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natural rights essay Photo: Paula Kupfer. Natural Rights, Cultural Rights, and the Politics of Memory. Andreas Huyssen | Columbia University. Human rights and University Bbm Final Year Project memory discourses must be robustly linked with each other to add a necessary dimension of futurity to memory and of history to human rights politics. Drawing on the early modern notion of natural rights, this paper asks to what extent ‘rights of nature’ need to be considered to nurture the sustainability of human rights as social rights. I want to ask a simple question that defies easy answers: what do rights have to do with memory?
At the most simple level, one could argue that only memory of rights violations can nurture human rights regimes in the future. Memory and human rights must be linked more robustly with each other discursively and Production Templates practically to prevent memory from becoming a vacuous exercise feeding parasitically on Bbm Final Year, itself and to prevent human rights from losing its historical grounding and risking legalistic abstraction and political abuse. As Walter Benjamin suggested (1969), the dead do have a claim on us, since we are, from their point of view, the coming generations. Nothing messianic about that. No need to talk about Request For Time Resume redemption. As Max Horkheimer argued (1993) against Benjamin’s theological temptation: the dead are dead and cannot be reawakened. University Bbm Final Year. But they do have a right to Plan remembrance. This is a mark of human civilization, after all, long before the explicit articulation of human and any other rights, and ever more so after this most murderous century of Bangalore Bbm Final Year Project, human history that we have left behind. Where would today’s international human rights movement be without memory of the killing fields of the 20th century? And yet, memory and rights discourses don’t blend easily. Debates about human rights and transitional or retroactive justice in law and political theory have too often remained separated by a deep gulf from discussions of memory and historical trauma in the humanities.
This is surprising since one would expect these fields to be inherently complementary and mutually supportive. Yet there remains a fundamental tension between memory and the law. Restrictive limitations that have prevented a closer relationship exist on either side of this discursive divide. Memory discourse is usually concerned with recent collective pasts and their effects on the present, but it lacks a strong normative dimension that would lead toward individual legal rights claims. Thus some legal scholars and political theorists have argued that memory of past injury can only be a weak substitute for justice. At the For Time Off Form Contemporary, same time, however, legal proceedings, especially in cases of retroactive justice after the end of Bangalore University Year, dictatorships as in Blank Photo | Istock Chile or Argentina, depend on individual memory to arrive at convictions. In addition, I would argue that what happens in courts also depends, though indirectly, on the strength of memory discourses in the public sphere—on films, media, literature, the arts, and education. The biblical demand to remember, so strong in contemporary worldly culture as a counterweight to rampant amnesia, is a moral demand which is Bangalore University Project, not legally enforceable. Reasonably so, since were it enforceable, it would violate the Bill Of Sale Forms | Sample, right to forget. Memory itself always remains fragile and difficult to verify. Human rights, on the other hand, is Janus-faced: morality and law.
It shares the moral dimension with memory discourse which lacks the juridical. This is why there remains a fundamental tension between memory and rights discourse, and Bangalore University Year given contemporary culture’s often frivolous and Beautiful For Time - Best exploitative obsessions with memory, one may legitimately ask whether memory helps or hinders justice. Not even to speak of University Project, cases where memory is Scholarship Scholarship Recommendation, used to incite violence as in Slobodan Milosevic’s Serbian propaganda campaign about the 1389 battle of Bangalore University Bbm Final Project, Kosovo which was key in triggering the ethnic cleansing in Bosnia and Kosovo. The Croatian writer Dubravka Ugresic, in her book of essays The Culture of Lies (1998), has made the powerful argument that the disintegration of Yugoslavia was characterized by the simultaneity of a terror of forgetting and a terror of memory. Human rights discourse, by contrast, makes strong normative legal claims in the name of justice, but often ends up in an idolatry of abstract principles, thus ignoring the historical and political contexts which must be recognized and negotiated if a politics of human rights is to take hold in Course Evaluations a specific country at a given time. Or it is abused as a political veil of particular interests, which critics of Bangalore Year Project, human rights often point to Online Evaluations in order to discredit human rights claims altogether. Idolatry and abuse are especially visible internationally in the facile equation of universal human rights with Western democracy. They are implicit in the notion that rights may spread from the US to other parts of the world once they reach a certain level of development. While the genealogy of the University Year, current international human rights movement goes back to | [email protected] European sources of natural law of the 17th and 18th centuries, its meaning is not exhausted by this origin which precedes the Bangalore University Year, democratic revolutions of the US and France.
We must first acknowledge that democracy is neither a human right, nor is Daily Action Plan : Selimtd, it inevitably identical with any ideal type human rights regime (Habermas 2009). To the extent that democracy operates with majority rule, it may violate the rights of minorities, a constellation rife with conflict especially in the years after World War I and its many newly formed nations and again in a different constellation after the Bbm Final Project, end of the Cold War. We must also reject any teleological construction of modernity with its theory of cultural and political lag. From its early articulations in Europe on, the propagation of human rights was always coupled with their denial in Rubric Template colonial situations (few exceptions such as the Salamanca school notwithstanding). Thus rights in University Project the colonial world inevitably had to turn against European domination. The question of rights has always been a question of power and asymmetrical relations. Action Template. And yet, rights discourse conjures up a horizon of expectations that tends to surpass limited human rights practices. Struggles for individual, minority, and ethnic group rights in democratic and non-democratic countries alike abound in the world today and challenge both legal debates and political theory. A second political point must be registered.
The traditional idea of nationhood, as it developed during the Westphalian regime of sovereign nation states since the 17th century and Bangalore Year characterizes political communities across the world until this day, is not inevitably conducive to Memo Stock 105639765 | Istock the cultural or political rights of minorities. Ever since the Huguenot massacres in France, minority and cultural group rights have often been suppressed in Europe in the interest of enforcing the kind of religious or national homogeneity which is University Year, simply no longer adequate to our contemporary world--its flows of migration and Scholarship Rubric Recommendation cultural mixing, and the development of flexible citizenship. Ever more frequently, the claims of national majority cultures conflict with the Bangalore University Project, rights of others within the nation: indigenous populations, descendants of slaves, disenfranchised groups, sexual minorities, and immigrants of all kinds. At the same time, a human rights regime entirely beyond states and nations is not yet imaginable today, even if some political theorists have begun to Bill conceptualize a “global civil society” as opposed to world government (Weltburgergesellschaft; Habermas 2004; Benhabib 2002) . Despite certain forms of denationalization of citizenship (dual citizenship, EU passports, the granting of regional voting rights to non-citizens, etc), states do remain important legislators and guarantors of expanded rights, especially via constitutions, new regulations of citizenship and cultural rights, and commitments to transnational organizations. Most rights struggles still play out within this context. On the other hand, however, new forms of de facto statelessness have developed in the context of illegal migrations, the sex trade, and other new forms of slavery and indentured labor. This is Bangalore University Bbm Final Project, particularly pertinent in the case of “third country immigrants” to the EU and of Latin American and Blank Cards 105639765 Chinese immigrants to the US. While human rights discourse aims at universality, a concept that has had powerful enemies for a long time, discourses about collective memory have typically been limited to national or regional situations, thus blocking insight into the ways a new transnational politics of memory has spread across the world since 1989 in conjunction with rights discourse and yet separate from it (exceptions to this trend: Levy and Bangalore Bbm Final Year Sznaider 2006; Rothberg 2009). The idea of collective memory, as it circulates today, mostly relies on an anthropological notion of Beautiful Request For Time Off Form - Best Resume, culture as homogeneous and closed or self-contained.
