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Finally John comes along with the global or encompassing Gospel. The alternate explanation which doesn't contradict the first, is that each Gospel provides a one dimensional view of the life of Christ and that only by grouping them together is the four dimensional view fully appreciated. The children's Sunday school explanation normally places children in four corners of a room whilst some trick or act is performed in the middle: each child is then asked what happens and Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free, of course gives a different account. Under this theory Matthew is usually seen as the Gospel of the King. Mark is then represented as the Gospel of the perfect Servant. Luke becomes the Gospel of the Son of Man. This leaves John a natural slot as the Gospel of the Son of God. One of the most interesting biblical analogies I have seen for this four dimensional view of the Report Templates Pdf Formats world comes from the living creatures that are below the Thank You Letter Free Sample, Example throne  . It will be noted that the four views of Template - Powerpoint, these creatures are the lion, the Thank Free Sample, Example ox, the man and the eagle. It has been suggested that the lion is a kingly creature. The ox is a faithful and strong servant.
The face of the man clearly represents humanity and then perhaps the eagle represents One that truly is at home in Blank Airport Boarding Pass Template Vector Art | Getty Images the heavens. The second of these theories sounds extremely convincing; however when a believer considers it closely it means rather less than one might expect. Firstly we need to be very careful if we think of analogies such as eye witnesses at a car wreck or crime scene. A fundamental tenet of our faith is that the Bible is divinely inspired. The words written were the words supposed to be written. The Lord Himself stated that the Holy Spirit would bring everything to the memory of the disciples and Thank – 6+ Free Example, would teach them all the things they didn't know  . So there was no need to Blank Template Vector Getty have multiple accounts simply to make up for mistakes or imperfections in the record. Equally the writers were not restricted by what they personally saw. You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Example Format? Accounts such as the temptation and Jesus' prayer in Gethsemane were not experienced by By Real Id, Inc. | Comprehensive anyone yet are fully recorded. In fact two of the Gospel writers, Luke and Mark were not even apostles and we have no reason to believe that they would have seen all that happened.
This brings us to – 6+ Free Sample, Example conclude that the Gospel authors would have conversed and interacted with each other and with other apostles. So the Blank Airport Pass Vector Art | Getty Images four accounts are not there to cover gaps: they are there because that was the correct way to present the information. The other part of the theory is more reasonable. The Lord Himself is obviously a divine and infinite being; and Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Free, even in human form it is quite natural to assume that He could be written about endlessly and still have enough interesting information to form another volume  . Annual? However it is also true that all of scripture speaks of Christ  so it is Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Example not immediately clear why this particular aspect requires a quadruple repetition. The Gospel of Matthew is usually considered to Mom's - Month | Budget be the Thank You Letter Format Gospel to the Jews. However I believe that close inspection reveals that if anything Matthew can be seen as the Gospel to antagonize the Jews. Whilst there is Annual Template Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates no doubt that this Gospel is set against a very strong Judaist background there does not seem to be any attempt to smoothly transfer a Jew to Christianity.
On the contrary we will see that Matthew uses this Gospel to sideline Israel and to introduce the church. The very choice of author for the first gospel should sound warning bells in this age of culturally aware evangelism. Thank – 6+ Free Sample, Example Format? Whilst Matthew was a Jew he was also a tax collector. His role was to Budget Template Ppt Sample Templates take money from You Letter – 6+ Sample, Example, his own people and hand it to Rtenant By Real Id, Inc. Background the Roman overlords. He would have been considered as a traitor and a sinful outcast. It is somewhat ironic that Matthew records the Lord's words when he says that if a brother refuses to be reconciled to you then he should be treated as heathen and a tax collector  . If the author was not enough to sour the Jew to Matthew's gospel then the For Appreciation Free Sample, Format opening chapter would have been. It contains the genealogy of Christ, and How Long To Run A Test Knowledge, the other Hebrew kings for that matter. However it also contains the names of five women: something Jewish genealogies of the time didn't do.
Further the five chosen were all associated with some form of scandal. Tamar slept with her father in law. Rahab was a Canaanite harlot. Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Example? Ruth was a Moabite. Bathsheba was an adulteress. Mary, at least to external view, was an Business Plan Plans unmarried mum. Add to that two different mentions of the captivity, and Matthew's gospel is clearly showing that the Israeli royal line had features that a Pharisee of the time would find uncomfortable. Matthew's account though is not attempting to overthrow or ridicule Judaism. It shows clearly that Jesus was and You Letter – 6+ Free Sample,, is a Jew.
He was born to a Jewess. Of the sixty-six direct or indirect Old Testament quotes in Matthew forty-one come from the Lord himself  . Annual Budget Template Ppt Sample Templates? However the book is throwing a different light or angle upon what had gone previously. Thank You Letter For Appreciation Free Example Format? Even in Old Testament times God had been working in mysterious ways that a direct reading of 'The Law' would not anticipate. The episodes of Jesus' early life that Matthew chooses to select are also strange if you wish to view this as a Jewish gospel. Mathew picks a visit by Babylonian priests, the Business For Investors destruction of Free Example, Jewish children by an Edomite overlord and the flight to Israel's arch enemy Egypt. Luke records an angelic host, a visit from Jewish shepherds and the reception of the Lord in a Jewish temple whilst performing a Jewish ordinance by two Jewish worthies Simeon and Anna. It would appear that Matthew has gone out of his way to emphasize the A Test - Optimizely Knowledge place of Jesus on the world stage and not to restrict Him to a more localized role of You Letter Free Sample, Example Format, Jewish king. Matthew also records a number of instances where the Lord directly broadens his attention from Israel to the world at large. Along with Luke Matthew records the faith of the centurion and Blank Airport Boarding Template Vector Art |, notes that he had not found such in Israel  . Along with Mark he records the faith of the Canaanite woman who was prepared to take the of 'dog' in order to feed upon the crumbs underneath the masters table  . Uniquely among the Gospels Matthew introduces the church  . Again uniquely Matthew points out that Isaiah's prophecy states that the Messiah will declare justice to the Gentiles and that the Gentiles will trust in Him. He then closes his Gospel with the commission to make disciples of all nations  . – 6+ Sample, Example? Matthew of all the synoptic Gospels has chosen material to show that the 21 Best Mom's Gospel and the Messiah is Thank You Letter – 6+ Sample, Format available to everyone. Another key distinctive of Matthew's gospel is the teaching upon the kingdom.
This is usually divided into the announcement of the kingdom (Mat 4:17), the principles of the Airport Boarding Template Vector Art | Getty Images kingdom (Mat 5-7), the parables of the Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Example kingdom (Mat 13) and then the second coming of the king in Mat 24 and How Long To Run A Test - Optimizely, 25. However I believe that a glance at For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Format, these four passages shows that there is clearly an odd one out. The treatment of the Rtenant Id, Inc. | Comprehensive Background Screening kingdom given in Matthew 4-7 could easily been seen as a purely literal, physical description. Certainly it could be viewed as idealistic but the Messiah is easily capable of announcing ideal conditions. Matthew chapters 24 and 25 again appear to be capable of purely physical and literal interpretation. The only thing that is not immediately obvious is why the king would need to Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Free return, given Christ had announced the kingdom was here twenty chapters previously.
Matthew 13 is completely different however. The Lord is now talking in parables. It is the first time parables have been introduced in the New Testament and suddenly the 5 Status Templates - Excel Pdf Formats kingdom has gone from being a literal physical entity that people can prepare to be a part of to Thank You Letter Sample, a mystic thing that people understand by simile and metaphor. Of course some will claim that Matthew just grouped his material a particular way and all the To Run parables happened to land here. However I believe that this presentation is very deliberate and that it actually points to the entire purpose of Matthew. Whilst I am not really a fan of 'key verses' or 'key chapters' I believe that Matthew Chapter 12 is the crux or fulcrum of Matthew's Gospel and that it largely defines why the Gospel was written. You Letter – 6+ Free Sample, Format? It starts with the Pharisee's complaining of the disciples taking grain on the Sabbath. They then challenge him to heal a man on the Sabbath which he does. At this point multitudes follow Him and Matthew reminds us of Marketing Template Ppt Sample, Isaiah's prophecy and states this is a fulfillment of Thank You Letter Free, it. Then the Lord completely healed a demon possessed blind and mute. Report Pdf Formats? This was sufficiently miraculous that the You Letter – 6+ Sample, Example multitude began to recognize Jesus as the Messiah.
However, the Annual Marketing - Powerpoint Templates response of the Pharisees was to claim that this had been done through Satan. From this point forward the Lord's language subtly changes. In Mat 12:32 he talks of the unforgivable sin. Then in Mt 12:33 he talks about good trees and bad trees and the fruit they bring. I believe this statement reflects the decision that the natural olive tree branches were to be laid aside for the time being. In verse 39 the Lord states that the next sign they will receive is His resurrection. Verses 4142 are interesting because of their tense as well as their content. You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Sample,? The Lord states that these gentile cities will rise up against that generation of the Jews.
It would appear that they die has now been cast. By the end of chapter 12 the Rtenant By Real | Comprehensive Background Lord is even prepared to lay aside direct blood lineage in favor of the mystical kingdom (the church age) that he is about to introduce. So if Matthew's Gospel is Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Example Format not the Gospel to the Jews then what is it? I believe it is the bridge or gateway between Judaism and Christianity. At the time the Lord was born, and actually up until Matthew 12 Judaism was the only valid world religion. It was monotheistic to the True God. It had the scriptures and the promises. Judaism had a birth right to Blank Airport Template Art | Images the future. That could not simply be overturned without God being deemed capricious. In fact the Lord explicitly states that He hadn't come to You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, overturn what had come before  . So Matthew uses many OT references to demonstrate that the Lord came to Bistro - Month Of Meals | Budget fulfill the Old Testament; that the kingdom of God truly was at hand and that the Jews rejected it. The Gospel of Matthew is thus a comfort and a challenge to every believer.
It shows that God is a covenant keeping God. It shows that His promises are faithful and true. However it also shows that there comes a point when enough is enough and if the believers do not turn to Him in faith then He will move on. The Jews were laid aside but one day they will be restored. In the interim the Thank You Letter Free wild olive branches get to flourish; it is up to us to ensure we do so. The Gospel of Mark is the one book that clearly is a true evangelistic Gospel. Annual Marketing Template - Powerpoint Templates? The first verse clearly states that that is the intent of what follows and the rest of the book rushes past without pausing for – 6+ Free Sample, Example Format, breath. Plan? In the standard four fold division of the Gospels it is generally taken to For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Format be the Blank Airport Pass Getty Images Gospel to the Romans.
I aim to show it is the You Letter For Appreciation Free Example Format Gospel to the Romans and everyone else too  . A challenge facing an understanding of this gospel is to know what value it is providing. 21 Best Mom's Bistro - Month | Budget? About ninety percent of the material found in its verses is replicated in one of the other Gospels. It certainly has some tweaks and twists but it seems strange that the Spirit should have to produce another Gospel just to squeeze in less that a hundred verses. I believe an understanding of this question is the key to the Gospel itself. It also underpins my claim that Mark is the Gospel; at least amongst the synoptic gospels. The primary value of Mark lies not in the content but in the form of the Gospel. In the Thank You Letter For Appreciation Free Sample, Format same way that a study Bible is Marketing Ppt Sample useful to someone with a full set of commentaries, Mark's gospel contains the Thank You Letter For Appreciation Example 'need to know' information for someone set on the path of being saved. The extra value provided by Mark is 5 Status Report that the prcis is provided and endorsed by God Himself rather than being some 'how to evangelize' book constructed by You Letter For Appreciation Sample, Example the human intellect. Viewing Mark as the Gospel handbook the distinctive features become all the more interesting. Firstly the adverb euthus rendered immediately or anon occurs forty two times; more often than in the rest of the New Testament put together.
This is a stark reminder that now is the day of salvation  . Secondly Jesus appears fully formed and Bistro - Month Of Meals | Budget, mature nine verses in to the Gospel. There are no manger scenes or cute stories about baby Jesus. For the purposes of evangelism Jesus is a man. Incidentally, whilst in the process of counting verses the notion of repentance and remission of Thank You Letter – 6+ Free Sample, Example Format, sins occurs 5 verses earlier than Jesus in verse 4. The three remaining features are more a matter of weight and preference. Mark devotes six of Budget Template Templates, his sixteen chapters to the last week of the Lord's life. Free Sample, Format? Matthew devotes seven but from a Gospel that is almost twice as long. Airport Boarding Pass Template Getty Images? Clearly even a rapid representation of the Lord's life must not skimp on For Appreciation Format, the end of it. Our Lord came with the Boarding Vector purpose of dying  ; the whole Gospel hinges upon His sacrificial death and resurrection and therefore it should not be pushed to one side.
The teaching section of Mark is Thank You Letter Free Example relatively thin and covers the need for faith, humility, proper judgment and simplicity. In terms of social issues he really only 5 Status - Excel Pdf Formats tackles marriage and wealth. Mark was not presenting a social gospel, or even really a legal one. The bulk of the You Letter rest of Mark's material is then miracles. Healing after healing with control of weather and provisions intertwined. To me it is Template - Business Plans 3.0 interesting that the Gospel starts with the presumption of Format, guilt and then focuses almost exclusively upon the miraculous power and Marketing Budget Template Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, loving character of the Lord followed by his rejection, death and resurrection. Mark has urgency and Thank, focus and I believe a purpose in mind. To steep the mind of the reader in those things they need to know to decide for Christ. I fear that things other than provided by Mark may just be a distraction that actually gets in the way of a seeking soul.
The decision that Matthew is not to be viewed as an evangelistic Gospel takes close scrutiny and Mom's Bistro, careful, open minded consideration of the facts. Thank Example Format? Mark is able to describe his reason for writing in the opening verse; Luke with characteristic accuracy takes four. But as Luke has defined his purpose so methodically  it is a little surprising that people should assume the - Month Gospel of Luke to be anything other than what it very precisely claims. Luke starts by providing a setting. He is clearly writing after a number of others had already attempted to produce orderly accounts. This shows that he was not simply working from oral tradition or fragmentary anecdotes; at You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Format, least some documents of comprehensive style had been produced. Luke also details his subject: those things which are surely believed or fulfilled. He, and his predecessors, was focused upon Report Templates - Excel Pdf Formats, those things which were true.
Luke then goes on to qualify that those things that had been written were sourced from direct eyewitnesses and Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Example Format, those that served the word. These opening two verses at first sight render another Gospel useless; those things which are well sourced and attested have already been written down in Plan For Investors - Business an orderly fashion. In the third verse Luke declares why he was justified in Thank For Appreciation writing his gospel; because he now has perfect understanding  of all things from the very first. Unless we wish to lay the charge of conceit to By Real | Comprehensive Background Screening Luke we have to analyze why he thought his knowledge was perfect and others less so. It is particularly strange given that he has already acknowledged that the preceding accounts were accurate and handed down by apostles and eyewitnesses. You Letter For Appreciation Sample, Example? I believe the clue lies in Business Plan - Business John 14:26. You Letter For Appreciation Example Format? The Lord had told the disciples that He couldn't tell them everything during His life. That one would come that would teach them all things. A significant amount of that came from the epistles and specifically from Paul.
It is not at Business Plan - Business 3.0, all inconceivable that Luke was written shortly after the major theological epistles. Luke was probably sitting there next to the author of Romans when he became challenged to write an account of the Lord's life in Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Free Format the light of what had now been revealed. The Luke declares his target audience; a man named Theophilus. There is some debate as to 5 Status - Excel Pdf Formats whether Theophilus really existed or whether it was a code name for believers everywhere. I suspect it was a real person, but that cannot allow us to ignore the name that the person happened to Thank – 6+ Sample, Example have. Blank Boarding Pass Getty Images? The name was Theophilus which means friend or lover of God. You Letter For Appreciation – 6+? Just in case the subtlety of the name escapes one the precise Luke proceeds to point out that the By Real | Comprehensive things he was going to describe where things in which the target audience had already received instruction. Thank For Appreciation Sample, Example? The purpose of Report - Excel Pdf Formats, this narrative was to give an authoritative version of events so that they could be thoroughly known and Format, understood by the believing reader. I think it is clear that if the Pdf Formats book of Luke really is the 'Gospel to You Letter – 6+ Example the Greeks' then the Rtenant Background author of same hadn't been kept in Thank You Letter – 6+ Format the loop. As the Annual Marketing Budget Template Ppt Sample - Powerpoint authoritative fact-book for You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Example, new believers Luke's gospel shows a number of characteristics.
Firstly Luke is extremely precise in his historical, political and geographical details; Luke wanted his readers to - Month know his facts were historical facts that could be traced through secular history. The next obvious content feature is his focus upon the early life of Jesus. This is a complete hole in two Gospels and is given very different treatment in Matthew. Luke wants to provide the interested believer with information about the Lord they love. He also uses the same narratives to introduce five songs of Thank For Appreciation Free Example Format, praise which are songs that should resonate within the How Long To Run Base heart of any true Christian. As well as providing facts for the new believer Luke was clearly keen to show the believer how to think and act using the Lord as a role model.
Therefore we find Luke dealing often with attitudes; both the good and the bad of the people involved in narratives. You Letter – 6+ Free Sample,? In particular Luke seems to wish to re-align some of the attitudes towards women. Rtenant By Real Id, Inc. Background Screening? Luke would be aware of Gal 3:28; that there is Thank – 6+ Sample, Example Format neither male nor female in Christ Jesus. He thus refers to women over forty times, fractionally less than the other two synoptic gospels combined. Luke also stresses the ministry of the Holy Spirit and the prayer life of Templates - Excel, Christ. Knowing Romans 6-8 and possibly even Ephesians 6  Luke would be aware that the Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Free Christian life is primarily a spiritual battle and thus he aims to show from the Lord's life and action that prayer is vital and that power comes from the Spirit not self. The reason for the Gospel of John is stated in Jn 20:31 but these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in His name.
It would appear clear that John really is an 21 Best Bistro Of Meals evangelistic Gospel with the purpose of bringing eternal life. Whilst written over For Appreciation – 6+ Example, a generation later we would expect it to be similar to Mark. But it isn't similar to Mark; or any of the synoptic Gospels. About ninety percent of the Templates material in John is unique to John. It certainly bears the hallmarks of a conservative Gospel; it mentions sin more often that the other Gospels combined. But the astonishing thing is it never once mentions repentance  . In fact the Gospel of John places belief as the key to eternal life  independent of an act of repentance. I believe that if we take John's Gospel as a straightforward evangelistic Gospel then we have to accept an extremely liberal view of salvation. Returning to the key verse the direct implication is that if you believe Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God then you have eternal life. By this logic even demons have eternal life  an illogical viewpoint as emphasized by James  . I do believe that John is an evangelistic tool; however I don't believe it actually is a gospel at all in the biblical meaning of the word. It may be noted for example the John is the only 'gospel' not to For Appreciation Sample, Example use the word 'gospel'  . The purpose of John's Gospel is to reveal Christ.
Of course John would write the full Revelation of Christ a little later but here in John's gospel we see the events of Christ's life packaged up to show the Lord's nature and character. In style I think it is best characterized by the expression Let's take a step back and Blank Boarding Template Vector Art | Getty, look at this. John doesn't start with the Gospel like Mark, with the incarnation like Luke or with Israeli history like Matthew. He starts before Genesis 1 to explain that the incarnated Messiah was actually the creator of the universe. It is interesting too that John was chosen to write this. The simplest of the writers was picked to describe probably the most complex of the Gospels.
But I believe this is deliberate: the purpose of the book is to bring the reader as close as possible to understanding the God became man that walked upon the Earth and whose glory was beheld  . This book is to be experienced as much as read. The precision of Luke would have complicated needlessly and the speed of Mark would have spoiled the effect. A key feature of John is the seven specific I AM's and Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample,, of course the majestic, general I AM  where Christ flatly states that He is God. It is possible to see in this something of an Mom's Bistro - Month Of Meals | Budget apologetic feel. Both the Thank You Letter For Appreciation Example Format manhood and the deity of Christ have come under attack by this point in the church's history and it is not unlikely that John would want to tackle that. However I don't think John placed these items for theological precision. I suspect he simply believed that to know Christ more fully then your mind had to be expanded to encompass His deity and the seven different ramifications of that which are given. It is true too that the seven I AM's have global reach.
Jesus is presented as the light of the world not just of Israel. Another often noted feature of the 5 Status Report - Excel fourth gospel is the You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Example Format amount of it that is a recording of the Lord speaking; either to individuals or in the form of a monologue. For people with red letter Bibles John is very much the reddest book to How Long A Test Knowledge Base be found. This really serves to purposes. Firstly it allows John to convey a lot of theology and theory in a very accurate and natural way.
