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ns essay AFGHANISTAN: THE MAKING OF U.S. POLICY, 1973-1990. by Steve Galster. The year was 1979. The country, of course, was Afghanistan.
And one decade later, some people who had believed in that message were celebrating one of the most sensational U.S. victories in the history of the Cold War: the withdrawal of 100,000 demoralized Soviet troops from Afghanistan, marking the first time that the Red Army had withdrawn under fire from a nation it had occupied since World War II. The Afghan socialist revolution, it seemed, had failed. At the headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Director William Webster and his euphoric Afghan Team toasted ten years of effort and a multi-billion dollar project to Quote Letter Quality support the anti-communist, Muslim Afghan rebels, in what had become the CIA?s largest and most successful covert operation ever. On Capitol Hill, Congressman Charles Wilson (D-Texas), a legislative champion of the anti-Soviet guerrillas, boasted that the United States had learned in Afghanistan that it could reverse Soviet influence anywhere in the world. Work Request Form Instructions! And at Raci | Resume Cover Letter Assurance the White House, President George Bush hailed the withdrawal as a watershed in U.S.-Soviet relations. Six thousand miles away from the celebrations, however, the war in Afghanistan raged on. Washington and 55+ Best Free Brochure Mockup Moscow?s clients, using U.S. and Soviet-supplied weapons, continued their internecine struggle for power, adding more civilian casualties to the 1 million who had already died. Although peace had broken out between the superpowers, the legacy of | Resume Cover Letter their long and bitter rivalry lived on in the rocket-prone city of Engineer Job Description Engine Kabul, Pakistan?s crowded refugee camps and the war-ravaged villages in the Hindu Kush mountains. The Relevance of Chart Quote Cover Afghanistan. How is it that this underdeveloped, tribal-based country, tucked deep inside the rugged crossroads of Asia and deemed strategically insignificant by Romantic Card Template the United States for Raci Quality decades, became a battleground for the bloodiest superpower proxy war of the 1980s? What stimulated the United States to develop a sophisticated insurgency support operation for a rebellion led by Islamic religious leaders and fought by Senior Support Engineer Job Description In 2017 mountain tribesmen?
What was the nature of the debate among U.S. officials and congressmen as to what the Chart Quote Letter rebels, beset with ethnic, tribal and personal rivalries, could accomplish against the armed forces of the Soviet Union? What effect did this war have on Pakistan, the most important U.S. ally in South Asia, which played a crucial role in the war by providing sanctuary for 55+ Best Psd Templates the rebels and 3 million Afghan refugees? And what lessons have the U.S. intelligence and defense communities drawn from the Afghan conflict and applied to the emerging U.S. strategic doctrine of Low-Intensity Warfare? Why did the Soviet Union spend ten years, billions of Raci Chart Quote Cover Quality Assurance dollars and 15-20,000 lives trying to prop up a government that seemed constantly on the verge of Sample Material List - 8+ collapse? Was Moscow?s intervention, as some have claimed, originally part of a grand design to seize oil fields and warm water ports in Raci Chart Letter Quality Assurance, the Persian Gulf region, or merely a move to protect a new socialist government in a country contiguous to its sensitive southern border? Why did Mikhail Gorbachev eventually call the Red Army home, leaving the Afghan government to fend for itself against formidable odds? And how did the Afghan government manage to hold onto power without Soviet protection? No student, professor or journalist trying to Material Examples In Word, answer these and the many other questions related to the Afghan war can do justice to their research without reviewing some of the thousands of pages of Raci Chart Quote Cover Quality State Department cables from Kabul, Peshawar, Islamabad and Washington; intelligence reports from the CIA and Wedding Card Template - Titanui the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA); correspondence between Congress and the executive branch; field reports from Agency for Raci Chart | Resume International Development (AID) officials in Pakistan; and 55+ Best Free Brochure Download other previously classified materials found in this document set. An overview of U.S. policy during Afghanistan?s last 17 turbulent years both provides some context for approaching these questions and demonstrates the usefulness of these materials to those trying to answer them. The Tenets of U.S. Raci Chart Quote Cover Letter Quality! Policy toward Afghanistan.
Although Afghanistan experienced massive changes between 1973 and 1990--four coups, the intervention and withdrawal of the Soviet armed forces, the Free Romantic Wedding Template Vector exile of one-third of its population as a result of the war, and one million deaths?U.S. policy toward Afghanistan throughout this period actually remained the same: to prevent excessive Soviet influence. Specifically, this meant denying the Soviet Union a foothold in Afghanistan from which to launch aggressive actions in the region. Afghanistan by itself was of little importance to the United States. But the area around it?the Persian Gulf and the sea lines and Raci Cover Letter Quality Assurance ports of the Indian Ocean?was deemed critical, and U.S. policy toward Afghanistan consistently reflected a regional policy that sought strong and friendly ties with Iran and Brochure Download Pakistan. Hence, the two factors shaping U.S. policy in Afghanistan also remained consistent: the Raci Chart Quote Letter U.S. Senior Engineer Job Description Engine! perception of Soviet goals in Afghanistan, and the balance of | Resume Quality Assurance power in the region. Until the fall of the Shah of Iran in 1979, the United States was able to project its power into South Asia and protect its interests there with confidence.
In exchange for massive military assistance, the Shah provided the Work Order Request United States with access to military bases and intelligence facilities, helping to safeguard the flow of oil from the Persian Gulf to Raci | Resume Cover Letter the free world while preventing potential Soviet advances toward the Gulf or Indian Ocean. At the Senior Job Description Best same time, Soviet relations with Afghanistan did not appear to threaten U.S. Raci Chart | Resume! interests. Sample Material - 8+ Examples In Word, Pdf! Since the USSR shared a long border with Afghanistan and because the | Resume Cover Letter Quality United States enjoyed friendly ties with the other states in the region, U.S. officials viewed Soviet policy in Afghanistan as part of a defensive strategy. Card Template! A National Intelligence Estimate written in 1954--one year after the United States helped restore the Chart Letter Quality Shah to his throne in Iran?stated that Soviet attention to Afghanistan is Senior Support Best Engine part of a general effort to counter recent Western (particularly US) gains in the Middle East-South Asia area.(2) Washington decided, in other words, to treat Afghanistan as a buffer state. Throughout the Raci Chart Quote Cover Letter 1960s and the 1970s, relations between Moscow and Kabul grew stronger, as the USSR became one of Afghanistan?s largest sources of foreign aid.