With the expansion of rights since WWII, such notions of national cultures as distinct and University Bbm Final coherent units not subject to international rights claims have weakened. Tendencies toward globalization of finance, economics and migrations have created new networks that subvert traditional notions of national sovereignty. Scholarship Template | Free. Still, discourses of Bbm Final, lived memory will remain tied to specific communities and territories, even if the concern with memory itself has become a transnational phenomenon across the world. But even at the national level, memories are always in conflict with each other, more so nowadays than at the highpoint of the Online Course Evaluations | [email protected], Westphalian regime that first saw the invention of national traditions (Hobsbawm 1983). Memories clash just as rights claims confront each other.
The notion of Project, collective memory only makes sense if we acknowledge that in any collectivity, there will inevitably be conflict and struggle over memories. Such tensions and conflicts are a key constituent of the public sphere in open societies and must ideally be subject to Professional Senior To Showcase political recognition, democratic deliberation and negotiation. Key conflict areas today concern the rights of indigenous peoples, language rights, the inequality of gender, sexual rights, citizenship rights and Bangalore Project political rights for immigrants. Hannah Arendt’s fundamental claim that there is a right to have rights (1951), a claim that goes back to the period between the two World Wars in which whole populations were denaturalized and deprived of individual and citizenship rights, has become a shaping political force in the contemporary world. Humanities debates about memory have been especially robust in their interpretive focus on cultural memory (Assmann 1995), trauma, testimony, and witnessing. Some have asked to what extent such a focus on subjectivities, legitimate as it is, doesn’t risk losing sight of the political dimensions of rights discourse in Template the present and its implications for the future (Sarlo 2005). While this objection does have some force in relation to an overplaying of trauma in a poststructuralist and University Year psychoanalytic vein, I would argue that it is precisely the Memo 105639765 | Istock, focus on the force of individual memories of rights violations that can keep human rights discourse from slipping too fast into abstraction and ahistoricity. Bangalore University Year Project. Human and cultural rights discourse must be supported by concrete cases of rights violations read in the context of systemic conditions and deep histories, and it can be supported by works of art that train our imagination to recognize what Susan Sontag (2003) called the pain of others and what classical Greek tragedy first articulated: Antigone not as a play about obligations to Blank Cards Stock Photo 105639765 | Istock the dead, but about the rights of the living. Much of my own past work has been concerned with issues of cultural memory in political context—memory articulations in the visual arts, architecture, and literature which articulate the memory problematic aesthetically in Bangalore University Bbm Final Year all its fragility and complexity. The rootedness of memory studies in the local may help counter the reproach that human rights, if not the concern with memory itself, is nothing but a Western imposition and imperial ploy.
At the same time, I feel that memory studies in the humanities have reached an Scholarship Template | Free Scholarship Recommendation, impasse—too much of a good thing will eventually diminish the cognitive gain the field can provide. Therefore my argument: If memory studies in the humanities want to have a future, they need to forge a much more robust link with human rights, cultural rights and transitional justice discourse. Such a shift in focus will allow us to move away from an all too exclusive privileging of the Bangalore University Year Project, past as subject of investigation (a natural for humanists) and to reclaim memory for Rubric, present and future struggles about rights. Bangalore University Bbm Final Year. Where rights have already merged with memory concerns via testimony and witnessing, a variety of practices of redress have emerged around different types of Truth Commissions that acknowledge local factors and are thus far from Course making universalist claims. Bangalore Project. Maybe the Action Plan : Selimtd, ongoing critique of Year, universalism has itself become a straw-man. Speaking from my field as a Europeanist, I would argue that such a shift from memory to rights is important in the European Union, but I believe it is pertinent in the Americas as well. While the political reorganization of For Time Off Form Resume, Europe into a partly post-national federal union certainly requires recognition of past injuries and histories, such concerns all too often veil human rights issues of today which have to do with immigration from outside the EU, especially from the former colonies. Bangalore Bbm Final Year Project. It blocks out the troublesome systemic bifurcation of political and Online | [email protected] social rights, which separates EU citizens from so-called third country migrants. Thus I do not find it productive to claim, as some have done (Diner 2000), that a new European identity is being constructed around Holocaust memory. The dominance of the Holocaust in European memory debates actually hinders recognition of Europe’s colonial heritage, a moral and political necessity when dealing with immigration especially from Africa and Asia. It is indeed striking to see how within memory discourse itself, there has developed a debilitating conflict between Holocaust memory and the memory of colonialism.
Given the Bangalore University Project, centuries-long trajectory of colonial domination, the privileged focus on Holocaust memory in Europe results in a form of short-sightedness that carries with it an apologetic register of forgetting. Beautiful. Memories in contest with each other may well prolong grievances rather than overcoming them. This is the downside of memory competitions where one set of memories tries to displace or delegitimize another. Recognizing certain inherent limitations of both human rights and Bangalore Bbm Final memory discourse may then indeed represent a first step toward overcoming the gap between them. The individual strengths of both fields must be mobilized to supplement each other in order to mitigate the deficiencies of either. Both are concerned with the violation and protection of basic human rights and both must draw on 10+ Sample Forms | Sample Forms, history to do so. Both want to acknowledge, if not right wrongs committed in the past, and both project and imagine a better future.
Both grew to a large degree out of legal, moral, and philosophical discourses about genocide and rights violations after World War II. Both the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the UN’s Genocide Convention of Bangalore University, 1948 were the political result of remembrance (though not about memory as such since in their phrasing they both circumvented the Daily Plan : Selimtd, ethnic and particularist dimension of the Bangalore Bbm Final, Holocaust)-- remembrance not only of the unspeakable genocides and forced population transfers of the first half of the 20th-century. But remembrance also of the legacies of the natural law tradition which predates democracy and was influential in Professional Senior Production Manager the shaping of these UN documents. History of human rights and memory discourses. In my last book, Present Pasts (2003), I attempted to explain the rise of Bangalore University Project, memory discourses since the 1980s in Contemporary Resume transnational context. There I argued that memory discourses of a new kind first emerged in the 1960s in the wake of decolonization and the new social movements with their search for alternative and Bangalore University revisionist histories. Walter Benjamin’s (1969) reflections on history and memory provided a theoretical screen for the long trajectory of an emergent focus on the politics of memory. The search for other traditions in the postcolonial world and for the traditions of Photo, “others”, of University Project, minorities and ethnic groups in the West, radically challenged the idee recue of a homogeneous modernity, exemplified for Action Plan : Selimtd, instance in Bangalore University Year Project ideas of universal progress and Daily Action Template : Selimtd modernization, the University, North-American notion of the “melting pot,” or in the European understanding of national cultures as unitary, based on language and ethnic identity. Memory discourses accelerated in the early 1980s in the US and in Europe, energized then by the ever broadening debate about the Blank Memo 105639765 | Istock, Holocaust. University Project. Historical anniversaries of Nazi rule, World War II and the victory of the allies were widely covered in the international media, and they helped stir up post-World War II re-codifications of national history in Germany, France, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, and Central Europe after 1989.
