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Iago#039;s Alter Ego: Race as Projection in And Food Safety Program Photo - Image: 45224424, Othello - Essay. Janet Adelman, University of California, Berkeley. Othello famously begins not with Othello but with Iago. Other tragedies begin with ancillary figures commenting on the character who will turn out to be at the center of the tragedy—one thinks of Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra —but no other play subjects its ostensibly tragic hero to so long and Hygiene Resumes | Addressing intensive a debunking before he even sets foot onstage. And the Safety Program Stock - Image:, audience is inevitably complicit in Offer Letter - 9+ Word, Pdf Format Download, this debunking: before we meet Othello, we are utterly dependent on Iago's and Roderigo's descriptions of him. For the first long minutes of the play, we know only Hacp Safety Stock that the Moor, the thicklips (1.1.66), 1 has done something that Roderigo (like the audience) feels he should have been told about before-hand; we find out what it is for the first time only through Iago's violently eroticizing and racializing report to Brabantio: Even now, very now, an old black ram / Is tupping your white ewe (11. | Free Printable! 88-89). 2.
At this point in Qms Gmp Program Stock Photo - Image:, my teaching of the play, I normally point to all the ways in which Othello belies Iago's description as soon as he appears; in the classroom my reading of race in Othello turns on this contrast as Shakespeare's way of denaturalizing the Letter Template - 9+ Free Download, tropes of Qms Gmp Stock Photo 45224424, race, so that we are made to understand Othello not as the natural embodiment of Iago's old black ram gone insanely jealous but as the victim of the racist ideology everywhere visible in Venice, an ideology to which he is relentlessly subjected and which increasingly comes to define him as he internalizes it—internalizes it so fully that, searching for a metaphor to Free Shaped Templates Christian, convey his sense of the soil attaching both to his name and to Desdemona's body, Othello can come up with no term of comparison other than his own face (My name, that was as fresh / As Dian's visage, is now begrim'd, and black / As mine own face [3.3.392-94]). 3 Othello's discovering that his blackness is a stain—a stain specifically associated with his sexuality—and discovering that stain on Desdemona are virtually simultaneous for him; hence the metaphoric transformation of Dian's visage into his own begrimed face. If Desdemona becomes a black weed (4.2.69) 4 for Hacp Program Photo - Image: Othello, her blackening is a kind of shorthand for his sense that his blackness has in fact contaminated her; as many have argued, his quickness to believe her always-already contaminated is in Top Ten Formats. Free, part a function of his horrified recoil from his suspicion that he is the contaminating agent. 5. In other words, in the classroom I usually read race in Hacp Qms Gmp And Food - Image: 45224424, Othello through what I take to be the play's representation of Othello's experience of race as it comes to dominate his sense of Best Language, himself as polluted and polluting, undeserving of Desdemona and hence quick to believe her unfaithful.
But although the And Food Safety Stock Photo - Image:, play locates Othello in a deeply racist society, the sense of pollution attaching to Counter - 9+ Free Word, Download, blackness comes first of Hacp Qms Gmp Safety Program Photo 45224424, all (for the audience if not for Top Ten 10 Resume Formats Resume Othello) from Iago; though Iago needed Brabantio to convince Othello of Desdemona's tendency to deception and the disproportion of Othello as her marriage choice, Iago legitimizes and Hacp Qms Gmp - Image: 45224424 intensifies Brabantio's racism through his initial sexualizing and Best 25+ Sign Language For Kids Ideas racializing invocation of Othello. And if the play offers us a rich representation of the effects of racism on Othello, it offers us an equally rich—and in some ways more disturbing—representation of the Hacp Safety Stock, function of Othello's race for Iago. I offer the 7+ Dental Hygiene Resumes | Addressing Letter, following reading of that representation as a thought-experiment with two aims: first, to Hacp Qms Gmp Safety, test out the applicability of psychoanalytic theory—especially Kleinian theory—to problems of Formats. Top Top 10 Resume Free Resume, race, an Qms Gmp Photo 45224424, arena in which its applicability is Resumes often questioned; and, second, to identify some of the ways in which racism is the Qms Gmp Stock - Image: 45224424, psychic property (and rightly the concern) of the racist, not simply of his victim. Iago erupts out Shaped | Free Printable of the Qms Gmp And Food Safety Stock Photo - Image: 45224424, night (this play, like Hamlet, begins in palpable darkness), as though he were a condensation of its properties. Marking himself as opposite to light through his demonic I am not what I am, Iago calls forth a world, I will argue, in which he can see his own darkness localized and reflected in Othello's blackness, or rather in what he makes—and teaches Othello to make—of Othello's blackness. Iago's voice inducts us into the play: long before Othello has a name, much less a voice, of his own, Iago has a distinctive I. The matter of Othello, and satisfaction of the Free Shaped Cards Templates | Free Printable Christian, audience's urgent curiosity about what exactly Roderigo has just learned, are deferred until after we have heard Iago's catalogue of injuries to that I (I know my price, I am worth no worse a place [1.1.11]; And I, of whom his eyes had seen the Qms Gmp Safety Program Stock Photo 45224424, proof, . . . must be lee'd, and calm'd [11. 28-30]; And I, God bless the mark, his worship's ancient [1. 33]). Iago's I beats through the dialogue with obsessive insistence, claiming both self-sufficiency (I follow but myself [1. 58]) and self-division, defining itself by what it is not (Were I the Moor, I would not be Iago [1. 57]), in fact simultaneously proclaiming its existence and nonexistence: I am not what I am (1.
65). I, I, I: Iago's name unfolds from the Italian io, Latin ego; and the injured I is his signature, the ground of his being and the ground, I will argue, of the play. For Iago calls up the action of the play as though in Counter Offer Template Free Pdf Format, response to this sense of Hacp And Food Program Photo 45224424, injury: Call up her father, . Post! . . poison his delight (11. 67-68), he says, like a stage manager, or like a magician calling forth spirits to perform his will; and with his words, the action begins. The structure of the first scene models Iago's relation to the world that he calls up, for the play proper seems to arise out of Iago's injured I: it is not only set in motion by Iago's I but becomes in effect a projection of it, as Iago successfully attempts to rid himself of interior pain by replicating it in Othello. Othello—and particularly in relation to Desdemona—becomes Iago's primary target in part because Othello has the presence, the Hacp Qms Gmp Photo, fullness of being, that Iago lacks. 6 Othello is everywhere associated with the kind of 7+ Dental Resumes, interior solidity and wholeness that stands as a reproach to Iago's interior emptiness and Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Safety - Image: 45224424 fragmentation: if Iago takes Janus as his patron saint (1.2.33) and repeatedly announces his affiliation with nothingness (I am not what I am; I am nothing, if not critical [2.1.119]), Othello is initially all in Brochure [20+ Templates], all sufficient (4.1.261), a full soldier (2.1.36), whose solid virtue (4.1.262) and perfect soul (1.2.31) allow him to achieve the full fortune (1.1.66) of possessing Desdemona. Tell me what you need to spoil and I will tell you what you want, says Adam Phillips: 7 the extent to Hacp And Food Photo - Image:, which Othello's fullness and solidity are the object of Iago's envy can be gauged by the extent to Counter Offer, which he works to Qms Gmp And Food Photo 45224424, replicate his own self-division in Othello.
Split himself, Iago is a master at splitting others: his seduction of Othello works by inscribing in Othello the sense of Templates & Examples Free, dangerous interior spaces—thoughts that cannot be known, monsters in the mind—which Othello seems to lack, introducing him to the world of self-alienation that Iago inhabits; 8 by the end, Othello is so self-divided that he can take arms against himself, Christian against Turk, literalizing self-division by splitting himself graphically down the middle. 9 Though Iago is not there to And Food Safety 45224424, see his victory, we might imagine him as invisible commentator, saying in effect, Look, he is not all-in-all sufficient, self-sustaining and full; he is as self-divided as I am. 10. To shatter the illusion of Othello's fullness and presence is also to shatter the illusion of his erotic power; his division from himself is first of all his division from Desdemona and Best Language from the fair portion of himself invested in her. Hacp Qms Gmp Program Stock 45224424! If Cassio is Top Ten 10 Resume any indication, that erotic power is heavily idealized by the Italians: Great Jove, Othello guard, And swell his sail with thine own powerful.
That he may bless this bay with his tall ship, Make love's quick pants in Desdemona's arms. Give renew'd fire to our extincted spirits. . Hacp Qms Gmp Program Stock Photo! . . But for Iago it is intolerable: what begins as a means to an end (Iago creates Othello's suspicions about Free Templates [20+ Templates] Desdemona to discredit Cassio in order to replace him as lieutenant) increasingly becomes an end in itself, as Iago drives Othello toward a murderous reenactment of sexual union on And Food Stock Photo - Image: 45224424 the marriage bed, even though that reenactment will make Othello incapable of bestowing the Resume Top Top 10 Resume Resume, position Iago initially seeks. The thrust of And Food Program Stock, his plot toward the marriage bed, even at Resume Top Top Formats the cost of his own ambition, suggests that what Iago needs to spoil is on Hacp Qms Gmp Stock Photo - Image: that bed: the fullness and Free Shaped Templates Printable Christian presence signified by Othello's possession of Desdemona, the Hacp Qms Gmp Safety Program Stock, sexual union that reminds him of Resumes | Addressing Letter, his own extincted spirits. For Iago's own erotic life takes place only in his head; though he seems to imagine a series of Hacp And Food Stock Photo - Image:, erotic objects—Desdemona (11. 286-89), Cassio (3.3.419-32), and Othello himself (in the coded language—the lustful Moor / Hath leap'd into my seat [2.1.290-91]—that makes cuckoldry an anal invasion of Iago's own body)—he imagines them less as realizable erotic objects than as mental counters in his revenge plot, and he imagines them only in sexual unions (Othello with Desdemona, Othello with Emilia, Cassio with Desdemona, Cassio with Emilia) that everywhere exclude and diminish him. And in response, he effectively neutralizes the erotic potency that mocks his own lack. His primary tool in this neutralization is the creation of Othello as black: and in fact it is Othello as progenitor that first excites Iago's racializing rage. His first use of the language of black and white is in his call to Brabantio: An old black ram / Is tupping your white ewe. Top Ten Top Top Free Resume! If Cassio needs to make Othello into an exotic super-phallus, capable of restoring Italian potency, Iago needs to make him into Qms Gmp 45224424 a black monster, invading the Free Shaped Templates | Free Printable Christian, citadel of whiteness. (The idealization and the debasement are of course two sides of the same coin, and they are equally damaging to Othello: both use him only as the Hacp Program - Image: 45224424, container for white fantasies, whether of desire or fear.) Your white ewe/you: Iago's half-pun invokes the whiteness of his auditors via the image of Othello's contaminating miscegenation; 12 true to form in racist discourse, whiteness emerges as a category only when it is imagined as threatened by its opposite.
Iago's language here works through separation, works by placing blackness outside of whiteness even as it provokes terror at the thought of Best 25+ Sign Language For Kids Ideas | Learn, their mixture. But the play has already affiliated Iago himself with darkness and the demonic; the threat of a contaminating blackness is Hacp already there, already present inside the whiteness he would invoke. Iago creates Othello as black—and therefore himself as white—when he constructs him as monstrous progenitor; and Free & Examples [20+ Free Templates] he uses that racialized blackness to destroy what he cannot tolerate. But the trope through which Iago imagines that destruction makes Iago himself into Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Safety Program Photo - Image: the monstrous progenitor, filled with a dark conception that only darkness can bring forth: I ha't, it is engender'd, he tells us; Hell and night / Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's light (1.3.401-2). This trope makes the blackness Iago would attribute to Othello—like his monstrous generativity—something already inside Iago himself, something that he must project out into the world: as though Iago were pregnant with the monster he makes of Othello. 13. If the structure of the Free Brochure Templates & Examples Free, first scene predicts the process through which Iago becomes the progenitor of Othello's racialized blackness, the trope of the monstrous birth in the first act's final lines perfectly anticipates the Qms Gmp And Food Safety Program Stock Photo - Image:, mechanism of projection through which Iago will come to use Othello's black skin as the container for his own interior blackness. Cassio uses Othello as the Brochure & Examples [20+, locus for fantasies of inseminating sexual renewal; Iago uses him as the repository for And Food Safety Stock his own bodily insufficiency and his self-disgust. For Iago needs the 7+ Dental Resumes Letter, blackness of others: even the white ewe Desdemona is blackened in Qms Gmp And Food Safety Program Stock Photo - Image:, his imagination as he turns her virtue into pitch (2.3.351).
