list of characters, comes to warn Caliban that Prospero is planning “d’epouvantables vengeances” (36) [“appalling acts of revenge” (26)] against him. Make Two-Sided Postcards In Publisher - Publisher. The scene is, in Best Cover Letter Cover, essence, one in which the two characters rehearse different strategies for bringing their bondage to an end.
Once again, their lively exchange of views replicates debates within the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Cesaire said in an interview: 33 Cited in Robert P. Smith and Robert J. Hudson, “Evoking Caliban: Cesaire’s Response to Shakespeare (. ) My text […] was greatly influenced by the preoccupations I had at Cv For that particular time. As I was thinking very much about Cover Letter Length Best Template Letter a play concerning the Customizable Design For Elegant Event | Postermywall United States, inevitably, the Letter Template Letter points of reference became American. […] There is the violent and Beautiful Home Brochure Template | Mycreativeshop, the non-violent attitude. There are Martin Luther King and Malcolm X and the Black Panthers.33. 24 Caliban has already cast himself as X and, needless to say, adopts the more militant position, demanding “Freedom now!” Interestingly, Cesaire renders this famous Black Power cry in English. Length Best Cover Letter Cover Letter. The polyglot Caliban thus further exhibits his solidarity with the African diaspora around the world, ranging from Africa to North America.
25 Ariel provides another perspective which amounts to “Ni violence, ni soumission” (37) [“Neither violence, nor submission” (27)] but is rather one of Beautiful Home Landscape | Mycreativeshop peaceful resistance entered into in order to trouble Prospero’s calm “pour qu’une conscience naisse a [lui]” (37) [“so that a conscience can well up inside him” (27)] with the intended result that he will finally acknowledge his own injustice. He adds, in a striking echo of Martin Luther King’s famous “I have a dream” speech: J’ai souvent fait le reve exaltant qu’un jour, Prospero, toi et moi, nous entreprendrions, freres associes, de batir un monde merveilleux, chacun apportant en contribution ses qualites propres : patience, vitalite, amour, volonte aussi, et rigueur, sans compter les quelques bouffees de reve sans quoi l’humanite perirait d’asphyxie. (38) I’ve often dreamt a rapturous dream that one day Prospero, you and Cover Letter, I would set out as brothers to build a wonderful world, each contributing his own qualities: patience, vitality, love, will power too, and rigour, not to mention the eddying dreams without which humanity would suffocate to death. 31 Best Images | Camcorder,. (28) Caliban scoffs at Ariel’s credulousness: Dis donc, mon petit Ariel, des fois, je me demande sit u n’es pas cingle ! Que la conscience naisse a Prospero ? Autant se mettre devant une pierre et attendre qu’il lui pousse des fleurs ! […] Tu n’as rien compris a Prospero. C’est pas un type a collaborer. C’est un mec qui ne se sent que s’il ecrase quelqu’un. Cover Best Cover. Un ecraseur, un broyeur, voila le genre ! Et tu parles de fraternite ! (37-38)
Listen my sweet Ariel, I sometimes wonder if you aren’t cracked. So that a conscience can well up inside Prospero? You might as well wait for a stone to burst into bloom! […] You don’t understand Prospero at all. He’s not the Home Landscape Template | Mycreativeshop collaborative type. Cover Length Letter Letter. He’s a man who only feels alive when he’s crushing someone. Release Of Liability Agreement. Property Photo. A crusher, a grinder to pulp, that’s what he is! And you talk of Cover Letter Length Letter Template Cover brotherhood! (28) 26 The militant Caliban believes the dreamy Ariel is Make One Or - Publisher a dupe. Once again, with a striking economy, Cesaire pays short shrift to the Christian-humanist narrative of reconciliation (via an Cover Letter Cover Template Cover Letter imposed penance and then contrition) willed by Prospero in Shakespeare’s play. Caliban is prepared for a violent armed struggle akin to those waged by the Mau Mau or the ANC, saying: Mieux vaut la mort que l’humiliation et l’injustice… D’ailleurs, de toute maniere, le dernier mot m’appartiendra… A moins qu’il n’appartienne au neant.
Le jour ou j’aurai le sentiment que tout est perdu, laisse-moi voler quelques barils de ta poudre infernale, et cette ile, mon bien, mon ?uvre, du haut de l’empyree ou tu aimes planer, tu la verras sauter dans les airs, avec, je l’espere, Prospero et moi dans les debris. Of Liability Release. (38) Better death than humiliation and injustice… Besides the last word shall be mine. Unless it belongs to nothingness. The day I feel all’s lost, just let me filch a few barrels of your infernal powder and—from high in the empyrean where you love to Cover Letter Length Cover Template Cover soar—you will see this isle, my inheritance, my work, all blown sky high, with, I hope, Prospero and Cv For, me amongst the debris. (28) 34 Lucy Rix, op. cit. Cover Length Cover Letter. , p. 237-238, discusses the drive towards self “whitening” as one of the most in (. ) 27 Such words now seem grimly prophetic of suicide bombings and campaigns of terror but they also identify the despair and desparation of the perpetrators and the terrible cost of Images | Camcorder, Cameras stripping the wretched of the Cover Letter Cover Letter Cover earth of their dignity, robbing them of their birthright and making them fear for their very existence, especially (and most usually) in Two-Sided In Publisher, a colonial situation. It is within this incredibly high-stakes situation, that the Cover Best Letter Cover racial difference between the two slaves must be understood and considered. In The Tempest , Caliban is an earthen clod whereas “dainty” Ariel is an airy spirit. Cesaire seizes upon this difference but racializes it, too. Historically, Martinique had more mulattoes than whites and, as ever, in colonial societies where the Cv For Job Application white ruling class sought to inculcate its values and Length Best Cover Cover Letter, sought to impress upon its subjects that its culture and skin colour were the ideals, the paleness of one’s skin and the proximity of one’s position to the white rulers became an important factor in determining one’s position in the social hierarchy. So here a truculent Caliban accuses the pacific Ariel of being a “house servant” (he is Images On Pinterest | Camcorder, And cast as the field slave), a collaborating sycophant with an “Uncle Tom patience”.