But soon enough resonances of Holocaust and Third Reich memories spread beyond the Northern Transatlantic, attaching themselves to politically and historically very different events and situations in post-dictatorship Latin America or in post-apartheid South Africa. Indeed, one can now observe something like a “globalization” of Holocaust memory, and it certainly has had an effect on Evaluations | [email protected], the international human rights movement. The recurrence of genocidal politics in Rwanda, Bosnia, and Kosovo in the allegedly posthistorical 1990s made Holocaust memory discourse pertinent for evaluating present-day events. It seemed as if the “never again” slogan was put to the lie at a time when public Holocaust awareness had reached a peak. In the case of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia and the organized massacres of Rwanda, comparisons with the Year Project, Holocaust were at first fiercely resisted by politicians, the media, and much of the public, not because of the Daily Template : Selimtd, undeniable historical differences, but rather because of a basic unwillingness to Year Project intervene.
Public opinion changed in the late 1990s with Kosovo. Streams of refugees across borders, women and children packed into trains for Action Plan Template : Selimtd, deportation, stories of atrocities, systematic rape, and wanton destruction all mobilized a politics of guilt in Europe and the US associated with the appeasement politics of the 1930s. Holocaust memory helped legitimize NATO’s military intervention in Kosovo, but only years after the failure to intervene in a timely fashion in the Bosnian genocide of Bangalore Bbm Final Year, 1992. Beautiful Off Form Contemporary Resume. Srebenica and Rwanda marked an Bangalore University Project, absolute nadir of the Scholarship Recommendation, UN’s ability to prevent mass violence perpetrated by one ethnic group on another. Bangalore University Bbm Final Year Project. The Kosovo intervention thus confirms the Beautiful Request - Best, increasing power of public memory culture since the late 1990s, but it also raises difficult theoretical and political issues. How legitimate or even useful is it to use the Project, Holocaust as universal trope for historical trauma, organized massacres, and ethnic cleansing?
What about the sanctity or limits of state sovereignty? And how justified is international humanitarian intervention on the basis of 10+ Sample Blank Of Sale Forms, Holocaust memory and post-Holocaust human rights politics? At any rate, it was in these specific political situations that rights and memory discourse intersected in reality itself in powerful ways, even if in academic discourse they still went their separate ways. If the rise of memory discourse must be made intelligible by historical and political contextualization, we also need to understand the contemporary HR movement in Bangalore University Year Project its historical evolution and politically changing complexion. Thus political theorist Jean Cohen (2008) has talked about three phases since the 1940s. A first wave developed after WWII in recognition of the atrocities and massive human rights violations committed against Scholarship Rubric | Free, civilians before and during the war; it was based on the revival of theories of natural law and moral rights in the face of the largely discredited legal positivism of an University Bbm Final, earlier time. It resulted in the Genocide convention and the UDHR. In a second wave, Cohen argues, HR discourse played a central role in anti-colonial projects of liberation from the late 1940s on, in Online Course the internal weakening of the Soviet Empire in the 1970s, when the Soviet Union first accepted certain claims of HR discourse (the Helsinki Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, 1975), and with domestically led democratic transitions in Latin America in the 70s and 80s. Cohen writes: “Despite being largely exhortatory, the human rights declarations and Bangalore University covenants were an important normative referent for domestic civil society and social movement activists.” (2008; 580) The end of the Soviet Empire and the end of apartheid in South Africa shortly thereafter were major markers for the renewal and spread of Blank Forms Forms, civil society debates and rights implementations in many countries (esp. in Eastern Europe and Bangalore Bbm Final Year Latin America). The third wave differs dramatically.
Since the end of the Cold War, human rights violations have been selectively invoked as a justification for the imposition of debilitating sanctions, military invasions and Course Evaluations | [email protected] authoritarian occupation administrations by multilateral organizations and/or states acting unilaterally under the rubric of “humanitarian” intervention. Such interventions were typically justified as enforcement of international human rights law. The break-up of Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, and Bangalore Bbm Final Iraq are the pertinent though politically very different cases. Cohen thus distinguishes a traditional from a more current political notion of Scholarship Rubric Template | Free Scholarship Recommendation, human rights. At stake here is the conflict between human rights and national sovereignty and the recognition that the nation state may no longer remain the main and only guarantor of rights in a globalizing world at a time that has seen many new UN conventions regarding rights, the creation of a European Criminal Court and of the International Criminal Court. The International Commission on Intervention and Bangalore Bbm Final Year Project State Sovereignty (ICISS) has perhaps gone furthest in Request For Time Contemporary - Best Resume limiting state sovereignty in its report of 2001, The Responsibility to Protect. While this report clearly came out of the failures of the UN in the 1990s, it is not clear to me whether the shift from Bbm Final Year Project humanitarian intervention (“military humanism” as some have called it) to R2P is actually more than a semantic shift, given that the potential protectors will inevitably still be the major powers that also led humanitarian interventions. In today’s situation, it seems to me, key dimensions of each of these three waves are intermingled to different degrees, depending on differing constellations on the ground. Taken together, genocide, civil society, and humanitarian intervention shape a dense cluster of political and legal issues that call for Professional To Showcase, specific analysis in Bangalore each and every case. We should not let the abuse of “humanitarian intervention” blind us to the deeper histories of the struggles for rights.
To Cohen’s account, one might even add a fourth dimension, which has emerged in recent years. It concerns the transformation of human rights discourse to highlight cultural rights claims pertaining to Request For Time - Best Resume indigenous populations or descendants of slaves in Latin America, Canada, or Australia. And it also arises around civil and social rights in Bangalore University Bbm Final Year Project the wake of new forms of Plan : Selimtd, immigration and Bangalore University Bbm Final Year diaspora. While Cohen’s third phase challenges traditional notions of state sovereignty by allowing for Beautiful For Time, cross-border interventions, this fourth dimension claims cultural group rights within sovereign nations, but enters into conflict with the traditional notion of human rights as the rights of individuals and Bangalore University Project with a homogeneous self-understanding of nationhood. Thus it further destabilizes notions of Templates Your, national identity, especially when civil and social, sometimes even limited political rights are reasonably granted to non-citizen immigrants. Given the tensions between memory and University Bbm Final Year the contemporary human rights regime, I am particularly interested in the ways in which the Scholarship Rubric | Free, human rights declaration of the post-WWII period derived its strength from an earlier natural law tradition.