Secondly it brings the reader even closer to Christ as one can imagine the words being spoken to oneself far more readily and reasonably than one can envisage participating in a scene. For the believers these are verities that can encourage and exalt; for the non-believer they are challenges to be accepted or ignored. Whilst I consider this explanation of the purpose of John's Gospel is acceptable it doesn't fully explain why John would present a repentance free Gospel. Thank You Letter For Appreciation Free? The solution, I believe, is to view John as a wrapper to the Gospel that is really presented in Budget Template Templates Mark. Mark pretty much cuts to the chase and presents a pathway to salvation but he doesn't provide answers to the enquiring rational mind that doubts even some of the precepts of Christianity.
Most importantly Mark presents what Christ did for the people He walked amongst and what He did for Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Example Format, us. John presents who Christ was. We should expect that His nature and character will be winsome and attractive and as such can be used to draw people towards a consideration of the Gospel. Once they are at the point of believing in Jesus they can follow the lead of the Philippian Jailer and ask what they can do to By Real | Comprehensive be saved  . When considering the Free Sample, importance of the book of Acts it is Bistro - Month Of Meals | Budget necessary to Thank Free Sample, Format separate out the importance that the events occurred from the importance that we should have a record of them. It is significant that Acts was written by Luke. It wasn't Matthew annotating a huge dispensational shift of time.
It wasn't Mark defining what we need to be saved. And it wasn't John bringing us to a closer relationship view of Jesus Christ and bolstering our beliefs. It was the enlightened Luke with his desire to ensure the believer is fully and accurately informed. I believe part of the reason that Acts is informative to the Christian is that it narrates the initiation of many of the features of the church today. Acts narrates the creation of the church itself, the move into Samaritan and then Gentile outreach and then ultimately the missionary drive that caused the Gospel to penetrate Europe.
Acts also shows how deacons and elders came about and shows the How Long To Run A Test Knowledge New Testament pattern of church government. Persecution and martyrdom are also shown as a permanent reminder that true Christianity has a price. Within Acts, as within the Thank Example Gospel of Luke, Luke is keen to draw out those features that will edify and encourage the Business Plan For Investors - Business Plans saint - specifically prayer and the Holy Spirit. Throughout Acts we see Christians at the heights of achievement and in depths of Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Format, persecution, in conflict and in harmony. To Run A Test - Optimizely Knowledge Base? Yet throughout the same narrative we see the Holy Spirit strengthening, comforting, empowering and guiding. The two actions are entwined in the book as they should be in the believers' life. The third strand  is You Letter For Appreciation Free Sample, Example Format prayer. We see individual and corporate prayer working as the powerhouse that causes miracles to happen. However I believe the By Real Background Screening true value of Acts is best apprehended by You Letter Example Format reading books other than Acts.
Even a book on the development of the New Testament quickly degenerates into 'tradition has it', 'an early tradition states' or 'according to some church fathers' for matters even shortly after the book of Acts. The reality is that without a divinely authoritative account of How Long To Run Base, history we are left guessing and sometimes frustrated about what happened in Thank You Letter Sample, Example the relatively early church. Acts ensures that at least the very early church, up to around 60AD is thoroughly documented. This is important not just to satisfy our curiosity and to provide a grounding for the church but also because it provides a basis for the context for Blank Getty, much of the New Testament that we have. As an Thank You Letter For Appreciation Free Sample, example of the latter point I would like to briefly consider the dating of the three synoptic gospels with a view to Rtenant Id, Inc. Screening a gentle attempt at solving the synoptic problem  . Thank Free Sample,? It is easiest to start by dating Acts. The narrative finishes during Paul's two year internment in Rome and Mom's Of Meals | #monthofmeals, thus it must have been written then at Thank For Appreciation Free Example, the earliest. Given nothing else is detailed and significant events happened in the mid-60s  it is reasonable to assume it was finished during that internment which places in around 58-60AD. Luke's gospel was clearly written before Acts, it was would have required a significant amount of research which could have occurred during Paul's two years in Caesarea 56-58AD  . By this time he would have had access to 21 Best Mom's Bistro - Month | #monthofmeals Romans, 12 Corinthians, 12 Thessalonians, Galatians.
It is possible the Thank Free Format gospel was being written alongside Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians and Philemon sometime around 60AD. Mark and Matthew are notoriously difficult to date and my attempt is no more than speculation. However we do know that Mark had left the first  missionary journey and was still in disgrace at the start of the Rtenant second  (49AD). We also know that by the writing of 2 Timothy (64-67AD) he was back in Thank For Appreciation Sample, Example Format Paul's favor. I can see two possibilities for the construct of Mark.
One would be early fifties; Mark had visited Jerusalem, he was fresh from the mission field without direct apostolic support. It is quite possible that this had spurred him towards writing his gospel. The other possibility goes to the mid sixties. Mark in Rome with Paul and Peter the two great evangelists of the apostolic era both facing imminent martyrdom. Mark may easily have undertaken to Blank Pass Template Vector Art | Getty write a gospel under their guidance to carry the baton as it were once the two men were called home. Of the two early church traditions would point to the mid sixties. Matthew is even harder to date purely from scripture. He appears once in the thirteenth verse of the first chapter of Acts and then disappears from Sample, Example, sight.
Luke doesn't tell us any more and thus we can be relatively sure we don't need to | Comprehensive know. We do however know rather more about the pattern by which the church spread. Thank You Letter For Appreciation Sample, Example Format? Essentially the church was in Jerusalem until Acts 8:4 when persecution drove it to How Long - Optimizely Knowledge Base Samaria. The third stage is worldwide mission commenced with the Thank For Appreciation Free Format first missionary journey in Acts 13, around 47AD. Whilst it is not noted as a stage I believe Acts 18:6 is Budget Template Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates another turning point; from – 6+ Sample, Example Format, then on Paul was going to preach to the gentiles primarily  . This was towards the tail of the second missionary journey about 52AD. Whether you believe Matthew was the Gospel to the Jews or a book narrating the shift away from a Jewish focus it doesn't make much sense to me to have it written after the shift has taken place. I therefore think it has to be before 52AD and probably after Acts 8. I would therefore go with middle to late forties. With reference to the synoptic problem this roughly corresponds to - Powerpoint the Two Gospel (or Griesbach) Hypothesis. This paper has looked at the traditional explanations for having four Gospels. The 'four different viewpoints' was partially accepted as a contributory reason but also rejected as a primary driving reason for the multiplicity of Gospels. The 'four different target audiences' theory was then described but then rejected as being largely untrue for two Gospels and blatantly false for two.
In place of this theory was a suggestion that Matthew was written to document and You Letter Sample, Format, justify the To Run - Optimizely Base transfer from For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Example, Christianity to Judaism. Rtenant Id, Inc. | Comprehensive? Mark is a true evangelistic Gospel containing all that is needful to be saved. Luke is then a primer for new believers giving an Thank You Letter For Appreciation Free Example authoritative overview of the facts of the Lord's life. John is then the book designed to give people a close look at Christ. To the believer this is a bolster to faith; to the unsaved it is a motivation to consider the gospel.
Finally Acts is the Airport Boarding Pass Vector Art | Images detailed narrative that shows us how the church and its traditions came about and provides the background for the rest of the New Testament. Together this New Testament Pentateuch form the basis of all that is to follow. Rom 9:4 Eze 1:10,Rev 4:7 John 14:26 John 21:25  We are actually told from Moses onwards speaks of Christ. Lu 24:27,44 Mat 18:17  LaHaye, Tim Introduction to Thank You Letter For Appreciation Sample, Format Matthew, Prophecy Study Bible Mat 8:10 Mat 15:28 Mat 16:18,18:17 Mat 28:19 Mat 5:17  It is interesting to note that the so-called Gospel to the Romans omits the faith of the centurion; which Matthew and Luke both include! 2Co 6:2 Heb 2:9  Robertson gives an excellent walk though of the Greek of the opening four verses of Luke. The opening verse alone contains 3 words unique in the NT but relatively common in other Greek medical literature.  Per Robertson the Greek literally means to trace the course of all things with your mind  This one is debatable, it depends upon the precise time of the writing of Luke. Some of the date issues are covered in the section upon Acts.  Or even repent  Eg John 3:16,John 5:24 Mt 8:29,Mr 5:7 James 2:19  In fact it is interesting to Rtenant | Comprehensive Background Screening study the use of the word 'gospel' in Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Example the New Testament. 5 Status - Excel Pdf Formats? In Matthew and Luke the gospel is described as something the Thank You Letter Lord is preaching or that will be preached.
Mark of 5 Status Report Templates Pdf Formats, course declares itself to be a gospel. I don't think John is focused on the Gospel at all. John 1:14 is one of those awe inspiring verses that for For Appreciation Free Sample, Example Format, me is a better basis for the Gospel of John than Jn 20:21 which is commonly chosen. John 8:58 cf Exodus 3:14 Acts 16:30 Ec 4:12  The synoptic problem is document credibly here: http://www.mindspring.com/ scarlson/synopt/  Burning of Rome 64AD, Paul's Second Imprisonment 64-67AD, Jewish rebellion 66AD, fall of Marketing Template Templates, Jerusalem 70AD.  Acts 23-25 Acts 13:13 Acts 15:38  Until this point he had always started by Thank For Appreciation Free Example Format visiting the Blank Template Vector Art | Getty Images synagogues.
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9 Highly Effective Habits of Great Technical Resume Writers. Estimated reading time: 6 mins. What makes a great resume – one which you can’t put down? A great resume writer, that’s what. Through my years of IT management and Thank You Letter For Appreciation Free Sample, Example recruiting IT professionals, I’ve seen countless resumes (in the 1,000s), so what makes me keep on reading some and put the rest aside for later reading?
To compliment my recent focus on interview preparation, personality and performance reviews I now lead us towards the art (or perhaps science) of writing resumes. Your resume is your brochure – it’s a document which is your personal sales tool to Id, Inc. | Comprehensive potential employers. There are good resumes, and Thank You Letter – 6+ Sample, Example there are bad ones! Here are a list of highly effective habits I’ve found that the 5 Status - Excel, greatest of resume writers exhibit: 1) A great resume writer tells their readers what they achieved, not just what they did. This is so important. Thank You Letter – 6+ Free Example? So many resume writers make the say what they did and ignore the impact they had in terms of achievements and results. Pass Template Vector Art |? Employers want to – 6+ Free see the cause-and-effect ; you’re the cause, what was your effect? So great resume writers tell what their contribution achieved when performing the By Real | Comprehensive, role, project or task, e.g. “ I took responsibility for this project and by Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Format applying my DotNet skills I saved over 500 man-hours across the team “. Note the use of a number – 500. Great resume writers quantify their achievements if possible.
Employers like to Report - Excel Pdf Formats see the numbers! 2) Great technical resume writers are written for transposing into databases. The reality of the recruitment industry is that your resume isn’t a document that stays intact. It is rare, nowadays, for your resume as you wrote it to go straight to employers. Thank You Letter For Appreciation Example Format? Recruitment agencies are the brokers that sort and filter resumes to save their clients time. - Optimizely? So great resume writers craft their work in Thank For Appreciation Free Sample, Format order to help agencies re-key the information in the document. The document is written and submitted so the text can be cutpaste into Blank Pass Template Getty Images, the standard forms of the agencies. This means they avoid adding loads of formatting, using textboxes, placing information in the margins, using small fonts and any graphics.
3) The best technical resume writers link their experiences and achievements throughout their career. Many people, including myself, have had a variety of jobs in You Letter For Appreciation Free Sample, Example Format their careers that don’t follow a traditional career path through promotion. Unless you take care, your resume can look like you’re jumping around the IT industry, meandering your way through without building core expertise. Great resume writers understand this so they find a common thread, or threads, through their career and emphasize it. So if you fit this profile then look for 21 Best Bistro, achievements or results that show consistency, for example, in the way you approached the problem, managed stakeholders, or lead people. Like the best resume writers, it’s always best to show that you continue to build on your strengths throughout your career. 4) Great resume writers help readers to assess levels of expertise and Thank You Letter Free experience. This is a tip I’ve learned from reading the best resumes. Often, the expertise and experience of the author is embedded within the text of the document and it isn’t graded, so I frequently struggled to Report Pdf Formats grasp exactly how much of an expert the Thank For Appreciation Sample, Example Format, author had in specific technologies and practices, as well as the depth of experience. Bistro - Month | #monthofmeals | Budget? The occasions I didn’t struggle is when the author showed their skills and experience in a matrix, ranked from high to low.
This allowed me to scan the list quickly to aid reading prioritization. 5) I’ve found that great resume writers compose different versions, and offer them all to employment agencies. It’s fairly common for people to have different versions of their resume, but it is less common for authors to offer all versions to Thank Free Sample, Format agencies. The greatest resume writers get into the habit of maintaining several versions so that agencies can select the best format and level of Rtenant By Real | Comprehensive Background Screening detail for You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Format, their own requirements. Versions don’t just have to Id, Inc. Background Screening differ on the level of Sample, Format detail – they can differ on A Test - Optimizely Base the emphasis. For example, you could offer an agency a resume which has technical focus, or perhaps a management focus, or even a project focus.
I’ve even known people to provide separate resumes with a leader focus and You Letter – 6+ Free Sample, Format a follower focus. ‘Spin’ the content against what you’re focusing on. 6) Great resume writers write concisely and clearly. Maybe a no-brainer? Nevertheless the Template - Business Plans, most effective resumes are kept short and Thank Example the text is clear and uncluttered without unnecessary words. I think the best resumes are kept under 3 pages. Any more and I put it to the bottom of the pile as it requires too much work. I wrote some time ago about avoiding using over-compicated language . You must remember that your employer might be intelligent and familiar with industry terms and jargon, but there is a strong chance that there is Airport Boarding Template Vector Getty Images, a temp in the recruitment agency that doesn’t, and your words are screened out or put into You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Format, the wrong context! 7) Great resume writers have an angle of Blank Airport Vector Images personal intrigue. How much personal information (and stuff about Thank – 6+ Free Sample, hobbies and interests) to put into a resume has been debated for decades.
You’ll find inconsistent advice across much of Boarding Vector Art | Images what is described as resume ‘best-practice’. My observation of the most effective technical resume writers is it’s not how much information is provided, but how interesting or intriguing the Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Free Example, information is. What about personal information? Most agencies who reformat your resume strip this out, but my advice is to add in Vector Art | Getty Images the detail you think is For Appreciation Sample, Example, relevant. What’s relevant? Well despite contemporary wisdom, I think it is important to add your age, gender and Blank Pass Template Vector race. Will this prejudice you? No, it should not. In fact this information gives potential employers and interviewers a picture of you to build in Thank – 6+ Sample, their heads – much closer to Templates - Excel Pdf Formats reality.
Visualization is a powerful tactic in helping you stand out For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, from the crowd. On that note, including a photo is also a neat trick. 21 Best Mom's Of Meals | Budget? It’s up to the agencies if they choose to include this personal information – but at least it’s available to Thank – 6+ Sample, Format them. Get this – I reckon that out of all the resumes I have ever seen, 80% told me their author liked reading, watching movies, cooking etc. Blank Airport Pass Vector Getty? and in almost all cases, I thought ‘big whoop… I don’t think so’ . So why write it? The best resumes add an Sample, Example angle of intrigue by saying something unusual about the author, e.g. Business Template? “ I am active in creating unprecedented means of raising money for Free Example, my favorite charity XXX “, or “ I fly miniature aircraft as if they were full-sized ” or I’ve also seen “ I am a keen movie-goer, but only when overseas “. Add some angle which captivates the interest of the reader! 8 ) Resume writers who consistently succeed do so by writing good ‘copy’.
Why should a resume be of 5 Status Report a lesser quality literature than any other written document? Good ‘copy’ is Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Example Format, well written text that has a proven structure and To Run A Test Knowledge format. The best resume writers know how to structure their documents because they know what works – they build on their successes of the past. Thank You Letter – 6+ Free Sample,? However, they don’t start from a blank sheet; they do start by researching existing resumes and 21 Best Mom's Of Meals | #monthofmeals finding the ones that have had great results. Thank For Appreciation Sample,? This differs between industry sectors, so my recommendation is to contact the agencies you’re working with and ask them to How Long A Test Knowledge Base send resumes they know have been very successful (expect personal details to Thank You Letter Free Sample, Example be edited out!) 9) The most effective resume writers don’t end with their resumes. Great resume writers don’t rest on their laurels. Our resume is just one document used in the recruitment process. Report Pdf Formats? The champions of – 6+ Free effective resumes don’t wait for their document to fall into the right hands – they put it there themselves. This involves building strong relationships with agencies by Template For Investors - Business Plans never letting them down (e.g. not turning up to an interview) and establishing rapport. They also initiate the process themselves by You Letter Sample, creating presence in their potential employers.
See my post on How To Search The Invisible Job Market for tips on how to do that. How To Create a ‘Machine-Readable’ Resume in 12 Steps – and Why You Should Do This Great Resumes Arrive With Even Greater Cover Letters Do ‘Resume Builders’ Work for Technical People? 9 Highly Effective Habits of Great Technical Resume Writers 10 Tips to Make Your Resume Pop 7 Keys To Describe Your Achievements – Pro Style How I Increased My LinkedIn Profile Views by Knowledge 575% How to create your dream ‘no experience yet’ resume Jobseekers: Advertise that you’re available for work using this neat trick What is Your Greatest Personal Achievement at Work? Use LinkedIn to Create Your Resume Just Launched – Resume Tune-Up Service Making Your Resume Look Aesthetically Impressive – It’s a Waste of Time 6 Tips for Shortening Your Resume My Resume Sucks! (so here’s what to do about it) #4's interesting - what % of those 1000s resumes you've seen added a table like that? Might be cool to Thank You Letter have as an online resume? #7 I put a link to my blog as a way of showcasing my (emerging) social media, communications and Templates writing skills. Good idea or not in your opinion? Are you going to talk about writing cover letters dos and don'ts? (sorry if I missed that) @Mark - I've probably seen about 5% or less resumes that offer a grid. For Appreciation Free? I remember always being impressed when I did. A good friend of 21 Best - Month mine owns and runs a recruitment agency and his staff also like this too as it's easy to transpose.
A good blog is You Letter – 6+ Sample, Format, a very good angle of intrigue - I use it. I guess it would depend if the blog is casual ramblings or not. Is your blog one of those? ;-) Good suggestion on cover letter do's and don'ts. A Test Base? I hadn't considered that! Yes, what they have achieved and linking through out there career is important! Simply superb tips..Hope you share this with face books! Awesome advice.
A suggestion though for the list of action words, you might want to group them into categories rather than list them alphabetically. Sometimes you have to take your work home, and that has to be the most Being defensive is a natural response, but also unhelpful. Thank You Letter – 6+ Free Example Format? When we hear information about our Words and phrases are often used that are not helpful or progressive. 21 Best | #monthofmeals | Budget? We all use
Do My Homework For Money - Thank You Letter for Gifts Examples |… - Belmont University
Dec 01, 2017 Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Example Format,
essays on apollo 13 “HOUSTON, WE’VE HAD A PROBLEM HERE.” 1218 April 1970. The Mission Insignia for For Appreciation Sample, Example, Apollo 13 showed the god Apollo, representing the 3.0, Sun, riding his chariot across the surface of the Moon to symbolise the Apollo Project bringing back new knowledge from the Moon. The two names chosen for the Apollo 13 spacecraft turned out to be very prophetic. The Command Module was called Odyssey from Homer and Arthur C. Clarke’s fictitious works. Lovell liked the Thank You Letter, sound and felt it was going to follow the dictionary’s description of a long and eventful voyage. The Lunar Module was called after the 5 Status Report Pdf Formats, sign of the Zodiac and star constellation Aquarius , the Thank For Appreciation Sample, Example, water carrier, at times identified with Zeus pouring the waters of life down from the heavens.
Before the mission, the crew had hoped that Aquarius would bring life back from the Moon. After the mission they were glad it did! Settling into the Command Module, the astronauts of 5 Status Report Templates Pdf Formats Apollo 13 were an assorted trio. For Appreciation Free Example! Lovell was a navy test pilot with 572 hours in How Long A Test - Optimizely Knowledge Base space, including the first trip to the Moon in Thank You Letter Sample, Example Format Apollo 8. He had more time in space than any other human at the time. The other two were civilians looking forward to their first trip into - Month Of Meals | #monthofmeals, space. Haise, a serious family man, had been a journalist turned naval aviator. Free Example Format! He was recognised as a specialist on the Lunar Module, having spent fourteen months at Annual Marketing Budget Ppt Sample Grumman, the factory building the spacecraft. Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Example Format! He knew every switch, wire and Blank Airport Boarding Pass Art | connector in the spacecraft. Thank You Letter – 6+ Free Sample, Format! Swigert was a swinging bachelor with the reputation of an air hostess in every airport. The crew of Apollo 13: from left James A. Lovell, Jr, John L. Swigert, Jr., and 5 Status Fred W. Haise, Jr.
Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Thank You Letter For Appreciation Free Kipp Teague. Two days before the mission, Swigert had replaced Ken Mattingly, who had worked with backup crew member Charles Duke. Infected by Paul House, a three year old friend, Duke developed German Measles the weekend before the How Long Base, launch. As Mattingly was found to have no immunity to the disease, the doctors were afraid he might break out in a severe rash at the moment Lovell and For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Haise were on the Moon’s surface, when swollen fingers and sore muscles could have slowed him up, particularly in an emergency. Because of the 5 Status Report Templates - Excel, teamwork required by the crew, normally the whole crew would be changed, but as Duke was already out, they left Lovell and Haise. The training had to be intensified to develop the teamwork required with Swigert in only two days. Example! The new crew spent many extra hours in the simulator drilling through the procedures. In one of the many strange twists of fate in A Test Base this mission, Swigert had been trained as a specialist in malfunctions of the Command and Lunar Modules. As NASA Administrator Dr Tom Paine pointed out: “Swigert practically wrote the book on spacecraft malfunctions.” Ironically, Mattingly never did break out with Rubella.
The original crew of Apollo 13: from Thank For Appreciation left James A. Id, Inc. Screening! Lovell, Jr, Thomas K. Mattingly II, and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Photo courtesy of Ed Hengeveld via the Apollo Image Gallery. Apollo 13 was going to be the first moon landing with a greater degree of difficulty than either Apollos 11 or 12. – 6+ Format! The target was the Frau Mauro region, a range of rugged hills 177 kilometres to the east of the Templates Pdf Formats, Apollo 12 landing site. Frau Mauro was going to be more interesting to the geologists Apollo was now going to be more scientific, rather than a flight testing exercise. Sunday 12 April 1970 LAUNCH. Launch day found light and variable winds, with a maximum strength of 12 knots from the east south east. Altocumulus clouds with a base height of 19,000 feet covered about 40% of the sky, with cirrostratus spread over the whole sky above.
The temperature was 24C and relative humidity 57%. A perfect launch day. as received in You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Example Australia by shortwave from The Voice of America. Recorded by Colin Mackellar. 2.2MB mp3 runs for 4:44. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague. Originally scheduled for 12 March 1970, Apollo 13 left Pad 39A at 1413 USEST 11 April 1970 (0513 AEST on Sunday 12 April). There was trouble right away.
Lovell: “At five and a half minutes after liftoff, Swigert, Haise, and Report I felt a little vibration. Then the centre engine of the S-II stage shut down two minutes early. Free Sample,! This caused the remaining four engines to burn 34 seconds longer than planned, and the S-IVB third stage had to burn 9 seconds longer to put us into orbit. No problem; the S-IVB had plenty of fuel.” Apollo 13 entered Earth orbit at 0525:39 AEST and went into a 185.7 by 183.9 kilometre orbit with period of 88.2 minutes and 21 Best Mom's Bistro - Month a speed of 28,053.2 kilometres per hour. Translunar injection was at 0754:47 AEST with a 5 minute 50.8 second burn and Apollo 13 was heading for the Moon at Thank For Appreciation Sample, Format 26,600.4 kilometres per hour. The CSM separated from the SIVB at 0819:38 AEST and docked with the LM at 0832:08 with television watching the action. The two docked spacecraft were ejected from the SIVB at 0914:00 AEST before being separated from each other. In the previous missions the SIVB was sent off into solar orbit but for Apollo 13 the SIVB was targeted to impact the Moon so the vibrations could be detected by the Apollo 12 seismometer. Despite this problematic start, the three astronauts settled down to the relatively relaxed trans-lunar coast life. The peace of Vector Art | Images Sunday was broken by an agitated Swigert calling Houston.
In the rush to replace Mattingly, he remembered he had not filed his Income Tax Return: “How do I apply for an extension?” he asked, “Things kinda happened real fast down there and I need an extension. I’m really serious. ” “You’re breaking up the room down here,” replied a laughing Joe Kerwin, but later Flight Director Glynn Lunney passed up the advice, “American citizens out of the country get a 60 day extension on filing, I assume this applies to you.” Monday 13 April 1970. On Monday morning Capcom Joe Kerwin called, “The spacecraft is in Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free real good shape as far as we are concerned. Airport Boarding Pass Template Art | Getty! We are bored to You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Example tears down here.” This “boredom” was reflected in the world outside a third lunar landing hardly drew any media attention, in fact all the American television networks ignored the special television show put on by the 5 Status Templates, astronauts. At the Goldstone Tracking Complex in California it was a clear spring afternoon as the Thank You Letter For Appreciation Free Sample, Format, evening shift for Report Templates - Excel Pdf Formats, Monday April 13 came in for a quiet spell of uneventful tracking. Bill Wood , C Shift leader at the DSS-12 Pioneer Wing Station: “Pioneer, the half Coyote, half German Shepherd station mascot greeted us at the gate as usual, before we took over tracking the – 6+ Sample, Example, signal from the Saturn IVB. Marketing Template Ppt Sample - Powerpoint! Ed Smith, the intersite microwave engineer, had the air to ground voice loops up so we could keep up with what was going on at the Prime site and hear the spacecraft and Houston talking. Things were very quiet, even boring.” It wasn’t long before this mood was to Thank You Letter For Appreciation Free change, to change dramatically.
Tuesday 14 April 1970. At 1133 AEST on 14 April Lovell and Haise had entered Aquarius earlier than the Mom's - Month Of Meals | Budget, flight plan had scheduled, anxious to check the pressure in the helium tank, which checked out okay. White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz on shift shortly before the television broadcast. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. At 1227 AEST, the astronauts put on a television show, exhibiting some of their gear such as their space helmets, sleeping hammocks and special bags for drinking water inside their spacesuits. Lovell in the CM played music from 2001:A space Odyssey and Aquarius from a small tape recorder. Sadly, the astronauts did not know that their program was ending at the NASA centres, as the commercial networks had lost interest in broadcasting boring trips to Thank Example Format the Moon.
Marilyn Lovell and Mary Haise had to go to the Mission Control Center to see their husbands on television. Fred Haise takes the few viewers of the broadcast on a tour of the Marketing Budget Template Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, Lunar Module, Aquarius . White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz (closest to the camera) watches in Mission Control, just 17 minutes and 42 seconds before the explosion. GET: on You Letter For Appreciation Free Format screen at top left, 55:37:11; GET of explosion: 55:54:53. NASA image. Astronauts Vance Brand and Jack Lousma (Capcom) enjoy the TV show. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. At 1259 the astronauts finished their on-board production with: “This is the crew of Apollo 13 wishing everybody a nice evening, and we’re just about ready to close our inspection of Aquarius and get back for a pleasant evening in Odyssey . Goodnight.” Lovell: “On the Airport Template Vector Art | Images, tapes I sound mellow and benign, or some might say fat, dumb, and happy. A pleasant evening indeed!
Nine minutes later the roof fell in. ” As the astronauts were copying down a message from Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Example Houston, on a control panel just above them a yellow caution light glowed to indicate a low pressure in hydrogen tank #1 in Business Plan Template For Investors - Business Plans the Service Module. Back at Thank Free Sample, Format Houston the same warning glared at EECOM Sy Liebergot from the sloping panel of Pdf Formats his console. As he had been working on the contents of the tanks he wasn’t too concerned to see the light, as it could be a normal short-term situation. In the weightlessness of space the cryogenically stored gases could stratify into Thank You Letter Sample, Format, layers of different densities and Business Plan For Investors 3.0 give a false quantity reading, but to Free make sure, Liebergot told Capcom Jack Lousma to ask the astronauts to stir both the hydrogen tanks, using paddles operated by Blank Boarding Art | Images electric motors. Normally this stirring was performed each day after the sleep period, but Liebergot wanted an extra stir before they went to sleep as he had been having trouble reading the quantity in the oxygen tank #2, so he suggested they stir the You Letter Free, oxygen tanks too. Lousma: “Thirteen, we’ve got one more item for you when you get the chance. We’d like you to stir up your cryo tanks. ” Swigert answered “Okay, stand by” and at 1306:18 AEST flicked the How Long - Optimizely Knowledge, switches labelled H 2 and O 2 FANS on to stir the contents of the hydrogen and oxygen tanks. Nobody knew that inside Oxygen Tank #2 wires to For Appreciation Free Sample, Example Format the fan had lost their insulation from an incident during a test two weeks before. A committee led by Of Meals Edgar Cortright, Director of the Langley Research Center in Virginia, was formed to investigate the incident.
It found the following events led to Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Example Format this moment of the Apollo 13 disaster. None of this can ever be verified, of course, because the Service Module burned up in the atmosphere on reentry. The flawed #2 oxygen tank had originally been made for Apollo 10, but had been returned to the manufacturers to improve the Marketing Budget Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, electromagnetic interference properties of the vac-ion pumps. When removing it from the Apollo 10 Service Module the frame holding the tanks was dropped about 5 centimetres. Although there is a possibility the jar could have loosened the couplings of the fill tubes, as far as the spacecraft systems engineers are concerned, this incident did not begin the For Appreciation Sample,, series of events leading to the explosion in space. In the 5 Status Report - Excel, oxygen tank there were a set of Thank You Letter For Appreciation Free tube assemblies in the neck of the tank to fill and Rtenant | Comprehensive Background Screening empty the tank on the ground, and a different set for use in You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Format space to pipe the oxygen to either a fuel cell, or to Rtenant | Comprehensive the cabin atmosphere. According to the engineers the real culprit was a set of couplings in these tube assemblies in the top of the oxygen tank which leaked during a Count Down Demonstration Test (CDDT) conducted on March 16, a test run to check out the launch procedures before every mission. The filling system was working normally, but technicians found they were unable to pump the super-critical cold oxygen fluid out of tank #2 after the Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Example, test.
Due to the leaking couplings, gas pumped in to remove the 5 Status - Excel Pdf Formats, liquid oxygen was bypassing the tank contents and coming back out again, leaving up to Thank For Appreciation Free Example Format 92% of the liquid contents behind. Looking for a solution, the engineering team thought the quickest way to empty the liquid oxygen would be to boil it off using the heaters in the tank. After discussions between the engineers at Kennedy Space Center, the Manned Spacecraft Center, North American Rockwell (the contractor) and Beech (the manufacturer) it was decided to 5 Status - Excel Pdf Formats go ahead. They also advised Mattingly and Lovell, assuring them it would be okay as these tubes were not used to For Appreciation Free Format supply the oxygen during the flight. Lovell queried the Rtenant Background, implications of You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Example Format putting a new tank in. The flight would probably be delayed by up to a month was the Report Templates Pdf Formats, answer, so Lovell told them to go ahead with the old tank: “If you’re all comfortable with this, then I am too.” The original Apollo spacecraft worked on 28 volts of electricity, but after 1965 the Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Format, Apollo spacecraft’s electrical systems had been modified to handle 65 volts from the external ground test equipment.
Unfortunately Beech, the manufacturer of the tank, did not advise the manufacturer of the thermostat of the change, so the bi-metal thermostat switches installed in these tanks were still the 28 volt models, so when the heaters were switched on to boil the oxygen off after the Marketing Template - Powerpoint Templates, CDDT test, the You Letter Free Format, higher voltage caused arcing in Blank Airport Art | Getty the bi-metal thermostat and welded the For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Example Format, contacts together. A Test Knowledge! With the thermostat contacts permanently on, the heating elements remained on for 8 hours, instead of being turned off when the temperature reached 27C. This allowed the temperature inside the tank to climb to an estimated 538C. As the temperature gauge on the ground test panel only went to 29.5C, no one was aware of this excessive heat, which burned the Teflon insulation off the wires in the motors driving the Thank Free Sample, Format, two fans inside the tank. The fate of Apollo 13 and its crew was now riding on the two bare wires sealed in Oxygen Tank #2. Perhaps the Report - Excel, first clue of a problem in the Service module was at 0318 AEST 14 April when oxygen tank #2 quantity indicated off scale high, eight hours before Lovell and Thank You Letter Sample, Haise entered the LM to conduct some system checks, but nobody took notice of it. But now, on board Odyssey , 322,000 kilometres from Earth, the relaxed complacency of the crew and ground teams around the world was to be suddenly interrupted when Swigert switched the 21 Best Bistro - Month Of Meals | #monthofmeals, fans on in the oxygen tanks.
When Swigert switched the fans on in O 2 Tank #2 at 55:53:18 GET, (1306:18 AEST on 14 April), some of the liquid oxygen in tank had been used, exposing the bare wiring. As a result a spark arced between the wires a spark in pure oxygen sealed under a pressure of 6,205 kPa in the super tough spherical nickel alloy steel tank. It took less than 20 seconds for Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Example Format, the resulting pressure to blow the tank apart . Business Plan Template For Investors - Business 3.0! shock the feed valves to two of the three fuel cells causing their failure within seconds. wreck the adjacent equipment in Bay 4 of the Service Module . and blow the external side panel out. which clipped the main antenna as it hurtled out into space. Langley Research Center estimated the explosion was equivalent to 3.2 kilograms of TNT, which would demolish an average sized suburban house. There was nothing to indicate what had happened; no sound in the vacuum of Thank – 6+ Free Sample, space; no sensors to detect explosions. As the Service Module was not directly visible from the 21 Best Mom's | #monthofmeals | Budget, Command Module windows, the astronauts could not see what had happened behind their backs. Just a shudder from the spacecraft.
At Goldstone and Thank You Letter – 6+ Format Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Stations the prime receiver’s usually steady white “Signal in Lock” light suddenly blinked out and the alarms began their two-tone singing. The servo operator immediately switched to Program Track (antenna under computer control) and Rtenant Id, Inc. | Comprehensive the receiver operators began trying to reacquire the signal but were only able to find a weak signal coming from the spacecraft. Alan Foster on the Honeysuckle Creek receivers remembers: “The signal level dropped right down to about minus 140 db, I can remember struggling with it it was pretty grim but we managed to keep in lock. They also went on to emergency voice and became hard to hear.” “Fred was still in You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Example the Lunar Module. Jack was back in the Command Module in the left hand seat. And I was half way in between in the lower equipment bay wrestling with TV wires and a camera, watching Fred coming down.” Haise was crawling through the tunnel from the Lunar Module when he saw the Mom's Of Meals, wall of the Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Example, tunnel flex, and felt the jar from the explosion.
He jumped when the master alarm suddenly howled in his headset, mixed with Swigert’s voice from the Command Module yelling about a panel alarm. “Now, before that, Fred being in the Lunar Module, had actuated a valve which normally gives us the Plan - Business Plans, same sound. since he didn’t tell us about it, we all rather jumped. But it was his joke and we all thought it was sort of – 6+ Free Example Format fun until something happened.” “It wasn’t me!” Haise threw back at Lovell’s inquiring expression as he instinctively dived for his couch in Annual Marketing Template Ppt Sample the Command Module. Swigert tried to slam the hatch shut behind him, thinking the Thank You Letter Free Example, jolt might have come from the Lunar Module being hit by something. 5 Status - Excel! The astronauts knew a high speed object not much bigger than a grain of sand could rip open the flimsy skin of the Lunar Module and let their life supporting atmosphere vent out in moments. Though Swigert wrestled with the hatch, it wouldn’t lock shut as it was misaligned. As they still had their atmosphere and were still alive, they pushed the hatch aside. All three astronauts’ pulse rates shot up to over 130. “It is Thank You Letter – 6+ Free Example interesting to note that days later, just before we jettisoned the Annual Marketing Template - Powerpoint Templates, Lunar Module, when the For Appreciation – 6+ Free, hatch had to be closed and locked, Jack did it – easy as pie.
That’s the kind of flight it was.” “It shook the spacecraft and scared the hell out of me. Knowledge! I proceeded to look at Jim and about the same time – I guess about two seconds had elapsed – when I had a master alarm and a main bus B undervolt light. I told Houston we had a problem and proceeded to go over to the right hand side of the spacecraft to look at the voltage…” He saw the You Letter – 6+ Free Format, B bus voltage supplying half the - Excel, power to drive the spacecraft, drop right out. Haise checked fuel cell #3 supplying its electricity, and found it dead, so connected the alternative A power Bus to line, but it seemed to be on its way out too. A quick check of fuel cell #1 showed it was as dead as #3. With only fuel cell #2 left to You Letter – 6+ Example drive the A Bus, the astronauts realised from the mission rules that landing on the moon was now impossible. At 1308 AEST Swigert called Houston with the now famous remark, “Okay, Houston, we’ve had a problem here.” Capcom Jack Lousma, “This is Houston – say again, please.” “Houston – we’ve had a problem. We’ve had a Main B Bus undervolt,” Lovell explained. “Roger.
Main B undervolt. … Okay, stand by, Thirteen, we’re looking at it.” Capcom Lousma answered for the Mission Control team. In the Rtenant By Real | Comprehensive, Apollo 13 spacecraft, launched at 1313 hours (spacecraft time), it was 9:08 pm on April 13 . You Letter For Appreciation Free Sample, Example Format! At Honeysuckle Creek it was 1308 hours (1:08 pm) on April 14. At Houston it was just after 2100 local on a pleasant clear evening. With three friends, Andy Saulietis had rigged up a telescope connected to a black and white television set on a roof of the Manned Spacecraft Center. They were studying a slowly fading pinpoint of light approaching the Moon – the Saturn IVB rocket following Odyssey , blinking as it tumbled along. While they watched, a bright spot appeared in Mom's Bistro | Budget the middle of the screen and over the next ten minutes grew into quite a bright ball. No one connected the Thank You Letter For Appreciation Free Sample, Example Format, flare with Apollo 13 they vaguely thought it was a defect in their television monitor. Business Plan - Business 3.0! They left the rooftop quite oblivious to what they had witnessed – the oxygen tank on Apollo 13 exploding, and in ten minutes spreading into a gaseous sphere over 48 kilometres wide, glowing in the sunlight. Inside the Mission Control Center none of the For Appreciation Free, Flight Controllers sitting at their consoles were aware of what had happened either, until some of them began seeing abnormal indications coming down their telemetry channels – strange readings from temperatures, pressures, voltages, and the status of various pieces of 21 Best Mom's - Month Of Meals | #monthofmeals | Budget equipment. They were overwhelmed by reports of loss of the Thank You Letter – 6+ Free Example Format, High Gain Antenna, spacecraft computer restarts, random thruster firings, and multiple system failures. It took them over fifteen minutes to figure out that there had been some sort of explosion, but they were still hopeful the mission was going to proceed to a normal lunar landing.
EECOM Sy Liebergot, the Flight Controller in charge of the Command and Service Module’s electrical and environmental systems, was now squarely in Annual Budget Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates the hot seat: “Our data suddenly went ratty, some of it went static. I heard the announcements from the You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free, spacecraft and was already scanning my readouts. Nothing made sense. I called Kranz, ‘We may have an instrumentation problem, Flight. Let me go ahead and check,’ which was my way of putting Kranz off, and he knew that.” “Rog.” Kranz replied. Hear Sy Liebergot’s EECOM loop starting just six seconds before the explosion. Plan Template - Business Plans! He asks about the cryo stir, and then we hear a burst of static as lock is lost on the High Gain Antenna. We hear the You Letter – 6+ Free Format, team beginning to Annual Marketing Budget Template Ppt Sample Templates troubleshoot the problem.
This recording is part of longer audio on a disc included with Sy’s book, “Apollo EECOM: Journey of a Lifetime” available from CG Publishing/Apogee Books. This audio clip is You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Example Format also available on Sy’s website. Used with kind permission of, and with thanks to, Sy Liebergot. 1.1MB mp3 / 2 minutes 12 seconds. Clip starts at 055:54:49GET. Charlie Dumas (left) speaks with Gerry Griffin at the EECOM console. Sy Liebergot, smoking a pipe, is at Plans 3.0 right. From 16mm NASA footage several minutes before the explosion. Screenshot by Colin Mackellar.
Liebergot never saw the pressure spike in the oxygen tank that caused the explosion: “You look away, you blink, and it’s gone. That’s exactly what happened. We were doing the cryo stir and You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, I was just looking to the right of the oxygen tanks at the hydrogen tanks where the changes usually showed up first. Everybody was looking at the hydrogen, which was about two inches over. Report - Excel! When I looked back the spike had already gone. My backroom guys, Dick Brown, electrical system expert, and You Letter For Appreciation Free George Bliss and Larry Sheaks, my environmental control systems experts, were trying to figure out what was going on as well. To begin with we figured we just had a fuel cell problem and Marketing Template Ppt Sample Templates concentrated on You Letter For Appreciation Example Format that.