The United States, while working to minimize Soviet influence, raised few objections. In 1962, the Vector State Department reasoned that US fostering of active hostility toward the USSR [could] only Raci Chart Quote Cover Assurance serve to weaken Afghanistan?s ability to survive.(3) In 1976, the annual State Department Policy Review stated that Afghanistan was a militarily and politically neutral nation, effectively dependent on the Soviet Union. Still, it concluded that the United States is not, nor should it become, committed to, or responsible for the ?protection? of Afghanistan in any respect.(4) The balance of power in Romantic Template - Titanui, the region favored the Raci Chart Quote | Resume Cover Assurance United States, and Sample Material Pdf no significant Soviet threat to that balance was seen emanating from Afghanistan. This set of circumstances?which in U.S. Quote | Resume! policy parlance is described as regional stability?changed dramatically in 1979. The Shah of Iran abdicated his throne in January, allowing an Retro Romantic Vector, anti-American, Islamic government to take power. Ten months later, the Soviet Union deployed 100,000 troops to Afghanistan, putting the Red Army within striking distance of both Pakistan and a potentially vulnerable Iran. The balance in Cover Quality, the region had shifted. Soviet policy in Afghanistan, which was previously perceived as benign, was suddenly described by Secretary Of State For Business, the White House as the gravest threat to world peace since World War II.
The Early Years: 1973-1978. To gain a full understanding of these changes, one needs to go back to the early 1970s when the Raci | Resume Cover Letter Quality power of Free Romantic Card Template Vector - Titanui Afghanistan?s monarchy was waning. Afghanistan at this time was one of the most underdeveloped countries in the world. In 1974, the World Bank estimated Afghanistan?s per capita GNP to be $70, ranking it 73rd among a list of 83 underdeveloped countries.(5) To make matters worse, Afghanistan suffered a terrible drought in 1971-1972. Foreign aid, from Chart Quote | Resume Quality, such countries as West Germany, Iran, the United States, and · Vince Of State For Business, especially from the USSR, helped alleviate the country?s economic woes. Foreign aid alone, however, could not resolve Afghanistan?s emerging political conflicts. Many Afghans, particularly the progressive urban elite, had grown impatient with the country?s leader, King Zahir Shah. The king had ruled Afghanistan (sometimes as only a titular head) since the age of 19, when his father was assassinated in 1933. The United States was aware that political discontent was on the rise in the country. Quote Letter Assurance! In 1971, the Job Description - The U.S. Embassy in Kabul reported that [t]here has been increased leftist activity which can be attributed to increased disillusionment and frustration with the existing social/economic conditions and the apparent inability or unwillingness of the leadership to tackle boldly the nation?s problems.(6) Perhaps the most disgruntled and organized of the country?s leftist groups was the People?s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA).
The PDPA had been founded in 1965 by a group of Raci Quote | Resume Letter Quality Assurance 30 Afghans in Kabul. Material List - 8+ Pdf! Its political orientation was Marxist, with many of its members looking to Moscow for guidance and inspiration. Chart Quote | Resume Letter Quality Assurance! Many PDPA members, in fact, had studied or received military training in the USSR. During its early years, the PDPA was torn by Free Brochure quarrels and Raci Chart Quote | Resume Cover Letter Assurance plots between its two leaders, Nur Mohammad Taraki and Babrak Karmal. The two leaders agreed on the basic objectives of the party, including a number of socialist political and economic reforms. Senior Best! They both also complained of Afghanistan?s backward nature, pointing not only to its underdeveloped infrastructure but also to Chart Letter Quality Assurance a maldistribution of wealth and land which, they claimed, was perpetuated by traditional tribal and religious customs.
Taraki and Karmal disagreed, however, over how to remedy these problems. Taraki and his followers argued for radical socialist reforms using whatever means necessary to Job Description Best Engine In 2017 implement them; Karmal and his supporters advocated the gradual introduction of socialist change, working within the state system, incorporating along the | Resume Cover Letter way different elements of Work Order Afghan society. Raci Quote | Resume Quality! Karmal and Skills several colleagues had even served as parliamentary members during the king?s rule, earning themselves the nickname royal communists. In 1967, Karmal split with the party and formed his own faction, also called the PDPA, but usually identified by the name of Chart | Resume Assurance its newspaper, Parcham (banner). Parcham continued to strive for the same kinds of socialist reforms pursued by Taraki?s rival PDPA faction, Khalq (masses), also named for its newspaper, but the Legal two competed for power nevertheless. By the Chart Quote Cover early 1970s, Karmal had all but abandoned his non-confrontational, almost cooperative approach toward the government. Petition Secretary Of State For Business,! The Zahir Administration had shut down the Parcham newspaper, quashed Parcham demonstrations, and arrested party members and Raci Quote | Resume Cover Assurance put them in jail. In response, Karmal increasingly sang the same anti-monarchy tune as the Khalqis. Parcham and Khalq were not the only groups opposed to the Zahir Shah Administration. The king?s cousin and former prime minister, Mohammad Daud, had his eyes on the royal palace, as did several other former officials and Free Romantic Template relatives of the king.
Realizing that a race was on to replace Zahir Shah, Daud, along with members of the military and Parcham, coordinated a takeover attempt. On July 17, 1973, while the king was vacationing in Italy, Daud, along with key military officers and the minister of interior, who was a Parcham sympathizer, launched a successful, nearly bloodless coup, declaring an Raci Chart Letter, end to the monarchy and the beginning of a republican government. The exact nature of Daud?s relations with Parcham during this time is still not clear. Did the two agree on Senior Support Engineer Best Engine, political objectives for Chart Cover Letter Afghanistan, or did they merely create a marriage of convenience? In any event, after ousting the royal family, Daud initiated some of the progressive reforms which his leftist supporters had demanded. His commitment to a reformist program and to his early backers was shortlived, however. Over time, Daud consolidated his personal power by Free Mockup Psd Templates purging the government of leftists, replacing them with members of Letter his own powerful Mohammadzai clan. Request! He also sought more economic independence from the Soviet Union by exploring closer ties with Iran and the United States. He was careful, however, never completely to Raci Cover Letter Quality Assurance shun the Soviet Union. As the CIA noted, Daud was happiest when he could light his American cigarettes with Soviet matches.(7) The U.S.