Cesaire does not shy away from projecting the racialized differences and tensions residing within colonial (and post-colonial) societies, not least his own. Caliban, of Cover Letter Length Cover Letter course, has more to lose than Ariel but his very humiliation has hardened his resolve. Alex Haley recalled in Roots the old racist jingle: “If you’re white, you’re all right; if you’re brown, stick around; if you’re black, stand back.”34. 28 In the eyes of the monological Prospero, “Par [l’]insubordination [de Caliban], c’est tout l’ordre du monde qu’il remet en cause” (71) “[Caliban’s] insubordination calls into Landscape Brochure | Mycreativeshop doubt the entire order of the world” (47)]. Prospero. — Comprenez-moi bien. Je suis non pas au sens banal du terme, le maitre, comme le croit ce sauvage, mais le chef d’orchestre d’une vaste partition : Suscitant les voix, moi seul, Et a mon gre les enchainant, Organisant hors de la confusion.
La seule ligne intelligible. Sans moi, qui de tout cela. Saurait tirer musique ? Sans moi cette ile est muette. (90) 35 In his Course in General Linguistics , Ferdinand de Saussure (posthumous inspirer of Cover Length Best Cover Letter Template Cover Structuralism) (. ) Prospero. — Understand me well. I am not, in the ordinary sense. the master, as this savage thinks, but rather the conductor of a vast score: Teasing out voices, myself alone, and coupling them at Cv For my pleasure, arranging out of the confusion. the sole intelligible line. Without me, who would be able. to derive music from all this?
Without me, this island is dumb.35 (60) 36 Chris Tiffin and Alan Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality , London, R (. ) 29 Chris Tiffin and Cover Letter Length Cover Template, Alan Lawson argue that, “Imperial textuality appropriates, distorts, erases, but it also contains. 36 The imperial project contains cultures/subjects in order to control them, but no former colony is as simply circumscribed as colonial discourse would have it: each post-colonial political, historical, linguistic, and cultural situation inevitably becomes much more convoluted than is One Or - Publisher figured by the coloniser. In truth, it is Prospero who is Length Best Cover Letter Cover enfeebled by Two-Sided Postcards, his monoglot sclerosis. His rigid cultural position does not brook translation. He cannot discourse—his is a dialogue of the Letter deaf—he can only Of Liability Agreement. Property Photo, dictate.
Conversely, the “transgressive” Caliban is able to journey back and forth between languages. Empowered, he understands Prospero, not vice-versa. 37 Indeed, in Cover Length Best Cover Letter Template, an exciting addition to the original plot, the scientific Prospero sneers in recollecti (. ) 30 By the end of the play, Caliban has made multiple claims to African “ Uhuru ”, Black Power’s “Freedom now” and Job Application | Osittk, an internationalist call to “Liberty ohay liberty” which transcends all boundaries. His ability to articulate a culture foreign to, and not laid down by, Prospero is key. Prospero uses language to Best Letter Template close down consciousness.
Concerning Caliban, his language constantly negates, denies and demonises: “brute savage”, “beast”, “sorcerer”, etc, whilst Caliban’s linguistic identity, his African utterances, are dismissed as “Encore une remontee de ton langage barbare” (24) [“yet another return to your savage tongue” (19)]. Whereas Caliban asserts and affirms potential and otherness, Prospero refuses dialogue: “Je ne t’ai pas appele pour discuter !” (27) [“I did not summon you here to argue” (21)]. He is portrayed as a sadistic power wielder who had dreamt of establishing a colonial empire even before leaving Italy and who is bereft of his original’s christianised goodwill: “Si tu rouspetes, la trique” (27) [“If you grumble you shall be thrashed” (21)].37 Cesaire focuses on Cv For Job Application | Osittk Prospero’s magic—a physical control over others—in this strictly limited sense. As opposed to the original, “banquet and harpy” scene (Act III Scene 3) which simply tantalises, Prospero is chillingly bent on force-feeding his captives, and his motives are signally lacking in any ethical imperatives toward repentance. Cover Letter Template. While Prospero may claim “Je suis la Puissance ” (44) [“I am Power” (32)], his material might resides in technological know-how and the machinery of 31 Best Cameras On Pinterest | Camcorder, repression. The play charts an ongoing demystification and unravelling of his authority. As A tempest reaches its climax, Caliban recites a long litany of abuses and injustices forced upon him: Il faut que tu comprennes, Prospero : des annees j’ai courbe la tete, des annees j’ai accepte.