Pretty soon we knew the tank was gone, so I asked for an estimate of how long we had on Template Art | the remaining tank.” Liebergot had little to Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Example Format work on, only displays of nearly fifty parameters all showing out of limit readings on his console. This was so sudden, without any warning, that he felt overwhelmed. No amount of 21 Best Bistro | Budget training or mission experience could prepare him for Thank You Letter – 6+ Sample, Example Format, this crisis. Bistro Of Meals | Budget! Initially he knew that the two dead fuel cells drew their oxygen from the same source, and as the third cell was still working, at first he didn’t suspect the oxygen tanks. He was working on a Fuel Cell #3 leak, and trying to isolate it. Also, he was still trying to figure out why two fuel cells would fail. Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Example! Then he saw that oxygen tank #2 was showing empty.
Its contents had all gone! Half the oxygen for the cabin atmosphere and How Long To Run Base the spacecraft power for the mission had gone in You Letter Sample, Example two minutes – just vanished. They hadn’t even reached the moon. All their training and To Run simulations had always relied on backup systems to keep the mission going, nobody had been game enough to introduce a complete failure of Thank You Letter For Appreciation Example Format all the power systems into the simulations. As one of the Flight Controllers said later, “This was so far down the Bistro - Month Of Meals, line, if anyone had asked us to simulate it ahead of time we would all have said he was being unrealistic.” “I had all the feelings that went with not having the answers to the problem and not seeing any way out of it. It happened too quickly – it was a cascading failure which means the original failure got masked by the subsequent failures it created. You Letter – 6+ Sample, Example! We were never trained for Plan - Business Plans, a cascading series of You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Example Format problems leading to a catastrophe. That’s not training.
It was like saying the structure of the spacecraft was going to fail.” A minute or so after the explosion Alan Glines, the Report Templates - Excel, communications engineer (INCO), reported to Kranz that the signal from the spacecraft had switched to the smaller omni antennas, which was probably due to the side panel hitting the big antenna on its way past. The weaker signal combined with the erratic behaviour of the spacecraft caused the receiver operators at Goldstone and Honeysuckle Creek and the other stations difficulty in holding onto the weak, fluctuating signal for the rest of the Thank For Appreciation Sample, Format, mission. Then Lovell announced the voltage on the A Bus was beginning to drop. An uneasy silence fell on the voice loops… “Okay, Houston, are you still reading Apollo 13?” Lovell couldn’t contain his anxiety any longer. “That’s affirmative,” replied Lousma, “We are reading you.
We’re trying to come up with some good ideas here for you.” He looked appealingly at Kranz: “What can I tell them?” Kranz did not have an answer. Nobody had an answer. Capcom Jack Lousma apeaks with the crew onboard Apollo 13 after the How Long A Test, explosion. Astronaut John Young is seated next to him. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Thank Free Sample, Colin Mackellar. Lovell couldn’t understand why his ship was reeling drunkenly about the heavens. The thrusters were firing away trying to bring the spacecraft under control, but unknown to either the astronauts or the Report Pdf Formats, flight controllers at the time the explosion had knocked some of the You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Format, thrusters out. 21 Best Mom's | #monthofmeals! Lovell took over manual control, but found no matter how he tried, he could do no better than the automatic pilot – the spacecraft seemed to have a mind of its own, always trying to veer away from the course. He decided to look out You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Format, of the window in case he could see something outside. As he swung himself onto Mom's Bistro - Month | #monthofmeals | Budget the left seat and peered out, the sight that met his inquiring eyes formed a knot in his stomach – the sun was shining on a powerful stream of Thank – 6+ Example gas spurting out Budget Template Templates, of the side of the Service Module.
Sixteen minutes after the explosion, at – 6+ Example Format 1322 AEST, Lovell remembers, “I happened to look out of the left hand window, and saw the final evidence pointing toward potential catastrophe. ‘We are venting something out into | Comprehensive Background, the . into Free Example Format, space,’ I reported to Houston.” “Roger, we copy you are venting,” acknowledged Lousma. In Mission Control a report of gas venting into space spread among the consoles like wildfire, and put a whole new dimension on the situation. Liebergot: “I ignored that, I couldn’t deal with that. Annual Marketing Ppt Sample Templates! I needed to go and find what I could do about Thank You Letter For Appreciation Example Format it. ” Fuel cell #2 was still producing electricity but when Lovell looked back at the oxygen pressures again Tank #2 was still reading zilch, but now Tank #1 was only half full, and dropping! They were going to lose all their oxygen – they weren’t going to have enough to Budget Ppt Sample Templates bring the ship back home to Earth! This was it! Lovell knew they were in trouble. But how serious was it? Was it only Thank – 6+ Sample, Example Format, oxygen gas squirting out into space? How long did they have?
He immediately sensed that their next moves would be crucial to How Long To Run A Test - Optimizely Base their survival, and their lives would depend on maintaining communication with Houston, and for For Appreciation, that they needed power. There were only 15 minutes of battery power left in the Command Module, and that was needed for reentry into Template Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, the Earth’s atmosphere. The Earth was over 90 hours away . Lovell: “The knot in my stomach tightened, and all regrets about Thank – 6+ Free Example not landing on the moon vanished. Now it was strictly a case for survival. I had seen the film Marooned and Business Plan Plans I must admit that the parallel crossed my mind.” He looked across to Haise, the LM expert and pilot, “We’re going to For Appreciation Sample, Example have to Id, Inc. Background use Aquarius to get home.” Back in mission control, Liebergot also saw oxygen tank #1 contents disappearing before his eyes – the For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Example, pressure dropping from Template For Investors - Business Plans 6,068 kPa down to 2,760 kPa in less than three minutes. Two thirds of the electrical power generation system was dead, and there was only three hours of life left. Looking into the immediate future, he felt momentarily sick in the stomach.
He grabbed the security handles on his console to Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Example Format steady himself down. Was he going to 21 Best Bistro - Month Of Meals be the first flight controller to lose a spacecraft and its crew out in space? “In all my life I have never felt so alone, as I did then. I didn’t have the answers. It seemed we were on You Letter Free Example Format the point of losing everybody and everything.” What had to Business Plan Template For Investors be done before the Command Module completely died? Would this crippled combination of You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Example a dead Command Service Module and To Run - Optimizely Knowledge Base a Lunar Module only designed to go down to the lunar surface and back with two people cope with demands and manoeuvres they were never designed for? There was little time left to make any plans. Everybody was facing problems that seemed to Thank For Appreciation be leading to more problems.
except the Lunar Module systems people they were standing by Annual Marketing Ppt Sample with a fully operational spacecraft, powered down waiting to arrive at the moon. It wasn’t long before they realised the Lunar Module was going to Thank You Letter – 6+ Free Sample, Example be involved. During the Trans Lunar Coast phase of the mission, the Lunar Module was powered down to conserve power, except for some critical systems kept warm by thermostatically controlled heaters powered by the Service Module batteries fed through the Command Module. Now they had lost the Annual Budget - Powerpoint Templates, power to the relays that controlled the transfer of the power source to the Lunar Module batteries – so they could not turn the Thank For Appreciation Free Sample, Format, power on in the Lunar Module from its batteries in the descent stage. That was the first big problem to be overcome. Strangely enough a year earlier, on 25 April 1969, during an Report Templates - Excel, Apollo 10 simulation the simulation team had failed the fuel cells in almost the same spot, and the simulation ended with a dead crew. It was decided that this failure was a bit unrealistic and the incident was forgotten as the Apollo program forged ahead. Fortunately some of the more conscientious Lunar Module flight controllers had worried about their simulation failure, and You Letter For Appreciation Example Format decided to look into How Long To Run Knowledge, the problem. You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Format! Jim Hannigan, branch chief of the Lunar Module flight controllers, assigned Donald Puddy to By Real Id, Inc. | Comprehensive Background Screening pick a team to work on the problem. You Letter For Appreciation Free Example Format! Bill Legler, one of the key members of the team (who had been present during the Apollo 10 simulation) worked out some procedures that could reverse the power flow to Annual Marketing Template - Powerpoint Templates go from the Lunar Module back into the Command Module and energise the power transfer relays.
These emergency procedures had never been completed and incorporated into You Letter Format, the official procedures, but with the Business Plan For Investors Plans 3.0, Apollo 13 situation these preliminary procedures were recovered and Thank You Letter – 6+ Example dusted off. By Real Id, Inc. Background Screening! They gave the Lunar Module controllers a head start. The engineer in charge of the electrical and environmental systems of the Lunar Module was Bill Peters, “I had just unplugged from the console and only taken two steps away when Bob Heselmeyer called out ‘You’d better come back here, I think something’s going on.’ I figured out pretty quickly it looked like a major disaster, and one of the plans in cases like this was to close all the telephone lines in You Letter – 6+ Format and out of the 5 Status, Control Center so just in case I called my wife real quick and told her not to expect me home that night – turn on the TV to Thank You Letter Free Sample, Example Format find out why – and hung up.” At the Goldstone tracking station a team was quickly formed to analyse the telemetry information they had just recorded, particularly the last few moments before the explosion. Bill Wood , lead USB Engineer: “We were able to Marketing Budget Template Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates read all bits up to Thank You Letter signal loss by recording the data at a high speed of 60 inches per second and Mom's Bistro Of Meals | #monthofmeals playing it back at 3½ inches per second. Then we rolled the chart paper onto You Letter Example the control room floor and counted the frames of 21 Best Mom's | #monthofmeals data by eye to You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ find out what each parameter was reading up to the signal loss, and what things looked like right after the signal was reacquired. Mom's - Month | #monthofmeals | Budget! My recollection was that the engineers found a pressure spike in the oxygen tank that exploded.”
The telemetry showed the pressure shot up to 6,950 kPa for two seconds before dropping to zero in the next two seconds. Then Larry Sheaks called Liebergot to tell him that the oxygen surge tank in the Command Module was losing pressure. The surge tank was usually used for reentry only, but was used as a buffer to keep the Thank For Appreciation Example, oxygen levels steady. The EECOM from | Comprehensive Milt Windler’s Maroon shift, John Aaron, was quietly shaving at home when the phone shrilled. It was Arnold Aldrich, his office manager, at Mission Control. “Arnie said ‘Hey, John, these guys are working some kind of problem and I know your specialty is instrumentation patterns and For Appreciation – 6+ Example Format they think this is a telemetry problem, but I don’t know.’ So I said to Arnie, ‘Go and read me some parameters off displays such and such, then go to displays such and Rtenant By Real Id, Inc. | Comprehensive Background such and Sample, Example Format read those out to me. He did all that and I said ‘Arnie, that is not a telemetry failure there is no pattern there that fits. Tell those guys they’ve got a real problem and I’ll be right there. By the Blank Template Vector Art |, time I came in, I got in on You Letter Free the tail end of Knowledge Base analysing what had happened there, and started convincing the guys that they ought to For Appreciation Example Format power down the Command Module and save the batteries, because we were using battery power to troubleshoot the problem, and To Run A Test Knowledge Base I knew these were the same batteries that were going to bring us home. That was pretty traumatic because the Command and Service Module was never designed to be powered down in space and we didn’t have any procedures to power it up from scratch.
Normally it was powered up over a period of days on the pad before you launched, using a lot of power.” Forty six minutes after the – 6+ Free Sample, Example, explosion George Bliss informed Liebergot that there was only 1 hour 54 minutes left in O 2 Tank #1, when the last fuel cell would die. Then there would only be the Command Module’s reentry batteries left – and To Run they were needed for reentry. The unthinkable had happened and there was no back up or redundant system to pull them out of this one. They were facing a major disaster in space. Liebergot announced on the intercom loop: “Flight, the Thank Format, pressure in Id, Inc. Background Screening O 2 tank 1 has dropped all the Thank You Letter For Appreciation Sample, Example Format, way down to 297 (psi) (2048 kPa) and Pass Template Vector Images we’d better think about Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Free Format getting into the LM.” Flight dynamics chief Jerry Bostick was sitting in the Trench listening to the drama deepening on the console behind him, and began to think of getting the spacecraft back as soon as possible. How Long To Run Knowledge Base! He and Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Format his team soon discarded the immediate turn-around (direct abort which would bring them home in 34 hours) using the main SPS engine because the LM ‘lifeboat’ would have to By Real | Comprehensive Background be cast off, and doubt about the integrity of the Service Module – that is, how much damage had been done to Thank Example Format the internal systems of the To Run A Test Knowledge, Service Module? Was the engine damaged? Even if it wasn’t, there was no electricity to You Letter Free Example operate the engine controls such opening or closing valves.
The alternative was to carry on and sling around the How Long To Run A Test Base, Moon. This was going to take up to – 6+ Free Sample, Example Format four days – could they keep the 5 Status Report Templates Pdf Formats, astronauts alive for Thank You Letter Example, such a long period? That was up to the LM systems controllers. The Trench waited for the Flight Directors to make up their minds. Ken Mattingly slid alongside Lousma and plugged his headset in. Bistro - Month! He wanted to help his mates if he could. Kranz said this was his toughest call on Apollo 13. “My team was pretty much split down the middle. Many of my systems controllers wanted to get home in the fastest fashion possible.” By now there were two teams gathered around the consoles discussing the You Letter For Appreciation – 6+, emergency and the chatter was getting out of hand so Kranz stood up and yelled around the room, “Okay all flight controllers cut the Budget Template Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, chatter.
I want every member of the White team to Free Sample, settle down and get back on the voice loops – the rest of you shut up.” Still damp from Business For Investors - Business being called from a shower at home, Chris Kraft had arrived by now and joined the intercom conversation at his Director’s console, just before thirty three year old Glynn Lunney was due to Thank You Letter For Appreciation Free Format take over the next shift. Leader of the Maroon team, Milt Windler, also joined the Blank Airport Art | Getty, group. Lunney had been discussing the return options with Bostick and an intense discussion developed between the Flight Directors on the best course of action, ending with Kranz addressing Kraft, “Our only real option is to go around the Moon.” Chris Kraft, Astronaut Jim McDivitt, and Robert Gilruth in You Letter – 6+ Free Sample, the back row of the MOCR. Behind them is the glass window of the VIP viwewing room. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Kraft agreed, “When do you want to do the burn?” The decision was made, and To Run the Flight Dynamics controllers in the Trench breathed a sigh of relief and began to work out a burn procedure for a trajectory to sling around the Moon and Thank For Appreciation Free Sample, Example return home.
So 53 minutes after the Rtenant | Comprehensive Background Screening, explosion, an emergency plan began to evolve. Astronauts Gene Cernan (left), Deke Slayton (coat) and Ed Mitchell look on as Jack Lousma sits as his Capcom console. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. “I was already in a back room of the Control Center when we got the report that there was a problem. We were due on shift at about 10:00 pm (USCST) that night. The spacecraft crew were supposed to go to sleep and we were supposed to sit there and watch a sleep shift. I went in and plugged in with Gene; I knew the spacecraft crew had reported a bang and some venting, so there was a suspicion there was some kind of problem, but people still weren’t sure how serious the problem was. There were a set of confusing indicators we had lost the oxygen in one tank so we lost the fuel cell that was plugged to it, and that fuel cell was plugged to the B electrical Buss. You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Format! The RCS thrusters were split between main Bus A and Main Bus B, so we had lost half the Blank Airport Boarding Template Art | Getty Images, thrusters which gave us these attitude control problems.
We became involved in closing off the For Appreciation Free Sample, Format, fuel cells, one at a time, to try to isolate a leak within the fuel cells, but once you shut them down, you can’t get them back, and I remember doing that as a last resort. We had a number of situations to deal with. We were on a non free-return trajectory. Up until Apollo 13 we had used trajectories that would loop around the Moon to By Real Background Screening return approximately into Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample,, the entry corridor. Here we were not going to come back to any safe kind of Earth entry at all. We were also at a point where it would have been very expensive in terms of propulsion to turn around and come back without looping around the Marketing Template, Moon. That was considered for a while, but the only way we knew how to do that was to You Letter – 6+ dump the descent stage of the Lunar Module and use all of the Marketing Budget Template Ppt Sample Templates, Service Propulsion fuel, but the – 6+ Example, two problems with that were we couldn’t power the Service Module up any more, we were only down to batteries, so we couldn’t sustain a power load to run the Service Propulsion engine, and we didn’t want to dump the descent stage of the Lunar Module because it was our lifeboat where most of the batteries, water and Annual - Powerpoint Templates so on were stored.
Parallel with all this going on with the guidance people was what are we going to do to You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Format power the Lunar Module up. We knew we had to get it powered up enough to take care of the manoeuvre later, but we also began to realise that the way the telescope worked for aligning the platform in the Lunar Module that it probably wouldn’t work by itself while it was attached to the Command Module out in free space. We realised we had to get an alignment from the Command Module guidance reference system, the inertial platform, and Marketing Ppt Sample transfer it over to the Lunar Module which was a lot of number plugging by Format the crew members, followed and To Run Base checked by the people on the ground. This of course happened some time after we got the Lunar Module powered up. We got the Lunar Module powered up but as we went through it we were trying to Thank Free figure out what we didn’t have to bring up because we knew we were going to be power limited and water coolant limited to get home. The Lunar Module was designed for two men for two days and Rtenant By Real | Comprehensive Background Screening we knew we were at least four or five days from You Letter – 6+ Free Example Format home with three people. We knew we couldn’t stay powered up at these levels so we had to figure out a way to cut the power down. We also knew we had limited amounts of consumables on board. We got the Annual Marketing Budget - Powerpoint, Lunar Module configured so it could do a passive thermal control.
Instead of a rolling manoeuvre, which we normally used, we rotated the vehicle ninety degrees every hour so we could get equal sun (heating) and Thank For Appreciation Free Example cooling on the vehicle. As we could watch this on the ground the crew didn’t have to worry about it. Once we got in that position we said we’re on this non-free return, why don’t we trim that out and get the vehicle on a free return so if anything happens later we are least heading for the reentry corridor. So we did this 40 foot per second manoeuvre that put us on a free return trajectory. After that we began to try to take power off everything that we didn’t need and we began to How Long To Run A Test - Optimizely Knowledge lay out in detail the options for how big or small a manoeuvre we would do at seventy nine and a half hours into the mission, after we got around the Moon.
We settled on a manoeuvre that wasn’t quite maximum but would get us back by about 142 hours. We had also figured out how to husband the consumables. By the You Letter – 6+ Free Example, end of my shift about ten hours later we had put the vehicle back on an Earth return trajectory, the inertial guidance platform had been transferred to the Lunar Module, and we kept the Report Templates Pdf Formats, Lunar Module reasonably powered up for the burn planned for two hours after we had turned the corner at the Moon. We had a plan for what that manoeuvre would be, and Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Example Format we had a consumable profile that really left us with reasonable margins at the end.” Glynn Lunney (left) and Milt Windler, take stock of the situation. Behind them, in the background, is Robert Gilruth. Deke Slayton is in the foreground. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Here’s a view of the MOCR during Glynn Lunney’s shift, after the accident. Panorama assembled from 16mm NASA footage by CM.
Gene Kranz and his White Team continued their shift for Template For Investors Plans, an extra hour before handing over to Glynn Lunney and the Black Team, and went to the back of the building to study data from the spacecraft. Kranz decided to step out For Appreciation Free Sample, Format, of the Houston shift sequence and 21 Best Bistro - Month head a Tiger Team to Thank You Letter For Appreciation Free concentrate on the engineering and procedures to get the crippled spacecraft and its crew back home. “The key thing here was I didn’t form the Tiger Team the Tiger Team to a great extent always existed. During the Apollo Program we flew with four mission control teams, and one team was always designated as the Lead Team and in case of any mission difficulties it was that team’s responsibility to establish the game plan, the recovery plan, do the trouble shooting and that just happened to fall into my team. We had many problems here we had a variety of survival problems, we had electrical management, water management, and we had to figure out 5 Status Report - Excel Pdf Formats, how to navigate because the stars were occluded by the debris cloud surrounding the Thank – 6+ Sample, Example, spacecraft. Basically we had to turn a two day spacecraft into a four and 21 Best Bistro - Month a half day spacecraft with an extra crewmember to get the crew back home. We were literally working outside the Thank You Letter For Appreciation Example, design and test boundaries of the spacecraft so we had to invent everything as we went along. There were many lead people, but the three people I would name were Arnie Aldrich who handled the checklist, John Aaron with the For Investors - Business Plans, power management, and Bill Peters who looked at the Lunar Module and tried to figure out how it could be most effective as a lifeboat.” There were no official procedures to refer to Thank – 6+ Example Format even the Marketing Ppt Sample, emergency procedures didn’t cover losing all three Command Module fuel cell power sources and using the Lunar Module in Thank You Letter – 6+ Free Sample, Example lieu of the Command Module.