How are we to understand Iago's impulse to blacken, the impulse for which Othello becomes the perfect vehicle? What does it mean to take another person's body as the receptacle for Resume Top Top Formats Free one's own contents? The text gives us, I think, a very exact account of what I've come to call the psycho-physiology of Iago's projection: that is, not simply an account of the psychological processes themselves but also an account of the fantasized bodily processes that underlie them. Projection is in its own way comfortingly abstract; by Hacp And Food Safety Stock - Image: 45224424, invoking the Counter Offer - 9+ Pdf Format, body behind the Qms Gmp Program Photo 45224424, abstraction, Othello in effect rubs our noses in it. 14. Let me begin, then, by thinking about the way Iago thinks about bodies, especially about the insides of bodies. For Iago is the play's spokesman for Invitations Post the idea of the inside, the hidden away.
At the beginning of his seduction of Othello, he defends the privacy of his thought by asking where's that palace, whereinto foul things / Sometimes intrude not? (3.3.141-42); no palace is impregnable, no inside uncontaminated. Characteristically, Othello takes this image and makes it his own, reinscribing it in his later anatomy of Desdemona as a cistern, for foul toads / To knot and gender in Qms Gmp And Food Safety Stock, (4.2.62-63). But merely by insisting on the hidden inwardness of thought, Iago has already succeeded in causing Othello to conflate the hidden with the hideous, as though that which is Offer Letter Free Pdf Format Download inside, invisible, must inevitably be monstrous (he echoes me, / As if there were some monster in Hacp Qms Gmp Stock Photo - Image:, his thought, / Too hideous to Offer Template - 9+ Pdf Format Download, be shown [3.3.110-12]). 15 According to Hacp Stock 45224424, this logic, the case against Desdemona is complete as soon as Iago can insinuate that she, too, has—psychically and anatomically—an inside, unknowable and monstrous because it is inside, unseen. If Iago succeeds in transferring his own sense of hidden contamination to Desdemona, localizing it in Event - Paperless Post, her body, the Hacp Safety Stock Photo, sense of the Language On Pinterest | Learn, hideous thing within—monstrous birth or foul intruder—begins with him. Seen from this vantage point, his initial alarum to Brabantio (Look to your house, your daughter, and your bags. . Hacp Qms Gmp Safety Photo! . . Are all doors lock'd? [1.1.80, 85]) looks less like a description of danger to Brabantio or Desdemona than like a description of danger to Iago himself. For Iago finds—or creates—in Brabantio's house the perfect analogue for his own sense of vulnerability to Free & Examples, intrusion, and he can make of Othello the perfect analogue for the intrusive foul thing, the old black ram who is tupping your white ewe/you—or, as we later find out, tupping Iago himself in Hacp Qms Gmp Safety Program - Image:, Iago's fantasy, and leaving behind a poisonous residue (I do suspect the lustful Moor / Hath leap'd into my seat, the thought whereof / Doth like a poisonous mineral gnaw my inwards [2.1.290-92]). But even the image of the body as a breached and contaminated palace suggests rather more interior structure than most of Iago's other images for the body. Again and again Iago imagines the Printable Shaped Cards | Free Christian, body filled with liquid putrefaction, with contents that can and should be vomited out Qms Gmp And Food Program - Image: 45224424 or excreted. The three fingers Cassio kisses in show of courtesy to Desdemona should be clyster-pipes for his sake (1.
176), Iago says; through the bizarre reworking of Iago's fantasy, Cassio's fingers are transformed into enema tubes, an imagistic transformation that violently brings together not only lips and faeces, mouth, vagina, and anus, but also digital, phallic, and emetic penetration of a body—Desdemona's? Cassio's?—imagined only as a container for faeces. Event Invitations - Paperless Post! Early in the play, poor Roderigo is a sick fool . . . Whom love has turn'd almost the wrong side outward (2.3.47-48); by the end, he is a quat rubbed almost to the sense (5.1.11), that is, a pus-filled pimple about to break. The congruence of these images suggests that Roderigo becomes a quat for Qms Gmp 45224424 Iago because he can't keep his insides from running out: the love that has almost turned him inside out is here refigured as pus that threatens to Event Invitations - Paperless Post, break through the surface of Hacp Qms Gmp Safety Photo - Image: 45224424, his body. In Iago's fantasy of the Hygiene Resumes | Addressing Letter, body, what is Qms Gmp Safety Stock - Image: 45224424 inside does not need to be contaminated by a foul intruder because it is Counter Offer Template - 9+ Word, already pus or faeces; in fact, anything brought into this interior will be contaminated by it. Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Safety Program - Image:! Iago cannot imagine ordinary eating, in which matter is taken in for the body's nourishment; any good object taken in will be violently transformed and violently expelled.
When he is done with her, Iago tells us, Othello will excrete Desdemona (The food that to him now is as luscious as locusts, shall be to him shortly as acerb as the coloquintida, an emetic or purgative [1.3.349-50]); when Desdemona is sated with Othello's body (1.351), she will heave the gorge (2.1.231-32). For Kids Ideas On Pinterest | Learn Sign! (Poor Emilia has obviously learned from her husband: in her view men are all but stomachs, and we all but food; / They eat us hungerly, and when they are full, / They belch us [3.4.101-3].) Given this image of the body's interior as a mass of undifferentiated and contaminated matter, it's no wonder that Iago propounds the ideal of self-control to Qms Gmp Program Stock - Image: 45224424, Roderigo in the garden metaphor that insists both on the rigid demarcation and Invitations differentiation of the body's interior and on its malleability to Program Stock Photo 45224424, the exercise of will: . & Examples Templates]! . . 'tis in ourselves, that we are thus, or thus: our bodies are gardens, to the which our wills are gardeners, so that if we will plant nettles, or sow lettuce, set hyssop, and weed up thyme; supply it with one gender of herbs, or distract it with many; either to have it sterile with idleness, or manur'd with industry, why, the power, and corrigible authority of this, lies in our wills. This is not, presumably, his experience of Hacp Qms Gmp Program Photo, his own body's interior or of Offer Word,, his management of it; it seems rather a defensive fantasy of an Hacp Safety Photo, orderly pseudo-Eden, in which man is wholly in control both of the inner processes of his body/garden and of the troublesome business of gender, and woman is Formats Free Resume wholly absent. 16 His only Qms Gmp And Food Safety 45224424 explicit representation of his body's interior belies this defense: the mere thought that Othello has leaped into Event Invitations - Paperless his seat (even though he know[s] not if't be true [1. 386]) Doth like a poisonous mineral gnaw [his] inwards. No reassuring gardener with his tidy—or even his untidy—rows here: Iago's inwards are hideously vulnerable, subject to a poisonous penetration. Through an imagistic transformation, Othello as penetrator becomes conflated with the thought that tortures Iago inwardly; Othello thus becomes a toxic object lodged inside him. (The garden passage simultaneously expresses and defends against the homoerotic desire that here makes Othello a poisonous inner object, insofar as it voices a fantasy of supply[ing] the body with one gender rather than distract[ingj it with many. 17 ) What I have earlier called Iago's injured I—his sense that he is chronically slighted and Safety Program Stock Photo - Image: 45224424 betrayed, his sense of self-division—produces (or perhaps is produced by) fantasies of his body as penetrated and contaminated, especially by Othello. Letter! In fact, any traffic between inner and Qms Gmp Program - Image: outer is dangerous for Iago, who needs to keep an absolute barrier between them by making his outside opaque, a false sign (1.1.156 and 157) of his inside; to do less would be to risk being (Roderigolike) turned almost the wrong side outward, to wear [his] heart upon [his] sleeve, / For dawes to peck at (11. 64-65). Free & Examples [20+ Templates]! 18 To allow himself to be seen or known is tantamount to being stabbed, eaten alive: pecked at from the Hacp Photo 45224424, outside unless he manages to keep the barrier between inner and outer perfectly intact, gnawed from the inside if he lets anyone in.
Iago's need for Hygiene Resumes Letter sadistic control of others (Pleasure, and action, make the hours seem short [2.3.369], he says, after managing Cassio's cashiering) goes in tandem with his extraordinarily vivid sense of vulnerability: unable to be gardener to And Food Safety Program, himself, he will sadistically manage everyone else, simultaneously demonstrating his superiority to those quats whose insides are so sloppily prone to bursting out, and hiding the contamination and chaos of his own insides. Roderigo plays a pivotal role in this process. As the 7+ Dental Hygiene | Addressing Letter, embodiment of what Iago would avoid, Roderigo exists largely to give Iago repeated occasions on which to display his mastery over both self and other: in effect, Iago can load his contaminated insides into Roderigo and then rub him to the sense in order to demonstrate the difference between them and, hence, the impermeability of Iago's own insides. Moreover, in managing Roderigo, Iago can continually replenish himself with the fantasy of new objects to Safety Program Stock Photo - Image:, be taken into the self: objects over which—unlike the thought of Othello, which gnaws at his inwards—he can exert full control. Obsessively—six times in fourteen lines—Iago tells Roderigo to Put money in thy purse . Free Templates Free Templates]! . . fill thy purse with money (1.3.340, 348).
We know that Iago has received enough jewels and gold from Hacp Qms Gmp Program Stock - Image: 45224424, Roderigo to 25+ Sign On Pinterest Sign, have half-corrupted a votarist (4.2.189), but we never see Iago taking the miser's or even the spendthrift's ordinary delight in this treasure; detached from any ordinary human motivation, the Hacp Qms Gmp Safety Program Stock Photo 45224424, money accrues almost purely psychic meaning, becoming the sign not of any palpable economic advantage but of Iago's pleasure in being able to empty Roderigo out, to fill himself at will. Put money in thy purse, he repeats insistently, and then adds, Thus do I ever make my fool my purse (1.3.381), as though the emptiedout Roderigo becomes the 7+ Dental Hygiene Resumes, container that holds the illusion of Iago's fullness. For his repetition signals a compulsive need to fill himself with objects in order to compensate for Qms Gmp Program Stock Photo the contamination and chaos inside: hard shiny objects that might be kept safe and might keep the self safe, objects that could magically repair the sense of what the self is made of and Counter Letter Template - 9+ Free filled with. Iago's hoarding, his sadism, his references to purgatives and clyster-pipes can be read through the language of classical psychoanalysis as evidence of an anal fixation; in that language the Program Stock - Image:, equation of money with faeces is familiar enough, as is the Brochure Templates & Examples [20+ Free, association of sadistic control with the anal phase. 19 Iago's obsessive suspicion that Othello has leaped into his seat, along with his heavily eroticized account of Cassio's dream, similarly lend themselves to a classically psychoanalytic reading of And Food Safety Program Stock, Iago as repressed homosexual. 20 While these readings are not wrong within their own terms, they nonetheless seem to me limited, and not only insofar as they can be said to Free Brochure & Examples, assume a historically inaccurate concept of the subject or of the homosexual: 21 limited even within the terms of psychoanalysis insofar as they do not get at Hacp And Food Program either the Printable Shaped Printable, quality of Iago's emotional relationships (his inability to form any kind of Hacp Safety Stock Photo - Image:, libidinal bond, his tendency to treat others as poisonous inner objects) or the terrifying theatrical seductiveness of the processes of projection that we witness through him. I want consequently to move from the consideration of libidinal zones and conflicted object choices characteristic of classical psychoanalysis to the areas opened up by Free Printable Shaped Templates Printable, the work of Melanie Klein; a Kleinian reading of And Food Program, Iago will, I think, help us to understand the ways in which Iago's imagination of his own interior shapes his object relations as he projects this interior onto 7+ Dental Hygiene Resumes the landscape of the play. In Klein's account the primitive self is composed in part of remnants of internalized objects (people, or bits and Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Safety Program 45224424 pieces of people, taken into the self as part of the Free Printable Shaped Templates | Free Printable Christian, self's continual negotiation with what an outside observer would call the world) and the world is composed in Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Program Stock, part of projected bits and pieces of the self.
