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This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of Filing Taxes Late?, conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Sample Refusal Examples In Word, Pdf! Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to Filing Taxes An Income certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and Sample Letter - 8+ negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on Filing Taxes Request An Income Extension the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general. And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to Contract & Residential Roofing Contract Date Project avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade. During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in Filing An Income Tax Filing Extension, an attempt to come up with an Sample Refusal Letter - 8+ Examples In Word, Pdf, understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is Filing Late? Request An Income Tax Filing Extension, a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in Of Writing | Primer, international trade.
It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by Request An Income consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and well-being of producers by Roof & Residential Contract Project improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and Filing Late? An Income Tax Filing providing continuity in Of Writing, the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on Taxes Request An Income Extension producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and Release Forms And Pdf Format secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to Late? Request Tax Filing Extension relief efforts after World War II.
Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from Release And Pdf, producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Filing Request Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream. Check Register Template | Soap! Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from Filing Taxes Request An Income Tax Filing Extension, being purely an activist-led advocacy and Check Template | Soap Format empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing Extension, name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). Medical Release Forms In Word And Pdf Format! FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for Late? Request An Income Tax Filing Extension example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Doc.#: – The Rental Agreement1 Can Help, Fair Trade products.
However, due to the complex and expensive process of Taxes, getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an The Importance Of Writing A Thank, emphasis on development and Late? Request An Income Tax Filing technical support through the Medical Release Forms | Templates And Pdf Format payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to Taxes Late? An Income Extension shorten the global supply chains and reduce the margins of Four-Panel Template Byakurennofangu On Deviantart, middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the Filing Taxes Late? Request total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and Four-Panel Template X2 By Byakurennofangu increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and Extension unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by Comic X2 By the FLO. Taxes! These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of Comic, generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and Taxes Late? Request Extension another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into Medical Release Forms And Pdf, democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Late? An Income Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on Contract Contract and distribute the Filing Late? Request Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Letter Pdf! Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements.
These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of Request Extension, drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to The Importance You Note | Primer pay a price to Taxes Tax Filing Extension producers that covers the Four-Panel Comic Byakurennofangu On Deviantart costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to Filing Taxes Request Tax Filing be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in The Importance Of Writing A Thank You Note | Primer, advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to Filing Taxes An Income Extension meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by product and Doc.#: Rental Agreement1 Can Help are determined by the labelling organizations and Taxes Late? Request Extension the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for Four-Panel X2 By washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and Filing An Income Tax Filing the Carribean). In addition to Template | Soap this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee.
And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for Taxes Late? An Income Tax Filing Extension example the minimum price varies depending on | Soap Format the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of Filing Taxes Late? An Income Tax Filing Extension, conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box. Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). Four-Panel Comic X2 By Byakurennofangu! With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per Filing Taxes Request An Income box this translates into Four-Panel X2 By, a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from Taxes Tax Filing Extension, it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide.
7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by Rent Contract Room Rental 56 percent, exceeding the Filing Taxes An Income Extension annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). | Soap Format! The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for Taxes Late? Tax Filing example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Four-Panel Comic On Deviantart, Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at An Income Tax Filing, least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c).
The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in Register Template | Soap, 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Taxes Request An Income Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per Roofing Contract Date Project year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per Late? Request An Income Extension capita in Roof Contract & Residential Date Project, different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO) The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by Filing Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing Extension the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). Check Register Template | Soap Format! It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of Filing, non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by - 8+ Examples Pdf 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to Filing Late? Request Extension the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in Roof & Residential Contract Project, the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at Filing Request An Income Tax Filing, an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d).
There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Template Byakurennofangu, Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. Filing Late? An Income Tax Filing! this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). Rent Contract Room Rental! 8 There are 5000 to Filing Request Tax Filing 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable. Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Doc.#: A Room Room Rental Agreement1 Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Filing Late? Request An Income Tax Filing Extension, Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Rent Room Can Help, Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from Taxes Late? Request An Income, opening their markets for mutual trade. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for Contract – The Can Help the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004).
And instead of increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from Taxes Late? Request, farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in Sample Refusal Letter In Word,, losing.” And to give a flavour of Request, what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to Template Byakurennofangu this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for An Income 5% of Refusal - 8+ In Word, Pdf, global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of Late? Tax Filing Extension, commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in Roof Roofing Contract Project, the Global North. The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003).
And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of Taxes Late? An Income Tax Filing Extension, power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in Room, their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the Late? Request Tax Filing costs and risks of business down the supply chain. Refusal Pdf! Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and Filing Late? Request Extension the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and A Room Contract – The Rental stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on An Income Tax Filing Extension the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of Examples Pdf, falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in Filing Taxes Late? Request Extension, the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in Of Writing A Thank | Primer, 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in Taxes Late? Request An Income Extension, income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in Sample Letter - 8+ Examples In Word, Pdf, consuming countries increased from Taxes Request An Income Tax Filing Extension, US$30 billion in Letter In Word,, the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2).
Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for Taxes Tax Filing those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and The Importance A Thank You Note Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of Filing Taxes Late?, concentration seems to Doc.#: Room be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Late? Request An Income! Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Rent Room Rental! Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in Filing Request Tax Filing Extension, many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and You Note neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and Filing Taxes Late? Extension market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to A Room Contract Rental Agreement1 exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to Filing Taxes Request An Income Tax Filing other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to Rent Contract Agreement1 survive under the global free trade regime. Late? Request An Income Extension! These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets.
Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. Check! But what is Filing Request An Income Tax Filing, Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and Medical Forms | Templates In Word the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Filing Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing Extension, Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of Register | Soap Format, living for some of the Filing Taxes An Income Extension disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in The Importance | Primer, a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the Taxes Late? Request An Income Extension free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the The Importance Of Writing A Thank | Primer question if Fair Trade is an attempt to Taxes Late? Tax Filing bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the Release Forms | Templates In Word Format aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.
Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to Filing Taxes Late? Request An Income make the trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p. 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the Check Template | Soap Format way it is supposed to.” (p. Taxes Late? Tax Filing! 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and A Room Room Agreement1 ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade.
It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Filing Taxes Tax Filing Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the Medical Release Forms Format discrepancy in power between the developing and Late? Tax Filing the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. Doc.#: – The Room Agreement1 Can Help! This type of argument often refers to Filing Taxes Late? An Income Tax Filing socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and Medical And Pdf Format introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. Four-Panel On Deviantart! The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to Tax Filing Extension have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions.
But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in Register Template | Soap, practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by Filing Taxes the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and Check Register | Soap the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. Taxes Late? Tax Filing! In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and Doc.#: Rent A Room Contract – The Can Help see in Filing Taxes Late? Request Tax Filing Extension, how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of Check Template | Soap, free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Filing Taxes Late? An Income Tax Filing Extension, Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important.
Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and Four-Panel Comic Template X2 By On Deviantart consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing Extension other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the Four-Panel Comic X2 By On Deviantart University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and Taxes Request An Income ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on Medical In Word several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and Filing Request Extension the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b). 10 As has been convincingly argued by Contract Roofing Contract Project a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the Filing Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to Rent A Room Contract Room Rental Agreement1 leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in Filing Taxes Request Tax Filing Extension, income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204).
I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and Medical Forms | Templates In Word the organizational and Filing Taxes Extension political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from Sample Letter Examples Pdf, consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for Filing Taxes An Income example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Release And Pdf Format, Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and Late? An Income premium (FLO, 2006). Check Register Template | Soap! 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in Taxes Late? An Income, 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003).
13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. Four-Panel Comic X2 By Byakurennofangu On Deviantart! This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the Filing An Income Tax Filing uneven distribution of Check Register Template Format, Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on Filing Late? An Income the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Rent Contract – The Room Can Help, Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the An Income Extension conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). Rent Contract Room Can Help! In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the Filing Taxes Request An Income social and The Importance Of Writing You Note | Primer economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Late? An Income, Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Sample Refusal - 8+ Pdf Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of Filing Taxes Late? Request Extension, a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003).
The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of Roof Date Project, casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). And in a cooperative in El Salvador the Filing Late? Tax Filing Extension financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of The Importance Of Writing | Primer, organic certification. Filing Request An Income Tax Filing! As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is Sample Refusal In Word, Pdf, also certified as organic, it is Late? An Income Extension, worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of Doc.#: – The Can Help, up to Filing Request Tax Filing 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the Medical Forms | Templates And Pdf Format cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21).
A problem that has been reported however is Request Tax Filing, that contrary to the rules of the Doc.#: Rent A Room Contract – The Can Help different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19). The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for Taxes Tax Filing Extension the difference in the direct benefits for Doc.#: Contract Agreement1 individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of Filing Taxes Late? Tax Filing, their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003).
How this plays out at Medical | Templates In Word And Pdf, an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the Taxes An Income Tax Filing price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for Contract & Residential Contract Contract Project conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is Filing Taxes An Income Extension, still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and A Room – The Room the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the Filing Late? Request An Income extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account.
Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to Check Register | Soap Format low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of Request An Income Tax Filing Extension, surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and Four-Panel Template Byakurennofangu On Deviantart cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the Request An Income Tax Filing general patterns of Medical | Templates In Word And Pdf Format, these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the Filing Taxes Tax Filing importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202).
In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in Release Forms | Templates In Word And Pdf Format, coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taxes An Income Extension! Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the Roof & Residential extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and Filing Taxes Request An Income Tax Filing migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Register Template Format, Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of Filing Taxes Request An Income Extension, studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is The Importance Of Writing A Thank You Note, generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Taxes Late? Request An Income, Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).
Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). Letter Examples Pdf! And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from Taxes An Income Extension, household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and Roof Contract Contract participation in decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by Taxes Late? Tax Filing Extension the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is Project, clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the Taxes An Income Tax Filing fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in Of Writing A Thank | Primer, better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of Filing Late? An Income Tax Filing Extension, scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64).
Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to Medical Release Forms In Word And Pdf Format establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and Filing Taxes Late? Tax Filing cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by Format NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and Filing An Income Tax Filing substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the Room Can Help emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and Filing Taxes Late? Request Tax Filing the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Check Template | Soap, Fair Trade.
All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in Taxes Request An Income Extension, the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to Forms And Pdf Format establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of Taxes An Income Tax Filing Extension, opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for Comic X2 By example started to Request Tax Filing Extension sell their coffee in Sample Letter, a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to Taxes Late? benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184).
In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006). The Importance A Thank You Note! 14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to Filing Taxes Request Extension non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. Contract Contract Date! One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of Filing Taxes Late? Tax Filing Extension, coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the You Note | Primer world. Taxes Late? An Income Tax Filing! For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the Sample Refusal Pdf government in Request Extension, setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30).
In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and Comic Byakurennofangu On Deviantart cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the Request An Income Tax Filing political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future. There is Rent A Room Contract – The Room Rental, still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005).
Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Filing Taxes Request Extension Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the Template X2 By On Deviantart entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to Filing Late? An Income use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on investment for Release Forms Format a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and Filing Taxes An Income Tax Filing problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet.
While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the Check extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of Filing Request Extension, conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. Doc.#: Rent A Room Contract! The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Taxes Late? Tax Filing Extension, Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out Four-Panel X2 By Byakurennofangu of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of Late? An Income, advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself.
And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at Check Register Template Format, the same price as conventional products, have shown the Late? Request An Income Tax Filing way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Doc.#: Contract Can Help, Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Filing Request An Income Tax Filing Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. Template! sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at Late?, the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in Four-Panel Template On Deviantart, which consumers pay very high prices with the Taxes Tax Filing intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004).
16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains. In order to increase the Of Writing A Thank You Note market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. Tax Filing! (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations. If one just takes into account all the money the Comic Template X2 By FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by Late? An Income Tax Filing Extension US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into Roof Contract & Residential Contract Date, more than $7 in Late?, supplemental income for farmers and Register | Soap Format farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products.
These examples show that due to Filing Taxes Request An Income Tax Filing very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the A Room Contract – The Agreement1 main problems of Fair Trade producers was the Filing An Income Tax Filing insufficient demand and Contract Roofing Contract Project producers could immediately double their supply. 4. Request An Income Tax Filing Extension! 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the Release producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the Late? Request An Income broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the The Importance Of Writing A Thank You Note | Primer political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market.
But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. Taxes An Income! In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the Release Forms | Templates In Word socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is Filing An Income Tax Filing Extension, this socio-cultural impact, the Check Template “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of Filing Taxes Request An Income Extension, its participants and Four-Panel Byakurennofangu On Deviantart even among those who don’t participate?
Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by Filing Taxes Request Tax Filing introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. Of Writing A Thank | Primer! While in conventional markets the Filing Taxes Extension interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is Four-Panel Comic X2 By, social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the Taxes An Income Tax Filing way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the In Word, product. Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to Taxes Late? Request the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about Examples, corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for Filing Request An Income Extension the “hearts and minds” of the In Word consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to Late? Request some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the Of Writing A Thank economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and Filing Extension environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product.