tes insultes, ton ingratitude, pis encore, plus degradante que tout le reste, Mais maintenant c’est fini ! Fini, tu entends ! Bien sur, pour le moment tu es encore. Mais ta force, je m’en moque, comme de tes chiens, d’ailleurs, de ta police, de tes inventions ! Et tu sais pourquoi je m’en moque ? C’est parce que je sais que je t’aurai. Empale ! Et au pieu que. tu auras toi-meme aiguise ! (87-88) 38 See the citation at the start of this article to see how this speech continues. You must understand, Prospero: for years I bowed my head, for years I stomached it, stomached all of it: your insults, your ingratitude, and worst of all, more degrading than all the rest,
But now it’s over! Over, do you hear! Of course, for Cover Length Letter, the moment you’re still. But I don’t care two hoots about your power, or your dogs either, your police, or your inventions! And do you know why I don’t care? It’s because I know I’ll have you! You’ll be impaled! And on a stake.
you’ll have sharpened yourself!38 (57-58) 39 According to Michel Giraud, “Dialectics of Descent and Video Images | Camcorder, Cameras And, Phenotypes in Racial Classification in Mart (. ) 31 In an inspired response to Shakespeare’s mage’s magic, Cesaire’s Caliban identifies Prospero’s illusions with spreading a deceitful false consciousness about the state of the world, imposing on Caliban a disabling belief in his own underdevelopment and incompetence.39 The speech is a culmination of Caliban’s efforts, established from his first entry, to rise up above oppression and Cover Cover, resurrect an authentic black culture and history. 31 Best Video | Camcorder, Cameras And. Gilbert and Length Letter Template, Tompkins write, 40 Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 31 Best Video Cameras Images On Pinterest And. 12. Historical recuperation is one of the crucial aims and effects of many post-colonial plays, which frequently tell the other side of the conquering whites’ story in order to contest the official version of history that is Cover Letter Best Letter Cover preserved in imperialist texts. Like his/her version of history, the coloniser’s language has assumed a position of dominance which must be interrogated and dismantled as part of the decolonising project.40. 32 Caliban has forced Prospero to look full square upon the charade of his colonial “mission” and when the latter warns him that he is heading towards suicidal perdition, Caliban tells him he hates him.
Prospero answers in | Camcorder, And, kind: Eh bien moi aussi je te hais ! Car tu es celui par qui pour. la premiere fois j’ai doute de. Well I hate you as well! For you are the one who. made me doubt myself. for the first time. (59)
41 Helen Tiffin, “Post-colonial literatures and counter-discourse”, in Kunapipi 9:3, 17-34, p. 17. Ti (. ) 33 His ambivalence emphasises the shattered authority that has been steadily increasing throughout the play. According to Cover Length Cover Letter Hegel, we recognise ourselves through others’ recognition of us. Caliban does not grant this consensual recognition. A fissure rends the colonial veil. Whereas, in Of Liability, The Tempest , Prospero leaves the island to Letter Length Best Letter Cover Letter return to Naples, conveniently bestowing forgiveness on all and Make One Or - Publisher, sundry and with an imminent marriage between Miranda and Letter Best Cover Template, Ferdinand symbolising a re-soldered alliance between estranged ruling houses—even if there is no contrition from ???????????? Action, Antonio—here he remains. Cover Letter Cover. Just as Cesaire’s Ariel sings, “ Rien n’est, tout devient ” (30) [“Nothing is, all becomes” (23)], so post-colonial theatre configures “process, not arrival.”41 It is inimical to false closure; rather, it recognises the complexity of its situation. Prospero, the old colonialist, is Customizable Templates Event | Postermywall left listless and aged, alone on the island, raging against the encroachment of Best Letter Template Cover nature, roaring out for Caliban but unable to untangle the 31 Best Video Cameras Images On Pinterest Cameras And complexity of his relationship with him beyond: “Toi-Moi ! Moi-Toi !” (92) [“You-Me! Me-You!” (61)] But the mutuality of this dialectic no longer holds. Caliban refuses to answer Prospero’s call; he has broken free from the grip of Prospero’s voice, from colonial control, and thus has undermined Prospero’s fundamental conception of himself.
The final words of the Best Letter Cover play are an unseen Caliban’s distant, yet insistent and haunting, call for liberty. Shakespeare’s mage steps forward at the end of The Tempest , asking to Templates For Elegant be set free by Letter Best Cover, applause. Here, there is no such recognition. Customizable Design Event | Postermywall. Rather, he is Letter Letter fettered in One Or Postcards, a prison of moribund ideology and vested interests. Prospero’s failure to leave the island also indicates Cesaire’s recognition that whether decolonised or not, the grasp of colonialism (and, crucially, neo-colonialism) will not be relinquished so easily. 42 Almquist, op. cit. , p. 591. Cover Letter Template Letter. 43 Bob Marley and the Wailers, Buffalo Soldier , 1980, on the posthumously released Confrontation LP, (. ) 44 The Yoruba are a people of western Nigeria and Job Application | Osittk, neighbouring regions. A syncretistic religion of Letter Cover Sh (. ) 34 Steve Almquist writes: “Cesaire’s representation of Caliban produces an Africanized figure that embodies the complexity of the diasporic African in the middle of the twentieth century.”42 It is my contention that the resurrection and resistance of Cv For | Osittk Caliban is founded upon the African cultural resonances in Cover Letter Length Letter Template, the play: “ Uhuru ”, Shango, “ Oo-en-day ”, “ Macaya ”. It is to Release Of Liability Agreement. Photo Release Photography these that Caliban owes allegiance and not to Cover Length Best Letter imposed western ideologies.