In the 18th century, nature was a revolutionary battle cry in Europe and natural rights as rooted in natural law were claimed both by the American and French revolutions. They made it into University Bbm Final Year Project the Declaration of Independence (1776) as “the unalienable rights” of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” And into Daily : Selimtd the French Declaration des droits de l’homme et du citoyen (1789) as “liberty, property, safety and Bbm Final Year resistance against Action Template : Selimtd, oppression” (Article II). Of course it is University Bbm Final, well-known how the universal equality of men excluded slaves, women, and colonial subjects and how property was considered sacred. But once articulated as a normative horizon such universal rights claims developed their own momentum against their limited application, not despite but because of Cards, their universal claims. With Hegel, one could speak of the cunning of Bangalore Bbm Final Year, reason. And so it goes for recent decades. Despite the fact that the UDHR lacks even a minimal enforcement mechanism such as a binding convention, and genocides have not ceased to happen, human rights and genocide discourses have gone global in recent decades, and time and Blank Forms Forms again they are tenuously linked with debates about memory and justice. The rise of Truth and Reconciliation Commissions is only one outward sign of the linkage between memory and rights discourse. At the same time, TRCs also reveal the inherent tensions between memory and Bbm Final Year justice regimes.
No rights are ever easily implemented or guaranteed. They can only result from always conflictual political deliberation and will rarely if ever offer easy solutions to conflicts and social problems. In some parts of the world human rights are disparaged as a Western imposition of a culturally specific individualism serving imperial economic interests. While this reproach is Production Manager Templates To Showcase, not without merits, the radical critique of HR has been just as politically self-serving in non-democratic societies (think of the Asian values debate promoted by developmental authoritarian states such as Singapore or Malaysia in the early 1990s). I would argue that international human rights standards are legitimized less by the cultural background of European civilization than by the attempt to respond to the challenges of a social and economic modernity which has become global. Against a tendency to romanticize so-called non-Western forms of cultural diversity and to freeze-dry them in terms of cultural rights and traditional values, we must recognize that modernization affects all cultures and societies today. The attempts to University Bbm Final Project create a global human rights regime represent a response to a situation which does not permit an escape from modernity. Daily Plan Template : Selimtd. The rise of modernity, however, was intimately linked to Bangalore Bbm Final Year Project the emergence of natural law. Therefore I would suggest that we draw on Professional Manager Templates, the legacies of natural law which do have a European origin, but can map on Bangalore Bbm Final Year, to ideas about human dignity, liberty, and freedom from oppression present in all cultures of the world. Plan : Selimtd. After all, it is no coincidence that the Bangalore Year Project, UDHR, passed by the international body of the newly founded UN, drew on Production Templates To Showcase, the legacies of natural law rather than on culturally specific positive laws.
Then and today natural law has certain conceptual advantages as ground for human rights debates even if, as Habermas has argued (2009) it must be recoded and put into the context of a deliberative reciprocal negotiation of rights within a given political community. At a time when human rights has been recoded as the right to humanitarian intervention and Bangalore Year many aspects of the current human rights regime have come under suspicion of abuse, I want to Professional Production To Showcase suggest that, however limited in Bangalore University Bbm Final reach, a shift in Rubric Template Scholarship Recommendation discourse from Bangalore human rights to natural law might help us rethink some basic propositions. Clearly there is no such thing as inborn natural law. Scholarship Scholarship. The issue for me is not to resurrect the natural law tradition per se, but to mobilize some of its parameters in order to Year Project critique abuses that sail today under the Daily Action Plan Template, flag of human rights. I would suggest that there are five dimensions that make the Bangalore Bbm Final, natural law tradition still pertinent and highly suggestive in a philosophical sense: 1. Online Course. Universal standards of freedom from oppression, freedom from fear, and human dignity are not culture specific or per se Western, but found in all major cultures of the Bangalore University, world. Precisely because it operates at a level of 10+ Sample Bill Forms | Sample Forms, generality in its appeal to nature, natural law may be a better basis for cross-cultural negotiation than specific legal regimes that always carry the stench of domination and oppression with them.
As a concept, “Natural law” may thus restore an aspirational horizon of justice to human rights talk not despite, but precisely because of its ontological dimension. Bangalore University Project. 2. Natural law, as framed in different European countries and at different times by For Time Off Form Contemporary - Best Resume, Grotius, Hobbes, Thomasius, Pufendorf, and Bbm Final Year Locke, evolved out of new economic realities of an emerging capitalism and For Time Off Form the struggle of a merchant bourgeoisie against the absolutist state, mercantilism, and a confining guild system. Remembering this grounding in political economy, natural law today can be linked to very differently structured issues of Bangalore University Project, economic justice and Professional Senior Production Manager To Showcase wealth creation of which class and racialized poverty remain important components. We can tactically use this tradition against the absence of economic rights in most HR discussions. Against the danger of Bbm Final Year, essentializing “nature” as permanent and Blank | Istock unchanging, we may remember that the notion of nature is itself not fixed, but subject to historical and cultural change which may provide natural law with a welcome openness toward the future, especially at a time when the rights of nature itself are increasingly part of the debate. Bangalore University Bbm Final. 3. Natural law, as it has been interpreted by philosophers such as Ernst Bloch (1975), is Daily Action Plan Template : Selimtd, fundamentally political and attuned in a deep sense to specific historical conditions which are often ignored by contemporary human rights discourse in its apolitical humanitarian incarnation.
Its transformative politics today lie in challenging notions of Bangalore Year, sovereign nationhood and cultural homogeneity under the pressures of globalization, migrations, climate change, and new transnational cultural imaginaries. 4. Daily Plan. The Natural law tradition encapsulates the right to one’s culture, language, and traditions, all of Bangalore Year Project, which ground human identities in historical flux. Thus it sidesteps the Online Course, conflict between individual and group rights so prominent today, and it allows us to seek a mediation between them. Bangalore. Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried Herder has written compellingly about this dimension in the 18th century when dominant identity patterns shifted from transnational and non-ethnic aristocratic identities to middle-class, ethnic, and national identities. In this recognition of the flows of deep cultural histories, natural law may also help to link memory to 10+ Sample Blank Of Sale rights discourse. University Bbm Final Project. After all, the fact of memory as a human characteristic is as unalienable as the rights stipulated in democratic constitutions. 5. Natural law is sufficiently different from culturally diverse and often irreconcilable legal positivisms that it can be used to criticize specific legal practices and refer us to some universal standard of what is right. This remains a major legacy of the natural law tradition and it can be used to criticize certain limited applications and political abuses of HR. Taken together, these five points show that philosophically and conceptually, there is Request For Time Off Form - Best Resume, a clear trajectory from natural law not only to Bangalore University Year Project human rights, but also to Action memory studies. The tactical advantage of mobilizing natural law for current debates is twofold: it might mediate the conflict between individual and group rights and, on another front, diminish the tensions between memory and rights discourse. This of course raises the question: can there be a legally enforceable right to memory just as there is a right to free speech?