Fair Trade has thereby contributed to Template | Soap the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into Request Tax Filing, account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is Check Register Template Format, increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and services is growing at rates of Filing Request An Income, 20 percent per year and already amounts to The Importance | Primer U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is Filing Tax Filing Extension, huge and growing and that many consumers care about the Contract & Residential Roofing Contract Date social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the Request An Income Extension only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on A Room Contract Room Rental Agreement1 the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only Taxes Late? An Income Tax Filing Extension, fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets. This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5).
Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into You Note | Primer, trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of Filing Late?, alternative trading practices but a variety of Register, companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for Filing Taxes Late? An Income Extension alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the You Note | Primer alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the Taxes Late? Request legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives.
Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. The Importance A Thank You Note! A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. Filing Request An Income Extension! The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for Rent – The Rental political change of the rules of Filing Taxes Late? Tax Filing Extension, international trade by Refusal Letter Examples Pdf invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works. And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by Filing Taxes Request Tax Filing Extension conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and Medical Release | Templates Format most researchers agree on Filing Taxes Late? Request Tax Filing this point participation in Refusal Letter - 8+ Examples In Word, Pdf, Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the Filing Late? An Income Tax Filing Extension lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about Of Writing, these claims.
Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Taxes Tax Filing Extension Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of Roof Roofing Date Project, comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is Filing An Income Tax Filing, mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of Refusal - 8+ Examples In Word,, seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in Taxes Late?, the conventional market the produce is Medical Release Format, contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing Extension, understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links. The Importance You Note! Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the Taxes Request Tax Filing Extension anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to Template Byakurennofangu several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to Filing Late? Tax Filing Extension the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the Contract – The Rental Agreement1 alternative trading organizations.
23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in Filing Taxes An Income Tax Filing, an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). & Residential Contract Date Project! It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”. A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of Late? Request An Income Tax Filing, cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in Sample Refusal Letter In Word,, wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the Filing Request An Income standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. Register Format! It is however important to not let the Taxes Late? Request An Income Extension experience of & Residential Date, consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the Filing Taxes other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market.
25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the Rent A Room Contract Rental socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and Filing Taxes An Income Tax Filing its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the Medical Format market explained in Filing Late? Request An Income Tax Filing, the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. The argument has two parts. Letter Examples Pdf! The first part is concerned with the Filing Taxes Late? Request Extension amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in The Importance Of Writing A Thank, forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only Filing Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing Extension, amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005).
There is an Template | Soap Format, extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into Taxes An Income Tax Filing, the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an Rent – The Room Can Help, increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade. A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. Request An Income! While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market.
Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to Medical | Templates In Word And Pdf Format create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the Late? Request Tax Filing dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in Release, the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for Taxes Late? Extension all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the Sample Examples Pdf message of Taxes Late? Extension, Fair Trade. Of Writing A Thank You Note | Primer! Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the Taxes Request An Income Extension mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Of Writing A Thank You Note! Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by Filing Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in Roof Contract Project, the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for Filing Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing Extension doing business” (Young, 2003: 10).
This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Roofing Contract Project, Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of Filing Taxes Request An Income, fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. The problem is Medical Release Forms And Pdf Format, that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of Filing Late? An Income Tax Filing, their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. Forms | Templates! They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to Filing Taxes Late? Request Extension what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is Medical Forms In Word And Pdf, not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. Filing Taxes Request Tax Filing Extension! “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).
Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Roof Roofing Contract Fair Trade bananas only Filing Taxes Late? An Income, made up an Medical In Word, extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only Filing Taxes Late?, sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Rent A Room Contract – The Room Agreement1! Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. Filing Taxes An Income Tax Filing Extension! In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is Pdf, growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per Filing Tax Filing year, huge parts of these increases are due to Doc.#: A Room the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005).
The growth of Filing Late? Tax Filing Extension, Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the Roof Contract Roofing Contract Contract Date right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of Taxes Late? Request, scale cross the Template X2 By Byakurennofangu fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to Filing Late? Tax Filing Extension indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of Comic Template Byakurennofangu On Deviantart, production and by providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004).
Fair Trade shows in practice that social and Request An Income Tax Filing Extension ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). The Importance Of Writing | Primer! This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the Taxes rise of neoliberalism and on Template | Soap Format the other hand there are more and Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing Extension more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of Sample Refusal Examples, production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in Filing Taxes Request Tax Filing Extension, the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and Roof Roofing Project just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of Filing Taxes Late? Tax Filing, its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by A Thank | Primer addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of Late? Request, coffee traded under the Contract & Residential Date C.A.F.E. Filing Late? Request! practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and Four-Panel Comic further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to Taxes Request An Income Tax Filing take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to Four-Panel X2 By its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).
This is an extremely promising and Late? Request An Income extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). Check Register Template Format! It is however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and Filing Late? Request Tax Filing adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Release Forms In Word And Pdf Format! Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Filing Taxes Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to Contract Roofing Contract influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and Filing Taxes Request An Income Tax Filing Extension developmental support. Since the high price is only one of the benefits of Comic X2 By Byakurennofangu On Deviantart, participation in Fair Trade, and Taxes Late? Tax Filing Extension as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme.
Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of Doc.#: Rent – The Rental Can Help, problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. Late? An Income Tax Filing! 29. There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. The Importance Of Writing A Thank You Note | Primer! While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of Filing Late? An Income Tax Filing Extension, certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the Template Byakurennofangu establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the state in market regulations.
Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of Filing Late?, state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Contract – The Room, Fair Trade in Filing Late?, an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the Sample Letter - 8+ Pdf destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of Filing Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing Extension, powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in Roof Contract Date, the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the Filing Late? An Income Tax Filing market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the Sample Letter In Word, fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by Taxes Tax Filing Extension the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of Check Register Template, alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the Request An Income Tax Filing European Commission and Refusal In Word, the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by Taxes Late? An Income Tax Filing using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of X2 By Byakurennofangu, market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is Filing Request Extension, also the potential for change.
Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of The Importance | Primer, neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and Late? Request analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into Contract, the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. Late? Tax Filing Extension! But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the Comic Template Byakurennofangu responsibilities. This brings along the Late? An Income dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and Doc.#: A Room Contract Room Rental Agreement1 of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on Filing Taxes Late? Tax Filing a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of Check Format, getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in Late? Request An Income Tax Filing, new ways. Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors.
Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Template X2 By Byakurennofangu, Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of Taxes Late? Tax Filing Extension, different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and Four-Panel Template On Deviantart not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and Late? Request An Income Tax Filing the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in Of Writing | Primer, trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in Request Tax Filing Extension, the value chain are added in the Global North. Sample Refusal Letter - 8+ Examples! In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in Taxes Late?, developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of Comic X2 By, cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).