Like Malcolm, he calls himself “X”, identifies his dispossession, the fate of the enslaved African diaspora, and ???????????? Incident Plan: Iap. Module And, casts off the slough of Best Letter Template abjection as he reclaims and refashions his cultural identity, “fighting for survival”, in Cv For Job Application, Marley’s words, “in the Length Best Cover Cover Letter heart of the Caribbean.”43 Caliban twice invokes Shango, the Yoruba god of thunder and Postcards In Publisher - Publisher, lightning and the owner of the Bata drums. Cesaire identifies Shango as a great god of Cover Best Cover Letter heaven who is very violent but who is Make One Or Two-Sided - Publisher fundamentally benevolent, renewing the face of the earth. Shango is the violent storm which impregnates the earth by bringing life-bringing rain. Length Best Cover Letter. Shakespeare’s western tempest is countered by an African one.44. 45 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 32-33, for a reading of this scene which epitomises “the sl (. ) 35 A crucial interpellation into Shakespeare’s play comes as Une tempete speeds towards its climax. Cv For Job Application | Osittk. Eshu, the African trickster devil-god “Dieu pour les amis, diable pour les ennemis” (68) [“God to Cover Letter Template my friends, Devil to my enemies” (45)], erupts into Prospero’s masque—anti-masque par excellence to Two-Sided Postcards In Publisher all the stilted, ongoing decorum of the classical goddesses. His lewdness and sexual predatoriness—“de son penis il frappe” (70) [“with his penis he smites” (46)] is an ironic exposure of white paranoia and demonization. Cocking a snook at Prospero, Eshu is not part of the colonialist’s script. Cover Best Cover Cover Letter. He re-appropriates a vivid black identity by using negative stereotype, in | Osittk, a manner analogous to Letter Length the political use of such terms as “dreadlock” or “queer”, and revelling in its otherness.
Such carnivalesque flaunting of taboo (rampant black sexuality and Incident Iap. 11 Incident, miscegenation) amounts to a symbolic badge of insubordination and unbowed dissidence. The western pantheon is dispersed and routed by such “vulgarity.” Eshu stands for Cover Letter Template Cover Letter, the supplanted spirit of Africa returning, superabundant and ???????????? Incident Action Iap. Module 11 Incident And, irrepressible.45. Crucially, although beleaguered by the illusory ideologies of colonialism, Caliban remains true to Cover Length Cover Template his own culture and beliefs, living a symbiotic partnership with nature (personified as his mother Sycorax): Sycorax ma mere ! Serpent ! Pluie ! Eclairs ! Et je te retrouve partout : Dans l’?il de la mare qui me regarde, sans ciller, a travers les scirpes. Dans le geste de la racine tordue et son bond qui attend. Dans la nuit, la toute-voyante aveugle, la toute-flaireuse sans naseaux ! (26) Sycorax my mother! Serpent! Rain! Lightning! And I find you everywhere!
In the eye of the pond, which stares at Incident Action Plan: Module me, unblinking, through the Cover Letter Length Template rushes. In the gesture of the Property Release twisted root with coiled spring. In the blinded all-seeing night, the nostril-less all-smelling night! (20) 36 It is he, rather than Shakespeare’s poet-mage, who is the most effective of verbal artificers. (“The isle is full of noises” is, of course, one of the most beautiful and Cover Letter Letter, stirring of speeches in The Tempest .) 46 When reminded of 31 Best Video Cameras Images On Pinterest | Camcorder, being imprisoned in Cover Length Best Cover Template Cover Letter, the cloven pine, Ariel dreams of having metamorphosed into a (. ) Cesaire celebrates Caribbean and African ecology throughout.46 His poetic brilliance is borne along by For Elegant, ritual and the carnivalesque, communicating visceral humour as well as sadness. Noir picoreur de la savane. le quiscale arpente le jour nouveaux. dans son armure hautaine.
zip ! L’incisif colibri. au fond d’une corolle s’ejouit. fera-t-il fou, fera-t-il ivre. lyre rameutant nos delires. la Liberte ohe ! La Liberte ! Ramier halte dans ces bois. Errant des iles c’est ici le repos. Le miconia est pillage pur. du sang violet de la baie mure.
de sang de sang barbouille ton plumage. Dans le dos des jours fourbus. la Liberte ohe ! La Liberte ! (64-65) Black pilferer of the savannah, the grackle surveys the new day— humid and stirring— from its lofty citadel. Zip! The incisive humming-bird.
rejoices in the depths of a flower’s innermost whorl. Is he mad, is he drunk, the lyre gathering our wild desires: Liberty ohay liberty! Woodpigeon halts in Cover Letter Length Best Cover Letter Template Cover, these woods. Wanderer of the isles—here is repose. The miconia is utter spoils.
of violet blood of ripe berry. With blood, with blood smear your plumage. Upon the back of Incident Action Iap. Module exhausted days. Liberty ohay liberty! (43) 37 This song of Caliban’s resonates with Shakespeare’s Ariel’s “Where the bee sucks there suck I” (the humming-bird rejoicing in the flower’s innermost whorl) and exemplifies Cesaire’s creative refashioning of The Tempest into a Caribbean context. 47 See Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in (. ) 38 Cesaire did not generally write in creole but “marooned” himself from metropolitan French, refashioning a new voice in a manner congruent with Bill Ashcroft et al. ’s notion of Britain’s erstwhile Empire “writing back.”47 The maroons were runaway slaves. Cover Length Best Cover Letter Template Letter. By analogy, he sought to Design | Postermywall break the fetters of Letter Template Letter colonialist discourse. Cesaire punned that he would pluck the “marrons du feu,” literally plucking the sweet-chestnuts from the fire but also symbolically rising up against imperialist strictures.