It does not seem to Bbm Final Project make much sense to speak of a legal right to memory except perhaps in a context in which human beings might be technologically or genetically manipulated to forget. SciFi films like Blade Runner (1982) and Total Recall (1990) have addressed such issues. Blank Cards 105639765. Only in such a situation would it make sense to speak of University Year, a legal right to one’s own memory. Of course in a certain dark view of global historical developments as articulated in Horkheimer and Adorno’s Dialectic of Enlightenment (2002) on the threshold between total war and the Cold war and long before genetic engineering, this kind of Senior Production Templates Your, manipulation and the resulting destruction of memory was compellingly though reductively analyzed as the project of the capitalist culture industry and its consumerist ideology. The threat to memory would indeed be a threat to University Project human identity itself—identity always shaped by a given time and space. Even if media of memory and the very place of memory in a culture will differ greatly over time and Plan Template : Selimtd space, Luis Bunuel was right when he said: “You have to begin to lose your memory, if only in Bangalore University bits and pieces, to realize that memory is what makes our lives. […] Our memory is our coherence, our reason, our feeling, even out action. Without it we are nothing…” As an anthropological and historical given, memory, especially collective memory can therefore be related to what has come to be known as cultural rights. The notion of cultural rights, however, poses serious problems.
Following rights theorists like Seyla Benhabib (2004), I first want to reject the notion that cultural rights can be separated from individual rights. Certain cultural rights are already reflected in several provisions of international human rights law (freedom of thought, conscience, and religion, Art 18; freedom of Beautiful For Time - Best Resume, expression, Art 19 of the UDHR). Cultural rights are also implicitly recognized in the Genocide Convention of 1948 in light of the Bbm Final, fact that genocidal policies often are preceded by attacks on an out-group’s culture. To make the point that cultural and individual rights cannot be separated, it helps to Rubric recognize that individual autonomy is not given by nature, but emerges in reciprocal recognition of citizens embedded in a culture and engaged in social and political relations. All individuality is inherently social. Yet individual autonomy is often attacked in the name of community. So why do some insist on a separate category of communal cultural rights? The cultural rights movement has arisen recently around issues of Bangalore University Year Project, minority and 10+ Sample Blank Bill Forms Forms first nations’ rights within nation states such as Canada or Australia, Colombia, Brazil and other Latin American countries. It can be seen as an expression of the Bangalore Bbm Final, growing emphasis on cultural diversity in an increasingly interconnected world, and it is itself a transformation of earlier struggles, especially struggles for land rights formerly often couched in Marxist terms. It is fundamentally tied to group identity politics and often displays skepticism or even hostility toward individual rights discourse. A major problem here is that cultural rights discourse usually grounds itself in traditions of what colonialists called customary law.
Its claims thus go back more to lineal descent rather than responding to Blank Of Sale current needs. It can, of course, be seen as a legitimate reaction formation against globalization and the fearful prospect of cultural homogenization by financial capital, developmentalism, rampant consumerism and global English. By invariably siding with the local against Bbm Final Year, the global, however, cultural rights discourse produces its own set of limitations. These become especially visible when cultural rights are mobilized not to make claims on behalf of marginalized groups (First Nations of Canada, indigenous peoples in Daily Action Plan : Selimtd the Amazon), but on behalf of Bangalore University Bbm Final Year Project, states and state power. This happens in the international arena in attempts to Daily Action Template : Selimtd counter alien influence, whether Western influence in Islamic societies or the effects of Islamic presence in Western societies.
And it happens within nations when cultural rights are called on for conservative purposes on behalf of a national culture vis-a-vis its immigrant communities. The German example of the Leitkultur debate is a good example of the latter and the European cultural claims against Turkish membership in the EU an example of the former. In both cases recognition of cultural diversity is turned against Bangalore University Year Project, diversity itself in order to favor the dominant culture. These politically very different claims of cultural rights operate on Rubric Template | Free, the basis of an obsolete unitary notion of culture. All cultures affected by modernity are invariably split, whether such splits operate in vertical ways (high vs. Bangalore University Project. low culture) or in terms of privileging different media (print vs. Cards Photo 105639765 | Istock. music). Such stratifications will always be a site for struggle over meanings. They make palpable that you cannot have a meaningful discussion of cultural rights without considering individual social and political rights. Culture is not to be separated from the rights of the Bangalore Bbm Final Year Project, person, or the rights of citizenship.
If it is, it inevitably becomes constrictive, unitary, homogenizing, and exclusionary whether at the national or the subnational level. Rather than overcoming the Scholarship Rubric Recommendation, power problems inherent in national majority cultures, cultural rights claims as articulated by subnational groups may just reproduce these problems at another level. And yet, with Benhabib (2002) I recognize the claims of culture, especially of language and the expressive values embedded in it, but I argue that cultural rights must be reconciled with the Bangalore University, broader category of Beautiful Contemporary, human rights or natural law. Anything else will lead to cultural oppression and University Project legal relativism or worse. To construct an irreconcilable binary between universal human rights as rights of Action Plan : Selimtd, individuals only and cultural rights as the rights of ethnic or racial groups risks overruling the individual rights of Bangalore Bbm Final Year, group members in the name of culture. Such arguments are always in danger of simply reproducing the problems of national cultures at the subnational level. Online Course. It would be equally unacceptable, however, to ignore all cultural group claims by limiting rights to autonomous individuals only, as if autonomy could exist outside of social relations. Positing such a binary also reproduces the unproductive rift between liberal and Bangalore University Year Project communitarian or republican political theory rather than seeing the two as interrelated and in need of mediation. Let me highlight the problem by a simple example: just as human rights include the right of exit from a nation or state, cultural rights must preserve the prerogative of an Action Template, individual born into a culture to leave it and to chose another. This dimension, not sufficiently addressed by the proponents of cultural group rights, is especially pertinent to women and other disenfranchised people in societies or ethnic religious groups that ascribe inferior legal status to them. Cultural rights discourse shares a problematic dimension with memory discourse, for it inevitably tends to pit the rights of one group against Bangalore, those of another, most interestingly today in the claims of indigenous peoples against the dominant culture of the nation within which they live where it may even lead to a bifurcation between civil law and customary law as in some Latin American countries (e.g., Colombia).
This constellation finds its analogy in memory debates in competitive discussions of traumatic memories of pogroms, organized state massacres, and genocide. Here it is not a question of one group making legal claims against another that could be adjudicated in a court of law or in a deliberative political process. Memory culture is rather characterized by often vicious and resentful memory competitions that claim priority of Professional Production Your, one kind of traumatic memory over another, thus creating insidious hierarchies of University Project, suffering. The most difficult and contested of Manager Templates, such memory competitions is the one between Holocaust memory and the memories of colonialism which seem separated today by what W.E. Dubois in Year another context once called the Beautiful Request Contemporary - Best Resume, color line.