At 1456 AEST on 14 April Lovell and Haise had already decided to climb into Marketing Budget Templates, the Lunar Module, “Without much discussion from the ground, both Jim and I decided to head for the LM. At this point we only had one choice and took it,” Haise explained. Swigert was left to wind down the Command Module. The last oxygen tank was nearly empty. You Letter Sample,! Capcom Jack Lousma told the astronauts, “Thirteen, Houston. We’d like you to start making your way over to the LM now” Swigert replied: “Fred and 5 Status Report Templates Jim are in the LM.” Lovell had joined Haise in the LM, who was already throwing switches to bring the power up when Swigert yelled down the tunnel, “Houston wants the LM powered up.” Haise advised Houston, “. and Jack, I got LM power on.” GUIDO Will Fenner (green shirt) at Thank – 6+ Sample, the Guidance console as the navigation platform is transferred from Odyssey to Aquarius . From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Swigert said he had never seen the LM activated so fast, but it still wasn’t fast enough.
He had to turn the reentry battery in the Command Module on to keep the navigation guidance system going until the crucial settings were transferred to the Lunar Module system. To Run Knowledge! Just as Lovell set up a good alignment at 1513 AEST, the last Fuel Cell #2, died. Lovell: “Getting that transfer was the first big turning point.” The concern is Thank For Appreciation Format evident on the face of astronaut John Young as he stands beside Capcom Jack Lousma. Behind him is How Long A Test - Optimizely Knowledge Base astronaut Tom Stafford. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Houston told Swigert to close the Command Module down. The power had to be turned off in a carefully planned sequence so it could be brought back up ready for reentry. At 1553 he turned off the Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Example Format, last switch, looked around the lifeless cabin no cosy lights, no friendly voices from the radio, no gurgling from pipes or whirring of fans their cheerful home of a moment ago was just dark and Business Plan Template Plans 3.0 dead 333,125 empty kilometres from Thank – 6+ Sample, Example Earth, and 21 Best Mom's | #monthofmeals | Budget racing away from it at 3,380 kilometres per hour!
He floated into Thank You Letter – 6+ Sample, Example Format, the Lunar Module, and said to Lovell and Haise, “It’s up to you now.” He suddenly felt lost. He was trained for the Command and Service Module, a position normally busy right through the mission. Now he could only watch the other two expertly bringing the Annual Marketing, Lunar Module to life. The last few hours had been fast and furious, crammed with momentous life threatening events; now it was just waiting. for what? Haise said that he lost all track of time during those hectic five hours, full of rapid-fire events. It was more like a dream than reality because of the jolt from the security of Thank For Appreciation Example comfort and order to the onslaught of unexpected events and fleeting images and feeling very vulnerable to the hostile environment of empty space. Dead tired, he was the first to drag himself into the Command Module to sleep soundly for the next five hours. RIGHT ACROSS THE CONTINENT, FROM PERTH TO SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA PITCHES IN TO HELP APOLLO 13.
“At the time of the explosion I was operating the ranging system, which measured the distance and speed of the Blank Airport Art | Getty Images, spacecraft, when I heard Swigert send his problem call, and then listened as the flight controllers sent a barrage of instructions up to For Appreciation – 6+ Example the spacecraft, punctuated by terse responses from the astronauts. Once we had acquired on the smaller omni antenna, my equipment was managing to keep locked on By Real the spacecraft signal, but my finger was hovering beside the ‘acquire’ button in case of drop-outs. At that stage we did not know it was a life-threatening situation, we thought it was a communications problem with the spacecraft. The first indication of the For Appreciation Free, seriousness of the crisis to us at Honeysuckle Creek was when Mission Control in Houston called the Operations Supervisor at Honeysuckle Creek and asked, ‘How long would it take to get Parkes up?’ Parkes was the CSIRO’s radio telescope used during the 5 Status - Excel, Apollo 11 mission. It was not called up for the Apollo 13 mission because the astronauts now used a big portable umbrella antenna for Thank Free Format, communications from the Airport Pass Template Vector Art |, lunar surface. I knew the situation was really serious as you don’t just casually ask to Sample, Example Format use the 64 metre radio astronomy antenna at Parkes without making high level arrangements with plenty of warning.” In Mission Control the low signal levels from the spacecraft were causing concern.
Chris Kraft, Director of Flight Operations, “We wanted to make sure that we got a good telemetry signal, and Of Meals Parkes was one of the places where we knew we could get it.” “Parkes isn’t committed to this mission,” Mike Dinn informed them. “Oh, then Mr Kraft will be calling your Director on the phone shortly, “ Houston replied. Honeysuckle Creek Station Director Don Gray : Don Gray, Station Director, in his office at Honeysuckle Creek. Photo: Hamish Lindsay. “I was sitting in my office listening to this conversation on the net, and in moments the phone rang. Chris Kraft said to me ‘We have a serious problem on the spacecraft; it looks like we are going to have to power down and will need all the antennas we can get. Format! Do what you can to get Parkes up as soon as possible.’ First of all I called Tom Reid, the Director at Tidbinbilla, to organise a crew to go to Parkes, then I rang John Bolton at Parkes to find he was already aware of the problem and - Excel Pdf Formats was prepared to change the antenna over to support the NASA signals.”
At the Deep Space Station at Tidbinbilla the Thank You Letter For Appreciation Example Format, request took Station Director Tom Reid by surprise: “What are you talking about? It takes weeks of negotiations between the CSIRO and NASA Headquarters, agreements and money and Id, Inc. | Comprehensive Screening budgets.’ Then I got a black phone call , ‘Hey look, we’ve got a problem on board the spacecraft this is a serious thing, think again about how soon you can do it – never mind about budgets and Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Free Example money.’ The contractor’s people responded magnificently, got themselves down to Parkes luckily the equipment was still there, it just wasn’t configured. NASA hastily flew out Bob Taylor, one of the Goddard engineers, to Airport Template Vector Art | Images be there, as he knew the Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Example Format, system.” Dr John Bolton, Director of Parkes. Photo from a 1967 ABC publication, via John Sarkissian. “I was listening to Background Screening the conversation between Houston and James Lovell, and as had been my habit, had thoroughly digested the flight plan. I realised that the Thank Free Format, only solution was to occupy the LM and use its facilities. The very low power (signal from the spacecraft) and the fact that the journey would be in Parkes coverage time meant we would certainly be called in. How Long To Run! I rang Tom Reid, the Director of Thank For Appreciation Free Sample, Example Tidbinbilla, with whom I had an excellent relationship, to ask for the NASA crew to be sent in; I rang Taffy (Dr. E.G.
Bowen) to let him know what assistance I would need from Sydney; and then Charlie Chenhall (RP Workshop Supervisor) to organise supplies and aircraft. Fortunately Radhakrishnan (Venkataraman Radhakrishnan, Director of the Raman Research Institute, Bangladore, India) was conducting a special experiment on the telescope and a number of engineers were on Rtenant By Real Id, Inc. | Comprehensive hand. They dismantled and carried Rad’s equipment down the ladder of one of the feed legs, while Parkes staff used the lift to For Appreciation Example get the NASA gear to the focus. We accomplished in Rtenant Id, Inc. | Comprehensive Background Screening 10 hours what normally took close to a week.” Bruce Window , Tidbinbilla USB Supervisor: “It was about 6 pm. You Letter For Appreciation Example! I was working on shift at Tidbinbilla when we were cranked up straight away to get to Blank Airport Pass Getty Parkes in a hurry in Thank – 6+ Free Sample, Example a light aircraft, a Cessna 337. It was a hairy trip. At the same time the CSIRO had been given the message and they had taken their feedcone off and had started to assemble our feedcone. We arrived in the dark, drove out to the site, by which time the CSIRO had flashed up all their part of the equipment.
On that first day we had got the voice but we hadn’t got all the links through to Honeysuckle. I can remember holding the cable and shouting in frustration, I had the stuff in my hand but I couldn’t do anything with it! Predictions were the problem (the information where to point the antenna), they were a big problem early on. We just had to rely on Base predictions from NASA. John Bolton and his boys had to Thank You Letter Sample, Format work around them as much as they could. 21 Best Bistro Of Meals | #monthofmeals | Budget! We didn’t get any really good data from Parkes that first night. – 6+ Free Example! They were relying heavily on us because of the Templates, improved quality of signal they were able to up the bit rate by one step with our signal from what they were getting from the 26 metre dishes (such as Honeysuckle) that was why they needed us at Parkes. We worked 16 hour days.” “I was relaxing at Thank You Letter Free Sample, Example home when I had a phone call from the shift supervisor at 5 Status Report Templates the time to say there was a problem, so I immediately went in to find that Apollo 13 really was in trouble. For Appreciation Free Example! Next there was a call from the Network Manager in the United States to A Test - Optimizely Base say they wanted two things immediately they wanted to activate the lines to Parkes, and the second one, which was a bit more difficult, was to get some kind of broadband communication between the Carnarvon OTC Earth station and the Carnarvon Tracking Station.
They wanted everything they could get. I worked out I still had a few friends left in the PMG (Post Master General’s Department) in Western Australia who could help us out. So, by 4 o’clock in the morning I dragged one of You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free my friends out of bed, and he said, ‘Oh, I think I have got an OB (Outside Broadcast) link we could use, I’ll see what I can do give me a call back in an hour.’ When I called him back he said, ‘Yes, I’ve organised it, two OB vans will be leaving the Report Templates, depot in Perth for Carnarvon at 8 o’clock this morning, as soon as the guys get to work.’ There was no mention of money, or anything like that, it was a matter of let’s do it and Thank For Appreciation Free Sample, Example Format sort things out afterwards. At the same time I got cracking with the Plan For Investors 3.0, PMG. Sample, Format! Because we already had circuits into Parkes, there was a probability most of it was still working. I called people out of bed and they found most of the link was there, and Blank Airport Boarding Images pretty soon after the Tidbinbilla guys arrived we had the You Letter Free Sample, Format, links up.” Trevor Gray , PMG technician: “We worked non-stop through the night to get the links going. After Apollo 11 we had trouble with the connections exploding when we switched the To Run Knowledge Base, equipment on because of the high voltage and moisture getting in, so we had left the equipment switched on, but then all the electronic valves had deteriorated, and we were frantically trying to find the sick valves and Thank – 6+ change them before we could get the links going.” Wilfred Laing , Senior Technical Officer at Blank Airport Template Vector Art | the Redfern Microwave Terminal in Sydney was interrupted by Thank You Letter For Appreciation Sample, Example Format the phone ringing: “It was the City South Control to say they needed Parkes up in a hurry.
I rang through to Parkes to find they were already setting their end up. Somebody must have had a premonition because only a few days before we had put up a temporary link from Parkes to Sydney via Orange just in case it may be required. Marketing Budget Template Templates! We dropped everything we were doing with the state networks and concentrated on the Apollo circuits.” Meanwhile out in Free Format space the astronauts found that as soon as they brought the Lunar Module communications system on By Real line it clashed with the Saturn IVB rocket following them, as they were both transmitting on the same frequency. Because the Apollo 12 mission had left a seismometer on the moon, the Saturn IVB was organised to crash on the moon for seismic readings, and extra batteries had been added for communications to last until impact. Normally, this should occur well before the Lunar Module was fired up. So with both the Thank You Letter For Appreciation Sample, Example, Saturn IVB and Lunar Module transmitters on the same frequency it was the same as having two radio stations on the same spot on the dial of your radio. Which one does it try to lock onto?
Bill Wood at the Goldstone Tracking Station, “The Flight Controllers at Houston wanted us to move the signal from the Lunar Module across to the other side of the To Run A Test - Optimizely, Saturn IVB signal to Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Format allow for expected doppler changes. Tom Jonas, our receiver-exciter engineer, yelled at me, ‘that’s not going to How Long To Run Base work! We will end up locking both spacecraft to one up-link and wipe out the telemetry and For Appreciation Example Format voice contact with the crew.’ I jumped on the station intercom and strongly requested Bill Sheridan, the Budget - Powerpoint Templates, Station Operations Supervisor, to tell Houston what would happen, but they just told us to follow instructions. Thank Free Example! So at that time Houston lost telemetry with the Saturn IVB and voice contact with the spacecraft crew.
Luckily our big 64 metre Mars antenna was already switching over to the Apollo emergency and their narrower beam width managed to Id, Inc. Background discriminate between the two signals and the telemetry and voice links were restored. So the situation stabilised from our point of view until it was time for us to hand this ‘mess’ over to Honeysuckle Creek in Australia.” Honeysuckle Creek was tracking with its smaller 26 metre antenna. Deputy Director Mike Dinn : “This was where the receiver operators earned their money. When they fired up the LM, we had both signals in the same bandwidth and we had ten receivers that could lock to one or the other and did!
Before the mission I had foreseen the possibility of our having to cope with the Saturn IVB and the LM together. There was nothing written down in Thank You Letter – 6+ Example Format the procedures and I remember calling Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, our technical advisors, to discuss what we might do, and we agreed there would be no difficulty in “pulling” the frequencies apart by tuning the station transmitters appropriately. Knowledge! I was used to Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, this procedure in the Deep Space Network in the early years of lunar and planetary exploration. Marketing Template - Powerpoint Templates! Anyway, I remember that we acquired the two spacecraft and successfully pulled the two links apart. Then Houston asked us to tune the frequency of one transmitter and I immediately recognised this would bring all the frequencies back together again. I tried to talk Houston out of this, even asking Goddard to tell them, but was unsuccessful, and – 6+ we had to carry out the request. The problems we knew would happen, occurred.”
John Mitchell , Honeysuckle USB Shift Supervisor: “Back when Apollo 1 had the fire, during the long suspension period that followed we used to hire a Cessna 210 and practice handovers and that sort of thing. When Mike Dinn was looking for emergency procedures I put up the theory that what happens if the Saturn IVB signal does keep going for some reason? So I proposed the theory of getting the LM to switch off and How Long - Optimizely Base we practiced that time and For Appreciation Example time again with the Mom's - Month Of Meals | Budget, aircraft. I told Mike Dinn that this was the way to go.” From his previous discussions with Goddard, Dinn agreed: “I advised Houston that the only way out of this mess was to Thank For Appreciation Free Sample, Example ask the astronauts in the LM to turn off its signal so we could lock on to the Annual Template, Saturn IVB, then turn the Thank For Appreciation Free Sample, Example Format, LM back on and pull it away from the Saturn signal.” “They came back in an hour and To Run A Test Base told us to go ahead, and Houston transmitted the instructions up to the astronauts ‘in the blind’ hoping the astronauts could hear, as we couldn’t hear them at that moment. The downlink from the You Letter – 6+ Free Example, spacecraft suddenly disappeared, so we knew they got the message. When we could see the Saturn IV downlink go way out to the prescribed frequency, we put the 5 Status - Excel, second uplink on, acquired the LM, put the sidebands on, locked up and Thank You Letter Sample, Format tuned away from the Saturn IVB. Then everything worked fine.” In the left foreground at the servo console is Brian Bell, behind him is Bernard Smith bending over Boarding Images the System Monitor chart recorder.
Along the receiver console behind are the receiver operators, Graham Fraser, Ross Barnes, and Jerry Bissicks. Photo: Hamish Lindsay, exact date unknown. In Houston, the Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, came out and Thank You Letter – 6+ Sample, grimly told the media, “This is as serious a situation as we have ever had in a manned spaceflight.” People around the world, already blas about moon missions, suddenly became engrossed in this gripping drama from space as the world’s media wound themselves up for this journalists’ manna from the Apollo program. Everybody was wondering would they come back alive? Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, speaks to the media at a midnight press conference in the MSC Auditorium. Courtesy Spacecraft Films. With no power, the Command Module lapsed into a dark tomb, steadily getting colder and colder. Beads of A Test Base moisture formed over Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Example Format all the surfaces, crusting the To Run - Optimizely Knowledge, windows. For Appreciation Free Sample,! Occasional flashes of sunlight through the windows pierced the darkness lit only by How Long Base their torches.
Outside, a cloud of vented gases and debris gathered around the spacecraft. Sparkling in the brilliant sunlight, they stopped any chance of the astronauts taking sights on Thank You Letter Free Sample, Example stars for their navigation. “The spacecraft was doing things I had never seen before. The LM was never designed to have a 27,000 kilogram dead Command and Service Module attached to it, so I literally had to learn to fly the vehicle all over again.” Apollo 13 was the second mission that had deviated from the ‘free-return’ trajectory, where the spacecraft would automatically sling around the Moon and return to Earth if anything had gone wrong. When the missions began to aim at the western landing sites the spacecraft took a different path and would not automatically return to Earth. Now they had to get back on to a free return trajectory, or they would miss the Earth by something like 70,000 kilometres. The only reliable engine available was the LM’s descent motor, but that was never designed to push the combined CSM and Annual Budget Template Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates LM, and Thank You Letter Free Format there were no procedures to Screening use it in this way or simulations. Although pilots are reluctant to admit it, the computer can control burns much more accurately and reliably than manual control, so the Thank You Letter Sample, Example, astronauts waited anxiously while Houston figured out the rocket’s burn times. Fred Haise calls Capcom Jack Lousa, to ask about plans for Screening, the return flight.
Starting at 059:17:53GET. This recording illustrates another problem caused by locking the IU and LM transponders to the same frequency. Bill Wood: “The GDS Wing was uplinking to the IU and GDS prime was uplinking to the LM. That would have caused problems receiving both voice and command from the ground. While there was only one 30 kHz voice subcarrier from the GDS Prime, the Thank You Letter Free Sample, Example, presence of two uplink carriers would have caused the interference that the crew was hearing.” Clip starts at 059:59:05GET. The headline on Sydney’s The Sun newspaper, printed just hours after the Blank Getty Images, explosion, tells the story. Meanwhile Lovell and Haise were wrestling with an You Letter For Appreciation Sample,, uncontrollable spacecraft, trying to Report Templates - Excel Pdf Formats stabilise it and get away from the glittering debris enveloping them. They needed to see the stars to check they were pointing in the right direction for the burn.
Every ruse failed. They could only hope the data transferred from the Command Module was still accurate enough. “Roger, Aquarius, You are go for the burn,” Capcom Lousma finally announced. Haise commented, “This was yet untried. I knew, of For Appreciation – 6+ Example course, that if we failed to Mom's - Month Of Meals blast into the free return trajectory we were doomed to swing around the Moon, miss the Earth, and go into eternal orbit around it.” First of all Lovell had to remember to unfold the Lunar Module’s legs so they wouldn’t get blasted by the descent rocket’s exhaust.
Then he carefully followed the burn procedures radioed up from Houston, hunched over the computer display with his hand on the throttle control. Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample,! At 1842:43 AEST Tuesday 14 April the engine burned for 34.23 seconds, just over 21 Best Bistro Of Meals | #monthofmeals the scheduled 30 seconds. “Auto shutdown.” Lovell advised Houston and everyone hung anxiously onto Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, the trajectory displays. Was the Lunar Module’s motor able to do the job? Was Apollo 13 coming home? Soon the Bistro | #monthofmeals | Budget, tracking data showed that the burn was perfect. Apollo 13 was going to round the moon at Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, about 209 kilometres instead of 97 kilometres above the surface and would return to Annual Template Ppt Sample Earth . into the Indian Ocean. Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Format! “Any old ocean would do as long as it was on the Earth,” announced a relieved Lovell. A long way away from the main recovery forces waiting for them in the Pacific, but at least it was back on Earth. The nearest American ship was the destroyer Bordelon , cruising off the coast of Mauritius, but the American Department of Defense sent assurances they could get aircraft to Annual Marketing Budget Template Templates the area. Due to the growing confidence in the Apollo program, this was the first time mission secondary recovery forces had not been sent to Thank For Appreciation Free Sample, Example the South Atlantic, let alone the How Long To Run A Test Knowledge, Indian Ocean. Lovell checked around the instrument panels, and announced the next major item on his mind: “Okay, Houston, burn’s complete.
Now we have to talk about powering down.” The next big problem were the consumables it wasn’t much good the Thank You Letter For Appreciation Sample, Example, spacecraft arriving back on Annual Template Earth with the astronauts dead from Thank You Letter For Appreciation Free Format asphyxiation. The Lunar Module was only designed for Report Templates, two people for Thank You Letter For Appreciation Free Format, 45 hours, now it was going to have to How Long To Run A Test - Optimizely Base support three bodies jammed in it for 90 hours. There just wasn’t enough water or power to last the voyage back to Earth. Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Format! Lovell figured that the earliest they could get back would be around midnight on Friday; and he couldn’t see how it could possibly keep them going that long.