Here the mystification and assumptions of the colonially projected Tempest are met head on and the Cv For Job Application colonial form is Letter Best Cover Cover Letter hybridised with the introduction of African and English languages and African and Caribbean ritual and rhythm. Make One Or Two-Sided. My translation sticks to Best Cover Template the letter of the 31 Best Images Cameras French script as faithfully as possible. Cover Best Letter Cover. Nevertheless, the actors playing Ariel and Caliban inflected their speech with British West Indian patois, significantly enriching the production with the music of different discourses. Historically, English has been more obviously permeable than metropolitan French, policed by its own Academy. (Cesaire himself was famously the brilliant scholarship boy from the Antilles who spoke an elegant formal French, even conjugating the imperfect subjunctive.) 39 Over the Home Landscape years, the late prophet of negritude was criticised by other black post-colonial writers (e.g.
Wole Soyinka) and the disciples of “ creolite ” for his allegiance to abstraction (some overarching African-ness) and for failing to recognise the authentic plurality of voices in Cover Length Cover Letter, the Caribbean. Cesaire wrote predominantly in classical French. Home Landscape Template | Mycreativeshop. Yet, absent thought creole might be from Une tempete , this play cherishes the Letter Letter Template Cover local just as it springs from a deep love of Beautiful Home Template | Mycreativeshop Africa, the Best Letter Letter faith and rock of the black diaspora. Furthermore, Cesaire’s negritude is grounded in One Or Postcards In Publisher - Publisher, a profound historical consciousness which identifies a common past of suffering experienced by the African diaspora worldwide at the hands of imperialists and slavers. Caliban the hero delivers a clarion call for justice and solidarity. The play is a twentieth-century masterpiece of Cover Letter Length Best Cover Letter Template Letter world theatre, a triumph that re-appropriates the Cv For | Osittk poetic force of Shakespeare, kicks down blinkered insularity and demands to be seen and heard. 1 Caliban . Length Best Cover. — Prospero you’re a great illusionist: / you know all about lies. / And you lied to Incident Action Module 11 Incident me so much, / lied about the world, lied about yourself, / that you ended up by imposing on me / an image of Letter Length Best Letter Template myself: / underdeveloped, in your words, / incompetent, / that’s how you forced me to see myself, / and Two-Sided - Publisher, I hate that image! And it is false! / But now I know you, you old cancer, / And I also know myself! (58).
Citations throughout are from Aime Cesaire, Une tempete , Paris, Seuil, 1969, and Cover Length Best Cover Letter Template Cover Letter, from my translation, Philip Crispin, A tempest , London, Oberon, 2000. Page numbers for Cameras On Pinterest Cameras, both follow in parentheses. 2 From Aime Cesaire, Cahier d’un retour au pays natal , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1956. 3 A tempest ( Une tempete) played from 21 September to 14 October, 1998. It was described by Professor Malcolm Bowie as “not simply a new reading of Shakespeare but an original play of astonishing power.” Malcolm Bowie, “Island Infamy” (review of Best Cover Letter Template Letter A tempest ), Times Literary Supplement , 9 October, 1998, p. 22. 4 I am indebted to Peter Hulme and Bill Sherman for the stage history in this paragraph. Their co-edited book “ The Tempest ” and its Travels , published by Reaktion Books in 2000, is a rich cultural study of The Tempest , exploring, among other concerns, its vitality in new contexts, its key significance in colonial and Job Application, post-colonial debates, and Cover Letter Length Cover Letter Template Letter, its problematising of the movement between the local and Customizable | Postermywall, the global. It includes two scenes from my translation and two photographs by Pau Ros from the London production, as well as an Letter Length Best Cover article by Lucy Rix: “Maintaining the State of Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”. 5 See Robert Eric Livingston, “Decolonizing the Theatre: Cesaire, Serreau and the Drama of 31 Best Video Cameras Cameras Negritude”, in J. Ellen Gainor, ed., Imperialism and Theatre: Essays on World Theatre, Drama and Performance ,London, 1995, p. 182-98.
6 See Alvina Ruprecht, “Staging Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete : Anti-Colonial Theatre in the Counter-Culture Continuum”, Essays in Theatre/Etudes theatrales , 15:1, 1996, p. 59?68, p. Cover Letter Template Cover. 62. 7 Of course, it is true that in The Tempest , Sycorax and Caliban also colonised the island and Job Application | Osittk, supplanted its original inhabitants, too. Evidently, Cesaire’s polemical adaptation provides a partial reading of the original script. His focus is on the (formerly) enslaved black diaspora. Intriguingly, however, in his droll re-working of Caliban’s encounter with Stephano and Cover Length Best Cover Cover Letter, Trinculo, the recalcitrant butler and Cv For Job Application | Osittk, jester still refer to Cover Length Best Cover Template Cover him as an Indian or, more often, a “nindian”. This word possesses a double resonance. Firstly, it recalls the One Or In Publisher - Publisher original inhabitants of the “New World”, vast numbers of whom were wiped out due to Template Cover Letter conquerors’ genocides, inhuman treatment or because their immune system was unable to protect them against Customizable Design Templates Event | Postermywall newly imported diseases.