Embassy in Kabul observed that Daud, in his changes, was leaning neither left nor right, but Daudward. In pursuit of personal power and Agreement - Agency Access a more independent foreign policy, Daud managed to alienate Afghanistan?s socialists, moderates and religious fundamentalists. It was the latter which initially proved to be Daud?s most militant opponents. While some Afghans were being influenced by Marxism, others were diligently studying the Koran. Many of these Afghans entered Kabul University?s faculty of Islamic law, while others pursued their Islamic studies in Egypt where they came into contact with and Raci Cover Quality Assurance were influenced by the Muslim Brotherhood, an organization which seeks the imposition of strictly Islamic governments in all Muslim countries.
Some of those Afghans who studied in Legal - Seo - Agency, Cairo, such as Burhanuddin Rabbani, Sibghatullah Mojaddedi and Abdul Rabb-ur-Rasul Sayyaf, came back to Raci Chart | Resume Cover Letter Kabul determined to galvanize opposition first to Order Form Instructions Zahir Shah and then Mohammad Daud, both of whose governments they criticized as corrupt and un-Islamic. This group of Afghans wanted to integrate modernization and Islam to counter the disruptive influence of both capitalism and communism. Rabbani recruited from Afghanistan?s Muslim Youth Organization and helped form the Islamic Society party, Jamiat-i Islami. Jamiat organized anti-government protests and other Islamic dissident activities. When Daud cracked down on Jamiat activists, Rabbani and other Muslim leaders fled for the Afghan countryside and eventually to Pakistan where they received arms to fight the Daud government. U.S. officials knew very little about these Afghan rebels and doubted they could pose a serious threat to the Daud Administration. Some of the names listed in State Department cables were those of people who, years later, would receive covert aid from the United States in their jihad, or holy war, against the Soviet Union. But it was Pakistan, which had its own reasons to Raci Chart Cover Quality Assurance fear Daud, that helped these rebels get their start.
Especially alarming to Order Request Instructions the Pakistanis was Daud?s pursuit of a popular cause called Pashtunistan. Roughly half of Afghanistan?s population are ethnic Pashtuns, including Daud and Chart Quote Cover Quality practically every other leader in Afghanistan?s history. Millions of Pashtuns also lived on the other side of the Work Order Instructions Afghanistan-Pakistan border, an Raci Cover Quality Assurance, artificial line drawn by the British during the height of their colonial rule in India. These Pashtuns, living in Pakistan?s Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), looked forward to the day when they would join their ethnic brethren in controlling their own homeland, Pashtunistan. Since Pashtuns dominated Afghan politics, they could only gain from pursuing such a goal, and Petition Secretary Of State For Business, Skills Afghan leaders, in Raci Chart Letter Assurance, turn, won favor among Afghan Pashtuns for pursuing it. What was appealing to Daud and other Afghan leaders, however, represented a real threat to Pakistan. Pashtunistan, if ever realized, would cut deeply into Legal Access, the NWFP by annexing a good portion of Pakistan. Even if the border with Afghanistan remained intact, calls in Kabul for Cover Letter Quality Assurance Pashtunistan always had the Mockup Download potential for | Resume Letter Assurance stirring unrest in Peshawar and other parts of Pakistan?s frontier. Expatriate leaders such as Rabbani, an ethnic Tajik, and - 8+ Examples In Word, Hekmatyar, an Islamist who sought to unite Afghans belonging to all ethnic groups through Islam, provided Pakistan with a minor tool for keeping Daud off balance if he chose to pursue an aggressive Pashtunistan policy. Meanwhile, as Islamic fundamentalists rebelled against Daud?s atheistic reforms, Daud continued to purge more leftists from the government, banned political opposition in 1975, and strengthened ties with Iran and the United States. The United States welcomed and Raci Chart Quote | Resume Assurance encouraged Daud?s new foreign policy moves.
In 1977, the State Department, remarking on Daud?s closer ties to Iran, stated that he had made significant contributions to the improvement of regional stability?thereby helping to fulfill another principal U.S. objective.(8) The Saur Revolution. Despite U.S. approval, Daud?s authoritarian rule had alienated too many at home. Free Romantic Wedding Card Vector - Titanui! In particular, PDPA members, Parchamis and Khalqis alike, had grown impatient with Daud and were anxious to see him removed from Raci Quote Assurance, power. Khalq members criticized their Parcham rivals for - Agency having deluded themselves into thinking that the PDPA could have worked with Daud after supporting his takeover. By 1977, Khalq and Parcham formally agreed to bury their differences and Raci Quote Cover united to form one People?s Democratic Party of Afghanistan; Soviet pressure reportedly played a role in the unification. Further PDPA infiltration of the Free military, especially by Khalqis, put the party in a good position to influence events if and when Daud lost his grip on power. That day came on April 17, 1978, when Mir Akbar Khaibar, a member of the PDPA and Quality Assurance a vocal critic of Daud, was assassinated, possibly by Daud?s minister of interior.
Thousands of Work Order Request Instructions mourners turned Khaibar?s funeral into an anti-government rally which prompted Daud to clamp down further on Raci, the PDPA, arresting numerous party members. His response provoked PDPA supporters in Work, the military to take action. On April 27, the military in collaboration with the Chart Quote Quality PDPA overthrew Daud, executed him, and replaced his republican government with a socialist one, which proclaimed the Sample Material - 8+ coup as the beginning of the Saur [April] Revolution. Prelude to Intervention. The socialist and pro-Soviet bent of the Raci Quote Cover Assurance new government caused U.S. officials some concern as they wondered whether Moscow had played a secret role in the PDPA takeover. U.S. Legal - Seo! Embassy officials in Kabul, however, detected no Soviet hand in the coup and Cover Letter Assurance suggested a cautious approach to the new government. These officials recalled that while Daud had been busy consolidating his personal power and pursuing new foreign ties, he had neglected the domestic reforms that many Afghans, particularly the progressive intellectuals, had demanded.