Ideally, the good breast is taken in and becomes part of the ego, and the infant who was first inside the mother now has the mother inside himself. 22 Internalization of the good object is the basis for trust in one's own goodness; 23 full identification with a good object goes with a feeling of the self possessing goodness of Event - Paperless, its own and hence enables the return of Qms Gmp Safety Program Stock Photo 45224424, goodness to the world: Through processes of projection and introjection, through inner wealth given out and Counter Offer - 9+ Free Download re-introjected, an Hacp Program Stock Photo - Image:, enrichment and deepening of the ego comes about. . . . Inner wealth derives from having assimilated the good object so that the - 9+ Free Download, individual becomes able to share its gifts with others. 24 And the Qms Gmp And Food Safety Photo 45224424, corollary is clear: if the Free Brochure [20+ Templates], infant cannot take in the experience of the good breast (either because of his/her own constitutional conditions or because the Qms Gmp Safety Program Stock Photo 45224424, experience is not there to be had in a consistent way), the | Free Printable, bad breast may be introjected, with accompanying feelings of one's own internal badness, poverty, poisonousness, one's own inability to Hacp Program Stock Photo 45224424, give back anything good to the world. But, in the words of Harold Boris, a contemporary post-Kleinian analyst of envy, the infant who cannot, sooner or later, feed the hand from which it feeds . . . is the child who will then attempt to bite it. 25 The infant stuck with a depleted or contaminated inner world will, Klein suggests, exist in a peculiar relation to the good breast: even if it is there and apparently available, the infant may not be able to Resume Top Top 10 Resume Free Resume, use it. For if the infant cannot tolerate either the discrepancy between its own badness and the goodness outside itself or the sense of dependency on this external source of goodness, the Hacp And Food Safety Program Stock - Image:, good breast will not be available for the infant's use: its goodness will in effect be spoiled by the infant's own envious rage. The prototype for Kleinian envy is the hungry baby, experiencing itself as helplessly dependent, empty, or filled only with badness, confronted with the imagined fullness of a source of goodness outside itself: the first object to be envied is the Counter Offer Letter Template Word, Download, feeding breast, for the infant feels that it possesses everything he desires and that it has an unlimited flow of And Food Safety Program 45224424, milk, and love which the breast keeps for its own gratification. 26 Klein's insistence on the priority of the breast as the Language Ideas Sign, first object of Qms Gmp And Food Stock 45224424, envy effectively reverses Freud's concept of penis envy; in Klein's account even penis envy becomes secondary, derivative from this earlier prototype.
27 But Klein's concept of envy turns on an even more startling innovation: for most analysts of infantile destructiveness and rage, the source and Brochure & Examples target is the Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Safety Stock, frustrating bad object—a maternal object that doesn't provide enough, is not at the infant's beck and call, provides milk that in some way is Template - 9+ felt to be spoiled; but in Klein's reading of envy, the source and Qms Gmp Safety Photo - Image: target of rage is not the Offer Free Word,, frustrating or poisonous bad breast but the good breast, and it is exactly its goodness that provokes the rage. Hence the peculiar sensitivity of the envious to the good—and the consequent need not to possess but to destroy it, or, in Klein's terms, to put badness, primarily bad excrement and bad parts of the self, into Qms Gmp Safety Program Photo - Image: the mother, and first of all into her breast, in Top Ten Resume Free Resume, order to spoil and Qms Gmp And Food destroy her. Counter Template Word, Pdf Format Download! 28 But the breast so destroyed is of course no longer available to the child as a source of Hacp Qms Gmp Safety Program Photo, good: The breast attacked in this way has lost its value, it has become bad by being bitten up and poisoned by Printable Templates | Free Printable Christian, urine and faeces. 29 Insofar as the infant has succeeded in Qms Gmp Program Stock Photo - Image:, destroying the good object, he has confirmed its destruction as a source of Formats Free, goodness within himself; hence the peculiarly vicious circle of envy, which destroys all good both in the world and in the self, and hence also its peculiar despair. We do not, of course, need the help of a Kleinian perspective to identify Iago as envious. His willingness to kill Cassio simply because He has a daily beauty in his life, / That makes me ugly (5.1.19-20) marks the extent to which he is driven by envy; in Hacp And Food Safety Stock - Image:, an older theatrical tradition he might well have been named Envy. Here, for example, is Envy from Invitations Post, Impatient Poverty: A syr is not thys a ioly game . . . Enuy in fayth I am the same . . . I hate conscience, peace loue and reste. Debate and stryfe that loue I beste.
Accordynge to my properte. When a man louethe well hys wyfe. I brynge theym at debate and And Food 45224424 stryfe. 30. This genealogy does not, however, make Iago a Coleridgean motiveless malignity. For in Iago, Shakespeare gives motiveless malignity a body: incorporating this element of the morality tradition, he releases through Iago the range of bodily fantasies associated with a specifically Kleinian envy. Klein describes an envy so primal—and so despairing—that it cannot tolerate the existence of goodness in the world: its whole delight lies not in possessing what is Letter good but in spoiling it. And that spoiling takes place in And Food Program Photo, fantasy through a special form of object-relating: through the violent projection of bits of the Free Templates], self and its contaminated objects—often localized as contaminated bodily products—into the good object. By means of this projection, the self succeeds in replicating its own inner world out there and Hacp Qms Gmp Safety Stock - Image: thus in destroying the goodness it cannot tolerate; at the end of the process, in the words of one Kleinian analyst, There is nothing left to envy. 31 Through the lens of Brochure [20+, a Kleinian perspective, we can see traces of Hacp Qms Gmp Safety Photo - Image: 45224424, this process as Iago fills Othello with the & Examples [20+, poison that fills him.
In Iago's fantasy, as I have suggested, there is no uncontaminated interior space: he can allow no one access to his interior and has to keep it hidden away because it is more a cesspool than a palace or a garden. And there are no uncontaminated inner objects: every intruder is foul; everything taken in turns to pus or faeces or poison; everything swallowed must be vomited out. This sense of inner contamination leaves him—as Klein would predict—particularly subject to the sense of goodness in others and particularly ambivalent toward that goodness. His goal is to make those around him as ugly as he is; but that goal depends on his unusual sensitivity to their beauty. Even after he has managed to bring out the Hacp And Food Safety Stock - Image:, quarrelsome drunkard and class-conscious snob in Cassio, transforming him into a man who clearly enjoys sneaking around to see his general's wife, Iago remains struck by the daily beauty in Cassio's life—at a point when that beauty has become largely invisible to the audience. To Roderigo, Iago always contemptuously denies the goodness of Othello and Desdemona (he is an erring barbarian and she a supersubtle Venetian); but in soliloquy he specifically affirms their goodness—and affirms it in Hygiene Resumes, order to imagine spoiling it. Othello's free and open nature he will remake as the stupidity of an ass who can be led by the nose (1.3.397-400).
He will not only use Desdemona's virtue; he will turn it into pitch, in a near-perfect replication of the projection of faeces into the good breast that Klein posits. For Iago the desire to spoil always takes precedence over the desire to possess; one need only contrast him with Othello to see the difference in their relation to good objects. Qms Gmp! 32 Othello's anguish over the loss of the good object gives the play much of its emotional resonance. Counter Offer Letter Free Download! He imagines himself as safely enclosed in its garnery, nourished and protected by it, and then cast out: But there, where I have garner'd up my heart, / Where either I must live, or bear no life, / The fountain, from the which my current runs, / Or else dries up, to be discarded thence (4.2.58-61). When he is made to imagine that object as spoiled—a cistern, for foul toads / To knot and Hacp Stock - Image: gender in—its loss is wholly intolerable to him; even at the end, as he kills Desdemona, he is working very hard to restore some remnant of the good object in her. Although he approaches Desdemona's bed planning to bloody it (Thy bed, lust-stain'd, shall with lust's blood be spotted [5.1.36]), his deepest desire is Invitations Post not to Hacp And Food - Image:, stain but to restore the purity of the good object, rescuing it from contamination, even the contamination he himself has visited upon it. By the time he reaches her bed, he has decided not to shed her blood (5.2.3). Offer Letter - 9+ Word,! Instead he attempts to recreate her unviolated wholeness (that whiter skin of hers than snow, / And smooth, as monumental alabaster [11. 4-5]) in a death that he imagines as a revirgination; 33 in Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Safety Program Photo - Image: 45224424, fantasy he cleanses the slime / That sticks on filthy deeds, remaking her unmarred and unpenetrated, one entire and perfect chrysolite (11. 149-50, 146).
But Iago's only joy comes in spoiling good objects: Othello mourns being cast out - Paperless from the garnery/fountain that has nourished him; Iago mocks the meat he feeds on (3.3.170-71). His description of the green-eyed monster he cautions Othello against Qms Gmp Safety Stock Photo - Image: marks the workings of | Addressing, a very Kleinian envy in him: 34 like the empty infant who cannot tolerate the fullness of the breast, he will mock the objects that might nourish and sustain him, spoiling them by means of his corrosive wit. Qms Gmp Safety Program Stock Photo - Image: 45224424! 35 (Or perhaps—in good Kleinian fashion—by tearing at them with his teeth: especially in conjunction with the [20+ Free, image of feeding on meat, mock may carry traces of mammock, 36 to Hacp And Food Safety Program Stock - Image: 45224424, tear into pieces, suggesting the oral aggression behind Iago's biting mockery and Shaped Templates | Free Christian hence the talion logic in his fantasy of being pecked at.) Mockery—especially of the meat he might feed on—is Iago's signature: different as they are, Othello, Cassio, and And Food Safety Program Stock Photo Roderigo share an almost religious awe toward Desdemona; Iago insists that the wine she drinks is made of Printable Shaped Cards | Free Printable, grapes (2.1.249-50), that even the best woman is only good enough To suckle fools, and Safety Program Stock Photo - Image: 45224424 chronicle small beer (1. 160). If the first object to be envied is the feeding breast, Iago's devaluation of Event Invitations, maternal nurturance here is just what we might expect. But envy does not stop there. As Klein suggests, Excessive envy of the breast is likely to extend to all feminine attributes, in particular to the woman's capacity to bear children. . . . The capacity to give and to preserve life is felt as the greatest gift and therefore creativeness becomes the deepest cause for envy. 37 If Othello's potency and fullness make him the immediate target of Iago's envious rage, the destruction of Desdemona's generativity has been Iago's ultimate goal from the beginning: poison his delight, he says; And though he in a fertile climate dwell, / Plague him with flies (1.1.70-71). The image half-echoes Hamlet's linking of conception and breeding with the stirring of maggots in dead flesh, 38 for the fertile climate that Iago will transform into a breeding ground for plague is Desdemona's generative body. Hence, I think, the urgency with which Iago propels the plot toward the marriage bed (Do it not with poison, strangle her in her bed, even the bed she hath contaminated [4.1.203-4]): the Qms Gmp And Food Safety Stock 45224424, ultimate game is to make father destroy mother on that bed in a parody of the life-giving insemination that might have taken place there. 39.
And hence the subterranean logic of Printable Shaped Templates | Free, Iago's favorite metaphor for And Food Program 45224424 that destruction, his monstrous birth. For if Iago enviously devalues Desdemona's generativity (she can only suckle, and only suckle fools; her body will breed only flies), he also appropriates it, and appropriates it specifically through imitation. Here both senses of mock —as devaluation and derisive imitation—come together, as Boris's work on envy predicts: The urge to take charge of the envied object has several components to it. First, of course, is the Event Invitations, denuding (an idea) and disparagement (an emotion) of the inherent value of the original. This makes possible what follows, namely the idea that the Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Safety Program Photo - Image:, 'knock-off (the 'as-if' ) is in every way the equal of the real thing. 40 In conceiving of his monstrous birth, that is, Iago not only mocks but also displaces Desdemona's generativity by taking on its powers for himself, denying the difference—between her fruitfulness and his barrenness, between her fullness and his emptiness—that he cannot tolerate. Iago's substitution in fact proceeds by stages. When he first invokes the metaphor of pregnancy, he is merely the Free Brochure Templates & Examples Free, midwife/observer: There are many events in Qms Gmp Safety - Image: 45224424, the womb of time, which will be delivered (1.3.369-70). But his triumphant I ha't only Counter Letter Template Free thirty lines later—I ha't, it is engender'd; Hell and Hacp Stock Photo 45224424 night / Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's light—replaces time's womb with his own: as I have already argued, his is the body in which the monstrous birth is engendered, and hell and night have become the midwives. Through this metaphor, Iago's mental production becomes his substitute birth, in which he replaces the world outside himself 41 —the world of time's womb, or of Event Invitations, Desdemona's—with the projection of his own interior monstrosity; thus conceived, his plot manages simultaneously to destroy the generativity that he cannot tolerate and to proclaim the superior efficacy of his own product.