In Cesaire’s play, Stephano and Trinculo still intend to display Caliban in a travelling fair as an exotic “freak” when back home. Secondly, “nindian” evokes West Indian, the collective name for anglophone Caribbean inhabitants, so called because Christopher Columbus had dubbed the Letter Cover Template Cover Letter indigenous people he found Indians, for he believed that he would be able to reach the Indies by sailing west. | Mycreativeshop. Since the period of slavery, of course, the majority of Cover Letter Length Best Cover “West Indians” are descended from the African diaspora. It is important to note that, with the Design Templates Event exception of the list of dramatis person? in which Caliban is Letter Cover identified as a savage slave, it is Trinculo who, in Act II Scene 2, categorically registers Caliban’s humanity, calling him an “islander”, and also how in England “would this monster make a man”. He and Stephano generally refer to One Or In Publisher - Publisher him in pejorative dehumanising terms (eg “mooncalf”), however. 8 Quoted in Cover Letter Length Best Cover Letter Template Cover Letter, Livingston, op. cit. , p. 192.
9 Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins, Post-Colonial Drama: Theory, Practice, Politics , London and New York, Routledge, 1996, p. Design | Postermywall. 15. Thomas Macaulay’s “Minute on Education” (1835) which argued for the importance of literature in producing Indians “English in taste, in Cover Cover Letter Cover Letter, opinions, and in intellect” was a foundational text in such epistemic colonisation. 10 Lucy Rix, “Maintaining the Cv For | Osittk State of Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”, in Peter Hulme and Bill Sherman, op. Cover Letter. cit. , p. 31 Best Video | Camcorder,. 236-249, p. Cover Letter Best Cover Letter. 239. Cv For | Osittk. Quotation from Legitime Defense taken from Lilyan Kesteloot, Black Writers in French , trans. Ellen Conroy Kennedy, Philadelphia, 1974. 11 In our production in Letter Letter Letter, London, we replaced Baudelaire with Miranda’s line: “O brave new world, that hath such creatures in it!” which always received a good laugh. 12 Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 3. 14 See Ibid. , p. 19-25, for a discussion of how Shakespeare was taught and regarded in the colonies. 15 Rob Nixon, “Caribbean and African Appropriations of The Tempest ”, Critical Inquiry 13 (1987), p. Templates For Elegant | Postermywall. 569.
16 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. Cover Length Best Letter Cover. , p. Release Of Liability Agreement. Photo Release. 30-31. 17 Paul Brown, “‘This Thing of Darkness I Acknowledge Mine’: The Tempest and the Discourse of Colonialism”, in Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield, Eds., Political Shakespeare: New Essays in Cultural Materialism , Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1985, p. 48-71, p. 48. 19 Although there had been Cambro-Norman-English colonising of Cover Letter Best Letter Cover Letter Ireland since the Home Landscape | Mycreativeshop twelfth century, this became concerted in the sixteenth century. Cover Letter Length Best Cover Letter Template Letter. The colonial experience in Ireland, along with the Bermuda pamphlets and the colony in Virginia, provided further topical inspiration for The Tempest . 20 Francis Barker and Peter Hulme, “‘Nymphs and Reapers Heavily Vanish’: The Discursive Con-texts of The Tempest ”, in Cameras Images | Camcorder, Cameras And, Jonathan Drakakis, Ed., Alternative Shakespeares , London and New York, Methuen, 1985, p. 191-205, p. 204. 21 Aime Cesaire, Discourse on Colonialism , Trans. Joan Pinkham, New York, Monthly Review Press, 2000, p. 32. 22 The Discourse on Colonialism compares the evils of imperialism with the evil of the Holocaust, the difference being that in Cover Letter Best Letter, the former case the evils went largely unchronicled and uncondemned. Caliban says at the climax of the play: “Te vomir.
Toi, tes pompes, tes ?uvres ! Ta blanche toxine !” (87) [“I’d vomit you up, all your pomp and designs! Your white poison!” (57)]. 23 Gonzalo’s idyll-manifesto chimes with the type of cliches trotted out during an Home Brochure | Mycreativeshop exhibition on “The Happy Antilles” held in Cover Letter Length Best Letter Template, Paris in | Postermywall, 1945 by the Ministry of Colonies. Poems included described Martinique as an enchanting “Paradis vegetaux”, a “Coffre a baisers” and a “Cher jardin des petits cadeaux”, a “Familiere boite a surprise”. Cited in Rix, op. cit. , p. Letter Length Best Letter Cover Letter. 306. 24 The phrase “noble savage” first appeared in Dryden’s play The Conquest of Granada (1672) although it may have been inspired by Agreement. Property Photo Photography, a 1609 travelogue about Canada by the French explorer Marc Lescarbot who wrote that the “savages are truly noble”, although this was because they, like French royalty, hunted game. Alexander Pope’s “Essay on Man” describes the Cover Best Template Cover Letter “poor Indian” living within nature and touched by grace. The travel accounts of such explorers as Louis Antoine de Bougainville and James Cook encouraged a belief in an Edenic culture residing within the South Seas. Cameras On Pinterest. See Ter Ellingson, The Myth of the Noble Savage , Berkeley, University of California Press, 2001. 25 In Une tempete , Prospero tells Miranda how his prophetic art had “discovered” the precise location of those lands which had been sought for centuries.
His brother Antonio and rival King Alonso of Naples conspire to depose him and steal his “empire a naitre” (20) [“unborn empire” (16)]. This fascinating addition to Cover Best Letter the plot calls to mind the great powers’ “scramble for Africa” in the nineteenth century and Release, other such contests for Best Letter, territorial domination. Job Application | Osittk. In response to Gonzalo’s “guano project”, Sebastian says: “Faut-il encore qu’il y ait des bras pour cultiver [les champs]” (40) [“But we’ll still need hands to cultivate [the fields] (29)”. Hands is a convenient, depersonalising euphemism for labour, not least slave labour. Letter Length Letter. Gonzalo’s “plantation” in The tempest leads inevitably to the thoughts of slave plantations—across the Caribbean, the American tropics (North, Central and South) and Africa where King Leopold’s rubber plantation in the Congo led to Joseph Conrad’s memorable phrase: “the heart of darkness”.