Also, religious leaders and intellectual, or Islamists, including those who had already taken up arms against Daud, had been neglected or repressed. Wedding! The PDPA was in a better position than the Islamicists to seize power because of its stronger influence over the military and within the capital city, Kabul. The Khalq-Parcham unity was apparently not very solid. The new government, the Chart Quote Cover Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA), was dominated by Khalqis, due mostly to Khalq control of the military. Soon after the April takeover, Khalq?s two main leaders, Nur Mohammad Taraki and Hafizullah Amin, quickly consolidated Khalq rule by imprisoning a number of their Parcham rivals while sending others off to foreign diplomatic posts.
Meanwhile, they moved quickly to implement radical secular reforms, ranging from Free Retro Card, marriage decrees to land reform laws. A treaty of friendship between Afghanistan and the Soviet Union was signed in December 1978, which brought more Soviet aid and advisors to Kabul. The Khalqi reforms served to ignite strong opposition from most of the deeply traditional and Islamic population. The security of rural women, for example, often depended on Raci Chart | Resume Cover Assurance, a sizable dowry, which was significantly reduced under new marriage laws. The land reforms, which were meant to help small farmers, were opposed by many for having alienated them from their former landowners, on whom they had always relied for help in growing and selling their crops. A number of disenfranchised landowners along with many religious leaders either took up arms against the Taraki-Amin government or left the Free Retro Template Vector - Titanui country. Some Afghans fled to Pakistan to Quote Cover Letter Quality join the Islamic Afghan dissidents such as Rabbani and Hekmatyar. Some of the more prominent new rebels included: Sibghatullah Mojaddedi, who came from a well-known family of Sufi leaders, had ties to Engineer - The Best the royal family, was related to a prominent PDPA official (a valuable connection for most rebels), and formerly taught Islamic law in Kabul; Sayyid Ahmad Gailani, who was also tied to the royal family, was a Pir, or spiritual leader, and who until his departure from Kabul owned a Peugeot car dealership; Mohammad Nabi Mohammadi, who came from a prominent religious family and served in parliament in the 1960s where he criticized secular influence in Raci Chart Quote | Resume Cover Quality Assurance, Afghanistan, physically attacking, at one point, another member of parliament, Babrak Karmal.
There were other rebel leaders operating in the Afghan mountains or out of Pakistan. An important one, Yunus Khales had escaped from Afghanistan in 1974 after writing a book that criticized the Daud Administration. Unlike some other rebel leaders, Khales depended more on his genuine tribal support than his religious aura to galvanize Afghans in his home province of Nangarhar to oppose the new government in Kabul. These leaders, along with Rabbani, Hekmatyar, and another who joined in Sample Material Examples, 1980, Abdul Rabb-ur-Rasul Sayyaf, formed their own parties and would eventually unite to form the Sunni Islamic Afghan rebel alliance, or the Peshawar Seven as they would later become collectively known as. These party leaders called for a jihad, or holy war, against the PDPA. Many other Afghan dissidents helped lead the charge against Chart | Resume Assurance, the Kabul government, including numerous commanders in the Afghan mountains, like Ahmad Shah Masoud. The Shiite Afghans also played an important insurgency role in the western half of Afghanistan. Some of the Shiite parties based their operations in Iran where they received support from Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini?s government. It was the Peshawar Seven, however, who would grab the 55+ Best world?s attention, partly because the government of Pakistan, the host to most rebels and refugees and the foreign journalists writing about them, chose to recognize their parties as the only legitimate ones in Pakistan. The United States, in the meantime, had found itself facing a policy dilemma with the PDPA?s ascension to power in Quote Cover, Afghanistan.
This dilemma was summed up in a secret memorandum to Request Secretary of State Cyrus Vance following the Raci Letter Quality April takeover: We need to take into account the mix of 55+ Best Free nationalism and communism in the new leadership and seek to avoid driving the | Resume Assurance regime into Free Mockup Download, a closer embrace with the Soviet Union than it might wish. Chart Quote | Resume Cover Letter Quality Assurance! Yet the memo also pointed out various factors favoring a hard-line approach to the new government: [A]nti-regime elements in Afghanistan will be watching us carefully to see if we acquiesce in or accept the communist takeover. Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Legal Access others of our friends in the area will see the situation clearly as a Soviet coup. On the domestic front, many Americans will see this as an extension of Soviet power and draw the parallel with Angola, Ethiopia, etc.(9) As a result, the United States compromised, maintaining correct relations with the Raci Quote | Resume Cover Letter Assurance government while keeping channels open to the opposition. As dissatisfaction with the PDPA mounted within Afghanistan, however, the United States grew increasingly uncomfortable with the new government and its radical reforms. 55+ Best Download! To make matters worse, in Raci Chart Cover Letter Assurance, February 1979, the U.S. ambassador, Adolph Dubs, was taken hostage by anti-government Shiite Muslims who demanded the release of a political prisoner. Work Request Form Instructions! Afghan police clumsily stormed their hideout, and Dubs was killed in Raci Quote | Resume Cover, the ensuing shootout. Job Description - The Engine! Afghan authorities stonewalled U.S. requests for an independent investigation of the killing. Congress in Raci Quote | Resume Cover, turn refused to replace Dubs with another ambassador and threatened to cut aid to the DRA.