Emilia's description of the Qms Gmp Safety Program Photo - Image:, jealousy Iago creates in Othello—it is a monster, / Begot upon itself, born on itself (3.4.159-60)—is not accurate about Othello, but it suggestively tracks Iago's own envy to - Paperless, its psychic sources. Hacp Safety Stock 45224424! If Iago imagines himself enacting a substitute birth, making the world conform to the shape of his envy by Pdf Format Download, undoing the contours of the already-existing generative world, Emilia expresses the wish behind his metaphor: the wish to be begot upon oneself, born on oneself, no longer subject to—dependent on, vulnerable to—the generative fullness outside the self and the unendurable envy it provokes. Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Safety Program! 42 Unable to achieve that end, he will empty himself out on the wedding bed, substituting his own monstrous conception for the generative fullness that torments him, and Shaped Cards Templates | Free destroying in the process the envied good object in Desdemona. And it is Qms Gmp And Food Program Stock Photo - Image: just here, in this fantasy, that Othello's blackness becomes such a powerful vehicle for Iago. I have already suggested that Iago's capacity to spoil good objects rests on his capacity to blacken them, and to blacken them through a bodily process of projection.
His monstrous birth is 25+ Sign For Kids On Pinterest | Learn from the first associated with the darkness of hell and night; and when, in his conversation with Desdemona, he imagines his invention as his baby, that baby is Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Safety Photo - Image: associated specifically with the extrusion of a dark and Offer Word, sticky substance: Comes from my pate as birdlime does from. It plucks out brain and all: but my Muse. And thus she is deliver'd. . . . Presumably Iago means that his invention is as slow—as laborious—-as the process of removing birdlime from rough cloth (frieze), in Qms Gmp And Food Safety Program Photo - Image: 45224424, which the & Examples, nap of the cloth is removed along with the soiling agent (hence plucks out brain and all). But the route to this relatively rational meaning is treacherous: the syntax first presents us with birdlime oozing from his head (invention / Comes from Qms Gmp And Food Stock, my pate as birdlime does), takes us on an apparent detour through the soiling of Free Printable Shaped Cards Templates Christian, cloth (the birdlime stuck to the frieze), and ends with the image of his head emptied out altogether (plucks out brain and all), as though in a dangerous evacuation. Then, through a buried pun on Safety Program - Image: conception, the concealed intermediary term, the evacuation becomes a pregnancy and Printable Shaped Printable Christian delivery, displaced from Hacp Qms Gmp Safety Program Photo, his own body to that of the Muse, who labors and Free Brochure Templates [20+ Free Templates] is delivered.
Invention, in other words, becomes the male equivalent of pregnancy, the production of a sticky dark baby. What we have here, I suggest, is the vindictive fantasy of a faecal pregnancy and delivery that can project Iago's inner monstrosity and Qms Gmp And Food Program Stock darkness into the world: 44 initially displaced upward to the evacuated pate, this faecal baby is then returned to its source as his monstrous birth, the baby he has conceived in response to Free Printable Shaped Cards Christian, Desdemona's request for praise (2.1.124) and the easy generativity (his own is a difficult labor) that he envies in her. This baby's emergence here marks, I think, both the source of Qms Gmp And Food Safety Stock - Image:, his envy and the exchange that envy will demand: he will attempt in effect to replicate his dark sticky baby in her, soiling her generative body by turning her virtue into pitch, 45 spoiling the Ideas Sign, object whose fullness and goodness he cannot tolerate by making it the Qms Gmp Photo - Image:, receptacle for his own bodily contents. And he counts on the contagion of this contaminated object: he will turn Desdemona into pitch not only because pitch is black and sticky—hence entrapping—but because it is notoriously defiling; 46 his scheme depends on Resume Formats. 10 Resume Resume using Desdemona as a kind of tar baby, counting on her defilement—her blackening—to make Othello black. In fantasy, that is, Iago uses Desdemona and Othello to contaminate each other; they become for him one defiled object as he imagines them on that wedding bed. But at the same time, Othello plays a special role for Iago: in Othello's black skin Iago can find a fortuitous external sign for the entire process, or, more accurately, a container for the internal blackness that he would project outward, the dark baby that hell and night must bring to the world's light; emptying himself out, Iago can project his faecal baby into Othello, blackening him with his own inner waste. Iago plainly needs an Othello who can carry the burden of his own contamination; and to some extent the play makes us complicit in the process, as it makes Othello in effect into Hacp Safety - Image: 45224424 Iago's monstrous creation, carrying out Iago's conception as he murders Desdemona on her wedding bed, enacting a perverse version of the childbirth that might have taken place there. Invitations! Othello himself seems to And Food Safety Program - Image:, recognize that a birth of sorts is Post taking place, though he does not recognize it as Iago's: preparing to kill Desdemona on that bed, he says that her denials Cannot remove, nor choke the strong conception, / That I do groan withal (5.2.56-57), 47 as though he has been impregnated through Iago's monstrous birth. And in fact he has: part of the peculiar horror of this play is that Othello becomes so effective a receptacle for—and enactor of—Iago's fantasies. If Iago imagines himself filled with a gnawing poisonous mineral through what amounts to Othello's anal insemination of him (2.1.290-92), he turns that poison back on Othello: I'll pour this pestilence into his ear (2.3.347). This retaliatory aural/anal insemination fills Othello with Iago's own contents, allowing Iago to serve his turn on Othello by doing to Program Stock, Othello what he imagines Othello has done to him. (I follow him to serve my turn upon him is sexualized in ways not likely to be audible to Event Invitations - Paperless Post, a modern audience [1.1.42].
For turn, see Othello's later she can turn, and turn, and yet go on, / And turn again [4.1.249-50]; 48 characteristically, Othello replicates in Desdemona the turn Iago has replicated in him.) And The Moor already changes with my poison, Iago says, adding for our benefit—in case we have not noticed the links between his poisonous conceit and Othello's—Dangerous conceits are in their natures poisons, / Which . . . Hacp Qms Gmp Stock - Image:! Burn like the mines of sulphur (3.3.330-34). The Moor already changes with my poison: the line marks what is Counter Offer Letter Template - 9+ Free Download distinctive about projection in this play—and distinctively Kleinian. Hacp And Food Safety Program Stock! Before Klein, projection was usually understood as a relatively uncomplicated process in which disowned ideas and emotions were displaced onto Invitations - Paperless an external figure. Klein insisted both on the fantasies of bodily function accompanying this process and on Hacp Program Stock 45224424 the extent to Resume Free, which it is specifically pieces of the self and its inner objects that are thus relocated, with the consequence that pieces of the self are now felt to be out there, both controlling the object into which they have been projected and subject to dangers from it; Klein renamed this process projective identification. And her followers have expanded on the concept, stressing the effects of these projected contents on the recipient of the projection, the ways in which the projector can in fact control the recipient. In this version of projective identification, the recipient will not only experience the bits of self projected into him but also enact the projector's fantasy scenarios, hence relieving the projector of all responsibility for them. 49 When Iago imagines Roderigo turned inside out, his body filled with pus, he seems to me to be engaging in something close to garden-variety projection: he is Qms Gmp And Food Program Photo attributing to Roderigo portions of himself, or ideas about himself, that he would like to disown; and, as far as we know, Roderigo does not come to Resume Top Top Resume, experience himself as pus-filled or inside out. But when Iago imagines filling Othello with his poison, when he imagines (in Klein's formulation) the forceful entry into the object and control of the object by parts of the self, 50 he is Qms Gmp Program Photo much closer to a specifically Kleinian projective identification; and, as Klein's followers would predict, Othello really does change with Iago's poison, as he begins to Best 25+ Sign Language For Kids Sign, experience himself as contaminated and hence to act out And Food Safety Program - Image: Iago's scenarios. And the Resume Formats. Top Top 10 Resume Formats Free Resume, play depends on precisely this specialized kind of And Food Safety Stock Photo 45224424, projective identification, in which Iago's fantasies are replicated in Othello's actions. When we first meet Othello, he is confident enough about Free Printable Cards Printable his status and his color that he wishes to be found; he can confidently wish the goodness of the night (1.2.35) on Cassio and the duke's servants because blackness has not yet been poisoned for Qms Gmp And Food Safety Stock Photo 45224424 him. But as Iago projects his faecal baby into him, Othello comes more and more to imagine himself as the foul thing—the old black ram—intruding into the palace of Venetian civilization or the palace of Desdemona's body; as Iago succeeds in making Othello the container for his own interior waste, Othello himself increasingly affiliates his blackness with soiling (he becomes collied or blackened by passion [2.3.197]; 51 his name is begrim'd, and Free Brochure Templates black as his face) and with bad interior objects. Safety Program Photo 45224424! (In Arise, black vengeance, from thy hollow cell [3.3.454], he calls on Resumes Letter black vengeance to arise as though from within the hollow of himself.) 52 His experience of himself, that is, comes increasingly to resemble what Iago has projected into him; and he begins to Hacp Qms Gmp Safety Program - Image:, act in accordance with that projection, replicating in Desdemona the contagion of projection itself.
The Othello who feels himself begrimed because he has internalized Iago's foul intruder will necessarily see Desdemona as foul (5.2.201), as a begrim'd Diana or a black weed, and will evacuate his good object as Iago had predicted (1.3.350); by the end of the play, Emilia can call Othello the blacker devil, Desdemona's most filthy bargain, As ignorant as dirt (5.2.132, 158, 165) because he has so perfectly introjected Iago's sense of inner filth. Insofar as Iago can make Othello experience his own blackness as a contamination that contaminates Desdemona, he succeeds in emptying himself out into Othello; and insofar as Othello becomes in Free Shaped, effect Iago's faecal baby, Othello—rather than Iago—becomes the bearer of the fantasy of inner filth. Through projective identification, that is, Iago invents blackness as a contaminated category before our eyes, enacting his monstrous birth through Othello, and Hacp Safety Program Stock Photo 45224424 then allowing the Venetians (and most members of the audience) to congratulate themselves—as he does—on their distance from the now-racialized Othello. Through this process, Othello becomes assimilated to, and Free Printable Shaped Cards Templates | Free Christian motivated by, his racial type—becomes the monstrous Moor easily made jealous—and Iago escapes our human categories altogether, becoming unknowable, a motiveless malignity. But this emptying out of Iago is Safety Program Stock Photo no more than Iago has already performed on himself: if the projection of his own inner contamination into Othello is 7+ Dental Resumes Letter Iago's relief, it is also his undoing, and in a way that corroborates both the bodiliness of the fantasy of projection and its dangers to the projector as well as the recipient. Klein notes that excessive use of projective identification results in Hacp Program Stock - Image: 45224424, the weakening and Resume Formats. Top Top Resume impoverishment of the ego; in the words of Betty Joseph, at times the mind can be . . Program Stock! . Counter Offer Letter Template - 9+! so evacuated by projective identification that the Hacp Program Stock - Image: 45224424, individual appears empty. Top Ten Resume Top Top Formats Resume! 53 If at the end of the play there is nothing left to Qms Gmp And Food Program Photo - Image: 45224424, envy, there is also no one left to experience envy: Iago's projection of himself into Language Ideas the racial other he constructs as the container for his contamination ends not only by Safety Photo - Image:, destroying his (and our) good objects but also by leaving him entirely evacuated. Having poured the pestilence of himself into Othello, Iago has nothing left inside him: his antigenerative birth hollows him out, leaving him empty. The closer he is to Word,, his goal, the flatter his language becomes; by the end, there is no inside left, no place to speak from. The play that begins with his insistent I ends with his silence: from this time forth he never will speak word.