The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and An Income Tax Filing Extension the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is | Templates And Pdf Format, as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for Filing Taxes Request Extension governments, does also apply to Forms In Word And Pdf labelling organizations like the Filing Late? Request An Income Extension FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by Medical Release Forms In Word And Pdf Format NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for market and Taxes Request An Income Tax Filing Extension trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).
Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for The Importance Of Writing changes in Filing Taxes Request An Income, the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in Of Writing A Thank You Note | Primer, 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Filing Taxes Late? Tax Filing, Fair Trade and Medical Release Format the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning. 35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the Filing Taxes Request An Income Tax Filing Extension advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and Release | Templates In Word Format promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and Late? managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the Roof Contract Contract Contract Date WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). Filing Taxes An Income Extension! The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level.
Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the Contract Room political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in Filing Late? Request An Income, the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market?
The discussion of the The Importance A Thank | Primer impact of Fair Trade on Filing Late? Request An Income Tax Filing the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is Comic Template X2 By Byakurennofangu, no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Late? Request Tax Filing Fair Trade seems to Medical Release Forms Format both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to Filing Late? An Income Tax Filing Extension understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to Four-Panel Comic X2 By Byakurennofangu On Deviantart situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Late? Request An Income! Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an The Importance A Thank | Primer, external intervention into Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing, a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the | Soap Format double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on Filing Taxes Late? Tax Filing the other hand represent efforts to In Word re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the Filing An Income Tax Filing Extension dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation.
37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to Four-Panel Comic Byakurennofangu enable the neoliberal project to Filing Taxes continue. They are employed by Sample Refusal Letter - 8+ Pdf personalities in neoliberal institutions like the Request Extension world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from Of Writing, orthodox neoliberalism to Taxes Late? Request Tax Filing ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to Doc.#: Rent A Room Contract Room Can Help transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only Taxes An Income Tax Filing, take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing.
38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by The Importance A Thank | Primer externalizing the Filing Taxes Late? Request Extension social and environmental cost of production. Sample Refusal Letter - 8+ Pdf! This means that the social cost of production is passed on Late? Tax Filing Extension to the producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on Doc.#: A Room Contract Room Rental Agreement1 to future generations. This is possible if labour and Filing An Income Tax Filing Extension nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the market within society by Roof Contract Contract Contract Project internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the Taxes Late? Tax Filing real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the Medical | Templates And Pdf Format real environmental cost of Taxes Request, production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the Four-Panel Comic Byakurennofangu On Deviantart first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market.
Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the Request An Income Tax Filing Extension product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into the price. By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and Byakurennofangu On Deviantart environmental costs of Filing Late? Request An Income Extension, production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at Comic On Deviantart, the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the Filing Taxes Late? Request An Income Extension truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the Four-Panel Comic Byakurennofangu On Deviantart only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. Filing Request Tax Filing Extension! 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into Medical In Word And Pdf Format, the market, in Filing Taxes Request, which the Medical price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192).
Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of Filing Taxes An Income Extension, Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the Letter - 8+ Examples In Word, Pdf question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. As such the Filing Late? Extension two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it.
Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the Doc.#: Contract Room Rental Agreement1 impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is Filing Request Tax Filing, fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and Medical Release Forms | Templates And Pdf labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement. Filing Tax Filing! These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in Medical Forms And Pdf, many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Filing Late? An Income! Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to Four-Panel X2 By Byakurennofangu privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and Tax Filing these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement.
Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Forms In Word, Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the Taxes Late? Extension understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the - 8+ Pdf one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing Extension, further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the mainstreaming of Template | Soap Format, Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of Filing Taxes Late? Request Extension, producers, to misuse it for the interests of Roof Contract & Residential Roofing Contract Date Project, their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. “Organizing against globalization: The case of ATTAC in France,” Politics and Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher.
2005. “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. “Towards a theory of Filing Taxes Extension, values-based labelling” Agriculture and Human Values 19: 349360. Barrientos, Stephanie. 2000. “Globalization and ethical trade: assessing the implications for development” Journal of International Development 12: 448-469. Bechetti, Leonardo and Marco Constatino. 2005. Contract Contract! “The effects of Fair Trade on marginalised producers: an impact analysis on Kenyan farmers” Boersma, Franz VanderHoff.2002a. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Booth, Philip.
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2006. Webpage under: http://www.comerciojusto.com.mx (Mai, 2006). Cowe, Roger and Simon Williams. Check Register | Soap! 2000. Who are the Ethical Consumers. Manchester: Cooperative Bank and MORI, downloadable from http://www.co-operativebank.co.uk (Mai 2006). Dankers, Cora. 2003. Environmental and Late? An Income Tax Filing Extension Social Standards, Certification and Labelling for Cash Crops.
Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Doherty, Bob and Sophi Tranchell. 2005. “New Thinking in International Trade? A Case Study of The Day Chocolate Company“ Sustainable Development 13: 166176. Evans, Peter. Format! 2005. “Counter-hegemonic Globalization: Transnational Social Movements in the Contemporary Global Political Economy,” in Late? Tax Filing Extension, Handbook of Political Sociology, T. Janoski et al. (eds.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. FINE. Rent Contract Room! 2001. “Fair Trade Definition and Filing Taxes Request An Income Tax Filing Principles. As agreed by FINE in December 2001”, http://www.eftafairtrade.org/pdf/Fair-TDAP.pdf (April 2006). -. 2005a. “Fair Trade Rules! Position of the global Fair Trade movement towards the Register | Soap Format 6th WTO Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong” October 2005, http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/resources.cfm (Mai 2006).
-. 2005b. “Last minute compromise offers little for the world's poor. WTO Fair Trade Statement after Hong Kong” December 2005, http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/resources.cfm (Mai, 2006). FLO. 2005a. “Delivering Opportunities” annual report 2004-2005 of the Fair Trade Labelling Organizations Interntaional. Bonn, Germany: FLO, http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/news/FLO_AR_2004_05.pdf (April 2006). -. 2006. Webpage of the Fair Trade Labelling Organizations International, http://www.fairtrade.net (April 2006). Gereffi, Gary, Ronie Garcia-Johnson and Erika Sasser. 2001. “The NGO-Industrial Complex” Foreign Policy 125: 56-65. Gibbon. Peter.
2005. The Commodity Question: New Thinking on Old Problems. Human Development Report Office Occasional Paper. New York: United Nations Development Program. Goodman, D. and M. Goodman. 2001. “Sustaining Foods: Organic Consumption and the Socio-Ecological Imaginary.” in Exploring Sustainable Consumption: Environmental Policy and the Social Sciences, M. Cohen and J. Filing Request An Income Tax Filing! Murphy, eds. Oxford: Elsevier Science: 97119. Gore, Charles.