In March 1979, Afghans in the western city of Herat responded to rebel calls for Petition Cable, Secretary Of State a jihad by massacring hundreds of Cover Assurance DRA officials and Soviet advisors who were in charge of introducing the women?s literacy program there. Afghanistan was beginning to Request Form draw attention from the Raci | Resume Quality outside world, including Washington. At the White House, National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski warned President Carter that the Soviet Union, with its hundreds of advisors in Afghanistan to assist in reforms and counterinsurgency operations, had territorial designs on Afghanistan and possibly the whole South Asia region. Brzezinski and others worried that the USSR might take advantage of its presence in Petition · Vince Secretary, Afghanistan in order to influence events in Quote Cover Quality, neighboring Iran or Pakistan, two traditionally pro-American countries that for Agreement Access years had helped safeguard U.S. Chart | Resume Cover Letter Quality! interests in the region, namely access to oil and the containment of the Soviet Union. If the DRA were able to consolidate its power, Brzezinski argued, then the - Agency Access Soviet Union might turn Afghanistan into a launching pad for aggression in Raci Quote | Resume Cover Letter, the region. Weeks after the Herat uprising and while President Carter was absorbed by the Iran hostage crisis, Brzezinski pushed a decision through the Work Order Request Form Instructions Special Coordination Committee (SCC) of the Quote | Resume Cover Letter Assurance National Security Council (NSC) to be, as he put it, more sympathetic to those Afghans who were determined to preserve their country?s independence.(10) Although deliberately vague as to what this meant, the evidence indicates that Brzezinski called for moderate covert support for Afghan dissident groups which had set up headquarters in Pakistan. Some, such as forces under the command of Rabbani and Hekmatyar, had been operating out of Pakistan without much outside aid for - Seo Access years. According to Cover a former Pakistani military official who was interviewed in Best Engine, 1988, the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad had asked Pakistani military officials in April 1979 to recommend a rebel organization that would make the best use of U.S. aid. The following month, the Pakistani source claimed, he personally introduced a CIA official to Hekmatyar who, while more radically Islamic and anti-American than most Afghans, headed what the Pakistani government considered the most militant and Raci Chart Cover Quality Assurance organized rebel group, the Hizb-i Islami (Hekmatyar).(11)
Freedom of Information Act requests for Retro Card Template records describing these meetings have been denied. But CIA and State Department documents seized by Iranian students during the takeover of the U.S. Chart Quote Cover! Embassy in Tehran in November 1979, reveal that, starting in April 1979, eight months before the Soviet intervention and Work immediately following Brzezinski?s SCC decision, the United States had, in fact, begun quietly meeting rebel representatives. Although most of the cables and memoranda released to date show that U.S. officials politely turned down rebel requests for U.S. assistance, others reveal CIA support for anti-DRA demonstrations and close monitoring of Pakistani military aid for rebel parties based in Pakistan?s NWFP. Brzezinski?s decision to help the rebels was curious in light of Soviet activities in Afghanistan at the time.
According to declassified documents and this author?s interviews, Soviet officials thought the Khalqi leadership was moving too fast with its reforms and urged Taraki and Amin to moderate the pace of change and broaden their political base by including non-communists in the government. This approach, however, was more amenable to Parcham leaders who, unfortunately for Soviet officials, were not in power. When Khalq leaders sidestepped Soviet advice, Moscow sought other means to induce political change, meeting with former members of the monarchy and other non-communists to seek their participation in the DRA government. Soviet and other East bloc diplomats in Kabul kept the Chart Cover Letter Quality Assurance U.S. Embassy informed of their efforts. The ruling Khalqis, particularly Hafizullah Amin, had little use for Soviet counsel. The government responded to the growing opposition with increasing brutality, and Romantic Wedding Card Vector - Titanui the PDPA?s base continued to narrow. Amin, who as the defense minister was in charge of the failed counterinsurgency operations, became the focus of Soviet frustrations.
State Department intelligence learned that, in August 1979, Moscow had decided there was no practical alternative in Afghanistan to the rule of Taraki and Amin but that Soviet officials had resolved to support the Chart Quote Cover Quality more moderate Taraki against Amin. In the same month, a high-ranking Soviet military official, General Ivan Pavlovskiy, led a fact-finding mission to Afghanistan to assess the Order Form Instructions stability of the government. In September, Taraki, on his way home from a Nonaligned Movement conference in Cuba, stopped in Raci Quote | Resume Cover Letter Assurance, Moscow where he and Soviet officials reportedly discussed Amin?s future. Amin, perhaps sensing a coup, had Taraki arrested upon his return and executed him soon after. In October, General Pavlovskiy returned to Moscow and presented the Politburo with a grim picture of the situation below their border.
The Khalqi government had lost control of 23 of Afghanistan?s 28 provinces to various rebel forces. Left with Amin, the Soviets drew up plans for In Word, military action. By late November 1979, Soviet forces were moved to Chart Quote Cover Letter Quality the Soviet Union-Afghanistan border. Warsaw Pact forces were also placed on an advanced state of Sample Material List Examples Pdf readiness. Two Soviet battalions were quietly flown into Chart Quote Letter Assurance, an airbase near Kabul during the Legal - Seo Agreement Access first week of December, laying the Raci Chart Cover Quality groundwork for what was to Wedding Card Template Vector - Titanui follow. Chart Quote | Resume Letter! On Christmas Eve 1979, tens of thousands of Soviet troops riding in Of State Skills, tanks and armored personnel carriers stormed across the Amudarya River into the rugged Afghan countryside, while thousands more flew into the Kabul, Bagram and Shindand air bases, bringing with them exiled Parcham leaders, including Babrak Karmal, who had been hiding in Cover Letter Quality, Moscow. Within days, Hafizullah Amin was assassinated and replaced by Karmal who formed a new Parcham-led government. Superpowers and Doctrines of Form Hegemony. The Soviet invasion symbolized, ironically, the limits of Soviet influence in Afghanistan. Unable to stabilize the government through political means, Moscow attempted to do so with military force, much the same as the United States had done years before in Vietnam. To many observers in Washington, D.C., however, Afghanistan was beginning to look like another pawn on the Kremlin?s chessboard.
The invasion coincided with the Raci Quote Quality Assurance decline of U.S. influence in Iran and other Third World countries such as Angola and Mozambique in 1975, Ethiopia in 1977 and Nicaragua in 1979 where pro-Soviet governments had seized power. It also coincided with an election year in which President Carter was coming under attack from conservatives for Petition · Vince Of State For Business, Skills failing to prevent these Soviet gains. Many of these U.S. observers argued that the Quote | Resume Cover Letter Assurance global balance of power, particularly the geostrategic balance in South Asia, had shifted in favor of the Soviet Union. The new dominant U.S. Petition · Vince Secretary Skills! perception of Soviet foreign policy, as evidenced by Afghanistan, was that it was expansionist in nature: the | Resume Cover Assurance Brezhnev Doctrine of Free Brochure Psd Templates protecting socialist allies, U.S. conservatives claimed, had been logically extended to include expanding Soviet influence beyond the Warsaw Pact. This view was best summed up in a Defense Intelligence Agency report issued days after Soviet troops entered Afghanistan: The key motivation that propelled Moscow?s move was to bring its long-standing strategic goals closer within reach.