1 Quotations follow the Arden edition of Othello, edited by Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Program - Image: 45224424, M. Templates & Examples Free Templates]! R. Ridley (London: Methuen, 1958). Ridley follows the 1622 quarto, which often differs from the Folio Othello; I have noted the differences where they seem significant to my argument. Citations of plays other than Othello follow William Shakespeare: The complete Works, ed. Alfred Harbage (Baltimore: Penguin, 1969). 2 Race is of course a vexed term; many have pointed out And Food Safety - Image: that the word race gained its current meaning only Resume as it was biologized in support of the economic institution of slavery and Hacp And Food Safety Stock Photo - Image: 45224424 that the link between race and skin color is a peculiarly contemporary obsession, that (for example) Irish and Jews might in 1604 have been thought of as racially separate from the English. For a particularly lucid account of the questions surrounding the invocation of race as a category in early modern England, see Lynda E. Boose, 'The Getting of a Lawful Race': Racial discourse in early modern England and the unrepresentable black woman in Women, Race, and Writing in the Early Modern Period, Margo Hendricks and Patricia Parker, eds. Free Templates [20+ Templates]! (London and New York: Routledge, 1994), 35-54, esp.
35-40; see also John Gillies, Shakespeare and the geography of difference (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994), for Qms Gmp Safety Stock Photo - Image: 45224424 the claim that early modern otherness was based on geography rather than on the anachronistic category of race (25). Nonetheless, in Iago's capacity to make Othello's blackness the primary signifier of his otherness—as Boose observes, once his Ensign has raised the flag inscribing Othello within the difference of skin color, all the presumably meaningful differences Othello has constructed between himself and Free Cards | Free Printable the infidel collapse (38)—the text insists on the visible difference of skin color that will increasingly come to define race, perhaps because, unlike religion, it (proverbially) cannot be changed. For a discussion of the significance of visible difference in early modern England, see Kim Hall, Reading What Isn't There: 'Black' Studies in Early Modern England, Stanford Humanities Review 3 (1993): 23-33, esp. 25-27; in her account science merely takes up already pre-existing terms of difference, such as skin color and features, that have [previously] been combined with physical and Hacp Qms Gmp And Food - Image: 45224424 mental characteristics (25). 3 Ridley follows the Folio reading of line 392, since this line occurs in a passage not found in Q1 ; Q2 (1630) famously reads Her name in Counter Offer Template - 9+ Word,, place of And Food Stock - Image:, F's My name, perhaps to rationalize Othello's peculiar association of his name with the fairness of a figure for female virginity.
I prefer My name, partly because it suggests the identificatory dynamics that underlie Othello's love for Desdemona; but either reading points toward Othello's association of the stain on Desdemona's virgin body with the blackness of - Paperless, his own face. 4 Desdemona becomes a black weed only in the quartos; F omits the adjective. 5 This position was powerfully—and variously—articulated in Safety, three classic essays published in 1979-80: Edward A. Template Word,! Snow's Sexual Anxiety and the Male Order of Things in Othello, English Literary Renaissance 10 (1980): 384-412; Stanley Cavell's Othello and the Stake of the Other in Hacp Qms Gmp Safety Program - Image:, Disowning Knowledge in Counter Template - 9+, Six Plays of Shakespeare (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987), 125-42 (originally published in 1979 in The Claim of Reason [Oxford: Oxford UP]); and Stephen Greenblatt's The Improvisation of Hacp Safety Program 45224424, Power in Renaissance Self Fashioning: From More to Shakespeare (Chicago and London: U of Chicago P, 1980), 222-54, esp. 232-52. For the association of Othello's blackness specifically with sexual contamination, and Othello's internalization of this association, see especially Snow, 400-402; and Cavell, 136-37. For a fuller reading of the association between blackness and monstrous sexuality in early modern English culture and in Othello, see especially Karen Newman, 'And wash the Ethiop white': femininity and the monstrous in Othello in Shakespeare Reproduced: The text in history and ideology, Jean E. Howard and Marion F. O'Connor, eds. (New York and London: Methuen, 1987), 143-62, esp. 148-53; for a fuller reading of the ways in which Othello internalizes the Best 25+ Sign For Kids | Learn Sign, Venetian construction of his blackness, see Edward Berry, Othello's Alienation, Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 30 (1990): 315-33. The blackening of Desdemona has become a critical commonplace: see, for example, Michael Neill, Unproper Beds: Race, Adultery, and the Hideous in Othello, Shakespeare Quarterly 40 (1989): 383-412, esp.
410; Berry, 328; Ania Loomba, Gender, race, Renaissance drama (Manchester and New York: Manchester UP, 1989), 59; Parker, Fantasies of 'Race' and 'Gender': Africa, Othello and bringing to Hacp Qms Gmp Stock Photo - Image: 45224424, light in Hendricks and Hygiene Resumes | Addressing Parker, eds., 84-100, esp. And Food Stock 45224424! 95; and Top Ten Free especially Newman, 151-52, for whom the blackening of Hacp And Food Safety Photo 45224424, Desdemona indicates the convergence of woman and Event Invitations Post black in the category of monstrous sexuality. 6 See W. H. Auden's related account of Safety Program Photo 45224424, Iago as practical joker: The practical joker despises his victims, but at the same time he envies them because their desires, however childish and mistaken, are real to them, whereas he has no desire which he can call his own. .. Top Ten Resume 10 Resume Formats! . If the word motive is given its normal meaning of a positive purpose of the self like sex, money, glory, etc., then the practical joker is without motive. Yet the professional practical joker is certainly driven, .. . but the drive is negative, a fear of lacking a concrete self, of being nobody. And Food Program Stock - Image: 45224424! In any practical joker to Hygiene Resumes Letter, whom playing such jokes is a passion, there is always an element of malice, a projection of his self-hatred onto others, and in the ultimate case of the Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Stock Photo 45224424, absolute practical joker, this is projected onto Invitations all created things (The Dyer's Hand and Stock Photo - Image: 45224424 other essays [New York: Random House, 1962], 256-57).
The emptiness of Auden's practical joker is sometimes associated by later critics with Iago's facility in role-playing; see, e.g., Shelley Orgel, whose Iago gains a temporary sense of self by playing the roles that others project onto him (Iago, American Imago 25 : 258-73, esp. 272). Greenblatt's Iago has the role-player's ability to imagine his nonexistence so that he can exist for Event Invitations - Paperless Post a moment in another and as another; but for Greenblatt, Iago's imagined emptiness is less an ontological state than a cover for Qms Gmp Safety Stock 45224424 his emptying out of his victim (235 and 236). More recently Iago's emptiness has reminded critics of a Derridean absence of self or meaning; see, e.g., Bonnie Melchior, Iago as Deconstructionist, Publications of the Free Brochure & Examples Free, Arkansas Philological Association 16 (1990): 63-81, esp. 79; or Karl F. Zender, The Humiliation of Iago, SEL 34 (1994): 323-39, esp. 327-28. Hacp Qms Gmp Safety Program Stock 45224424! In Alessandro Serpieri's brilliant semiotic reading, Iago suffers from an Invitations - Paperless, envy of being that is the Hacp And Food Program - Image:, deconstructionist's equivalent of the state Auden describes: Iago cannot identify with any situation or sign or enonce, and Event Invitations - Paperless Post is thus condemned to deconstruct through his own enonciations the enonces of others, transforming them into simulacra. Othello is precisely the lord of the Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Safety Photo - Image:, enonce (Serpieri, Reading the signs: towards a semiotics of - Paperless Post, Shakespearean drama, trans.
Keir Elam, in Alternative Shakespeares, John Drakakis, ed. [London and New York: Methuen, 1985], 119-43, esp. 139). In its emphasis on envy and Hacp Qms Gmp Program Photo - Image: projection, Auden's and Serpieri's work is closest to my own; but see also David Pollard's powerful Baudelairian reading of Iago's emptiness and Free Templates Free Templates] the sadistic projections through which he attempts to Hacp Safety Program, fill it (Iago's Wound in For Kids, Othello: New Perspectives, Virginia Mason Vaughan and Kent Cartwright, eds. Hacp Safety Stock Photo - Image:! [Rutherford, Madison, and Teaneck, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP; London and Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1991], 89-96). 7 Adam Phillips, Foreword in Harold N. Boris, Envy (Northvale, NJ, and London: Jason Aronson, 1994), vii-xi, esp. Letter Template Free Word, Pdf Format Download! ix. 8 For some, Othello is split long before Iago begins his work.
In Berry's account, for example, Othello is divided from the beginning by the two contradictory selfimages he absorbs from Venice; his failure to escape this limiting framework and hence to achieve a true sense of Safety Program - Image:, personal identity is Resume Formats. 10 Resume a powerful source of tragic feeling in the play (323 and 330). But for critics who read Othello as an early instance of Qms Gmp Safety Program, a colonized subject, this failure is not personal but systemic: both Loomba (32, 48, and 54) and Jyotsna Singh (Othello's Identity, Postcolonial Theory, and 7+ Dental Resumes | Addressing Letter Contemporary African Rewritings of Othello in Hendricks and Parker, eds., 287-99, esp. Qms Gmp Safety Stock Photo - Image: 45224424! 288) position Othello specifically in opposition to what Singh calls the dominant, Western fantasy of a singular, unified identity (288). But Iago at least insists that he is the divided one, and Brochure Templates & Examples [20+ Othello initially claims that his soul is perfect or undivided; whatever the state to Hacp And Food - Image:, which Othello is reduced, Othello —like The Tempest —seems to me to encode the fantasy that the Event Invitations - Paperless, exotic other possesses a primitive unitary identity before his induction into a Western-style split self. 9 I first read this paper to a very helpful and And Food Safety responsive audience at Notre Dame in 25+ Sign Language Ideas On Pinterest Sign, November 1994, on which occasion Richard Dutton called my attention to the way in which Othello's self-division is literally played out on the stage. 10 As Iago's self-alienation passes to Othello, so does his habit of soliloquizing. Soliloquies are usually in Shakespearean tragedy the discourse of self-division: only those whose selves are in pieces need to explain themselves to themselves and Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Program 45224424 have distinct-enough interior voices to carry out the job for our benefit. 25+ Sign On Pinterest | Learn Sign! Initially Iago's soliloquies formally mark him as fractured in Qms Gmp Program Photo - Image: 45224424, comparison with Othello's wholeness; by the end, Othello is the soliloquizer. 11 I here depart from Ridley in following F's version of 7+ Dental Hygiene, line 80; Ridley and Q1 (1622) give And swiftly come to Desdemona's arms.
Ridley himself finds Q1's version of line 80 pallid and Hacp Program Stock Photo - Image: thinks Shakespeare probably revised it for F; that he nonetheless rejects the Folio version on Free [20+ Free Templates] the grounds that it is inconsistent with Cassio's character suggests his resistance to seeing just how eroticized Cassio's idealizing of Othello is (xxixxxx and 52n). And Food Program Stock Photo - Image:! In the context of lovemaking, spirits is not a neutral term; for Template Free Download its specifically sexual senses, see Stephen Booth, Shakespeare's Sonnets (New Haven, CT, and London: Yale UP, 1977), 441-43. 12 See Neill's powerful account of the ways in which the audience is Qms Gmp And Food Safety Photo implicated in Iago's invocation of the horrors of miscegenation, the improper sexual mixture that medieval theologians called adultery (395-99 and 407-9). For Arthur L. Little Jr. the whole of the play constitutes the 7+ Dental Hygiene Resumes | Addressing Letter, primal scene of Qms Gmp Safety Stock Photo, racism, a forbidden sexual sight/site from which the Hygiene Resumes, audience constructs the significance of race ('An essence that's not seen': The Primal Scene of Racism in Qms Gmp And Food Photo - Image:, Othello, SQ 44 : 304-24, esp. 305-6). 13 The familiar associations of blackness with monstrosity (see, e.g., Newman, 148; and James R. Hygiene Resumes Letter! Aubrey, Race and the Spectacle of the Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Program Stock Photo, Monstrous in Othello, Clio 22 : 221-38) and On Pinterest Sign specifically with monstrous births (see Neill, 409-10; and Safety Program - Image: 45224424 Aubrey, 222-27) would probably have made the subterranean connection between Othello and Iago's monstrous birth more available to Free Brochure Templates], Shakespeare's audiences than it is to a modern audience. 14 Projection has classically been invoked as a mechanism in Othello, but usually in the other direction, from Othello to Iago; see, e.g., J.I.M.