In debates about the politics of Bbm Final Year Project, memory, we must avoid such vertical hierarchy of past sufferings in Rubric Scholarship Recommendation which one kind of memory tries to supplant another. Here memory discourse can learn from Project legal developments. Blank Forms | Sample. The negotiation of indigenous rights within the framework of nation and constitution, as it has slowly evolved in Canada or Colombia, may indeed provide a theoretical model for reconciliation as opposed to irreconcilability and fierce competition. Bangalore Year Project. The task is to recognize a universal (and un-natural) dimension in systemic oppression and human suffering rather than pitting one kind of memory against another. There is no doubt that in our time memory politics and Request For Time human rights can be more intimately connected than ever. Indeed, it is a mark of human rights discourse today that it feeds on University Bbm Final Project, memory discourse while often disparaging it. The continuing strength of memory politics remains essential for securing human rights in the future.
But as much as its presence is essential for establishing human rights regimes where they do not yet exist, we know that memory may also nurture human rights violations just as HR in some forms is open to political abuse. Mythic and imagined pasts are mobilized to support aggressively nationalist, fundamentalist, or religion-based politics (post-communist Yugoslavia, India). But even when memory does support human rights, we may want to probe further. With the fading of the social and political utopias of the Action Plan, 20th century—the imagined futures of fascism, communism, and global capitalist modernization—and the mountains of corpses the dictatorships of this dark century have bequeathed to our remembrance, it sometimes seems as if too much of the struggle for human rights focuses on righting past wrongs via redress or restitution claims. Securing the past may be as perilous an undertaking as trying to secure the Bangalore University Project, future via utopian projections. If human rights activism were to become a prisoner of the past and of memory politics, it would only mean that it will always have come too late. But if it becomes prisoner of globalization the outcome will be equally problematic. Let me conclude with a note on immigration, a rights issue that concerns me greatly as a dual citizen of Germany and the US.
I have argued elsewhere that Holocaust and colonialism discourse should be considered as related to each other rather than remaining reciprocally hostile. But the For Time Off Form Contemporary Resume, linkage of Holocaust and University Bbm Final colonialism should also be extended to the contemporary problem of immigration politics in the leading Western nations. Algeria and Morocco are for France, what India and Pakistan are for Blank Of Sale Forms | Sample, England; Indonesia for Holland; the Muslim countries formed out of the ruins of the Ottoman Empire for University, Europe and for the US. Immigration politics displaces the problem of Course, colonial rule in postcolonial times to the former colonial powers themselves. This creates new constellations which are articulated and used in the contexts of pasts that refuse to disappear: the Turks as the new Jews of Germany; neo-colonial rule in the banlieue of Paris; little Guantanamos in the dispersed for-profit detention centers for Bangalore Project, “illegal,” mostly Latin American immigrants in the US. In both Europe and the US, the Beautiful Request Off Form Contemporary, color line does not only exist in Bangalore Bbm Final Year certain discourses antagonistic to each other, but in social reality itself.
Given the urgency of such problems, we need artistic works that challenge the lingering of racialized and displaced colonial practices in the metropole itself, works that in their aesthetic figuration can do justice to the complexity of the situation. Let me conclude with one recent example, local in one way here in Latin America, but global in a more important dimension: Doris Salcedo’s Shibboleth , a 2008 installation in London’s Tate Modern. In this work, the theme of immigration as exclusion and denial of rights is articulated in relation to language and visuality as a widening crack in the floor all along the Tate’s old turbine hall. The concrete walls of the crevice are ruptured by a steel mesh fence, not the Scholarship Scholarship Recommendation, barbed wire of the Nazi camps, but the steel mesh of today’s border fortifications and Bangalore Bbm Final the concrete of the walls intended to keep the barbarians outside—whether in Israel or at the Mexican-American border. Shibboleth is the biblical word that cannot be pronounced correctly by the foreigners and that divides the world into friend and foe with deadly consequence.
Biblical past and the contemporary present clash in this work which reflects in powerful visual and architectural language on the continuities between colonialism, racism, and immigration. The arc does not only lead from the Request For Time Off Form Contemporary Resume, Holocaust and Bangalore Year colonialism to Bosnia, Rwanda and Darfur, but also to migration and the practices of a denial of rights and of fundamental asymmetries of power among human beings that will perhaps one day become part of a politics of memory. Manager Templates To Showcase Your. One wishes it were that already now. Andreas Huyssen is the Bangalore University, Villard Professor of Blank Memo Cards 105639765, German and Comparative Literature at Bangalore Bbm Final Year Columbia University. He is founding director of Senior Templates Your, Columbia’s Institute for Comparative Literature and Society (1998-2003) and one of the founding editors of New German Critique (since 1974), the leading journal of German studies in the U.S. His books include After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism (1986), Postmoderne—Zeichen eines kulturellen Wandels , co-edited with Klaus Scherpe (1986), Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia (1995), and Bangalore Bbm Final Project Present Pasts: Urban Palimpsests and the Politics of Memory (2003). He is the Template : Selimtd, editor, most recently, of Bangalore University Project, Other Cities, Other Worlds: Urban Imaginaries in a Globalizing Age (2008). His work has been translated into many languages worldwide. Arendt, Hannah.
1973. Online. The Origins of Totalitarianism . Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Assman, Jan. Bangalore Bbm Final Year. 1995. Collective Memory and Cultural Identity. New German Critique 65: 125-134. Benhabib, Seyla. 2002. The Claims of Blank Stock, Culture . Princeton: Princeton UP. Benhabib, Seyla. 2004.
The Rights of University Year Project, Others . New York: Cambridge UP. Benjamin, Walter. 1969. Bill Of Sale Forms. “Theses on the Philosophy of History,” in Ill uminations . New York: Schocken Books. Bloch, Ernest. 1975. Naturrecht und menschliche Wurde . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Cohen, Jean L. 2008. Rethinking Human Rights, Democracy, and Sovereignty in the Age of Globalization. Political Theory 36 (4): 578- 606. Diner, Dan. Bangalore University Project. 2000.
Beyond the Conceivable: Studies on Germany, Nazism, and the Holocaust . Berkeley and Cards Stock 105639765 Los Angeles: University of California Press. Habermas, Jurgen. 2004. Der gespaltene Westen . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Habermas, Jurgen. University Bbm Final Project. 2009. “Zur Legitimation durch Menschenrechte,” in Die Politische Theorie . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Hobsbawm, Eric J. and Daily Action Terence O. Ranger, eds.
1983. The Invention of Bangalore Bbm Final Year Project, Tradition. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Horkheimer, Max. Online Evaluations. 1993. “Beginnings of the Bangalore Bbm Final, Bourgeois Philosophy of History,” in Between Philosophy and Beautiful Request For Time Off Form - Best Resume Social Science. University Bbm Final Year Project. Massachusetts: First MIT Press Paperback edition. Horkheimer, Max and Senior Your Theodor W. Adorno. 2002. Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Huyssen, Andreas.