26 Cf the OED’s definition of pidgin: “any combination and Two-Sided Postcards - Publisher, distortion of two languages as a means of communication.” Caliban communicates his otherness. According to Letter Cover Letter Template Letter Alan Lawson and Customizable Design, Chris Tiffin: “‘Difference’, which in colonialist discourse connotes a remove from normative European practice, and hence functions as a marker of subordination, is for post-colonial analysis the correspondent marker of identity, voice, and Length Letter Template Cover Letter, hence empowerment.” Alan Lawson and Release Agreement. Photo Release, Chris Tiffin, “Conclusion: reading difference”, in C. Tiffin and A. Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality , London, Routledge, 1994, 230-235, p. Cover Template. 230. 27 Steve Almquist, “Not Quite the Gabbling of ‘A Thing Most Brutish’: Caliban’s Kiswahili in Release Photo Release, Aime Cesaire’s A tempest ”, Callaloo, vol. 29, Number 2, 2006, p. Letter Length. 587-607, p. 587-588. 28 Almquist warns that the word should not be understood in a monolithic way. Much of the western media demonised and sensationalized the Mau Mau as savage, primitive and anti-Christian, hence the Video Images On Pinterest | Camcorder, word for many whites raised a frisson of anxiety and fear. “ Uhuru threatened to demolish the common [white and western] representation of the childlike, faithful, and loyal African.” Ibid. , p. 587. In Robert Ruark’s popular 1962 novel Uhuru , the word evoked for whites a measure of Cover Letter Best Letter Template Letter loss—lost power over servants, lost lands, lost security, lost innocence. At the same time it identified Africans as bestial and depraved. “In a sense,” Almquist adds, “Ruark is recasting Shakespeare’s The Tempest and offering a twentieth-century version of the depraved slave in need of ‘civilizing’”. Ibid. , p. Templates For Elegant Event. 601. At the same time, there was a burgeoning attraction to the concept and linguistic power of Uhuru for those who might feel like modern-day Calibans themselves.
Julius Nyerere, the Tanzanian leader, and a great hero of African de-colonization, used the word. According to Steven Feierman, “Gender, Slavery and Cover Letter Cover Template Letter, Chiefship: Peasant Attempts to Beautiful Home Brochure Template | Mycreativeshop Create an Alternative Discourse”, in Letter Length Best Template Cover Letter, Peasant Intellectuals: Anthropology and History in Tanzania , Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1990, p. 31 Best Video On Pinterest And. 204-222, p. 212, cited by Letter Length Cover Cover Letter, Almquist, “When older people heard Nyerere talk about Uhuru , “freedom” or “independence”, they also knew Uhuru in their observed experience as the release from ???????????? Incident Iap. Module 11 Incident, utung’wa , “slavery” or “pawnship”, which in their thinking presupposed an Letter Length Best Letter Template entire system of descent-group rights in persons.” Almquist writes: “At the same time Uhuru would resonate as a symbolic slogan for ???????????? Iap. Module 11 Incident And, overcoming racial oppression worldwide, in Cover Best Letter Template Letter, East Africa it carried with it the literal sense of freedom from a system of Landscape Brochure | Mycreativeshop slavery.” Cesaire may or may not have been aware of this further resonance. Length Cover Template Letter. Almquist, Ibid. , p. Customizable Design For Elegant Event | Postermywall. 605. For a more expansive discussion of Uhuru , See Almquist, Ibid. , p. Letter Template Cover Letter. 598-601. 30 Almquist, op. cit. See p. 597.
31 “Freckled” refers to Caliban’s skin colour. Cesaire’s use of the notoriously racist abuse word “monkey” responds acutely to Home Landscape | Mycreativeshop such a derogatory description. 33 Cited in Robert P. Letter Length Template Cover Letter. Smith and Customizable Design For Elegant, Robert J. Hudson, “Evoking Caliban: Cesaire’s Response to Shakespeare”, CLA Journal, 35,4, 1992, p. 387-399, p. 394. 34 Lucy Rix, op. cit. , p. Best Cover Letter Cover. 237-238, discusses the drive towards self “whitening” as one of the most insidious obstacles to Incident Action Plan: Module And decolonization in Martinique and how mulattos with their peau chappes (escape skins) sought nothing but the ideal of assimilating into white French culture. The racial ideology, based on the association of the Cover Best Cover Template idea of Release Of Liability Agreement. freedom with resemblance, was deeply seated in not just the white but also within the mulatto and Best Cover Letter Template Cover Letter, black communities as well. 35 In his Course in General Linguistics , Ferdinand de Saussure (posthumous inspirer of Make Structuralism) conceives of language as composed of the overarching general structure, langue , and Cover Letter Length Best Template, localized, contextual utterances he calls parole . He provides the metaphor of the orchestra to elucidate his concept. As each musician warms up, there is a form of cacophony; only when the conductor conducts, is Customizable Design Event | Postermywall there symphonic music. So general communication can only come through langue as opposed to the specificities of parole ’s localized discourse. See Ferdinand de Saussure, Course in General Linguistics , Trans.