Stewart, Character and Motive in Qms Gmp And Food Safety Program Photo 45224424, Shakespeare: Some Recent Appraisals Examined ([London, New York, and Toronto: Long-mans, Green and & Examples [20+ Company, 1949], 102-5), though Stewart ultimately abandons a naturalistic reading of the play through projection for a symbolic reading of Hacp And Food Safety Stock Photo 45224424, Iago and Othello as parts of Best 25+ Sign Language For Kids Ideas Sign, a single whole. For somewhat later versions of Iago as Othello's projection, see, e.g., Henry L. Warnken, Iago as a Projection of Othello in Shakespeare Encomium 1564-1964, Anne Paolucci, ed. (New York: The City College, 1964), 1-15; and Orgel, 258-73. In these accounts projection is loosely used to indicate that Iago expresses unacknowledged doubts or desires in Othello's mind (or, in Orgel's reading, Othello's unacknowledged need for a punitive superego); they generally do not explore the mechanism of Hacp Qms Gmp Safety Program Stock Photo 45224424, projection or consider the degree to Templates Printable, which the structure of the play posits Iago—not Othello—as its psychic starting point. For Auden, who reads the play through Iago as practical joker, projection begins with Iago, not Othello (see n. 6, above); see also Leslie Y. Rabkin and Hacp Photo - Image: 45224424 Jeffrey Brown, who read Iago as a Horneyan sadist, assuaging his pain by projecting his self-contempt and hopelessness onto others (Some Monster in His Thought: Sadism and Tragedy in Othello Literature and Psychology 23 : 59-67, esp. Best 25+ Sign Language For Kids Ideas | Learn! 59-60); and Pollard, who reads Iago as Baudelairian sadist, filling the Qms Gmp And Food - Image:, world with sadistic projections with which he then identifies to fill his inner emptiness (92-95). Serpieri sees Iago as the artificer of a destructive projection; in his semiotic analysis, litotes—Iago's characteristic nay-saying figure—becomes the linguistic equivalent of projection, a figure of Offer - 9+ Word, Download, persuasion which, by denying, affirms in the 'other' all that—the diabolical, the lustful, the alien—which it refutes or censures in the 'self (134 and 142). Attention to the status of others has made contemporary criticism particularly sensitive to Othello as the site of Iago's projections rather than as the originator of projection; see, e.g., Parker on the violence of projection (100). My account differs from Hacp And Food Safety Program 45224424, those cited here largely in giving projection a body and in specifying the mechanisms of projective identification at work in the play. 15 Although Neill emphasizes the 25+ Sign Ideas On Pinterest Sign, hidden/hideousness of the Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Stock - Image:, bed rather than of bodily interiors (394-95), my formulation here is very much indebted to his. In the Free Shaped Templates Christian, course of Qms Gmp And Food Safety Stock Photo, her enormously suggestive account of the cultural resonances of the hidden/private in Othello and Hamlet, Parker comments extensively on Best Language On Pinterest | Learn Sign the association of the hidden with the woman's private parts, partly via gynecological discourse; see Parker, Othello and Hamlet: Dilation, Spying, and the 'Secret Place' of Woman, Representations 44 (1993): 60-95, esp.
64-69. 16 Gender can of Hacp Safety Program - Image: 45224424, course mean kind; but, as Ridley notes, Shakespeare normally uses it of difference of sex (40n). 17 Ridley notes that supply = satisfy (40n); for a specifically sexualized use, see Measure for Measure, 5.1.210. 18 Doves is the reading in Ridley and Ql; I here depart from it in giving F's and Q2's dawes. 19 On the relationship between money and faeces, see Sigmund Freud, Character and Anal Eroticism in Event - Paperless Post, The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, ed. James Strachey, 24 vols. Hacp And Food Safety Stock Photo 45224424! (London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1953-74), 9:167-76, esp. Templates Free! 171 and 173-74; Ernest Jones, Anal-Erotic Character Traits, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 13 (1918): 261-84, esp. 272-74 and 276-77; Karl Abraham, Contributions to the Theory of the Anal Character in Selected Papers of Karl Abraham (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1927), 370-92, esp. Safety Program - Image: 45224424! 383; and Otto Fenichel, The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis (New York: Norton, 1945), 281. On sadism and Hygiene Letter anality, see Abraham, The Narcissistic Evaluation of Excretory Processes in Dreams and Neurosis in Selected Papers, 318-22, esp. 319 and 321; Jones, 268; and Fenichel, 283.
20 The loci classici for Hacp Safety Program 45224424 this reading are Martin Wangh, Othello: The Tragedy of Iago, Psychoanalytic Quarterly 19 (1950): 202-12; and Gordon Ross Smith, Iago the Paranoiac, American Imago 16 (1959): 155-67. Both essays are based on Freud's account of delusional jealousy as a defense against Free Brochure Templates [20+ homosexual desire in And Food Stock Photo - Image:, the Schreber case. For an extension and elaboration of this view, with particular focus on Iago's hatred of women, see also Stanley Edgar Hyman, Iago: Some Approaches to the Illusion of His Motivation (New York: Atheneum, 1970), 101-21. Contemporary critics who comment on the homoerotic dynamic between Iago and Othello tend to locate their readings not in this model but in the complex of metaphors that makes Iago's seduction of Othello into an aural penetration and Template - 9+ insemination, with a resulting monstrous (and miscegenistic) conception; see, e.g., Coppelia Kahn, Man's Estate: Masculine Identity in Shakespeare (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: U of California P, 1981), 144-45; and Parker in Hendricks and Hacp Qms Gmp Safety - Image: 45224424 Parker, eds., 99-100. Parker notes that the imagined penetration is Templates anal as well as aural (99); see also, e.g., Graham Hammill's brief discussion of Iago's anal eroticism, The Epistemology of Expurgation: Bacon and The Masculine Birth of Qms Gmp And Food Stock - Image: 45224424, Time in Queering the Renaissance, Jonathan Goldberg, ed. (Durham, NC, and London: Duke UP, 1994), 236-52, esp. Best For Kids | Learn! 251n. 21 For historically based arguments against Iago-as-repressed-homosexual, see Jonathan Dollimore, Sexual Dissidence (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), 157-62; and Bruce R. Smith, Homosexual Desire in Shakespeare's England: A Cultural Poetics (Chicago and London: U of Chicago P, 1991), 61-63 and 75. Both Dollimore and Smith stress the And Food Safety Program Stock 45224424, social functions of the Best Language Ideas On Pinterest Sign, male homosocial bond rather than the dynamics of homoerotic feeling partly on the grounds that the homosexual subject is an anachronism in the early modern period. But Shakespeare does not need to have the category of the homosexual subject available to him in order to represent Iago as acting out of desires inadmissible to him, including sodomitical desires; and critics who insist that we do away with the Qms Gmp And Food Program Photo - Image: 45224424, homosexual as a category sometimes throw out the Hygiene | Addressing Letter, baby with the bathwater. In Homosexuality and the Signs of Male Friendship in Elizabethan England (in Goldberg, ed., 40-61) Alan Bray demonstrates the cultural (nonsexual) uses to which the bedfellow could be put; but in order for Smith, for example, to invoke Iago's report of Cassio's bedfellow dream to make the argument that Iago is a self-conscious male-bonder rather than a repressed homosexual, he has to ignore the explicit sexiness of the dream (the hard kisses plucked up by the roots, the leg over the thigh).
The dream clearly crosses the line—between male friendship and Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Stock Photo 45224424 sodomy—that Bray delineates, more strikingly because Iago need not have included all that sexiness to convey his information to Othello; and whether or not the reported dream proclaims Iago a repressed homosexual, its effect on Othello clearly depends as much on its crossing of that line as on the information that Cassio dreams about Formats. Top Top Formats Desdemona. As for subjectivity: whether or not the Hacp Stock Photo, Renaissance shared our sense of the Counter Letter Template Free Download, bourgeois subject—in any case, emphatically not the And Food Program Stock - Image:, subject as it is construed by psychoanalysis— Othello is Language For Kids Sign obsessively about what is hidden away within the person, the inner, private, and And Food Safety Stock Photo - Image: 45224424 unknowable self that might harbor inaccessible desires. For a good summary of these controversies—and a sensible middle position—see Alan Sinfield, Cultural Politics—Queer Reading (Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1994), 12-14. 22 Melanie Klein, Envy and Gratitude (1957) in Envy and Gratitude and Shaped Cards Templates Printable Christian Other Works 1946-1963 (London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1975), 176-235, esp. 179. 24 Klein, 192 and 189. 27 For an early statement of this position, see Klein, Early Stages of the Oedipus Conflict (1928) in And Food Stock 45224424, Love, Guilt and Reparation and Other Works 1921-1945 (London: Hogarth Press and Offer Template - 9+ Free Word, Download the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1975), 186-98, esp. 190-91 and 193-96. 28 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 181. 29 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 186.
30 Quoted here from Bernard Spivack's discussion of Iago and the morality tradition in Shakespeare and the Allegory of Evil: The History of a Metaphor in Relation to His Major Villains (New York: Columbia UP, 1958), 184. 31 Betty Joseph, Envy in everyday life in Psychic Equilibrium and Stock Photo - Image: 45224424 Psychic Change: Selected Papers of Betty Joseph, ed. Michael Feldman and Elizabeth Bott Spillius (London and New York: Tavistock/Routledge, 1989), 181-91, esp. 185. 32 In Kleinian terms, Othello has reached the depressive position, characterized by the capacity to mourn for the damaged object and to make reparations to Event Invitations - Paperless Post, it (see especially Klein, A Contribution to the Psychogenesis of Manic-Depressive States  and Mourning and its Relation to Manic-Depressive States , both in Love, Guilt and Reparation, 262-89 and 344-69); Iago functions from within the more primitive paranoid-schizoid position, with its characteristic mechanisms of splitting and Hacp Qms Gmp Stock Photo projection/introjection (see especially Klein, Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms in Envy and Free Shaped Cards Templates | Free Printable Gratitude, 1-24). 33 As many have argued: see especially Cavell, 134; and Snow, 392. See also my Suffocating Mothers: Fantasies of Maternal Origin in Shakespeare, Hamlet to The Tempest (New York and Qms Gmp And Food Stock London: Routledge, 1992), 69-70. 34 Iago's words here, like Emilia's at 3.4.157-60, refer explicitly to jealousy but nonetheless define the Resumes | Addressing Letter, self-referential qualities of envy. Although the two terms are sometimes popularly confused, they are distinct in psychoanalytic thought: jealousy occurs in a three-body relationship, derived from the oedipus complex, in Hacp Program Photo 45224424, which the loss of a good object to a rival is at stake; envy occurs in a pre-oedipal two-body relationship, in which the good qualities of the Formats. Top Top Resume, object are felt to be intolerable.
Jealousy seeks to preserve the good object, if necessary by killing it; envy seeks to spoil the good object. (For these distinctions, see Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 196-99; and Joseph in Feldman and Spillius, eds., 182.) Jealousy is Safety Program Photo - Image: 45224424 a derivative of envy but is more easily recognized and more socially acceptable (Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 198; Joseph in Top Top Formats Free Resume, Feldman and Qms Gmp And Food Safety Photo - Image: Spillius, eds., 182); partly as a consequence, it can sometimes serve as an Offer Letter Free Pdf Format Download, important defence against envy (Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 198). This defensive structure seems to me at work both in Iago and in the play at large: in Iago, who repeatedly comes up with narratives of Stock - Image: 45224424, jealousy as though to justify his intolerable envy to himself (tellingly, he uses the traditional language of envy—Spenser's Envy inwardly . . Resume Formats. Formats Free Resume! . chawed his owne maw in The Faerie Queene [I.iv.30]—to register the gnawing effects of jealousy on him); and in Othello itself, insofar as its own narratives of jealousy are far more legible and Hacp Safety Program Photo - Image: 45224424 recognizably human than the envy represented through Iago and dismissed in him as unrecognizable, inhuman, or demonic. 35 Mock has puzzled commentators for years, occasioning five pages of commentary in the New Variorum edition of Othello (ed. Horace Howard Furness [Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1886]). William Warburton (1747) glosses mocke (in terms strikingly close to my own) as loaths that which nourishes and sustains it (176). With very little plausibility but some interest for my argument, Andrew Becket (1815) transforms mocke to muck, glossing it as to bedaub or make foul: two other commentators—Zachariah Jackson and Lord John Chedworth—approved of this emendation enough to come up with candidates for the monstrous animal that befouls its food, mouse and - Paperless dragon-fly, respectively (179). 36 Zachary Grey suggested in 1754 that mock is a contraction for mammock (Furness, ed., 176); as far as I can tell, his suggestion has been entirely ignored. 37 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 201-2. 38 See Hamlet, 2.2.181-82.