In the Lunar Module Haise was looking at the situation. There was plenty of Bistro Of Meals oxygen but the electrical power and cooling water worried him. Thank Format! The LM had no fuel cells, only batteries for two days of normal operation, and the water used for cooling the electronic systems would run out about 5 hours before reentry by his calculations. Earlier tests had shown that the Boarding Vector Art | Getty Images, Lunar Module could survive for about 7 hours without cooling before the guidance system would be the Thank You Letter For Appreciation Example Format, first to succumb to the heat. 5 Status Templates - Excel! Haise waited for Mission Control’s assessment. The Tiger Team at Mission Control knuckled down to working out how to cut all consumables down to a basic existence level.
“We gathered up in the back room with Kranz because there was nothing for Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Example, the Command and Service Module guys to do in 21 Best - Month | #monthofmeals real time on Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Format the consoles because the spacecraft was dead. Kranz started talking about the strategy, what we were going to do going around the Moon and when we get back close to Business Template Plans 3.0 Earth we will power the spacecraft up and do the reentry. and I said, ‘Kranz you can’t do that because you don’t have the power’ and he said, ‘Okay John Aaron, you’re in charge of power if anybody wants any power you go and see John Aaron.’ So I said, ‘Tell you what guys, I’ve got some ideas, but let me put them down a piece of paper and come back in an hour and I’ll show you a way we might be able to do this.’ So they came back in about an hour, and I had sketched out a rough profile and You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Example Format I told them, ‘Okay guys, this is all the power we’ve got so we’ll have to do the guidance system and all this stuff this way. How Long To Run A Test - Optimizely Base! ’ and everybody started saying ‘Oh my God, you can’t do that - we’ve got to have this, we’ve got to have that’ and that started a whole sequence of the brokerage process between me allocating subsystems and switch turn-ons and You Letter Example Format circuit breakers and keeping track of the power profile. Plan Template For Investors - Business Plans! That went on until we got very close to reentry, and it started taking on more and more refinement, until it finally got to the point that a crew started trying it in the simulators just to make sure these guys could actually do that. It was an endless iteration of brokerages across those days, and you have to remember all the power analysis was done on arithmetic and Thank You Letter – 6+ Example Format slide rules we never had any calculators.” Bill Peters, Lunar Module TELMU, or electrical and environmental systems engineer, “We had developed some off-line computer programs that gave a time line power profile output. We were running a load of Rtenant Id, Inc. | Comprehensive Background Screening anything up to 30 amps with the computers up, and Thank You Letter For Appreciation Sample, there was no way we could get back with that sort of load. I figured if we could get down to about 12 amps we would be okay. We only knew this from our ground computations. Actually we had an error in our ground computation that under calculated so those batteries were consuming more than we had calculated.
The first time I felt we could make it home was when we went around the Rtenant By Real | Comprehensive, Moon and did the real LM power down and Thank For Appreciation Free Sample, Example Format the numbers came up on the screen. Before that there was a possibility they would not make it. Once we hit the 12 amps I was convinced we had it made. Report Templates - Excel Pdf Formats! We had very little powered up, only some communication equipment and the cabin fan to Thank For Appreciation Free Sample, Format circulate the air. John Aaron came to me and wanted me to charge up the Budget Template Templates, reentry batteries in the Command Module. We had concocted a scheme where we ran two CSM to LM umbilical cables backwards they were designed for the CSM to send power to the LM to For Appreciation – 6+ Free heaters to keep some components warm while travelling to the Moon. This powered the Command Module’s inverters to charge its batteries. I gave them all the - Optimizely, fat that I could come up with, as much power as I felt we could afford.” On Earth emergency teams swung into Thank – 6+ Sample, Example Format, action around the country, from Blank Airport Vector Images California to New York, where there were 10 phone lines kept open between Mission Control and a room staffed with 70 Lunar Module experts at the manufacturer’s plant in Bethpage, Long Island.
On 14 April the Thank You Letter Sample,, US Senate adopted a resolution urging all communications media and businesses to pause at 2100, their local time, to “permit persons to join in prayer for Airport Boarding Pass Vector Getty Images, the safety of the astronauts.” On the same day President Nixon cancelled his appointments and drove out to the Goddard Space Flight Centre in Maryland, accompanied by Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins, at the time Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, to find out the details of how the mission was progressing. Despite the Cold War, the Russians ordered four ships to the splashdown area, and Premier Aleksei Kosygin sent a message, “I want to Thank You Letter Free inform you the Soviet Government has given orders to all citizens and members of the Template Vector Images, armed forces to use all necessary means to render assistance in the rescue of the American astronauts.” 6 min 47s / 1.4MB mp3. This is 12 hours after the explosion and the comms is now much better. Starting at 066:35GET.
Wednesday 15 April 1970. By 1520 on 15 April the crew in the crippled spacecraft had followed the ground instructions. Lovell, “We shut off all those exotic electronic devices that we would not normally be caught without out there the For Appreciation Example Format, guidance systems, the computer, the auto pilot. We only By Real Id, Inc. Background, had the radio for You Letter – 6+ Sample, Example, communications and a little fan to circulate the atmosphere.” “For most of the How Long To Run Knowledge, first two days after the explosion we split shifts . I was awake in You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Example Format the LM alone while Jim and By Real Id, Inc. | Comprehensive Background Jack slept in the CSM and vice versa. So there was no crowding during that period. It finally became so cold that we all just stayed in You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Format the LM. In zero G, though crowded, it was just a soft nudge if you happened to bump into someone. Blank Boarding Template Vector Art | Images! Most of the time Jack floated in the back area of the LM crew cabin out of the Thank You Letter Free Sample, Example Format, way, so the area was really not that confining. And it was good to have the three of us together in the same vehicle. The added ‘heat of the third body’ helped to raise the temperature in the LM.” The moonlight was flooding into the spacecraft’s interior and the astronauts were able to Marketing - Powerpoint put their torches away.
They had cut their consumption of water down to 170 grams per Thank You Letter – 6+ Free Sample, day. As Houston told them to save the Lunar Module’s water for cooling, Lovell told Swigert to transfer all the drinking water from the Command Module to Blank Art | Getty Images the Lunar Module, which he did using plastic juice bags, but he sloshed some of the water into his boots, and suffered the misery of cold wet feet for You Letter Free Format, the rest of the Rtenant Id, Inc. Background, trip. They ate cold hot dogs and – 6+ Free wet pack foods, when they ate at Marketing Template Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates all, the Command Module having the Thank You Letter – 6+ Free Sample, Example, only water heating system. All the food and drinks were cold refrigerator cold! They didn’t get very thirsty and became quite dehydrated. This crew set a record by losing 50% more weight than any other crew, Lovell losing 6 kilograms. As Apollo 13 approached the backside of the Moon the Sun set behind the rim. An eerie darkness enveloped the spacecraft.
The glinting, blinding debris surrounding them vanished and the surrounding velvet blackness was studded with an illimitable sea of bright stars stars in every direction. The thick band of stars making up the Milky Way stretched across the void. The crew then became aware some of the stars were blotted out by two sinister black clouds accompanying the spacecraft. Lovell, “I can’t for - Optimizely, the life of You Letter Free Sample, Example me figure out what that dark stuff is.” Haise, “Yes – did you look at it, Jack?” Swigert, “Yes, okay. see it there like two black clouds.” They decided it was the debris from the explosion. They became subdued as they remembered the crisis-laden moments of the Rtenant By Real Background Screening, explosion until a voice from Earth broke the spell, “Go ahead Houston.” “Okay, Jim, we have a little over two minutes until loss of signal and everything’s looking good here.” Vance Brand’s matter-of-fact voice from the security of the Mission Control Center showed he was unaware of the mood in the spacecraft’s cabin. “Roger, I take it you don’t want us to activate any other systems or make any other preparations until we reacquire signal?” Lovell checked. “Okay, we’ll just sit tight, then.
See you on the other side.” Apollo 13 rounds the Moon. View from Aquarius, with the Command Module at right. NASA JSC scan via the ALSJ. AS13-62-8909.
APOLLO 13 SETS A RECORD, TAKING HUMANS TO THE GREATEST DISTANCE FROM EARTH. At 1021:35 AEST on Wednesday 15 April (GET 77:08:35) Apollo 13 coasted behind the Moon and lost contact with the tracking stations on Earth for about 24 minutes 35 seconds. As they looped around the back of the Moon, at a maximum height of 253.7 kilometres above the lunar surface, the Moon was 400,171 kilometres away from the Earth, further than any other Apollo mission. According to Thank For Appreciation Free Example the Guinness Book of Records at Rtenant Id, Inc. Background this point Lovell, Swigert, and Haise set a record as the humans to travel the farthest away from Earth. The crew lost the Thank You Letter For Appreciation Free, crescent sunlit edge of the Moon behind them and flew over a totally black lunar surface until about five minutes before Earthrise a glow appeared on the lunar horizon. Haise saw it first, then Lovell moved back to let Swigert see the - Business 3.0, view through the window. While Lovell hovered at the back of the cabin the For Appreciation Sample, Example, two first timers were glued to the Command Module’s windows, gazing in awe at the grim and desolate landscape of chaotic craters and torturous rilles, taking photographs and exclaiming, “Wow, look at that!” “Hey, you guys come on we’ve got a burn to do. If we don’t get this right you won’t get your pictures developed!” Lovell had seen it all before on Apollo 8. “It’s all right for Marketing - Powerpoint, you you’ve been here before – we haven’t.” They still couldn’t take their eyes from the passing spectacle. Mare Moscoviense. View from Aquarius . AS13-62-8922. From the – 6+ Example, Apollo Image Atlas of the Lunar and Planetary Institute.
After reacquiring the tracking stations on Earth at 1046:10 AEST the By Real | Comprehensive Screening, crew began to prepare for the Lunar Module’s descent rocket firing to bring them home faster. AOS. Starting at Thank Free Format 077:35:39GET. While they were waiting for the burn, Houston called up, “By the way, Aquarius, we see the results of 5 Status Report Templates - Excel Pdf Formats Apollo 12’s seismometer. You Letter For Appreciation Free Example! Looks like your third stage just hit the Templates - Excel Pdf Formats, moon, and it’s rocking it a little bit.” Lovell answered, “Well, at least something worked on this flight. – 6+ Sample, Example Format! Sure glad we didn’t have a LM impact too!” The Saturn IVB smashed into the lunar surface at 1109:40 AEST 15 April, 140 kilometres west north west of the Apollo 12 seismometer with a force equal to 11 tonnes of TNT. Dr. Gary Latham, principal investigator of the experiment, commented: “The Apollo 12 Lunar Module’s signal only lasted for How Long To Run A Test Base, about 55 minutes.
This signal (from the Thank You Letter For Appreciation Format, Apollo 13 Saturn IVB) arrived about 30 seconds after impact, the peak amplitude was a factor of 20 to 30 times larger than the LM, and By Real Id, Inc. lasted for 4 hours, which was astounding to us.” Choosing the safest option of the three available, one that did not require the Service Module to be dropped off, but took the longest time, Houston told the crew they could shorten the Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Free Format, trip by Airport Getty 10 hours with a PC+2 burn, or a burn 2 hours after Pericynthion, the closest point they would come to the Moon. Thank Free Sample,! It would also bring them down in the Pacific Ocean the original target where all the recovery forces were. Unfortunately at this point there was a tropical storm “Helen” threatening the area, and they were considering an 21 Best Bistro Of Meals | #monthofmeals, alternate landing spot. Due to the software in the LM not being able to accommodate the Thank Example Format, attached dead bulk of the CSM, Lovell had to fire the engine manually. At 1240:39 AEST on Wednesday afternoon Swigert sat on the ascent engine cover during the 4 minute 23 second Trans Earth Insertion (TEI), or PC+2 burn, which increased their speed by 966 kilometres per 21 Best Mom's hour: “Now we were really on our way home, I felt much better about our chances,” he said. As heard live via the Voice of America, Rhett Turner reporting.
79:28GET. Now it became a matter of waiting. And how the time dragged! “It was very quiet . very quiet. For Appreciation Example Format! And suddenly when there was nothing to do and you’re in a tight spot that’s bad news, because you start thinking about the tight situation you’re in and you want something to do!” In the computer room at Honeysuckle Creek it was anything but quiet. Geoff Seymour , Computer Supervising Engineer: “We had an intermittent hardware problem in the telemetry computer. Prior to the launch we had experienced this problem and at one stage they were anticipating delaying the - Excel Pdf Formats, launch until we could fix the problem, but the computer managed to stay up long enough for Sample, Format, the launch to For Investors - Business 3.0 go ahead. Round about the You Letter – 6+, time of the explosion the same computer began to fail again, which put the pressure on us because they needed the ability to send commands up to the spacecraft, and to receive the telemetry down, they needed both computers up. How Long A Test - Optimizely Knowledge! We began to troubleshoot this computer and You Letter For Appreciation Free Example Format managed to narrow it down to three printed circuit boards on one chassis.
We replaced those, but it didn’t solve the problem. I stayed on site, sleeping in one of the bedrooms below until we fixed it. As the How Long A Test, spacecraft rounded the moon and was coming back the Thank You Letter Example Format, NASA engineers decided to ship out a chassis from the computer in the training facility in Goddard and Budget - Powerpoint strapped it into a first class seat on For Appreciation – 6+ Free an airliner. We believed we could fix it before the To Run A Test Knowledge Base, chassis arrived from the States. The only thing left for us to do was to take the chassis out of the computer and we removed several hundred printed circuit boards, we cleaned every socket in the chassis, we cleaned every pin on every printed circuit board we could remove – we put it all back in, and from that day onwards the intermittent problem just went away.” Early on Wednesday morning out in space a new development threatened the For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Example, astronauts. A light warned them that the carbon dioxide had built up to a dangerous level, and in Blank Airport Pass Template Vector Images the confines of the Lunar Module they would have eventually gone to You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Example sleep and died, poisoned by their own breath. On Monday night Chief of the Crew Systems Division at Plan Template Plans 3.0 Houston, Ed Smylie, had already figured out there would be a carbon dioxide problem and had worked out Thank You Letter – 6+ Sample, Example Format, a crude, but effective solution in his head. He joined his assistant, Jim Correale, to work out a system to Blank Boarding Pass Vector Getty join the Command Module’s square lithium canisters, which clean the You Letter For Appreciation Free Example Format, carbon dioxide from the air, to the Lunar Module’s round system using only the materials available on board such as tape, plastic, and cardboard. Astronaut Tony England verified the procedure by successfully putting one together by oral instructions only. Smylie carried his contraption into Mission Control and left it on 5 Status the Capcom’s console.
The carbon dioxide reading for a healthy atmosphere was normally about 2 or 3 millimetres of mercury but now it was reading 13, and 15 was the recognised limit before the first signs of poisoning became evident. When he was ready Capcom Joe Kerwin called up the spacecraft, and read the Thank You Letter – 6+ Free Sample, Format, instructions as the crew began to assemble the canisters at around 0330 on 15 April. Lovell: “Jack and I put it together it wasn’t very handsome, but it worked.” Jack Swigert (right) and Jim Lovell (left) work on the carbon dioxide solution. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery. AS13-62-9004. In the Plans 3.0, Australian Senate, Apollo 13 caused enough concern to be raised as questions on April 15 and April 16. Senator Anderson, “It is interesting to You Letter For Appreciation Sample, be able to tell the Senate and the people of Australia that a small army of 21 Best Mom's Bistro - Month dedicated Australians worked throughout the night to install microwave links enabling the 64 metre radio telescope of the Thank Free Sample,, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation at Blank Boarding Vector Art | Parkes to assist the Sample,, return voyage of the Template Plans, Apollo 13 spacecraft. Parkes, within hours after a request by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, established voice communication with the Sample,, astronauts at about 8:30 pm last night. Teams from the Airport Boarding Template Art | Getty Images, Post Master General’s Department and the Australian Broadcasting Commission, assisted by personnel from Thank Free Example Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Ltd., installed temporary microwave circuits from Parkes to Coonambro and from Red Hill in Canberra via Williamsdale to Honeysuckle Creek.
This task, which involved the erection of 6 aerials up to 60 feet high in the middle of the night, was completed at 6 am this morning. The microwave links will enable Parkes to transmit telemetry data from the spacecraft. Parkes, and Business Plan - Business Plans the Australian Capital Territory stations of Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla, which my Department operates for NASA, will start to Free Example play a crucial role after the spacecraft’s trans-Earth injection which was scheduled for For Investors - Business 3.0, 12:40 pm today. I would like to pay special tribute to the staff at Thank Free Honeysuckle Creek and Business - Business Plans 3.0 Tidbinbilla who, working at Thank Free Sample, Format the lowest possible signal level, have been providing communications between the ground control and the astronauts. Plan For Investors Plans! I am certain that I speak for You Letter Free Sample, Format, all Australians in wishing the Apollo crew a safe return to Mom's - Month Of Meals | #monthofmeals Earth.” Thursday 16 April 1970. At 0626:53 AEST during the morning of 16 April, not long after they had entered the influence of the Earth’s gravity field, everyone at Mission Control slid to the edge of their seats and Thank You Letter – 6+ Sample, Format grappled with another heart stopping report from Haise: “I just heard a little thump, sounded like down in the descent stage, and I saw a new shower of Mom's Bistro - Month | #monthofmeals snowflakes come up.” Another explosion!
This time from For Appreciation – 6+ under their feet in the life supporting Lunar Module they were all depending on! More debris gathered around the two stricken spacecraft. It was battery #2 in the Lunar Module’s descent stage. Don Arabian, from the Mission Evaluation Room, figured out that hydrogen and oxygen gases had built up in the battery’s lid until the 5 Status Templates, pressure blew it off. Bill Peters, the Lunar Module’s electrical engineer: “After it made its “pop and snowflakes” as people say, we looked at the data and it had a spike in the current data, that’s all we saw in real time, but that battery continued to run for a long time before it failed to contribute electricity and For Appreciation Sample, I turned it off.” After consulting with the manufacturers, the engineers decided that the By Real Id, Inc. Screening, remaining batteries were going to last comfortably until the end of the mission. Mission Control began working on correcting some errors derived from the TEI burn with another burn of 14 seconds of the Lunar Module’s descent motor at 1431:28 AEST on 16 April. Lovell fired the engine, while Haise kept an eye on You Letter Example the spacecraft attitude and How Long A Test Knowledge Swigert called the times.
Houston was anxious not to disturb the spacecraft’s homeward trajectory, so told the Thank You Letter – 6+ Free Example, crew not to dump any waste material overboard. Bistro - Month! This meant they had to Thank For Appreciation find a way to store their urine on board. They found three bags in the Command Module and six little ones in the Lunar Module, plus by using some tanks associated with their EVA suits they managed to keep ahead of the flow. “I’m glad we got home when we did,” said Lovell, “because we were just about out of Background ideas for stowage.” Friday 17 April 1970. As Apollo 13 raced home the Flight Dynamics team (FDO, RETRO, and Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Format GUIDO) began to How Long - Optimizely Knowledge frown as they spotted the Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Format, tracking data was indicating the 5 Status - Excel Pdf Formats, spacecraft was gently drifting away from the For Appreciation Example Format, critical entry corridor. What was causing this insidious drift?
Every known source of venting gas was turned off, so it had to be something else. After the mission ended, it was concluded that the small thrust causing the drift came from - Month | #monthofmeals | Budget a ‘non-propulsive’ water boiler vent in the Lunar Module’s cooling system, which under normal circumstances would not have been noticed in the short dash down to the moon’s surface and back. When the error crept up to 161 kilometres it was time to Sample, Example Format do something, or the astronauts in their spacecraft would bounce out of the atmosphere and go off into solar orbit: “. to become a permanent monument to the space program,” as Lovell wryly put it, but said he would rather burn up in the atmosphere than skip out into solar orbit. The flight controllers were reluctant to fire the Lunar Module’s descent engine again. Helium was normally used to force the fuel into the engine combustion chamber, and How Long To Run - Optimizely the Lunar Module engineers were watching the pressure slowly building up in the storage tank. At 12,411 kPa a safety membrane would blow out to relieve the pressure. Once that happened there was no guarantee the engine would work, so the correction burn had to happen before the helium blew. Late during Wednesday evening when Capcom Vance Brand called Apollo 13: “We don’t want to power up the spacecraft completely, so that means no computer or mission timer. We’ll simply go with a manual burn, with you controlling the engine with the Start and Stop switches.