Control of Afghanistan would be a major step toward overland access to the Indian Ocean and to domination of the Asian sub-continent.(12) Reasoning that aggression unopposed becomes a contagious disease, President Carter warned the Soviet Union on January 23rd, 1980, that [a]n attempt by any outside force to Raci | Resume Letter Assurance gain control of the Persian Gulf region [would] be regarded as an assault on the vital interests of the Cable, Secretary Of State For Business, U.S. and [would] be repelled by any means necessary, including military force.(13) Journalists labeled this powerful warning the Quote | Resume Cover Quality Assurance Carter Doctrine. Since, however, the United States was neither interested in nor prepared for a war with the Soviet Union in Afghanistan or the Persian Gulf, Carter looked for alternative ways to slow down a potential Soviet drive and make Moscow pay a heavy price for its intervention. Retro Romantic Template Vector! He called for international economic sanctions against the USSR and Raci Quote Letter a boycott of the Olympic games being held in Moscow, sought military access agreements with several South and Southwest Asian countries, and Of State provided more covert aid to the mujahidin. Not all U.S. officials believed that the Raci Chart Quote | Resume Quality Assurance Soviet intervention was part of an expansionist drive. While no declassified documents reveal any criticism of 55+ Best Download rebel military aid, some officials subsequently recalled in this author?s interviews that they had advocated quiet diplomacy with the Soviet Union in order to provide the Kremlin with a way out of what they believed was a political and military miscalculation.(14) Moscow had its own critics as well. According to interviews with Soviet officials, days after the intervention, Soviet foreign affairs advisors pleaded with the Kremlin leadership to withdraw Soviet troops from Afghanistan. Quote Letter! These advisors did not believe the intervention was worth ruining d?tente with the United States, Europe and China.
What is Petition · Vince more, the deeply traditional and Islamic Afghans, in their opinion, were not yet prepared for socialism.(15) Cold War attitudes, however, prevailed in both Moscow and Washington. A combination of fear, pride and Quote Cover Letter Quality superpower obligations caused the leader of the - 8+ In Word, Pdf free world and the vanguard of socialism to struggle violently over a destitute country the size of Texas for the next ten years. Political vs. Military Solution. Carter?s reaction to the Soviet invasion received widespread approval among policy-makers. Hard-liners, including Carter?s opponent in Raci Chart Cover Quality, the 1980 presidential elections, Ronald Reagan, had warned numerous times that the Soviet Union was on a roll in the Third World and had to be rolled back. Order Request Instructions! Moderates thought the intervention, regardless of its purpose, was an egregious act for which the USSR should pay a price. All agreed that the Soviet Union should withdraw from Afghanistan. Raci Chart! The question was how to convince Moscow. Congressional conservatives opposed negotiations, distrusting the Soviet Union?s willingness to negotiate in good faith. According to their view, the USSR would not withdraw unless and until it felt the costs of its occupation.
Most U.S. moderates and liberals fell into line with their conservative colleagues, supporting covert aid to the Afghan rebels, with virtually no one advocating diplomacy as a means of resolving the conflict. The State Department believed that the rebels could probably continue tying up some 85,000 or more Soviet troops but that they were fragmented, lack[ed] effective national leadership, and certainly [could not] force a Soviet withdrawal.(16) After minimal deliberation at 55+ Best Free Psd Templates Download the White House, Carter opted for a two-track approach, supporting moderate levels of covert aid while seeking a forum for a negotiated settlement. Carter?s loss to Reagan in Raci Chart Quote | Resume Letter Assurance, the 1980 presidential election signalled the end of the negotiation track. The new president favored a distinctly hard-line policy toward Afghanistan. Reagan sought to make the Afghan rebels and other anti-communist insurgencies the Support Engineer - The Best In 2017 centerpiece of the Reagan Doctrine, an aggressive initiative designed to increase the Raci Quote | Resume Letter cost of Soviet support for Sample - 8+ Examples In Word, Third World socialist governments. While few believed that the Afghan rebels could force a Soviet withdrawal, Reagan and his advisors hoped to tie Soviet troops down in Raci Quote | Resume Cover, Afghanistan?s Hindu Kush mountains until the Sample Material - 8+ Examples cost of occupation became unsustainable. The key to this objective was Pakistan. Since the overthrow of Mohammad Daud, Pakistan had played host to thousands (and eventually millions) of Afghan refugees and rebels who had fled their war-torn country for make-shift tent villages in the Northwest Frontier Province and Baluchistan. Without the cooperation of Pakistan?s military government, led since 1977 by Raci Cover Letter Quality Gen. Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq, the rebels would have had no sanctuary from - Seo - Agency Access, which to launch their operations. The Carter Administration had cut aid to Pakistan in 1977 because of concerns about | Resume Cover Quality its nuclear program and General Zia?s disdain for human rights and democracy.
There was ample evidence to suggest that Pakistan was actively developing an atomic bomb. Senior Engineer Job Description! In addition, the Carter White House, with its public emphasis on respect for human rights as a precondition for foreign aid, was forced to respond to Zia?s well-known history of Raci Quote Cover Letter Quality Assurance brutal and Order Request Form Instructions dictatorial actions. The general had originally attained power by overthrowing Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. After promising elections within 90 days of the takeover, Zia postponed them indefinitely and eventually had Bhutto executed. To the United States, however, Zia?s record of human rights abuses paled in significance when compared to Quote Letter Quality the Soviet move into Afghanistan. Literally days after the Soviet invasion, Carter was on the telephone with Zia offering him hundreds of millions of dollars in economic and military aid in exchange for cooperation in Work, helping the rebels. Zia accepted this quid pro quo, but his government remained wary of Washington?s stated commitment to protect Pakistan from Quote Quality, possible Soviet strikes across its border. The Reagan Administration was able to gain Pakistan?s confidence by offering a huge, six-year economic and military aid package which elevated Pakistan to 55+ Best Free Brochure the third largest recipient of U.S. Chart Quote Cover Quality Assurance! foreign aid. The Reagan White House had equal success in persuading Congress to accept Zia as a new ally.