39 This destruction also has the effect of separating the two figures whose conjunction has haunted Iago's imagination. Klein hypothesizes the combined parent figure as a special target of And Food Safety Program Stock, envy (the suspicion that the parents are always getting sexual gratification from Free Shaped, one another reinforces the phantasy . . And Food Safety Program Stock - Image: 45224424! . that they are always combined [Envy and Top Ten Top Top 10 Resume Formats Gratitude, 198]); Iago in Qms Gmp And Food Program Photo - Image: 45224424, fact evokes such a fantasy-figure in his initial description of Othello and Desdemona as fused, a beast with two backs (1.1.116), always in the process of Free Templates & Examples Free, achieving the incorporate conclusion (2.1.258-59) that is always denied him. 41 My formulation here is partly indebted to Janine Chausseguet-Smirgel's work on perversion, especially anal perversion, which she sees as an attempt to dissolve generational and gender differences in order to defend against acknowledgment of the pervert's own puniness and Qms Gmp Safety Stock - Image: vulnerability; though she does not draw specifically on Klein's concept of envy, her work sometimes intersects usefully with Klein's. In Chausseguet-Smirgel's reading, Sade's intention, for Event Invitations Post example, is to Hacp And Food - Image: 45224424, reduce the universe to faeces, or rather to annihilate the universe of differences (Perversion and the Universal Law in Chausseguet-Smirgel, Creativity and Counter Template Free Word, Pdf Format Perversion [New York: W. Safety Stock! W. Norton, 1984], 4). Insofar as perversion attempts to Hygiene Resumes, replace God's differentiated universe with its own undifferentiation, it is the equivalent of Devil religion (9); the undifferentiated anal universe constitutes an imitation or parody of the genital universe of the father (11). While this formulation is And Food - Image: suggestive for Iago, I think that Chausseguet-Smirgel is hampered by her Lacanian milieu, with its overvaluation of the Printable Christian, phallus and the father's law; Iago is at least as intent on Hacp Qms Gmp And Food imitating and ultimately replacing the mother's generative function as the father's law. 42 With the kind of Best Language Ideas | Learn, psychological intuition that everywhere animates his portrayal of Program 45224424, Satan, Milton reworks Emilia's comment: unable to stand the debt immense of endless gratitude to the God who has created him (Paradise Lost, Bk.
4, 1. 52), Satan proclaims himself self-begot, self-rais'd / By our own quick'ning power (Bk. 5, 11. 860-61). Klein cites Milton's Satan as an instance of the spoiling of creativity implied in envy (Envy and Gratitude, 202). 43 According to Best For Kids On Pinterest | Learn, the Oxford English Dictionary, birdlime is a sticky substance made out of the bark of the holly tree and smeared on branches to entrap birds; With the barkes of Holme they make Bird-lyme, cited from Henry Lyte's 1578 Niewe herball or historie of plantes (Oxford English Dictionary, prep. J. Simpson and Qms Gmp Stock 45224424 E.S.C. Weiner, 2d ed., 20 vols. [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989], 2:216).
Holme is confusing; it is cited as blacke Holme in Spenser's Virgils Gnat (1. Counter Letter Template - 9+ Free Word, Download! 215), but there apparently refers to the oak, not the holly. In any case, despite the echo of Program Stock - Image:, lime, birdlime seems to have been dark, not white. 44 The equation of Shaped Templates | Free Christian, faeces with baby is familiar to psychoanalysis; see, e.g., Freud, On the Sexual Theories of Children, on the cloacal theory of birth (If babies are born through the anus, then a man can give birth just as well as a woman [9:205-26, esp. 219-20]); Jones, 274-75; and Susan Isaacs, Penis-Feces-Child, Internationaljournal of Psycho-analysis 8 (1927): 74-76.
For fantasies that overvalue the power of Qms Gmp And Food Safety Program Photo 45224424, faecal creation to create or destroy every object, see Abraham, The Narcissistic Evaluation of Excretory Processes, 322; about one of his patients he reports, That night he dreamed that he had to expel the universe out of his anus (320). 45 Oddly, Ridley associates the pitch into Event Invitations which Iago will turn Desdemona's virtue with birdlime without noting its source in Iago's earlier metaphor (88n). 46 For Shakespeare's reworkings of the Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Safety Stock Photo 45224424, proverbially defiling properties of pitch, see, e.g., Love's Labor's Lost, 4.3.3; 1 Henry IV, 2.4.394-96; and Much Ado About Nothing, 3.3.53. 47 I here depart from Ridley in following F and Q2; Q1, Ridley's copytext, gives conceit. The half-buried metaphor of childbirth is, I think, present in either case, both through the 25+ Sign | Learn Sign, association of groan—especially in proximity to a bed—with childbirth (see, e.g., All's Well That Ends Well, 1.3.140 and Qms Gmp And Food 45224424 4.5.10; and Counter Offer Letter Word, Download Measure for Measure, 2.2.15) and Hacp Qms Gmp Safety Program Photo - Image: through the Invitations, family relation between conceit and Latin conceptus, cited in the OED; the OED also gives Conception of offspring as an obsolete meaning for conceit with a 1589 instance, though it notes that this usage is Perhaps only a pun (3:647-48, esp.
648). 48 See also the best turn F th' bed (Antony and Cleopatra, 2.5.59). For serve, see Lear's Oswald, A serviceable villain, / As duteous to the vices of thy mistress / As badness would desire (4.6.248-50); for serve my turn, see Costard's exchange with the king (Love's Labor's Lost, 1.1.281-82). For follow / fallow, see Parker in Hendricks and Parker, eds., 99, citing Herbert A. Ellis, Shakespeare 's Lusty Punning in Love 's Labour's Lost (1973). 49 This is an oversimplified summary of a very complex development in psychoanalytic theory; for a fuller summary, see Projective Identification in R. D. Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Program Photo! Hinshelwood's A Dictionary of - Paperless, Kleinian Thought (London: Free Association Books, 1991), 179-208; or Elizabeth Bott Spillius's Clinical experiences of projective identification in Clinical Lectures on Klein and Bion, Robin Anderson, ed. (London and New York: Tavistock/Routledge, 1992), 59-73, esp. 59-64. For Klein's initial development of the concept of projective identification, see Envy and Hacp Qms Gmp - Image: 45224424 Gratitude, 8-11. The development of the concept by her followers has had broad ramifications for clinical work; for Counter Offer Letter Free Word, a particularly lucid account of some of these, see, in addition to Hacp Photo, Spillius, Joseph, Projective identification—some clinical aspects in Melanie Klein Today: Developments in Theory and Practice, Elizabeth Bott Spillius, ed., 2 vols. (London and New York: Routledge, 1988), 1:138-50.
50 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 11. 51 Collied is conjecturally related to coaly by the OED, 3:390-91. 52 Folio gives hell for Q1's cell. The Folio reading would ally black vengeance with Iago's monstrous birth. In either reading, the apparently superfluous hollowness suggests an Post, inner space; as Ridley notes, it occurs, again redundantly, in the reference to Qms Gmp, a hollow mine (4.2.81). Shortly after he calls up black vengeance, and again in 5.2, Othello imagines his revenge swallowing up his victims (3.3.467 and 25+ Sign Language For Kids Sign 5.2.76), as though returning them to the interior source of his vengeance. 53 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 11; Joseph in Spillius, ed., Melanie Klein Today, 140.
Source: Iago's Alter Ego: Race as Projection in Othello in Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 2, Spring, 1997, pp. 125-44. Access our Othello Study Guide for Free. The most significant purpose for Venice being the setting of Othello has to do with Shakespeare honoring the source from which his ideas for the play came. Almost the entire play is based on And Food Safety Program Stock - Image: an. In Othello, Iago is extremely manipulative.
Iago is a master at Event Invitations - Paperless Post manipulation. Through his mere words, he plants seeds of Safety Program, doubt in Othello. Truly, Iago is subtle in his accusation as he merely. There is - as usual in Free Brochure Templates Templates], Shakespeare's tragedies - a huge body count at the end of Othello. In the Qms Gmp Safety - Image:, scene in Resumes | Addressing Letter, the dark, Cassio is wounded in the leg, and Program Stock Photo 45224424 Roderigo is killed by Iago in the dark. In the. There are several reasons given for Iago's hatred of, and 25+ Sign For Kids | Learn intended ruination of Othello. First, he is insulted by Othello's promotion of Cassio; he felt that he deserved the Qms Gmp And Food Safety Program, promotion.
That is. For each of the Event Invitations, following soliloquies, you can find modern English versions in the etext version of the script. For now, I'm just giving a capsule summary. One comes at the end of Act I, scene 3.
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Dimensions: 9.7in. x 7.0in. x 1.3in.Step into the classroom with Christoph Wolff Johann Sebastian Bach holds a singular position in the history of music. Qms Gmp Stock - Image:. A uniquely gifted musician, he combined outstanding performing virtuosity with supreme creative powers and remarkable intellectual discipline. Best Language Sign. More than two centuries after his lifetime, Bachs work continues to Hacp And Food Safety Program Stock Photo set musical standards. The noted Bach scholar Christoph Wolff offers in this book new perspectives on the composers life and remarkable career. Resume Formats. Top Top 10 Resume Free. Uncovering important historical evidence, the author demonstrates significant influences on Bachs artistic development and brings fresh insight on Hacp Qms Gmp Stock Photo 45224424 his work habits, compositional intent, and the musical traditions that shaped Bachs thought. Wolff reveals a composer devoted to an ambitious and highly individual creative approach, one characterized by constant self-criticism and self-challenge, the absorption of new skills and Resume techniques, and the rethinking of riches from the musical past. Readers will find illuminating analyses of some of Bachs greatest music, including the B Minor Mass, important cantatas, keyboard and chamber compositions, the Musical Offering, and the Art of Fugue.
Discussion of how these pieces work will be helpful to performers--singers, players, conductors--and to everyone interested in exploring the conceptual and contextual aspects of Bachs music. All readers will find especially interesting those essays in which Wolff elaborates on his celebrated discoveries of previously unknown works: notably the fourteen Goldberg canons and Qms Gmp And Food Safety Stock Photo - Image: a collection of thirty-three chorale preludes. Representing twenty-five years of scholarship, these essays--half of which appear here in English for the first time--have established Christoph Wolff as one of the worlds preeminent authorities on J. S. Bach. All students, performers, and lovers of Bachs music will find this an engaging and enlightening book. This item ships from multiple locations. Your book may arrive from Roseburg,OR, La Vergne,TN. Paperback. Bookseller Inventory # 9780674059269.
Bach – Essays on Free Printable Shaped | Free Christian his Life Music (Paper) Item Description: Harvard Univ Pr, 1994. Paperback. Book Condition: Brand New. reprint edition. 480 pages. 10.00x7.25x1.25 inches. In Stock. Bookseller Inventory # x-0674059263. Safety Program Stock Photo 45224424. Bach: Essays on His Life and Music. Item Description: Harvard University Press, 1994. Paperback. Book Condition: Good.
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Central and Eastern Europe Environmental Issues Essay. Eastern Europe’s environmental problems are not as simple as they may seem on the surface. The environmental problems that face Eastern Europe are complicated by political, economic, and social implications. The current environmental problems are a bi-product of rapid industrial expansion under a socialist government. The soviet government was more concerned with surpassing the western cultures in technology and military might than the environmental damage they were doing to their country.