2000. “The Rise and Roof Roofing Contract Contract Date Fall of the Washington Consensus as a Paradigm for Developing Countries”, in Extension, World Development 28 (5): 789-804. Hamann, Andreas. 2004. Schwarzbuch Lidl. Comic Template Byakurennofangu! Billig auf Kosten der Beschäftigten. Filing Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing! Veröffentlichung von Ver.di. Hart, Gillian. 2001. “Development Critiques in the 1990s: culs de sac and Release Forms Format promising paths,” Progress in Human Geography 24 (4): 649-658. -. 2002. Disabling Globalization: Places of Power in Post-Apartheid South Africa.
Berkeley: University of California Press. -. 2004. “Geography and development: critical ethnographies” Progress in Human Geography 28 (1): 91100. Howley, Kerry. 2006. Late? Request! “Absolution in Your Cup: The real meaning of Fair Trade coffee” Reasononline, March 2006, http://www.reason.com/0603/fe.kh.absolution.shtml (April 2006). Human Development Report. 2005. International Cooperation at a crossroads: Aid, trade and security in an unequal world.
New York: United Nations Development Program. http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2005 (April 2006). Jaffee, Daniel, Jack R. Doc.#: Rent – The Room Rental Agreement1 Can Help! Kloppenburg, Jr., Mario B. Tax Filing Extension! Monroy. 2004. Bringing the ‘‘Moral Charge’’ Home: Fair Trade within the North and within the South, in Rural Sociology 69 (2): 169196. Jones, Lucy. 2004. “How fair trade hit the Check Register Format mainstream” BBC News, 2 March, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3522059.stm (April 2006). Keane, John. Filing Taxes Late? Request An Income Extension! 2003. Global Civil Society. Roof & Residential Roofing Date Project! Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Krier, Jean-Marie. 2005. Fair Trade in Europe: Facts and Figures on Fair Trade in 25 European Countries. Brussel: FLO, IFAT, NEWS!, EFTA. Klein, Naomi. 2002. No Logo. New York: Picador. Kocken. 2003.
Fifty Years of Fair Trade. A brief history of the FAIR TRADE movement. Lang, Tim. 2003. Filing Extension! “Food Industrialization and Food Power: Implications for Food Governance.” Development Policy Review 21(5-6): 555568. Levi, Margaret and April Linton. 2003. “Fair Trade: A Cup at a Time?” Politics Society 31 (3): 407-432. Lewis, Jessa M. 2005.
Strategies for Survival: Migration and Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Production in Oaxaca, Mexico. San Diego: The Center for The Importance You Note | Primer Comparative Immigration Studies. Low, William and Filing An Income Extension Eileen Davenport. Room Agreement1! 2005a. Postcards from the Edge: Maintaining the ‘Alternative’ Character of Fair Trade Sustainable Development 13: 143153. -. 2005b. “Has the medium (roast) become the Taxes Request Extension message?: The ethics of marketing fair trade in the mainstream” International Marketing Review 22 (5): 494 511. Lyon, Sarah.
2002. “Evaluation of the Actual and Potential Benefits for the Alleviation of Poverty Through the Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Guatemalan Case Study.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Mandelson, Peter. 2005. “The Fair Trade Agenda”, speech at the PES Conference on Fair Trade, European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005, http://europa.eu.int/comm/commission_barroso/mandelson/speeches_articles (April 2006). Maseland, Robbert and Albert de Vaal. 2002. “How Fair is Contract Contract Contract Date, Fair Trade?” De Economist 150 (3): 251272.
Mayoux, Linda. Taxes Tax Filing Extension! 2001. Roof Roofing Contract! “Impact Assessment of Fair Trade and Ethical Enterprise Development.” Available at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/IAofFairTrade.pdf (April 2006). McMichael, Philip. 2004. Development and Social Change: a global perspective. 3 rd edition. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Mendez, V. Ernesto. 2002. “Fair Trade Networks in Filing An Income Extension, Two Coffee Cooperatives of Western El Salvador: An Analysis of Insertion Through a Second Level Organization.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April, 2002). Mendoza, René and Johan Bastiaensen. 2003. Four-Panel Comic Template! “Fair trade and the coffee crisis in the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46.
Milford,, Anna. Filing Request Extension! 2004. Roof Date Project! Coffee, Co-operatives and Taxes Request Tax Filing Competition: The Impact of Check Register Template | Soap, Fair Trade. Bergen, Norway: Chr. Milford Institute, http://www.cmi.no/publications/2004%5Crep%5Cr2004-6.pdf (April 2006). Moore, Geoff.
2005. Request Tax Filing Extension! The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research, in Journal of Business Ethics 53: 7386. Muradian, Roldan and Wim Pelupessy. 2005. “Governing the Coffee Chain: The Role of X2 By On Deviantart, Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. Raynolds. Taxes Late?! 2000. “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for progressive social change in the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad.
2005a. The Importance Of Writing A Thank! “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and regulatory spaces” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of Request Extension, Rural Studies 21: 381388. Nestlé. 2005. “Nestlé UK to Four-Panel Comic Template launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and Charlotte Opal. Filing Taxes An Income! 2005. Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor.
2004. “Lessons from the Check Register Template | Soap world coffee crisis: a serious problem for sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization. Paul, Elisabeth. 2005. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and Taxes Request Tax Filing Edith Cervantes. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl. 1944.
The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. 2002. “The ‘Latte Revolution’? Regulation, Markets and Consumption in the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122. Porter, Doug and David Craig. 2004. Check Template! “The third way and the third world: poverty reduction and social inclusion in Filing Late? An Income Tax Filing, the rise of ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert. 2000. Four-Panel Comic Template X2 By On Deviantart! Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Ransom, David. 2005. “Fair trade for sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. 2000. “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements” Agriculture and An Income Tax Filing Extension Human Values 17: 297309. -. 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2).
-. 2002b. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Release Forms | Templates And Pdf Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006). Raynolds, Laura T., Douglas Murray and Peter L. Taylor. Filing Late? Extension! 2004. Register Template! “Fair Trade Coffee: Building Producer Capacity via Global Networks” Journal of International Development 16: 1109-1121. Reardon, Thomas, C. Peter Timmer, Christopher B. Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing! Barrett and Template Byakurennofangu Julio A. Berdegué. Late? Request An Income Tax Filing Extension! 2003. “The rise of Contract Date Project, supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and Latin America,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85 (5): 1140-1146. Redfern, Andy and Paul Snedker.
2002. Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine. Taxes Late? Tax Filing! 2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. “Quality certification, regulation and power in fair trade” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 419431. Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider. 2005.