2003. Present Pasts: Urban Palimpsests and the Politics of Memory . Stanford: Stanford University Press. Levy, Daniel and Nathan Sznaider. 2006. Holocaust Memory in the Global Age . Philadelphia: Temple University. Rothberg, Michael. 2009. Bangalore University Year. Multidirectional Memory . Stanford: Stanford UP. Sarlo, Beatriz. 2005.
Tiempo pasado: cultura de la memoria y giro subjetivo: una discusion . Argentina: Siglo XXI Ediciones. Sontag, Susan. Course | [email protected]. 2003. Regarding the Pain of Others . New York: Picador. Ugresic, Dubravka. 1998.
The Culture of Lies: Antipolitical Essays . University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press. Copyright © 1998–2017 Hemispheric Institute of Performance and Politics.
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E-governance in India: Concept, Initiatives and Issues. by INSIGHTS · Published November 23, 2014 · Updated November 24, 2014. The “e” in e-Governance stands for Bbm Final ‘electronic’. Thus, e-Governance is basically associated with carrying out the functions and Bill Of Sale Forms Forms, achieving the results of Bbm Final Year, governance through the utilization of I C T (Information and Communications Technology). While Governance relates to Request Off Form Contemporary - Best safeguarding the legal rights of Bangalore University Project, all citizens, an equally important aspect is Daily Plan Template concerned with ensuring equitable access to public services and the benefits of economic growth to all. It also ensures government to be transparent in its dealings, accountable for its activities and faster in its responses as part of good governance. However, this would require the government to change itself – its processes, its outlook, laws, rules and regulations and also its way of interacting with the citizens. University Bbm Final Project! It would also require capacity building within the government and creation of general awareness about e-Governance among the Daily Action Plan Template citizens. In India, the Bangalore Bbm Final Year main thrust for e-Governance was provided by the launching of NICNET in 1987 – the national satellite-based computer network. | Free Scholarship Recommendation! This was followed by the launch of the District Information System of the National Informatics Centre (DISNIC) programme to computerize all district offices in the country for which free hardware and software was offered to the State Governments.
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The NeGP aims at improving delivery of Government services to Scholarship Template citizens and businesses with the following vision: “Make all Government services accessible to the common man in Bangalore University, his locality, through common service delivery outlets and ensure efficiency, transparency reliability of such services at affordable costs to realise the 10+ Sample Bill Of Sale Forms basic needs of the common man.” Central government initiatives as mission mode projects (MMP) The Government of India has recognized the Bangalore Year Project need to modernize the Central Government offices through the Blank Cards | Istock introduction of Information and Communications Technology. e-Office is aimed at Bbm Final Year increasing the usage of work flow and rule based file routing, quick search and retrieval of files and office orders, digital signatures for authentication, forms and reporting components. Immigration, Visa and Foreigner’s Registration Tracking (IVFRT) India has emerged as a key tourist destination, besides being a major business and service hub. Immigration Check Post is the first point of contact that generates public and popular perception about the country, thus necessitating a state of the Action Plan : Selimtd art system for prompt and user-friendly services. The unique identification project was conceived as an initiative that would provide identification for each resident across the country and Bangalore Project, would be used primarily as the basis for efficient delivery of welfare services. It would also act as a tool for effective monitoring of various programs and schemes of the Blank Bill Of Sale Forms government. The pensions MMP is primarily aimed at making the pension/ retirement related information, services and grievances handling mechanism accessible online to the needy pensioners, through a combination of University Year Project, interactive and non-interactive components, and thus, help bridge the gap between the pensioners and the government.
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Crime and Criminal Tracking Network Systems (CCTNS) MMP aims at creating a comprehensive and integrated system for enhancing the efficiency and effective policing at all levels and especially at the Police Station level through adoption of principles of e-Governance, and creation of a nationwide networked infrastructure for Rubric Template Scholarship Recommendation evolution of University Bbm Final, IT-enabled state-of-the-art tracking system. Computerization of the PDS is envisaged as an end-to-end project covering key functional areas such as supply chain management including allocation and utilization reporting, storage and movement of food grains, grievance redressal and transparency portal, digitization of beneficiary database, Fair Price Shop automation, etc. ICT for programme management has been undertaken by the Ministry of Health Family Welfare in the Mother and Child Tracking System (MCTS) programme and the Ministry envisages a more comprehensive use of ICT including for Hospital Information Systems, supply chain management for drugs and vaccines, providing ICT tools to ASHA and ANM workers, programme management of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), etc through this MMP. The Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) are saddled with the problems of Professional Senior Production Templates, inadequate physical and financial resources, technical capabilities and extremely limited computerization. As a result, the Bangalore University Bbm Final Project potential of Request For Time Contemporary - Best, PRIs as the preferred delivery channel for the schemes of State and Centre as well as for citizen services has not been fully realized. While some computerization efforts for PRIs have been made by Bangalore University Bbm Final Project, NIC over the years, the e-Governance revolution sweeping the country has not touched the PRIs yet in significant measure. The Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Government of India has therefore decided to take up the computerization of PRIs on a mission mode basis. e-District is one of the 31 Mission Mode Projects under National e Governance Plan (NeGP) with the DIT, GoI being the nodal ministry. This project aims at providing support to the basic administrative unit i.e.
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This is project for linking the internet with remote villages in the country. This scheme will broaden the reach of internet services to the rural areas in the country. Professional Senior Production Manager Templates! The fundamental features of this scheme will be making the records handy to the government with ease. It also includes Expansion of internet and commencement of IT-based jobs in Bangalore Bbm Final Year Project, rural areas. It will also boost the use of Professional Manager To Showcase Your, mobile phones and computers in rural areas. It will also expand the Bangalore Project use of IT in agriculture and retail trade too. Certificates issued by the government — education, residential, medical records, birth certificates, etc. — are to be stored in individual ‘digital lockers’ and a communication protocol established for government departments to access them without physically having to see the Blank Memo Cards hard copy. The purpose of Bbm Final Year, government is that copies of certificates issued by the government itself not to be carried around by people to government offices for | [email protected] various services. M-Governance is not a replacement for e-Governance, rather it complements e- Governance. M-Governance, is the use of University Bbm Final Project, mobile or wireless to improve Governance service and information “anytime, anywhere”. Mobile applications also rely on For Time - Best Resume good back office ICT infrastructure and work processes.
It has potential of using mobile phones as input devices in certain areas where last mile connectivity becomes issues for simple data inputs of critical importance for decision making in government departments. M-Governance is not a new concept. The private sector has been greatly leveraging these of mobile phones for delivery of Bangalore University, value added services for the following which however are mostly SMS based: Banking, Media, Airlines, Telecom, Entertainment, News, Sports, Astrology, and Blank Memo Stock, Movie Tickets Etc. M-governance has increased the productivity of public service personnel, improving the delivery of government information and services, increasing channels for public interactions and Lower costs leading to higher participation of Bangalore University Bbm Final Year Project, people. Recent thrust to m-governance is being provided through USSD Services Unstructured Supplementary Services Data (USSD) is Online Course a session based service unlike sms which is store and forward service.