The conservative, Islamic general who was still pursuing a nuclear weapons program and seemed uninterested in ever holding elections was now a fellow freedom fighter boldly in charge of a front-line state. Although Zia spoke in concert with U.S. objectives of supporting Afghan self-determination and opposing the Afghan puppet government, he and his military had their own agenda in Afghanistan. Zia chose to favor the more radically Islamic rebel groups who, in Mockup Download, some cases, were no more popular or representative than the PDPA. He was able to Raci Chart Quote | Resume Letter Quality Assurance divert a disproportionately large share of Job Description - The Best Engine In 2017 U.S.-supplied weapons to these groups, especially the Quote most radical one, Hizb-i Islami (Hekmatyar). Later in the war, this would cause significant problems for the rebel movement. Whether the United States blindly yielded to Zia?s favoritism of the fundamentalists or was in connivance with it is still in List, question.
The relationship between the CIA and Pakistan?s Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI), the arm of the military responsible for distributing CIA-purchased weapons to the rebels, is not well-documented. Raci Chart Quote Letter! This author?s interviews with Pakistani officials indicate that U.S. officials in Pakistan were continually advised by ISI officials that Hekmatyar?s Hizb-i Islami was the 55+ Best Psd Templates most effective rebel organization, although some officials from Pakistan?s Foreign Ministry apparently differed with that assessment. Many secular Pakistanis outside of the government worried that foreign aid for Afghan fundamentalists such as Hekmatyar also served to bolster the conservative Islamic forces in Cover Letter Quality, Pakistan, including the military. Available documents and chronology show that during the ten-year Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, U.S. officials developed a stronger relationship with Pakistan?s generals than with either the foreign ministry or the civilian opposition. Congress and Covert Aid.
Afghanistan presents a unique case of congressional involvement with a covert aid program. Whereas a divided Congress often impeded the Reagan Administration?s efforts to Retro Romantic Wedding Card Template Vector aid the contras in Nicaragua, congressional hard-liners, riding a wave of bipartisan support, consistently and successfully pushed for more covert funding for the Afghan rebels than the White House ever requested. Hence, the debate regarding Afghan aid was relatively narrow in scope although not without tension. While everyone seemed to support Afghan self-determination and Raci | Resume Letter Assurance a Soviet-free Afghanistan, several members of Congress, backed by conservative lobbying groups, criticized the administration for Legal Agreement - Agency Access not pursuing vigorously enough a mujahidin military victory over the PDPA. It was the CIA, ironically, that cautioned against too much covert aid for the rebels. Officials from CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia, including Deputy Director John McMahon, warned Congress that too large a military support operation for the rebels might provoke Soviet retaliation against Pakistan and would certainly be subject to leakages and corruption. The CIA was especially resistant to calls for providing the mujahidin with U.S.-made weaponry. Traditionally, the Agency purchased foreign, usually Soviet-styled, weaponry in order to plausibly deny U.S. involvement if the need arose. Throughout the Afghan war, the CIA purchased Soviet-designed weapons from Egypt, China and | Resume Cover Quality Assurance elsewhere and transported them to Pakistan. Cables reveal that Chinese and Egyptian AK-47 rifles and SA-7 anti-aircraft missiles arrived in Senior Engineer Job Description - The Best Engine, Pakistan as early as 1980.
This covert purchasing process not only Quote | Resume Cover Quality Assurance covered U.S. tracks, but ensured the availability of weapons that were compatible with the kind captured by the rebels from their Soviet-supplied enemies. In 1984, Congress passed a resolution, introduced by Senator Paul Tsongas (D-Massachusetts) and Congressman Don Ritter (R-Pennsylvania), which called for effective U.S. Senior Support - The Best Engine In 2017! material aid for the rebels in Quote, their fight for freedom from Sample Examples In Word, Pdf, foreign domination. Several legislators, particularly Congressman Charlie Wilson (D-Texas) and Senator Gordon Humphrey (R-New Hampshire), tried to use the Tsongas-Ritter resolution to increase the size and quality of the rebel covert aid program. While Washington and Moscow poured more weapons into Raci Chart Cover Quality Assurance, Afghanistan, United Nations officials relentlessly pursued a diplomatic solution to Sample Material List - 8+ Examples In Word, Pdf end the war. In 1982, the U.N. Secretary-General, Javier P?rez de Cuellar tasked Diego Cordovez to find a way for Raci Chart Cover Letter the United Nations to mediate a political settlement in Afghanistan.
For the next six years, Cordovez shuttled back and forth from New York to South Asia to the Soviet Union and to Geneva. He tried to convince the · Vince Of State numerous parties to the conflict?the Afghan government, the various rebel groups, the Soviet Union, Pakistan, the United States and Iran?to narrow their differences so that they could agree on a set of principles or conditions under which the | Resume Cover Letter Quality Soviet military would withdraw from Afghanistan. Cordovez and his U.N. colleagues brought Pakistani and Afghan government representatives to Geneva on numerous occasions to discuss conditions for a political settlement. Since Pakistan did not recognize the Afghan government as legitimate, Cordovez literally had to move back and forth between hotel rooms because Pakistani officials refused to sit at the same table with the DRA representatives. Compounding Cordovez?s difficulties was a strong sense of mistrust between the Support Job Description - The Best Engine In 2017 superpowers. On a number of Raci Quality Assurance occasions it appeared that Pakistan and Afghanistan were ready to sign an agreement that would prohibit Pakistan from allowing material aid for the rebels to pass through its territory in exchange for a Soviet withdrawal. One or both sides, however, would consistently pull out at the last minute, raising suspicions that either Washington or Moscow was unsatisfied with the timing or conditions of the accord. To most U.S. officials, these U.N.-sponsored proximity talks looked hopeless or even frightening. In March 1983, Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Lawrence Eagleburger reportedly expressed alarm at the prospect that the following round of Geneva negotiations might result in a settlement.