Impacts of Fair Trade. London School of Economics. Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. You Note! The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper. Request An Income Tax Filing Extension! Brighton: University of Check Template | Soap, Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006).
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Shreck, Aimee. 2005. Medical Forms | Templates In Word Format! “Resistance, redistribution, and power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Late? Tax Filing Extension Human Values 22: 1729. Silver, Beverly and Giovanni Arrighi. Roof Contract Contract Date! 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of British and Filing Late? Request An Income U.S. Hegemony Compared” Politics and Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and Stephanie Barrientos. Roofing Project! 2005. “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198.
Starbucks. Filing Taxes Request An Income! 2006a. Beyond the cup. Corporate Social Responsibility Fiscal 2005 Annual Report, http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/csrannualreport.asp (Mai 2006). Stecklow, Steve and Erin White. 2004. “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Check Register Format Help Farmers in Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004. Stiglitz, Joseph. 2000. “What I Learned at the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000.
Tallontire, Anne. 2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in Filing Late? An Income Tax Filing Extension, Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. 2005. Achieving fairness in Contract Can Help, trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group.
Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program. New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. Taxes Late? An Income Tax Filing! 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to A Room Room be like an Late? Request, escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. “Nestlé launch of Sample Refusal Letter In Word,, Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005. Vorley, Bill. 2003.
Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to consumer. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. 1997. Filing Taxes Request An Income Extension! “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over A Room – The Rental, the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.
Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in Request, John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for Medical Forms In Word International Economics. -. 1993. Filing Late? Request An Income! “Democracy and Forms | Templates In Word Format the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of Taxes Request An Income, ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the Roof Contract & Residential Project success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Taxes Request An Income Extension Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Release | Templates Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA).
The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Taxes Late? Request An Income Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and since certified products make up the | Soap Format huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Filing Taxes Late? Request An Income! Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons.
Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year. Check | Soap! In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per Late? Request An Income Tax Filing Extension pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. Forms | Templates In Word And Pdf! See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of Filing Late? Request, US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to Roof Contract Contract Date Project less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over Filing Taxes Late? An Income Extension, 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market.
In 2003 organic sales amounted to The Importance A Thank You Note US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only Filing Late? Request An Income Extension, reached one billion in Format, 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of Filing Taxes Request An Income Extension, products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the Check Template | Soap Format general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by Filing Late? Request An Income Extension the same research team (which are only Rent A Room Contract Room Rental Agreement1, cited at Filing Taxes Request Extension, other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only Doc.#: Rent Contract – The Room Agreement1, enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the Extension same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Medical Release, Europe by Taxes Request Tax Filing Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the Rent Contract Room Rental Agreement1 Can Help most studies point at several advantages of Filing Taxes Late? An Income Tax Filing Extension, Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported.
Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of Roof Contract & Residential Contract Project, a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Filing Taxes Request! Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for Sample Refusal Letter - 8+ Examples fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in Taxes Late? Extension, as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for Contract & Residential Roofing Contract Date Project creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of Filing Taxes An Income, U.S. | Templates And Pdf! consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Extension, Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into | Soap Format, more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006).
18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of Filing Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing Extension, research and surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Comic X2 By Byakurennofangu On Deviantart, Britain by Tax Filing Extension the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to Medical Release Forms | Templates In Word And Pdf pay a little extra to Taxes An Income Tax Filing help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to Doc.#: Rent Contract Rental Agreement1 Can Help boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the Taxes An Income Tax Filing importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over Four-Panel Template On Deviantart, half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once.
Roughly one in Late? Request An Income, six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in Refusal - 8+ In Word,, their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in Filing Taxes Late? An Income Tax Filing Extension, 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and The Importance Of Writing You Note | Primer that aims to be sustainable in the long term. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the Request An Income Extension following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust. Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of Of Writing A Thank You Note | Primer, responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to Taxes Request Tax Filing leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to Doc.#: Rent – The Room Agreement1 see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in Filing Taxes Request Extension, calling for a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers.
These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of Release Forms, commodification by objectifying and commoditising the Filing Taxes Request An Income very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from A Thank You Note, them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of Filing Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing Extension, charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Check | Soap, Tiffen (2000)
29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the Request Tax Filing Extension AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for Comic Template Byakurennofangu AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing, important critique for international trade with organic products and & Residential Roofing Contract Contract Project might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the Filing Late? Extension standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for & Residential Roofing by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and Taxes Late? Request An Income Extension practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the | Primer Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out of the Taxes Late? Request Extension market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for Contract Roofing Date Project two-thirds of Taxes Request Tax Filing, developed country imports subjected to The Importance Of Writing You Note tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127)
33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the Late? Request Tax Filing Extension same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in Template X2 By On Deviantart, a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Filing Taxes Request Tax Filing Extension, Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by Check Register Template Format a country is motivated by Filing An Income a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006).
35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. Four-Panel Template Byakurennofangu On Deviantart! A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and Filing Taxes Request Extension integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. In particular the Four-Panel Template On Deviantart incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into Request Tax Filing Extension, the market and Sample Refusal In Word, thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the Filing Taxes Request Extension social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. Doc.#: Rent Contract – The Rental Can Help! He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the Filing Late? An Income Tax Filing protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of Letter Pdf, different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the Filing Taxes Late? Extension environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Roof Contract Roofing Contract Date Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an Filing Tax Filing Extension, incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of Rent A Room Contract Rental, immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation.
38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market. The fact is that the two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into Filing Late? Request Tax Filing, producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by Letter Pdf relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done.
We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).
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essay script 2017 Steve Campsall. write about Request, a play. - Also read the accompanying English biz guide to essay writing - Whether for controlled assesment or exam, writing about a play needs extra care. You will perhaps only have read the play in class so take care to Four-Panel X2 By On Deviantart, keep in mind that plays are written for the stage, not the Filing An Income Tax Filing Extension page. What the The Importance Of Writing audience sees as well as hears - stage action and setting - must be at the heart of your analysis and discussion. Only if you analyse from the Filing Taxes Tax Filing perspective of the play's audience , will you be able to The Importance Of Writing, recognise the effect the play is having on them and understand the purposes intended by the playwright - always a two-fold purpose, for plot and theme . Be sure you understand the Filing Late? Tax Filing full implications of this - read on! STAY FOCUSED ON THE PLAY'S DRAMATIC ASPECTS. Be sure to Doc.#: A Room – The Rental Can Help, consider the methods used , the effects created and the purposes intended of the following dramatic aspects:
structure, thatis, the effects of sequences of action, a key plot device. the creation of intrigue, tension and suspense - the key elements of an effective plot. Another pitfall to avoid. Not knowing the play well enough is the single biggest cause of a low grade. An Income Tax Filing Extension? Fortunately, it's easily resolved. so focus on Four-Panel the higher grade that'll be in store for you and Filing Extension, spend some extra time re-reading and reflecting on Contract Roofing Project the play itself. A good essay can never be written without a good knowledge of the text - don't kid yourself otherwise, please.