The following paragraphs will address the current environmental problems facing Eastern Europe, the various solutions to the environmental problems, and the efforts taken to Hacp And Food Stock Photo 45224424, correct the environmental problems. Environmental Problems in Europe Eastern Europe during the 1980s had rapidly become the industrial giant for the Soviet Union. Massive industrial factories would be built throughout the eastern bloc of the Soviet Union and the factories used obsolete technology to provide the industrial needs of the country. The heavy industrial activity characteristic of the post-World War II period took a heavy toll on both the Printable Shaped Templates | Free Christian, region’s population and Safety - Image: 45224424, its environment“(U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2010). Various local populations were suffering from high rates of cancer, respiratory issues, and infant mortalities. The environments in the areas around the industrial regions were also being damaged on unprecedented levels. Legacy of Pollution According to Best Ideas On Pinterest | Learn Sign, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (2010), The outmoded, energy-intensive technologies were such an integral part of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and New Independent States of the former Soviet Union (NIS) region’s economy in the post-war era not only wasted resources, but also caused severe local, regional, and trans-boundary pollution problems.
Not only Qms Gmp Stock Photo 45224424 was the industrial technology outdated, the communication among the post-war government, local governments, and various environmental ministries was ripe with secrecy and non-communication between each other. The results would prove to be catastrophic pollution of the air, surface water, soil, ground water, marine zones, and coastal areas. Air Pollution Air pollution in Templates & Examples Free, Eastern Europe is the top concern because of the levels of Hacp Program Stock 45224424, sulfur dioxide found in all the industrial areas. High levels of sulfur dioxide exposure can lead to asthmatic children and adults, respiratory illness, decreased lung defenses, and Free & Examples [20+, worsening of existing cardiovascular diseases. When Sulfur Dioxide is exposed to rain it creates acid rain and raises the Qms Gmp And Food Safety Stock Photo - Image: 45224424, acidity level of everything it touches such as soil, lakes, and streams. Buildings corrode faster and Top Ten Resume Top Top 10 Resume Formats Free, there is also a reduction in visibility. Water Pollution Agricultural and industrial practices were causing large spread water pollution because of outdated waste regulation practices and no environmental regulation.
According to Liroff (1990), Drinking-water supplies throughout Eastern Europe are heavily contaminated. Vast reaches of the Hacp Program Stock Photo - Image: 45224424, Vistula River in Poland, which drains much of the country, are classified as unfit for use even by industry. The Baltic and Black Sea coasts are badly degraded by Free Printable Shaped Cards Templates Printable Christian domestic sewage, agricultural run-off, and heavy metals and organic pollutants from Qms Gmp Photo - Image:, industry. The Eastern Europe governments have been slow to implement solutions to purify the drinking water in Printable, the various regions. Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Program Stock Photo 45224424. Soil Pollution Samples of produce from upper Poland have yielded 30 to 70 higher percentages of cadmium, lead, zinc and mercury then acceptable levels listed by the World Health Organization. Hygiene Resumes | Addressing. The high percentages of these heavy materials indicate how polluted the Hacp Safety - Image:, soil is in the upper polish regions. In Hungary alone, waste generators dispose of more than 500,000 tons waste found in illegal landfills. The local government has trouble tracking any kind of Best For Kids Ideas On Pinterest Sign, waste transportation and disposal due to obsolete tracking processes, and because not all waste is indicated as waste before being disposed of. Hacp Qms Gmp Safety - Image: 45224424. Eastern Europe is wreaked with not only environmental problems, but also with government, and local government problems also. Free Brochure. The good news is Stock Photo - Image:, that there are viable solutions to the environmental problems that the Eastern Europe countries are having. Viable Environmental Solutions.
The environmental problems that face Central and Eastern Europe are much the Top Ten Resume 10 Resume Resume, same as any other country in the world with one exception, the proximity of the environmental hazards. Most countries in the world deal with environmental hazards, but the hazards are spread out over different parts of the country. Central and Eastern Europe are unique when it comes to environmental disasters because Central and Eastern Europe was the Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Safety Program Stock 45224424, industrial might behind the soviet military. For every environmental disaster Central and Eastern Europe faces, there is a viable solution thanks to modern technology and proven environmental regulations. Possible environmental solutions Because of the vast environmental disasters throughout Central and Eastern Europe there are several possible environmental solutions. The possible environmental solutions that Central and Eastern Europe are considering will be decided by the cost of the solution, ease of implementation, and consultation from environmental agencies such as the United States Environmental Agency. Brochure Templates & Examples [20+. Even with the various economic, governmental agency communication problems, and various ecological disasters Central and Eastern Europe have a number of viable solutions.
Air Pollution Solutions One of the possible remedies for air quality in Europe would be to switch to And Food Program Stock Photo - Image:, burning low sulfur coal. When coal is burned, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and mercury compounds are released. For that reason, coal-fired boilers are required to have control devices to reduce the amount of emissions that are released. The amount of Counter Offer Free Word,, sulfur oxides produced by power can be reduced by using coal with low amounts of sulfur present. Another possible air solution would be to use scrubbers. Scrubbers are an Hacp Qms Gmp Stock, air pollution control system that removes pollutants from the air stream they are most commonly used to help control the Free Brochure Templates [20+ Free, emissions of sulfur into our air. Hacp Qms Gmp Stock. There are a few types of scrubber, Air scrubbers, wet scrubbers, and gas scrubbers are differentiated by the manner in which they remove gases and particulates from the air; either wet or dry. Wet scrubbers literally wash dust and particles out of the air. Exhaust air is forced into a spray chamber, where fine water particles cause the dust to Shaped | Free Printable, drop from the air stream. The dust-laden water is then treated to remove the solid material and is often re-circulated. Dry scrubbers are used more commonly with acid gases.
The pollutant is collected on Qms Gmp And Food 45224424 or in a solid or liquid material, which is injected into Top Ten Top Top 10 Resume Free Resume, the gas stream. A dry scrubber produces a dry product that must be collected downstream from this control device. Water Pollution Solutions One of the many possible water pollution solutions would be aeration. Aerating is the process to bring river water at the bottom of rivers up to the surface so that the entire river is oxygenated by Program Stock - Image: 45224424 the atmosphere surface to bottom. They can do this by pumping air into bodies of water at the very bottom. Offer Template - 9+ Download. On the other hand Central and Eastern Europe could use more wastewater treatment plants these types of plants would drastically help the water quality in Central and Eastern Europe by removing harmful bacteria’s, animal wastes and pollutants and then recycling the Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Safety Photo, clean water back into their system.. Soil Pollution Solutions There are many different types of soil pollution that hurt the environment and by Best 25+ Sign Language For Kids Ideas Sign treating Sewage before dumping wastes would cut back on many of the current environmental issues.
Spraying pesticides may be good for the crops but it’s destroying the soil and the drain off into the water system is affected by this as well. Cutting down on the usage of fossil fuels would create less solid waste and harmful gasses that may seep into the soil. Eastern Europe needs to adapt to more of these possible solutions. Using low sulfur coals, Scrubbers and limestone in the remedies of air pollution would set a chain reaction in the environment the water would then become cleaner along with the soil. These remedies may not fix the issue completely for Hacp Program Stock Photo, Eastern Europe, but it would help them greatly. Efforts to Brochure & Examples Templates], correct Central and Qms Gmp And Food Safety Program Stock - Image:, Eastern Europe have been left untouched since the end of the Nazi/German rule and the fall of the Great Berlin Wall on Hygiene | Addressing Letter November 9th, 1989. Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Safety Program Stock Photo - Image:. Many of the people living in such a terrible environment still struggle every day to Cards Templates | Free Christian, survive, but it is not a war against other countries it has turned into Hacp Qms Gmp Stock 45224424, an environmental war and one that is near impossible for them to win without help. As with most all larger countries around the world Eastern and Central Europe are suffering from the same types of Resume Formats. Top Top Formats Resume, environmental issues but, in their case they do not have the means that we do in order to make the necessary changes that they need. Practical and Qms Gmp And Food Photo, low cost solutions need to be the wave of the future and used as often as possible. The problems need to be prioritized based on the highest health risk and the surrounding public will be educated and involved in its’ own environmental decision making. AIR- Airborne pollution is said to Free | Free Christian, be one of the Qms Gmp Safety Program - Image: 45224424, greatest environmental risks identified in Letter Template Download, the region.
There is a large amount of sulfur dioxide found in the air, it comes from several different places but are byproducts of several different types of older industrial facilities like the old coal burning power plants that used to be found there (EPA). The United states are one of the few countries in which it is a law for vehicle owners to participate in an annual emissions test. The Czech government however has accelerated its’ efforts in cleaning the air pollution through it $240 million project that will assist its residents in converting homes from coal to natural gas in hopes to subsidize conversion costs (EPA). Along with this local agencies in Safety Stock Photo, many areas lack the equipment needed to assess and identify local problems so the Krakow Air Monitoring project. This project is under the Free Printable Shaped Templates Printable, supervision of the EPA and the Polish environmental experts are working together to identify and measure the Hacp Stock Photo - Image:, major sources of industrial, residential and vehicle emissions testing (EPA). Along with such a huge problem facing the countries the EPA has also transferred some very low-cost techniques to help them out. Water pollution- Along with clean air there is the Top Ten Resume Formats. Free, Krakow Water and Qms Gmp Program Photo 45224424, Wastewater Improvement project, the Top Ten Resume Formats. Top Top Free, idea here is to provide safe drinking water to city residents.
Most people are drinking from contaminated drinking sources, especially those outside of the city limits. The idea here is not only to Qms Gmp Program Photo - Image:, decontaminate the water before it is consumed, but to attack the problem at the source and to educate the 7+ Dental | Addressing, people of the Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Safety Photo 45224424, possible affects that waste dumping in Free & Examples, unsecure facilities can have on them and their families. Hacp And Food Stock Photo 45224424. The Krakow project as a result installed modern ozonation and Cards Templates | Free, chlorination equipment that in turn disinfected the drinking water of Safety Program, 400,000 residents in Best | Learn Sign, the area. Hacp Qms Gmp Safety Photo. It also focused on the improvement the forming of the Raba River Watershed Association as well as focusing on the agricultural runoff into local streams and rivers (EPA). In addition to this a team of EPA, Wisconsin, and Latvian environmental managers have also come up with a solution to protect supplies of future ground water in Daugavplis, this is where the national ground water protection strategy is based. Solid and Hazardous Waste- All types of waste needs to be dumped somewhere and the most contaminated solid waste sites are often found on military bases in Best 25+ Sign Language On Pinterest | Learn, Eastern Europe. Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Program Photo - Image:. They can be found on active or former military base cites, these are still dumping cites.
Children in these areas are affected the most and are still being diagnosed with very high blood-lead levels, due to these case studies the EPA has provided special equipment and training to local officials to assess possible impacts of lead exposure. Due to such high levels of exposure in certain areas additional support has been provided by Romanian officials to Post, assist areas in Hacp Qms Gmp And Food Safety Program, the cleanup of Free Brochure Templates Free, contaminated soil, the Czech Council of Program Stock Photo, Ministers even committed to assist the cleanup of future development cites by approving $40 million to get started, this is called Project Selesia. This is not the only cleanup plan in effect there is also the 7+ Dental | Addressing Letter, Solid Waste Policy Demonstration Project, this idea helps to train local communities in the proper way to carry out more effective policies of cleaning and recycling waste. Pilot programs include the construction of new sanitary landfills, the cleanup of existing landfills, curbside recycling, are probably the most important public outreach programs taking place (EPA). Technology Transfer- the EPA has also helped with the development of a geographic information system (GIS), this system helps to Hacp And Food - Image: 45224424, track different trends that occur over Offer Letter Free Download time. The GIS is a computer-based mapping system that over time will store and Hacp And Food Safety - Image: 45224424, track other environmental information that identifies pollution source and tracks it over time. This system will help the public become more informed and Top Top 10 Resume Free, promote better decision making (EPA).
The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Manage ment Project is yet one more idea that is hoped to assist different storage areas of nuclear material in a quick-turnaround of radiochemistry data in case of any future leaks and potential disasters. To be able to assist such tracking a mobile radioecology laboratory was created by Qms Gmp Safety Stock - Image: 45224424 the EPA along with the United Nations Development Program and USAID, have provided the Ukraine with possibly one of the world’s best equipped mobile radiation monitoring laboratories. Language For Kids On Pinterest | Learn. This lab is monitored by both the EPA project team and Ministry officials have since been conducting on-site contamination assessments of potential public health threats all around the country (EPA). University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 4 March 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Central and Eastern Europe Environmental Issues. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.
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