Roy Harris, La Salle, Illinois, Open Court, 1983. Letter Best Template Cover Letter. Yet Prospero’s logocentric view (in which he corresponds to the logos , both speech and reason) amounts to an absolutist insensitivity to cultural context. He rejects fluidity and, with blind ignorance and arrogance, seeks to impose his own cultural code. 36 Chris Tiffin and Release Of Liability Photography, Alan Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality , London, Routledge, 1994, p. 6. 37 Indeed, in Length Best Template Cover, an exciting addition to the original plot, the Home scientific Prospero sneers in recollecting his near-persecution at the hands of the Inquisition (“etres de nuit” (21) [“creatures of darkness” (17)]) who wished to try him over Letter Length Cover Letter, charges of necromancy and sorcery. Cesaire casts Gonzalo as a pious buffoon whose catechism lesson on the difference between an Customizable Design For Elegant act of contrition and an act of Best Cover Template Cover Letter attrition satirically evokes the Christian will to reconciliation and forgiveness so central to The Tempest . His later attempted exorcism of Caliban, which the Customizable Event latter meets with laughter, and then the handing him over to the “bras seculier” (86) [“secular arm” (56)], ie Prospero, to Cover Letter Length Best Cover do with as he will, chillingly calls to Video Images | Camcorder, mind the Cover Letter Best Letter Cover complicity of the Church in Customizable Templates Event | Postermywall, the ruthless execution of the colonial enterprise and the persecution of indigenous peoples in the guise of saving their souls (as recalled in the murals of Diego Rivera in Mexico City).
38 See the citation at the start of this article to see how this speech continues. 39 According to Cover Length Best Cover Letter Template Cover Michel Giraud, “Dialectics of Descent and Phenotypes in Racial Classification in Martinique”, in Richard D.E. Burton and Fred Reno, ed.s, French and West Indian: Martinique, Guadaloupe and Cv For, French Guiana Today, London, 1995, p. Cover Letter Cover Letter. 75-85, racism in Martinique was deeply internalized. 40 Gilbert and Tompkins, op. Design Templates For Elegant. cit. , p. Length Cover Letter. 12. 41 Helen Tiffin, “Post-colonial literatures and Video Cameras, counter-discourse”, in Kunapipi 9:3, 17-34, p. 17. Tiffin adjudges that, “Decolonization is process, not arrival.” 43 Bob Marley and the Wailers, Buffalo Soldier , 1980, on the posthumously released Confrontation LP, Tuff Gong/Island Records, 1983.
44 The Yoruba are a people of Letter Length Best Letter Template Cover western Nigeria and neighbouring regions. A syncretistic religion of Shango is Beautiful Home Landscape Brochure widespread across the Cover Caribbean and in Home Landscape Brochure Template | Mycreativeshop, Brazil. In La Tragedie du Roi Christophe , Henri Christophe, who wished to Length Letter Letter honour and restore the grandeur of his people, represents Shango. Like Caliban-X, he recognises how the slavers and colonialists robbed the people of their history and names of pride. Cv For. Aime Cesaire, La Tragedie du Roi Christophe , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1970. 45 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 32-33, for a reading of this scene which epitomises “the slave’s ability to counter his master’s power over representation”. “This counter-utopian moment critiques both the ritual contexts and the performance codes of The Tempest’s masque, substituting a ceremony that attests to the unconstrained vitality of Afro-Caribbean culture.” See Rix, op. cit. , p. Cover Letter Best Cover Letter Cover Letter. 240, where she writes of Cesaire’s appropriation of surrealism in his arsenal of Release cultural resistance. Surrealism “aimed to shock the Letter Length Best Letter prim bourgeoisie with a production of humorous, vulgar gestures that attempted to undermine the validity and One Or Two-Sided, authority of high-brow Western culture.” It is Cover Cover Template Letter also pertinent to point out here that Caliban-X categorically denies trying to rape Miranda, a reason given for Video Cameras Images On Pinterest | Camcorder,, his bondage in Shakespeare’s play. Rather he says to Prospero: “Dis-donc, vieux bouc, tu me pretes tes idees libidineuses” (27) [“Listen, old goat, you’ve foisted your own lustful cravings on me (21)].” In Shakespeare’s original, Caliban is cast as an unbridled wild man, the Length Best Cover Cover wild man being the Agreement. Property Release Photography very image of Cover Letter Best Cover Letter desire. 46 When reminded of being imprisoned in the cloven pine, Ariel dreams of having metamorphosed into 31 Best Video Cameras Images On Pinterest Cameras And a tree, Ovid-style. He dreams of both palms and ceiba trees (Caribbean) but also the baobab, home to the hornbill (Africa). 47 See Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Best Cover Letter Template, Practice in Cv For Job Application | Osittk, Post-Colonial Literatures , London, Routledge, 1989.
Some creole is spoken in The Tragedy of King Christophe . Op. cit. Philip Crispin , « A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete », Itineraires , 2010-4 | 2010, 137-161. Philip Crispin , « A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete », Itineraires [En ligne], 2010-4 | 2010, mis en ligne le 01 decembre 2010, consulte le 05 octobre 2017. URL : http://itineraires.revues.org/1746 ; DOI : 10.4000/itineraires.1746. University of Hull, England. « Banlieues » : entre imaginaires et experiences 2016-2 | 2017.
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Ecrivains communistes francais 2011-3 | 2011. Recits du corps au Maroc et au Japon 2011-2 | 2011. Le concept de memoire 2011-1 | 2011. Les Memoires, une question de genre ? 2010-4 | 2010. Modernites shakespeariennes 2010-3 | 2010. Medievalisme 2010-2 | 2010. Les blogs 2010-1 | 2010. Vies possibles, vies romanesques 2009-4 | 2009.
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