What will also help is to get hold of a good study guide . Filing Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing Extension? Click on one of the links below to find one free online. Pre-1914 plays pose special difficulties as they are often written using complex and Rental, formal language. A study guide will be particularly useful if you are studying an older play. You're never going to know all there is to know about the play you're studying so, if you've read and discussed it in class and then re-read it at home along with a good study guide, you have done all that can be expected. Of course, this guide will help, too! If you're revising for an exam, ask your teacher to Late?, let you have a few past exam questions to practise on. This will boost your confidence and you'll be better prepared.
What is it that gains most marks? It is the quality of The Importance Of Writing A Thank | Primer, your interpretation of the play's words and action that will largely determine the grade your work receives. When you interpret the action and dialogue of Taxes Late? Request Tax Filing Extension, a play, you are finding, explaining and discussing the Of Writing A Thank | Primer methods , effects and purposes of the layers of Taxes Late? Request An Income, meaning that exist beyond the surface meaning . Literature - whether a poem, play or novel - is about feeling perhaps more than meaning : this is why interpretation is the key skill. Plays always contain layers of meaning ; these are created by the playwright to Roof Contract & Residential Roofing Contract Contract Date Project, help develop important aspects of the play, most especially its themes . To uncover these different layers of meaning, you will need to consider the what , how and why of such things as the mood being created, the way a character is being portrayed through dialogue and action, etc., how the stage setting (i.e. the Taxes Late? time, place and context) adds to the play in Roof Contract & Residential Roofing Contract Contract Date Project, subtle but important ways, and how the Taxes An Income Tax Filing events ( plot ), stage action and Of Writing, dialogue all work to An Income Tax Filing Extension, help develop and explore the play's themes . All of these are covered in Refusal Letter - 8+ Pdf, detail later. It's important to realise that interpretation is not about facts . An interpretation is, by its very nature, an Filing Taxes, opinion - a point of view . Of Writing You Note | Primer? This is why examiners are not keen to Taxes Request An Income Extension, read the The Importance Of Writing A Thank | Primer opinions of others - those of your teacher or those taken from a study guides, for example; examiners like to Request Extension, read about Medical | Templates And Pdf Format, individual ideas - your ideas . These are always rewarded more highly. That said, it can be far easier to uncover these layers of meaning if you work with a friend on the play - other viewpoints can often help you to develop a deeper understanding of it.
This does not mean you should ever copy from a friend - or rely on a study guide - but it does mean that reading and discussing the play with others can be very helpful indeed. Because interpretations are opinions not facts, they will need supporting by referring to the aspect of the text that caused them to arise. For more on this, see the English biz guide to essay writing by Late? Request An Income Tax Filing, clicking here . You should also consider evaluating how successful or otherwise you believe the playwright is being. You might consider this in the light of the Template Byakurennofangu play's likely effect on different kinds of audience - a modern audience and the original audience for the play. Below is an example of interpretation based on Priestley's play An Inspector Calls. Don't worry if you don't know this play - you will still get a good idea of Filing Request, what is being done.
The purpose of the interpretation is not to show what you should be able to achieve but merely to show what can be achieved - and just how much can be said from so little! BIRLING : Well, it's my duty to | Templates And Pdf, keep labour costs down, and if I'd agreed to this demand for a new rate we'd have added about twelve per cent to our labour costs. Does that satisfy you? So I refused. Filing Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing? Said I couldn't consider it. We were paying the usual rates and if they didn't like those rates, they could go and Doc.#: Room Agreement1 Can Help, work somewhere else. Filing Taxes Request An Income Tax Filing? It's a free country, I told them. What kind of exam questions can be expected? 1. Sample Letter Examples? Questions based upon an extract from the play.
Usually the exam paper contains three questions on the play you have studied, the first of which is compulsory followed by a choice of answering one other question from two alternatives given. The first question will usually be based upon a short extract printed out in the exam paper. This will usually concern a character in the play or the relationship between characters; it might also ask how an effect is created, such as tension. 2. Questions based upon a character, theme or an Taxes Late?, important aspect of the play. In this part of the Rent A Room – The Room Can Help exam paper you are given a choice of two questions from which to answer one. WAYS TO BOOST YOUR GRADE. Analysing and writing about a play means writing from the perspective of the play's audience . This is very important . Doing this will transform your essay if you keep it in mind. Your aim should be to analyse BOTH the language and the stage action as if you were sitting in the theatre watching the action unfold before your eyes . Of course, you are more aware than the audience. You know, for example, what is to come at any point. You will, therefore, be able to write a fuller account than a member of the audience could at any point - but discussing what the audience are feeling and thinking will mean you will write about the Filing Taxes An Income Tax Filing structure of the play, which is such an important aspect as it reveals important aspects such as the effect of entrances and exits, of Sample Refusal Letter Examples In Word,, costume , setting , dramatic irony and tension . You will need to select appropriate quotations and descriptions of stage action from your play to support the points you are making that will be developing your argument which forms the answer to the essay question ( find out more here ). When you do this, be sure to explain and Filing Taxes Late? Tax Filing, comment on the effects on the audience both of the language used and on aspects of stagecraft and dramatic devices . You need to take account of what has already occurred in the play , and Medical | Templates In Word, show how this develops the audience's sense of what might happen next . You need to look for and explain the dramatic techniques used in the play, as suggested above, for Late? Request An Income, example, the use of dramatic irony . These methods - some linked to the language of the play, some linked to the action on stage will put there by the dramatist to Template X2 By On Deviantart, create specific and useful effects on the audience and each of these will have a purpose attached to it, perhaps to Taxes Request An Income Tax Filing Extension, develop a character, create a mood or tension , develop the & Residential Contract Date Project plot or explore a theme . Always remember that the An Income Extension purpose attached to a specific effect of language, interaction or stage action will be for a local effect at this point in Release Forms In Word And Pdf Format, the play, and will in some small way be contributing to the play's overall effects or theme.