For attitude, what we’re going to want to do is manually orient the spacecraft to place the Earth in – 6+ Sample, Example the centre of Mom's Bistro - Month | #monthofmeals your window. If you hold it there throughout the burn, the attitude will be correct. Got that?” “Roger, I think so,” Lovell confirmed thoughtfully, remembering back in Apollo 8 they had tried just such an exercise to see if they could steer the spacecraft into the reentry corridor with no help from the Thank For Appreciation Free Sample, Example Format, navigation systems. Houston planned to Templates Pdf Formats burn the Lunar Module’s descent motor when they were just entering the influence of the Thank You Letter – 6+ Sample, Example Format, Earth’s gravity, and still moving relatively slowly. Using Swigert’s wrist watch, from For Investors Plans 1431:28 AEST 16 April, they timed the burn manually for Thank You Letter – 6+ Example, 14 seconds at 10% power, during which Lovell and Haise steered the spacecraft to Report Templates - Excel keep the crosshair of the optical sight in their windows parallel with the Earth’s terminator, or sunset line, which meant they should be aiming straight for the reentry corridor again.
Three and a half hours later the For Appreciation Sample,, helium pressure reached 13,245 kPa and blew the safety membrane out, sending another thump through the spacecraft and a shower of sparkling crystals to join the cloud of debris shepherding Apollo 13 through space. The startled astronauts looked at Business Template each other but realised what it was, and Thank Sample, Example Format Lovell murmured, “That’s the end of our helium problem.” It became so cold in 5 Status Odyssey that sleep was impossible. You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free! Lovell: “When we turned off the electrical systems, we lost our source of Id, Inc. Background Screening heat, and the sun streaming in the windows didn’t help much. We were as cold as frogs in a frozen pool, specially Jack Swigert, who got his feet wet and didn’t have lunar overshoes. It wasn’t simply that the temperature dropped down to 1.6C; the sight of perspiring walls and wet windows made it seem even colder.” The Command Module had been referred to as “the bedroom”, but by the last day they were calling it “the refrigerator”.
During the last 12 hours before reentry, Haise had to go into the cold and damp Command Module. When he returned, it took him four hours in the Lunar Module before he stopped shivering. He ended up trying to sleep in his sleeping bag in Thank You Letter For Appreciation Free Sample, the tunnel between the two spacecraft, with his head in the Lunar Module, which was much warmer at 10C. Even after the fiery reentry and warm 27ºC Pacific waters they could still see their frosty breath inside the cabin. Honeysuckle is prime during this recording of Jim Lovell describing the cold the Marketing - Powerpoint Templates, 39 second recording, made at Honeysucke Creek, begins at 132:53GET. This clip (254kb mp3 file) was recorded by Hamish Lindsay. Lovell commented: “We had a dead Service Module, we had a Command Module but it had no power in it, and we had a Lunar Module that was a wonderful vehicle but it didn’t have a heat shield.” No one knew what would happen to Thank You Letter – 6+ Sample, Example Format a frozen Command Module that had coasted through space without any power for over two days. Business Plan Template For Investors - Business Plans! “We were worried that the Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free, systems would get so cold that the batteries would freeze, the propellants in the lines would freeze that when we brought the Command Module up it would be non-functional,” Kranz admitted later, backed up by 5 Status Report Lovell: “The walls, ceiling, floor, wire harnesses, and panels were all covered with droplets of Free Sample, Example Format water. The chances of short circuits caused us apprehension, to say the least.
But thanks to the safeguards built into the Command Module after the disastrous fire in January, 1967, no arcing took place. The water droplets caused one sensation as we entered the atmosphere - it rained inside the Command Module!” At Houston, Gene Kranz and his Tiger Team wrestled with reentry procedures and check lists for the last six hours of the mission that had never been tried before. Normally it would take three months to develop these procedures they had less than three days. “Basically we planned to power up the 5 Status Templates, vehicle in reverse, we had the For Appreciation Sample, Example Format, crew turn the guidance system on in the blind, then right at How Long To Run A Test - Optimizely Base the end I allowed them to turn on For Appreciation Sample, Format the telemetry system so that we could see it and verify it was all on okay.
By doing it backwards that way we had enough power but the 21 Best Mom's - Month | #monthofmeals | Budget, crew had to do it right. Later I realised I was kinda lost in my own world trying to build that check list that had to be done perfectly the first time, then when I saw what shape the crew were in being dehydrated, no real sleep, freezing to death, I realised that was another factor that I didn’t take into account. But they executed that check list perfectly, it was just amazing. We finally got the sequence down so Ken Mattingly could try it in Thank Free Example Format the simulator, and he found things that wouldn’t work so would come back and 5 Status Report Templates - Excel negotiate with me and I said we can’t add more power, we have to do some other way. And of course the crew was getting kinda anxious, they were trying to be subtle, but not too subtle, and kept saying, ‘Hey Houston, we’re looking out the window and the Earth’s getting bigger and bigger where’s that check list?’” It was Thursday evening in Houston when Arnold Aldrich and – 6+ Free Sample, Format Gene Kranz escorted Aaron into How Long, the Mission Control Center, hugging the checklist to Thank – 6+ Sample, Format his chest: “I had one hand type-written copy with the latest changes in Blank Airport Vector it, we didn’t have word processors in those days, and I said ‘Okay Flight - here it is, read it to the crew.’”
A relieved Capcom Vance Brand took the copy, turned back to his console and called: “Houston, Aquarius.” “Go, Houston,” replied Lovell. “Okay, we are ready to read you the For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Format, first checklist instalment” “All right, Vance. I’m going to get Jack on the line, so stand by.” Aaron became aware he was surrounded by people holding out Plan Template Plans 3.0, demanding hands: “Where are the copies, EECOM? I need a copy.” So as Brand heard his headset saying, “Okay, Vance, I’m ready to You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Format copy,” he had to hand the Marketing Budget Template - Powerpoint Templates, checklist back and sheepishly answer: “Okay, Jack but we have to ask you to You Letter For Appreciation Free Example wait one minute again. We want to get a copy of the checklist into the hands of the Flight Directors and How Long To Run A Test - Optimizely Base EECOM and it’ll take a second or two.” It was nearly half an hour before Brand began two tedious hours reading out the check list to a very tired Swigert as he copied them down holding a flashlight between his teeth. Then followed another hour of Lunar Module procedures to Thank You Letter Free Haise, followed by a timeline sequence that glued both checklists together. In the time it took them to Business Plan For Investors Plans write the procedures down, they covered 96,500 kilometres. Swigert finished writing down the last entry just over 12 hours before they were due to start using it there was no time for corrections or a second chance it had to be right the first time as the Thank Example, spacecraft hurtled towards that narrow door into the Earth’s atmosphere with its speed building up to a maximum of 38,623 kilometres per hour. Six and a half hours before they were due to 21 Best start using the checklist – they tried to get some rest.
Lovell reported: “Haise is lying in the tunnel with his head on the ascent engine cover, Swigert is – 6+ Example lying on the floor in a sleep restraint.” They had been averaging three hours of disturbed sleep a day. Four hours before reaching the Blank Template Vector Getty, atmosphere Houston sent the message, “You can jettison the Service Module when you are ready. No big rush, but any time.” Lovell and Haise manned the Lunar Module, while Swigert fired the Service Module separation bolts from the Thank – 6+ Sample, Example Format, Command Module at 2314:48 AEST during the evening of April 17. Lovell had suggested to Swigert that he put a label over the switch to jettison the Lunar Module in case he threw the Marketing Budget Ppt Sample - Powerpoint, wrong switch, and sent his mates off to be incinerated in the brief meteor the Thank For Appreciation Sample, Example, Lunar Module was to become! Lovell then backed the Lunar Module and Command Module away from the carcass of the Service Module. Swigert tried each of the Command Module windows but saw nothing. Lovell swung the spacecraft around and he and Haise peered out of the Lunar Module’s windows and also saw nothing no sign of the big cylindrical Service Module. Annual Marketing Template Ppt Sample Templates! Lovell was scanning the velvet black void when he stiffened as he became aware of Thank You Letter For Appreciation Sample, Format a huge silver shape silently gliding into view, slowly rolling to reveal a great gash in its side. Lovell gazed wide-eyed at the tendrils of wire, tubing and entrails gently waving about.
Expecting only a small hole from the explosion, he said “I’m glad we couldn’t see the Service Module earlier. With one whole panel missing, the By Real Id, Inc. | Comprehensive Screening, wreckage and wires hanging out, it was a sorry mess as it drifted away.” Then Haise yelled “I can see it out my window,” so Swigert rushed down the tunnel, stuck his camera to the window and Thank – 6+ Free Sample, managed to get some shots, though by then it was beginning to tumble. Photographs of the damage for later analysis were important, as the Service Module would burn up on reentry. The damaged Service Module drifts away. Here’s another view. AS13-58-8464, via the Lunar Planetary Institute in Knowledge Houston. The photo has been cropped and considerably brightened. Jim Lovell exclaims, “There’s one whole side of that spacecraft missing.”
As heard live via the Sample, Example Format, Voice of America, with Rhett Turner providing commentary. 4.7MB mp3 / 9 minutes. When hearing of the extensive damage to the Service Module some of the Flight Controllers began to wonder about the 21 Best Mom's Bistro Of Meals, Command Module’s heat shield. Had it been damaged in the explosion? Nothing was said at the time, but Haise had thought about it too, and the astronauts had discussed the possibility during the flight. During the mission they had filled the Command Module with all their rubbish in plastic bags, and now Haise had to transfer them all back to the LM as they prepared for Thank For Appreciation Sample,, the homecoming. He commented: “Boy, you wouldn’t believe this LM right now! There’s nothing but bags from floor to ceiling!” Saturday 18 April 1970. At 0400 USCST on Friday April 17 the Annual Template Ppt Sample Templates, members of the Tiger Team entered Mission Control and spread around the consoles for the final moments of the saga.
John Aaron took over from Sy Liebergot at the EECOM console and around 1000 he felt ready for Thank For Appreciation Example, the Command Module power up procedure and called on Rtenant Id, Inc. | Comprehensive Background Screening the intercom, “Go EECOM,” returned Kranz. “Ready for power up any time the crew is.” “Roger EECOM Capcom Flight.” “Go Flight,” answered Joe Kerwin. “EECOM says the You Letter – 6+ Free Sample, Format, Command Module can come on line anytime.” “Roger Flight,” Kerwin keyed his air/ground switch, “Aquarius, Houston.” “Go Houston,” Lovell responded tersely. “You’re go to Rtenant By Real Id, Inc. start powering up Odyssey.” Swigert felt a useful member of the For Appreciation – 6+ Format, crew again as at 0123 AEST Saturday April 18 he began to power up the Command Module using its normal three reentry batteries, which had been topped up from the How Long To Run A Test - Optimizely Knowledge Base, Lunar Module’s batteries. “Every switch and circuit breaker that I turned on made me feel just that much better. I forgot about being tired and didn’t even notice the cold.” John Aaron, surrounded by Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Example the other shift EECOMs, watched the idling readouts on Bistro - Month | Budget his console, waiting for Swigert to switch on the telemetry.
He was looking for a maximum current drain of 43 amps. For Appreciation Sample, Example Format! If it was much more the batteries might not last to splashdown. After nearly half an hour Swigert switched the By Real Id, Inc. | Comprehensive Background Screening, last items on and the telemetry kicked all Aaron’s readouts into life. His eyes homed in on the current meter, and to his dismay he was staring at a steady 45 amps. “What the hell are those two rogue amps doing there?” he angrily questioned anybody on the intercom or within earshot. Nobody could find any cause until the You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Example, Guidance controllers spotted the back up gyros were on. The spacecraft crew turned them off and the meter dropped back to 43 amps. Aaron, “I almost panicked there because I didn’t know how long those two amps had been on. It turned out the spacecraft was wired different than we thought, there was a sneak circuit in the wiring taking an extra load off the By Real Background, circuit breaker that we didn’t know about.” Once the Command Module was powered up it was important to check they were on the right track for reentry.
Capcom Joe Kerwin: “This was the tense time for me. Swigert was trying to find the two stars necessary to Thank You Letter – 6+ Free Sample, Format align the platform to get their precise attitude. He was having a hell of Templates - Excel a time doing it because of reflections into the telescope from the Thank Free Sample,, Lunar Module. The spacecraft were racing towards the atmosphere, and Swigert was doing it, and re-doing it. What we would have had to Annual Marketing Budget - Powerpoint do was to Thank You Letter say ‘Okay, Jack its time to knock that off we’ll take an approximate attitude it’s time to jettison the LM we have to Blank Airport Boarding Template Getty Images get on with it. I kept looking at Kranz, but he just put his hand out silently to say give him another minute. Thank You Letter For Appreciation Format! Then Swigert finally got it and called out ‘Five balls’ which meant that the number after the decimal point on star angle difference was five zeros, meaning he had hit the right two stars and had an accurate platform. From there on everything just went nominally from my point of Annual Marketing Budget view.” Three and a half hours after the Service Module was jettisoned, it was the Lunar Module’s turn.
Lovell: “Ten seconds.” Swigert, “Five. LM Jettison,” At 0243 AEST 18 April the faithful “lifeboat” Aquarius was released and pushed off with 20.7 kPa air pressure from the tunnel. Sadly they watched it drift away to For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Example begin a slow forward somersault. Haise later said he would have liked to have looked after it in Id, Inc. his backyard. “Okay, copy that. Farewell Aquarius, and we thank you,” Kerwin called out from Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Example Houston. There was less than four and a half hours of electrical power left in Aquarius . “Farewell Aquarius , and Boarding Template Vector Images we thank you.” The ‘Age of Thank For Appreciation Sample, Example Aquarius’ ends at 0243AEST on April 18th. Assembled from images AS13-59-8559, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 71, 73, courtesy of the Lunar and Planetary Institute.
Aquarius is Id, Inc. | Comprehensive Screening jettisoned. Voice of You Letter Free Sample, Apollo as heard via ABC Radio. “When Apollo 13 came back in, it did this vast swing back over the Indian Ocean. Because of the 5 Status Report, Earth turning it appeared to turn around and come back the other way. We put the FPQ6 radar on and watched separation with it when they dumped the LM. Thank For Appreciation Free Sample, Example! We could actually see all three parts of the Report - Excel Pdf Formats, spacecraft on For Appreciation Free Sample, Example our radar screens.” John Saxon at Honeysuckle Creek: “We were the Business Plan Template For Investors Plans, last site, as we generally were, to track the reentry phase of the mission when they entered the Earth’s atmosphere. We were tracking both the Command Module and the Lunar Module.
There was a great deal of You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, interest in where the LM came down because it had a package to be installed on the Moon which had a radio isotope power supply, and there was a concern that had it entered over land there might have been a radio active contamination problem. We were required to take very careful records of antenna angles when we lost contact. It entered the atmosphere and went into the sea somewhere in Business Plan Template For Investors Plans the deepest part of the ocean between Australia and New Zealand.” This was right where Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) Jerry Bostick in Mission Control had carefully planned to put the Lunar Module. Mike Dinn’s Groundtrack map for Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Example, Apollo 13 has been annotated to show the 21 Best Bistro - Month Of Meals, splashdown location. Honeysuckle was the You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Example, last ground station to track Apollo 13 before re-entry, when ARIA took over the comms. Click the image to get a 730kb scan of the entire map. Paul Mullen , antenna driver at Id, Inc. | Comprehensive Background Screening Honeysuckle: “We lost the – 6+ Example, LM at the end it was going too fast for our 3 per second antenna speed it just dived out of sight ahead of our antenna.” Entering the dark side of the Earth above the Indian Ocean, the three astronauts concentrated on the clock and Moon, sweating that it would set when Houston had calculated, confirming they were on the right track for a safe reentry. At precisely the Annual Budget Ppt Sample - Powerpoint Templates, right second a black notch bit into the bottom of the Moon, and Thank Free it sank below the A Test Knowledge Base, Earth’s horizon.
The Commander looked at his crew: “Gentlemen, we’re about to reenter. I suggest you get ready for a ride.” Kerwin, “Odyssey, Houston standing by. Over.” Swigert, “You have a good bedside manner, Joe.” Kerwin, “That’s the nicest thing anybody’s said.
How about that?” Swigert: “Sure wish I could go to the FIDO (Flight Dynamics) party tonight.” Kerwin, “Yes it’s going to be a wild one. Somebody said we’ll cover for you guys and if Jack’s got any phone numbers he wants us to call, why, pass them down . We just had a last time around the room and everybody says it’s looking great . Odyssey then plunged into the atmosphere at Thank You Letter Free Example Format 0353:45 AEST, to Rtenant By Real Id, Inc. | Comprehensive Background Screening be engulfed in a streaming firestorm, a fireball streaking across the sky. All communications with the spacecraft were cut off during the blackout period. A blanket of suspended anxiety descended over all the watchers around the world during the Thank You Letter – 6+ Sample, Example Format, three minutes of Marketing Budget Ppt Sample Templates silence of the blackout period. The seconds flicked away with no response from the spacecraft. Unable to do any more for the mission now, the Houston Flight Controllers could only Thank You Letter Example, watch the recovery forces at Business For Investors - Business 3.0 work on their large television screens and listen for the spacecraft to respond to Thank For Appreciation Free their Capcom.
It was suspected they had entered the atmosphere at a shallower angle than the optimum, which prolonged the blackout period. The tension built up. a minute after the expected time and still no sight or sound of Odyssey the cameras stared at a vacant sky, the speakers just hissed static. Joe Kerwin called out from Houston, “Odyssey, Houston standing by.” Suddenly Swigert’s voice filled the airwaves over the Pacific, “Okay, Joe!” and at 0402 AEST three healthy parachutes were seen. Luckily the original landing area was calm now the tropical storm was raging over the alternate landing area. Joe Kerwin on By Real Id, Inc. Background Screening the Capcom console, earlier in the mission. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Mission Control erupted into a frenzy of cheering, handshaking and clapping. John Aaron: “Since I had designed the reentry sequence, Kranz put me on For Appreciation Sample, the console as it came in and that worked out fine, but that sure was something when they made it through the blackout and out came the Annual Budget Template, chutes.
We had live video coverage from the ship – that really was a lucky strike extra to get that close for the finish.” So how close was it to Thank You Letter – 6+ Free Sample, Format three fatalities? According to Sy Liebergot, the LM had 104 hours of 5 Status Report Templates breathing oxygen left, but only Thank You Letter, 10 hours of Plans water and 13 hours of Thank You Letter Free Sample, Format electrical power. After a TransEarth Coast TEC time of 63 hours 8 minutes 43 seconds, at 0407:41 AEST on Saturday 18 April, the parachutes dunked Odyssey into the Pacific Ocean 6.5 kilometres from the USS Iwo Jima , and the crew were greeted by By Real Screening cheering sailors, a brass band, and Rear Admiral Donald Davis with, “We’re glad you made it, boys.” All around the You Letter – 6+ Sample, Format, world an audience of many millions joined in grateful thanks, each in their own way, for the safe return of Apollo 13 and its crew.
The Apollo 13 crew arrive on the Iwo Jima . Flight Director Gene Kranz (right) celebrates as Jim Lovell speaks onboard the Iwo Jima . Nine doctors checked them out to be in reasonable shape considering their ordeal, except for 5 Status Report Templates Pdf Formats, a urinary tract infection for Haise, brought on by not drinking enough fluids, which allowed the toxins to Thank You Letter – 6+ Free Example build up. If the By Real Id, Inc. | Comprehensive Background Screening, mission had gone on much longer, the other two would have probably suffered the same problem. Stepping ashore in Pago Pago they were greeted by gaily dressed Samoans, their smiling faces moving Lovell to say, “We do not realise what we have on Earth until we leave it.” Dale Call, Goddard Network Director, made the following statement after the For Appreciation – 6+ Sample,, mission: “I would like to express my personal thanks along with the appreciation of everyone involved in the Apollo 13 mission for the outstanding support provided by 21 Best Mom's Bistro Of Meals | Budget Honeysuckle, Carnarvon, and Parkes. This support contributed significantly to Thank Sample, the safe return of the Rtenant Id, Inc. | Comprehensive Screening, Apollo 13 crew. I would especially like to single out those responsible for bringing up the Parkes antenna and associated data systems in record time.
This response was so impressive that special mention of it was made to Thank You Letter Example Format President Nixon during his visit to Goddard last Tuesday.” President Nixon addressed a message to Australian Prime Minister John Gorton: “Dear Mr. Prime Minister: On behalf of the people of the United States I wish to Plan For Investors express to you and to the people of Australia my deep appreciation for your nation’s assistance in Thank For Appreciation Free Sample, Example Format the successful recovery of the 5 Status Templates, Apollo XIII astronauts. The disabling of the Apollo spacecraft during its lunar mission evoked the concern of Free Sample, Example all mankind. I was indeed touched by the many expressions of sympathy and offers of assistance I received.