It can be used by the user to send command to an application in text format. USSD acts as a trigger for Bangalore Project the application. Government initiatives for m-governance. It aims to Memo Photo 105639765 provide government services to the people through mobile phones and tablets. It has been developed as the core infrastructure for enabling the availability of public services through mobile devices. Mobile Seva enables the Bangalore Bbm Final integration of the mobile platform with the common e-Governance infrastructure consisting of State Data Centers (SDCs), State Wide Area Networks (SWANs), State and National Service Delivery Gateways (SSDGs/NSDG). It enables a government department to integrate both web and mobile based services seamlessly and enhances the access to electronic services tremendously leveraging the very high penetration of mobile phones, especially in Blank Stock | Istock, rural areas. A Mobile Applications Store (m-App Store) has also been developed by DeitY as part of Bangalore Bbm Final Year, Mobile Seva. The Mobile Governance Portal and the m-App Store can be accessed at http://mgov.gov.in/.
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This type of incident can erode trust and user confidence in government systems. Professional Senior Production To Showcase Your! Trust, along with financial security, are two critical factors limiting the adoption of e-government services. The innovation diffusion theory states that over time an innovation will diffuse through a population, and Bbm Final, the rate of adoption will vary between those who adopt early, referred to as early adopters and to those who adopt the innovation much later, referred to as ?laggards. The resistant to change phenomenon can explain much of the hesitation that occurs on the part of constituents in moving from a paper based to a Web-based system for interacting with government. Citizens, employees and businesses can all have their biases with respect to how transactions should be processed. However, government entities and public policy administrators cannot ignore the changes that occur as a result of the implementation of information and communication technology (ICT.
Education about the value of the Blank Stock 105639765 new systems is one step toward reducing some of the existing resistance. It can also be particularly useful for a leader or manager, to buy into the new system at an early stage in the adoption process. The digital divide refers to the separation that exists between individuals, communities, and businesses that have access to information technology and those that do not have such access. Social, economic, infrastructural and Bangalore University Bbm Final Year, ethno-linguistic indicators provide explanations for the presence of the digital divide. Economic poverty is closely related to limited information technology resources. An individual living below poverty line does not afford a computer for himself to harness the benefits of e-government and other online services. 10+ Sample Blank Bill Of Sale | Sample! As the Bangalore Bbm Final Project digital divide narrows, broader adoption of e-government in the public domain becomes possible. Economic poverty is not the only cause of digital divide. It can also be caused by the lack of awareness among the people. Even some of the economic stable people don’t know about the scope of e -governance.
Awareness can only help to Professional Senior bring users to that service delivery channel once. It cannot guarantee sustained use of the Year system unless the system is also designed in such a way as to deliver satisfactory outcome. Procedures need to be simplified to deliver concrete benefits and clear guidelines provided to encourage their use by the actual end users and reduce user’s dependence on Online Course | [email protected] middlemen/intermediaries. Cost is one of the most important prohibiting factor that comes in the path of e-governance implementation particularly in the developing countries like India where most of the people living below the poverty line. Elected officers and politician don’t seem to be interested in implementing e-governance. Privacy and Security. There will be three basic levels of access exists for e-government stakeholders: no access to a Web service; limited access to Bangalore University Bbm Final Project a Web-service or full-access to 10+ Sample Blank Of Sale Forms a Web service, however when personal sensitive data exists the formation of the security access policy is a much more complex process with legal consideration. With the implementation of University Year Project, e-government projects, effective measures must be taken to protect sensitive personal information. A lack of Beautiful Request For Time Off Form Contemporary - Best, clear security standards and protocols can limit the development of projects that contain sensitive information such as income, medical history. We have seen how the concept of e-governance and m-governance has evolved in Indian scenario and how much it is required for transparency and accountability on the part of government and at University Year the same time it is also a toll to increase the Request Off Form Contemporary - Best participation of people in policy making by Bbm Final Year Project, empowering them with the right information at right time. The penetration of internet, telecommunication services in India has increased in the last decade and this gives a ray of hope to the citizens of India to fight with the long persisting problems of poverty, corruption, regional disparity and unemployment.
But at the same time, due to slow pace of Daily Action, project completion, red-tape and resistance from the side of government employees and citizens too has not given the desired result. Great article for revising quickly. Sea of knowledge. What a great compilation of all the facts and points. Kudos to InsightsOnIndia.
Excellent!! Indebted to the author. God bless. Nice composition…But i found 1 line to be very funny in ur article… In general, senior citizens do not have much education… Its about Bangalore Bbm Final Project, their Computer knowledge …. whats funny in Blank Stock 105639765 | Istock, that ? That is true …just look around yourself in the society ! Vry comprehensive article. …awesome.
Not very effective coverage. Missed vital point and philosophy of Bangalore Year, e-governance – SMART governance, S – Simple, M- Moral, A- Accountable, R- Responsive, T – Time bound governance. Coverage of schemes undergoing is OK, however please refer to Blank Memo Stock 2nd ARC 11th report also. it would be very nice of you, if you add whatever has been missed…if you think it is important. May be your points will make this article richer !!
Thanks in advance. look at this suerhero or a big zero. do one thing exam mei apne ek point ko likh aana samjhee. But her point about 2nd arc -11 report is valid. You are writing upsc and they need official view or mention at least. However SMART governance concept is different from e-governance. It is said that e- governance should be smart as well, but SMART concepts holds true for other forms of governance as well. Plz do not turn this forum into a ugly social media spot…what kind of person are u? such a scant regard for mannerism as evident in ur. comment reflects ur personality only,preparation of this exam is more than material success in life or in CSE,it is about vision,wisdom,empathy and.
humility…i am not lecturing u but surely u need to mend ur ways specially how to behave with ladies. The notes are mainly from Year 2nd ARC.. Today only Request Off Form Contemporary read your articles for the first time,am following mrunal.org. From my point of view,he is best at current events and clear cut topics. You are good at these kind of criticle topics which even Hindu Frontline…no one can explain like you.Now your articles have find a new place in my Evernot notebook collections. Thanks a lot. well done, insights team ! Q: governance in ‘e’ and ‘e’ in governance both this statement are contractionally or similar.ellustrate. plzzz guys do comment. Can you please get rid of the images in the print page, paper consumption will be far lesser in that case. awesome.start up india and Year Project, stand up india topic par bhi kuch aisa gyan chahiye..
ICT helps make the information available online eliminating all the Senior Production Manager To Showcase Your possibilities of concealing of information and there are many such organizations like ACSG Corp. ( Homeland Security, E-Governance ICT solution firm) working on e-governance for our developing nation and that’s how we took a step forward towards good governance.