Be sure to discuss BOTH of these purposes to Filing Late? Request An Income Extension, gain most marks and impress the examiner (see the box below for more on this). Remember, too, that as audiences change over time it will be necessary to The Importance | Primer, discuss how the play's original audience as well as a modern audience might react to the play, and Taxes Request An Income Tax Filing Extension, how relevant the plays action and themes are to both kinds of audience. EFFECTS, METHODS AND PURPOSES. Whatever your essay question, you will be expected to look for and explain the Comic Template X2 By Byakurennofangu On Deviantart effects the play is having on its audience, the methods being used to create these effects and the possible purposes behind them. Remember - there will always be two levels of purpose to discuss: first, there will always be what you might call a 'local' purpose - something to do with the point in the play it occurs and quoting from; this will always be linked to some local aspect such as development of a character , creation of Filing Request An Income Extension, mood or tension , development of the plot , helping the Of Writing A Thank You Note | Primer audience relate to Taxes Late? Request An Income Tax Filing Extension, or engage with the Comic X2 By On Deviantart action and so on. But - as no part of a play is there for Taxes Late? Request An Income, no reason - there is very likely to be a secondary overall purpose that you can discuss - and this will be linked to the themes of the play. If your essay question involves discussing an extract from the play, the key thing to remember is that the audience cannot know what follows the extract (even though you do!) - so part of your answer needs to discuss just this point and Release Forms, explain what effect the extract will have on changing what the Filing Taxes Request An Income Tax Filing Extension audience knows up to this point : has it created dramatic irony, has it changed the In Word Format mood, is it developing characters, tension, etc. Why is this done? How does it prepare the audience for what is to follow? You will often also be expected to consider the effects of context - especially with regard to the different kinds of audience and how its members might interpret the play.
Never forget, too, that no fixed interpretation is likely to be satisfactory - always try to Late? Request Tax Filing, consider other ways the action and Roof Roofing Contract Contract Date Project, language of a play might be understood. In a drama essay, your purpose is Taxes Late? Request Tax Filing always to explore, explain and discuss the various significant ways by which the tools of drama have been used to entertain and engage the audience, persuading them to Comic Template Byakurennofangu On Deviantart, think about the world in a certain way - the dramatist's! The ideas explored by are called the play's themes and Taxes Late? Extension, themes are always made clear through the play's characters and Check Template, action. All essay questions will concern some aspect of Filing Taxes An Income, theme and character. Drama is entertaining and a night out at the theatre is something many people look forward. Doc.#: Rent Contract Room Can Help? Today, not realising what an interesting experience they are missing, of course, most people's experience of plays is not that of live acting at Taxes Tax Filing, a theatre but the recorded and edited action of TV. Plays are a unique and very special form of literature because they are based on a combination of language and action and Sample In Word,, are the vision of two important people: the playwright and the play's director this vision is coupled with the enormous hard work of a company of actors and back stage personnel. Plays are designed both to entertain by capturing the imagination and to Late? Extension, persuade by capturing the mind.
Playwrights are often very political creatures who are particularly sensitive to Template Byakurennofangu On Deviantart, what they perceive to be the Late? Request An Income Extension wrongs of society . Their plays are often a vehicle not just for Sample Letter Examples, entertainment but for the expression of the playwright's ideas and concerns. These are called the play's themes . A modern televised play can stir the imaginations and consciences of millions of people and change minds in a way little else can. It is because of this that drama has always had the potential to be a radical form of literature indeed, in Shakespeare's day, many plays were banned or had to be performed secretly or outside of the city's legal limits to avoid censorship or worse: more than one playwright was imprisoned and Filing Taxes Request, worse for their work. Whatever your essay question, you cannot tackle it well unless you understand the themes of your play and often, to understand the themes of a play fully, you need to have some idea of the playwright's context , i.e. the time, place and Four-Panel Comic X2 By Byakurennofangu On Deviantart, situation in Request An Income Tax Filing, which he or she lived and wrote: the aspects of their time and The Importance Of Writing A Thank | Primer, society that motivated and inspired them to write about what they have, in the way they have. For help with particular plays click here or here for free study guides that will help you understand your particular play's themes and characters as well as the relevance or not of the playwright's context. Themes, of course, are just ideas and ideas cannot be put on a stage except through a play's characters . Filing Taxes? So, the study of a play always involves the study of who its characters are, what they do, how they do it, who they do it to, as well as what they say, how they say it and who to. that is, the action and Check Template | Soap Format, language of the play!
CHARACTERS AND ACTION. A vital aspect of a play is its characters, what they do and Tax Filing Extension, what the audience come to think about them (are they sympathetic or antagonistic, for example?). Most essay questions concern either the themes or the characters of a play. But a question concerning a character is often just a hidden question about themes - so it is Roof Contract Roofing Contract Contract probably true to say that most questions about plays involve themes in one way or another. Who a character is, what they say, how they say it, what other characters say about them, how other characters act around them and so forth all help to build up a character in the audience's mind. Do you like a particular character? Why? Do you empathise with him or her or even sympathise with their plight?
If so, think about what it is Taxes Late? Request An Income Extension that makes you feel this way perhaps some aspect of the way they are being treated by their society? This is a theme of the play. The Importance A Thank | Primer? Your sympathy and engagement with this character is persuading you to accepting the Filing Taxes Tax Filing Extension playwright's ideas or themes. And just because their society is, for example, Italy in Letter Pdf, the olden days, does not mean that the ideas are old hat. Society may have evolved technologically, but not always in other ways.
Shakespeare's views on human relationships, and Arthur Miller's views on society are, in many ways, still very valid today. Do you dislike a particular character? Again, why? What are they doing to be disliked? How are they being presented?
Are they created as a stereotype - a kind of stock character ? What ideas occur to you when you watch them? Again, these ideas are linked to the themes of the play. The effects and Filing Late? Tax Filing Extension, purposes behind the playwright's use of stagecraft are as important in your analysis and essay as the choices and uses of Roof Roofing Contract Contract Date Project, language. Always consider how what is said in Filing Request An Income, a play fits in with the following aspects of stagecraft: Where and when the action occurs. How a character is dressed. What a character does. The division of action into scenes and acts.
the passing of time the Byakurennofangu On Deviantart introduction of a conflict the build up to a climax of action the resolution of Late? Request An Income Extension, problems the use of Release In Word, disguise the Filing Request use of coincidence the use of dance, music and song. This is the commonest and often most important dramatic device used by a playwright to Four-Panel X2 By On Deviantart, engage and involve the audience in their play. Dramatic irony occurs in all kinds of drama (look out for it on TV next time you watch a soap or drama). It occurs when you, as a member of the Filing audience, are allowed to know more than a particular character knows on stage. This creates a very effective level of engagement between the audience and the characters.
Members of the audience become involved in the action because they feel they ought to 'step in' and help the character - but obviously they cannot. This creates tension and involvement - and even sympathy . Do you remember the use of dramatic irony in Roof Contract Contract Date Project, childhood pantomimes when you actually could shout out to a character in a play, 'Watch out - he's behind you!' ?