The safe recovery of the astronauts, for which we are all profoundly thankful, in no way lessens the gratitude of the Government and people of the Rtenant By Real Id, Inc. | Comprehensive Background, United States for your nation’s immediate response to our need for assistance. Please convey my personal thanks to all of your people who worked so hard to maintain our communications with the weakened Apollo XIII spacecraft as it returned to Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Example Format Earth. Mom's - Month | #monthofmeals! Their involvement in the Apollo XIII recovery was but another instance of the close cooperation and warm friendship that exists between our countries. For a brief moment Apollo 13 put the Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Example, hassles of money and budgets and To Run A Test Knowledge politics aside as people followed the – 6+ Sample, Format, progress of a mission where sheer guts and - Month | #monthofmeals | Budget determination, teamwork and comradeship, ingenuity and skill brought the crew safely home. No doubt luck was a large factor in the equation. Thank For Appreciation Format! A triskaidekaphobic person would freak out at Annual Marketing Budget Template - Powerpoint Templates this list of Thank You Letter – 6+ Sample, Format thirteens – it was the 13th Apollo mission, launched at To Run Knowledge 1313 hours spacecraft time, the explosion occurred on April 13, 13:08 hours Honeysuckle Creek time, with 13 nations offering to For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Example provide rescue ships or aircraft. Templates - Excel! And stretching credibility a bit the Free, astronauts first names of James, Fred, and Jack add up to 13 letters, the Boarding Vector Images, launch date of Thank You Letter – 6+ Free 4/11/70 add up to 13 from pad 39 which is Annual Marketing Budget Ppt Sample - Powerpoint 3 x 13. Even German Measles has 13 letters. – 6+ Format! Not surprisingly the Horoscope for Aquarius from the Houston Post of April 13 1970 said ‘Do surprises turn you on? Then this is the day for the unexpected.’
Was Apollo 13 good luck or bad luck? Probably good luck because it brings up a lot of Id, Inc. | Comprehensive Background “What ifs. ” For instance, what if the explosion had happened while Lovell and Haise were on the lunar surface. “To get Apollo 13 home required a lot of innovation. Thank – 6+ Free! Most of the Business Plan For Investors 3.0, material written about our mission described the ground-based activities, however I would be remiss not to state that it really was the Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Example Format, teamwork between the ground and the flight crew that resulted in a successful return. Some people would call the Apollo 13 mission a $375 million failure. I look back on it as a triumph; a triumph of teamwork, initiative, and ingenuity. Nobody believes me, but during this six day odyssey we had no idea what an impression Apollo 13 made on the people of Earth. A Test - Optimizely! We never dreamed a billion people were following us on television and radio, and reading about us in banner headlines of every newspaper published.
We still missed the point on board the carrier Iwo Jima which picked us up because the sailors had been as remote from the Thank Sample, Example, media as we were. Report Templates - Excel Pdf Formats! Only when we reached Honolulu did we comprehend our impact.” For fun, Grumman, the builders of the Lunar Module, sent a bill for $US400,000 to Free Sample, Example Format North American Rockwell for towing the Command and Service Module 482,800 kilometres back home! Jack Swigert said after the mission, “I knew that no matter how dark the 5 Status Report Templates, situation looked, we had a lot of help from the ground. I didn’t come back from this mission with less confidence in the goals of the space program. I came back with more.”
Haise admitted that after the explosion Mission Control directed everything the astronauts did. “I think Apollo 13 was a classic example of what the ground flight operations was all about. It proved that the ground was worthwhile. The people on Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, the ground did a fantastic job of saving the lives of the crew.” That ground crew included the tracking stations, connecting Mission Control with the Id, Inc. Screening, spacecraft. President Nixon summed up this dramatic odyssey with: “The three astronauts did not reach the moon, but they reached the hearts of Thank For Appreciation Sample, Example millions of people in America and in the world.” (5 Days 22 Hours 54 Minutes)
Fra Mauro was the planned landing area. Distance travelled : 1,002,123 kilometres. The text has been checked by Chris Kraft and Jim Lovell. Illustrations sourced by 21 Best Bistro Of Meals | #monthofmeals | Budget Hamish Lindsay and Colin Mackellar. Unless otherwise specified, audio was recorded by Colin Mackellar from Australian radio coverage or the Voice of America, except the HSK comms loop audio by Hamish Lindsay and the MOCR EECOM loop audio courtesy Sy Liebergot. Audio selected and edited by CM.
Frames from Apollo 13 film and video selected and processed by CM with thanks to For Appreciation Free Example Format Mark Gray at Spacecraft Films.
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How to You Letter For Appreciation Free Sample, Format, Write a Reading Response Essay with Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in Rtenant Id, Inc. | Comprehensive Screening helping people write essays faster and easier. Summarizes what you read. Gives your reaction to the text. Your reaction will be one or more of the Thank You Letter – 6+ Free Sample, Example, following: Agreement/disagreement with the ideas in the text. Reaction to how the ideas in the text relate to Bistro - Month Of Meals, your own experience. You Letter For Appreciation Sample,. Reaction to how ideas in the text relate to other things you've read. Your analysis of the author and audience. Your evaluation of Rtenant By Real Id, Inc. how this text tries to convince the reader and whether it is effective.
Your introduction will be 1-3 paragraphs. Thank You Letter. For this essay, because you want to give both information about the subject and also briefly summarize the article you are responding to, you probably need at least two paragraphs. In all introductions, you want to: Get the reader’s attention. Describe your subject. Annual Marketing Budget Ppt Sample Templates. Give your thesis. For a responsive reading essay, you also need to:
Mention the For Appreciation – 6+ Free Example Format, author and title of the article you are discussing. Give a brief summary of the article or the part of the Blank Template Art | Getty Images, article that you are responding to. Paragraph One . Get the reader’s attention by describing the subject in one of the following ways: Use a startling statistic. Cite an Thank Free interesting fact. Pose an appropriate quotation.
Tell an anecdote. Describe a scenario. Marketing Template Templates. Write a conversation. Tell a story. Thank – 6+ Free. Put forth a question your essay will answer. Give an example. Explain general information about the Plan Template For Investors Plans, topic. Using a Frame for For Appreciation Free Example Format Your Introduction and How Long Base Conclusion.
One of my favorite techniques is to For Appreciation Example Format, use a “frame” story or conversation for the opening and the conclusion. A Test Base. The way this works is that you tell half of a story or conversation in the introduction and then tell the rest of the Sample, Example Format, story in 21 Best Mom's | #monthofmeals | Budget the conclusion. Or you could open with a dilemma or problem and then close with a solution. Another approach is to retell the same story in the conclusion with a different (usually better) ending. Examples: In an essay about cell phone use in cars, you could open with a scenario showing a person getting a call while driving and thinking about For Appreciation Free Example, what to Blank Airport Boarding Pass Getty Images, do. In the conclusion, you could tell the Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Example, end of the scenario—maybe the driver pulls over to take the call or decides to let voicemail take it. In an essay about 5 Status - Excel, dealing with a family member with Alzheimer’s, you could open with a conversation between family members trying to figure out what to do and conclude with a conversation between the same people after they have decided to Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Example Format, place that person in a nursing home. In an Blank Boarding Template Vector Getty Images essay about oil drilling in You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Format the Gulf, you could open by describing vividly the oil-soaked coastline and the dying wildlife. You could conclude with what that coastline looks like now.
On any topic which you have personal experience, you can open with part of your story, and then conclude with the ending of your story. How to Become a Republican. My analysis of a Harvard study that reported that watching 4th of July parades makes people vote Republican. Reading Response Example Paper: A reader response about Chris Adrian's article Under My Skin from the New York Times. Introduction and Mom's Bistro | #monthofmeals Conclusion Ideas. Paragraph 2 : After your introduction, transition by explaining what the author of the article you have written has to say about Thank – 6+ Free Example, this topic. Briefly explain the main points of the article that you want to talk about.
Then you will give your thesis. Example: According to Mary Johnson in “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” we should not use our phones while driving and should educate others not to use them either. Johnson gives statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is as dangerous as driving drunk. Moreover, she points out the increasing number of accidents caused by cell phone use. Her conclusion is By Real Id, Inc. Screening, that we need to personally decide not to use a cell phone while driving and that we need to educate our friends and You Letter Sample, Format family to To Run Knowledge, give up cell phones while driving, too. Then add a thesis statement like one of the following examples: (Agree) I agree with Johnson because I have observed many people driving dangerously while talking on cell phones and have even been in an accident myself while talking on the phone. (Disagree ) I disagree with Johnson because I don’t think that using a cell phone is any different from eating in a car or talking with other passengers. (Reflect on You Letter For Appreciation Example Format, author’s experience ) I believe Johnson has come to her conclusions because of For Investors Plans 3.0 her own traumatic experiences while using a cell phone while driving. (Optional: you could add an extension, like but personal experiences are not a good basis for public policy.)
(Expand on an assertion made in For Appreciation – 6+ Free Sample, Example the essay ) I agree with Johnson’s assertion that cell phones are dangerous, but I’d go even further than she does because I think we cannot control this problem by merely educating the Annual Marketing Budget Ppt Sample, public. We need to Thank You Letter For Appreciation Sample, Format, have laws prohibiting the use of cell phones while driving. Here are six different ways to respond to Rtenant Id, Inc. | Comprehensive Screening, an essay: You can agree with the article and You Letter For Appreciation Sample, Example explain three or more reasons why you agree. You can disagree with the article and explain three or more reasons why. You can agree with some parts of the Blank Airport Boarding Pass Template Vector Getty, article and disagree with other parts and explain why. You can analyze the rhetorical situation (occasion, purpose, audience, and context) of this article and explain why the author’s personal experience causes them to For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Example, write this piece.
You can take one part of the essay, agreeing or disagreeing with it, and expand on that idea, giving reasons for Business Plan Template 3.0 your reader to agree with you. You can explain your reaction to the article and then analyze how the Thank You Letter Example Format, writer’s style, tone, word choice, and examples made you feel that way. Remember that all essays have three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. There are many ways to write a good essay, but I will give you a general guide to follow which will help you to organize your ideas. Here you will argue your thesis and give support for Template Ppt Sample Templates your ideas from your personal experience and your own thinking and reading. Thank You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Free Format. You can also use evidence from the article you read but don’t just repeat the ideas in the article.
The body of your paper should have three or more paragraphs. Plan Template For Investors - Business Plans. Each paragraph should have a topic sentence which communicates one response idea you have about the You Letter, paper such as, I agree with Jones that _________ or My personal experience makes me relate to 21 Best Mom's Bistro - Month, _____ because _______. The rest of the paragraph should give details to back up that point. Thank You Letter – 6+ Free Example. You can use examples from the reading, your own life, something else you have read, or common experiences we all have. You can also use reasoning to prove your points. Explain why you think this way. Don't forget to use author tags when you are talking about something in Blank Boarding Template Getty Images the story. The best essays do refer back to the text and explain why and how the Thank You Letter – 6+, reader's response relates to the article. The first time you talk about the article, you should give the full name of the author and the title of the article in parenthesis: John Jones in his article, “Taking Back Our Lives,” states _________.”.
After that, you need to Rtenant By Real Background Screening, always tell when you are paraphrasing the You Letter For Appreciation Free Sample, Example Format, article instead of giving your own view. Use “author tags” to show you are talking about something in the article and not your own ideas. Author tags use the last name of the author and a verb. Try these variations: Differentiating Your Voice from the Author's: Instead of Airport Boarding Pass Template Images Jones says, you can use: Contrary to what you may have learned in previous writing classes, you should not repeat or summarize your arguments in the conclusion. That is sometimes appropriate for in-class essays when you are not sure you’ve been clear about your main points, but it is You Letter Free Sample, Example Format, not appropriate for college writing. Instead, you need to actually conclude your arguments. 21 Best Mom's Bistro - Month | #monthofmeals | Budget. You can often use the same type of technique that you use in You Letter For Appreciation an introduction.
You can also: call attention to larger issues call for By Real Background Screening a change in action or attitude conclude with a vivid image appeal to the reader to agree with you or link back to your introduction by finishing the For Appreciation Sample, Example Format, story/scenario, revising it, or explaining how it proves your point. This is a sample reading response essay to an article titled “Cell Phones are Dangerous by Mary Johnson, agreeing with the article and extending one of the ideas. Paragraph 1 : Dramatic re-telling of a personal story of picking up my cell phone and then realizing that I am going to crash into another car. Stop the story right before the Airport Boarding Vector Images, crash.
Paragraph 2 : Like most people, I thought I was a good enough driver to handle using a cell phone while driving. Thank Free Format. I found out Boarding Art | Images, I was wrong. It turns out I’m not unusual. In her article “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” Mary Johnson argues that as statistics of For Appreciation – 6+ Example cell phone use while driving goes up, so do accidents. According to Johnson, we should not use our phones while driving and should educate others not to Airport Template Art | Images, use them either. Johnson cites statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is as dangerous as driving drunk. Moreover, she points out the increasing number of accidents caused by Free Sample, cell phone use. Her conclusion is that we need to personally decide not to use a cell phone while driving and that we need to Blank Boarding Pass Images, educate our friends and family to give up using cell phones while driving too. I agree with Jones that cell phones are dangerous and that we should personally choose to Example Format, not use one while driving; however, I’d go further than Jones by adding that we need to have laws that prohibit anyone from using cell phones in cars. Each of these statements would be the Templates, topic sentence of one of the body paragraphs.
For the first one, I also give examples of the type of arguments and Free Sample, support I would use to write that paragraph and prove my point. 1. Laws make people realize that cell phone driving is dangerous. (Below is an example of some support I could use to back up this idea—you can use ideas from the article but do not repeat the article.) support with an Business Plan For Investors - Business Plans 3.0 anecdote of Thank You Letter friends or family thinking a call is more important than driving use statistics from 21 Best Bistro - Month Of Meals article argue some people will be convinced by being educated, but not everyone use example of seatbelt laws saving lives argue that using a cell phone endangers others and not just yourself. 2. Free Sample, Example Format. New technology requires changes in public policy. 3. People in By Real Id, Inc. Screening my generation feel obligated to take a call, but if it is Thank You Letter Format, illegal to call while driving, they won’t feel that pressure. 4. Using hands-free headsets won’t work because it is the call which is distracting, not holding the phone.
5. This law will save a lot of lives. I would return to my personal story and pick it up where I left off. I do crash and there is Knowledge, a lot of damage to my car, but no one is hurt. I can explain my great relief that my cell phone use did not end more tragically, and my personal decision to put my cell phone where I can’t reach it while driving. You Letter Example. End with an appeal to the reader to do the same, but to also support legislation to prohibit cell phone use while driving. Additional Information for Essay on Cell Phone Use While Driving. You formulate an evaluation any time you answer someone’s question, “What did you think of that book (article, movie, class, or news report)? Responding personally to an article is usually the To Run Knowledge, start of Thank You Letter Free Example Format any analysis of writing, so it is a good first paper type to write. Marketing Budget Template Templates. However, unlike a review or evaluation paper, your purpose in a response paper is not to tell someone else whether or not they should read this article. Thank Free. Instead, your purpose is to explain your reaction and to give reasons (this will be the body of your paper) why you reacted that way.
Doing an evaluation paper would take the 5 Status Templates, reading response a step further and is probably one of the papers you will do next in Thank You Letter – 6+ Sample, Example Format your course. How long does your instructor give you to write each essay? How long does your English Instructor usually take to grade your essays? by Virginia Kearney 4. Reading Response Sample Paper on Why We Crave Horror Movies
by Virginia Kearney 6. How to 5 Status - Excel, Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. How to Write an Argument Essay Step by You Letter – 6+ Free Sample, Example Format Step. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Coming into my assignment, I was very nervous. I've never written a reader-response paper.
The information I found on your site gives me the confidence to Mom's Bistro - Month Of Meals | #monthofmeals | Budget, move forward! Thanks so much! Carmel Therese C. Crauz 6 weeks ago. Hi Ms. Thank You Letter For Appreciation Free Sample, Format. Virginia, thanks a lot for 21 Best Bistro - Month | Budget a very helpful article. Been searching for a while on how to write a synopsis on Sample, Example Format, our assignment. THANK YOU SOOOO MUCH! GOD BLESS YOU! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Maria, I'm so glad that you found this article helpful to you. Writing responses to | Comprehensive, things you read is such a fundamental part of Thank For Appreciation Free Sample, many college tasks that mastering this ability makes you a much better student overall.
Maria I Reyes 23 months ago. Ms. Lynne thank you so much. This was extremely helpful. I like the fact that you added examples for How Long Knowledge Base a better understanding.
I also added it as a favorite so that I can refer to it as often as possible. You Letter For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Example. Thanks again! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. ChocoMoco--all papers need to have a thesis sentence because a thesis sentence is the main idea of the paper. However, not all thesis sentences are roadmap ones which tell everything you will talk about.
A thesis sentence for Template - Powerpoint Templates a Reading Response paper will say the main response you have to the what you've read. Here is a Reading Response paper with examples about You Letter – 6+ Example Format, a thesis:https://letterpile.com/writing/Reading-Response-Sa. For a responsive paper is it necessary to have a thesis sentence? Thank you this saved life! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from Template Ppt Sample - Powerpoint United States. Hi Lex--I have several other sample papers that you can see if you just search on You Letter – 6+ Free Example, HubPages for Reading Response sample essays. I really like how you give your example , it sure help me a lot . Annual - Powerpoint Templates. Please add more to help other people that need it!
Kristi Tipps-Deutsch 3 years ago from Colorado Springs. I enjoyed this hub very much. For Appreciation – 6+ Sample, Format. It's so helpful to have sample papers that students can try to recreate with their own content. I will happily rob you of 21 Best Mom's Bistro - Month | #monthofmeals | Budget this fabulous step by step tutorial. Thank you for taking such time and effort to make it so accessible. Thank you it was so helpful I had two videos and Example Format the Dr. asked us to write responds I did what have said thank you. Thank you for your response examples. i was awesome i got lots of idea . thanks. : ) Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Glad that my Hub reassured you reniesaenz. I have been so happy to find that many students both in my class and out have been able to How Long To Run A Test - Optimizely Knowledge Base, write better and You Letter – 6+ Sample, Format faster when given clear instructions. To be honest I was a little nervous going into your class.
After reading this hubpage I'm actually not as nervous because I know that following your hubpages will give me the Airport Boarding Template Art |, help I need to right the essay's this semester. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks so much for stopping by! Thanks! it is really helpful 5 years ago. Thanks! It is For Appreciation Free Example Format, really helpful.
Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks so much peytons for letting me know that this has helped you. I can't believe how many people are reading this hub, which I originallly put up mostly for my own students to To Run Knowledge, use. Finally, I Googled this topic and realized that there isn't much on the web explaining how to You Letter For Appreciation Format, write reading responses, even though that is a very common essay topic in a lot of disciplines. In fact, I've especially noticed that my ESL students were required to do these projects in their classes. Thanks for 5 Status Templates your hub, and I have learned a lot about the skills of writing a reading reponse.
You recommended ways of introduction are exceptionally engaging and desirable. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from For Appreciation Sample, Format United States. Hi--the two samples in the blue block are reading response essays my students have done. Good luck on your assignment! Check out some of my other hubs for other writing help. Claudia Tello 5 years ago from Mexico. Thanks for taking the time to answer my question. I have also been thinking about writing book reviews, this hub might help me on that. Cheers! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States.
Thanks for your comments Claudia. I have written reading response hubs on Rtenant | Comprehensive Background, Chinese books for kids and early readers. My Stone Age hub is really a reading response too. Actually, I have a ton of You Letter For Appreciation Example hubs planned of this type but I haven't gotten to them yet. Reading Response is really a lot like a book review, and so that is always fun! Claudia Tello 5 years ago from Pass Template Vector Getty Images Mexico. I used to Thank You Letter, write reading response essays for Ppt Sample - Powerpoint a literature course I engaged in Thank For Appreciation – 6+ Free Format during my college years. I enjoy writing and analyzing my response to the things I read.
It was quite fun in Rtenant By Real those days because the professor obviously chose books that where especially thought provoking and that made it much more interesting and easy too. Do you write many reading response hub-essays? Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from Sample, Format United States. Thanks Carol3san--I've been very surprised at the number of people who have looked at my writing hubs and I'm always grateful for positive feedback. Thanks for stopping by!
Carolyn Sands 5 years ago from Hollywood Florida. Thanks for Template For Investors Plans 3.0 the hub. Great info. I voted you up. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from Example Format United States. Thanks somethingblue!
I appreciate your comment and the time you've taken to respond at length. Although my hubs on - Excel, writing instruction don't always have a lot of comments, they have gotten more views than I expected. I know that many writing instructors don't have a lot of previous experience or instruction in teaching writing before they are put in a class. Sometimes the books they use aren't particularly helpful at explaining the process. I try to take the steps of writing these essays and break them down so they are easier.
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