About the same time, Charles Cogan, then the CIA?s official in charge of covert operations in Afghanistan, told a journalist that Pakistan was not about to sign Cordovez?s proposed Geneva Accords at the next round or ever. He added that President Zia accepted the U.S. view that Pakistan?s security is best assured by keeping the Russians tied down [in Afghanistan].(17) On Capitol Hill, similar sentiments were voiced and more rebel aid was appropriated. Until the Soviet archives are open it will be impossible to determine how the U.S. hard-line approach affected Soviet policy toward Afghanistan. Was Moscow supporting U.N. efforts as a smokescreen for its strategy of subjugating the Legal - Seo - Agency Access mujahidin, as Wilson, Humphrey and others argued? Or did increased U.S. aid for the rebels cause the USSR to dig in deeper, suspecting that the | Resume Letter Assurance United States was not interested in a political solution? Wilson and Humphrey eventually succeeded in galvanizing congressional backing for a stronger rebel military force in Afghanistan. Despite signs of corruption in both the military and humanitarian aid programs as early as 1982, Congress ultimately provided nearly $3 billion in covert aid for the mujahidin, more than all other CIA covert operations in the 1980s combined. By 1987, the United States was providing the rebels with nearly $700 million in military assistance a year, more than what Pakistan itself was receiving from Washington. In 1984, Wilson used his powerful position on the House Intelligence Committee to tack on an additional $50 million for Afghan covert aid and convinced the CIA to purchase high-quality, Swiss-designed Oerlikon anti-aircraft missiles, which could pierce the heavy armor of the USSR?s most formidable counterinsurgency machine, the Hind Mi-24 helicopter.
The CIA went even further in 1985, purchasing the Cable, Skills sophisticated British-made Blowpipe anti-aircraft missiles. And in Raci Chart Letter Quality Assurance, 1986, due to pressure from Access, several congressmen and a number of bureaucrats at the State and Defense departments, the CIA provided the Raci Quote Letter Assurance mujahidin with U.S.-made Stinger missiles, the most effective shoulder-held anti-aircraft weapon in the world. It was the first time the CIA had provided U.S.-made weaponry as part of a covert insurgency support operation, and the legislative branch was largely responsible. As a congressional staffer later put it: We finally broke the Agency?s virginity. Refugees and U.S. Policy.
The dislocation of 3 million Afghan refugees in - Seo Agreement - Agency Access, Pakistan?one of the most tragic results of the war?was something Congress, the White House and the international community could all agree on: they needed massive assistance. Ultimately one-third of Afghanistan?s pre-war population fled the Raci Chart | Resume Letter country, testifying to the destruction and chaos caused largely by heavy Soviet/Afghan government aerial bombing. For political as well as economic reasons, the United States urged other countries to contribute to the refugee cause. Sample List - 8+ Examples In Word, Pdf! In 1981, the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad asserted that if funding for the refugees were too visible, it would damage the credibility of the mujahidin by focusing attention on U.S. influence in the Afghan insurgency.(18) Dozens of Raci Chart Quote | Resume non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were willing to Work Order Request Instructions help the refugees and rebels as long as they were provided with the necessary resources to do so. The United States channeled a significant amount of aid through favored NGOs and urged other countries to either aid the same organizations or to contribute to Raci Chart | Resume Letter the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). In the end, no matter who distributed the aid, much of Senior Best Engine it ended up in the hands of rebel parties, providing them with significant political leverage over the millions of Afghan exiles. In addition to the humanitarian grounds for providing aid to the refugees in Pakistan, the United States also sought to alleviate political and economic pressure on Islamabad and to help maintain a support structure for the rebels. In 1982, the Raci Chart | Resume Cover Assurance CIA predicted that the presence of Afghan refugees in Pakistan would help generate political unrest and retard economic development until the end of the century.(19) While many Pakistanis demonstrated great hospitality and tolerance for the refugees, others despised their presence.
Cables from Pakistan reveal violent clashes between Pakistani border tribes and Afghan refugees over scarce resources and political, religious and personal differences. Some disgruntled tribes even took weapons and money from the Afghan government to disrupt rebel supply lines into Afghanistan. In fact, the Afghan government?s infiltration of Pakistan and the rebel parties was extensive and - Seo Agreement - Agency proved key to its survival. | Resume Cover Assurance! The government?s ministry of state security, known as KHAD, sought to buy or rent the Form loyalty of Raci Chart Quote | Resume Letter Quality Pashtun tribes who inhabited the Afghanistan-Pakistan border area (the tribes often inhabited both sides of the border). Weapons and money were doled out to tribal militia who in turn interdicted rebel supply operations based in Senior Support Best, Pakistan. Some tribal leaders responded to Kabul?s material aid with political support, attending government jirgahs (assemblies) and other PDPA-sponsored activities. President Zia tried to undercut the Pakistan-based tribes? support for the Afghan government by, among other means, conducting selective anti-narcotics sweeps through their home areas. Kabul?s strategy, however, continued to be successful, and ultimately contributed to the rise of Najibullah, the KHAD?s director and the man responsible for this counterinsurgency campaign, to the leader of the DRA in Raci Chart Quote Assurance, 1986. Other kinds of counterinsurgency operations, including Soviet/Afghan government aerial search-and-destroy missions, as well as insurgency tactics, such as the Agreement - Agency Access mujahidin?s hit-and-run attacks on government-held garrisons and cities, were some of the principal causes of the refugee flow into Pakistan. But it was the aerial bombing that inflicted the most damage. Raci Chart | Resume Letter Quality Assurance! Congress, determined to Request counter what it called a Soviet depopulation campaign, called for an aggressive cross-border humanitarian aid program.
The Agency for International Development (AID) was tasked with implementing this unorthodox program. The objective of AID?s Cross-border Humanitarian Assistance Program (CBHA) was to provide Afghans inside Afghanistan?civilians and rebels alike?with the means to | Resume Letter survive without having to flee to Support Best Engine Pakistan. The mass exodus of Afghans had been putting too much pressure on Pakistan, and the empty Afghan villages left the rebels with little material or moral support inside the country. AID funds went toward building hospitals and schools, growing crops, and putting money in Raci Chart Letter Quality, the pockets of local residents. The AID reports are actually some of the richest documents in the collection, describing the situation inside the normally inaccessible parts of war-torn Afghanistan and illustrating some of the bizarre politics of the Free Wedding Card mujahidin. As part of a pro-insurgency operation, the program was unique and controversial. AID was being used to maintain and build up the rebels? infrastructure.
As one U.S. advisor explained to this author in Raci Quote Quality Assurance, Pakistan: We borrowed a lesson from Mao. The Soviets were trying to drain the sea to kill the fish [rebels], so we?re trying to keep the Mockup sea filled.(20) Public Diplomacy and the First Casualty of War. In addition to Raci | Resume Cover Assurance providing the rebels with military and humanitarian aid, the United States provided psychological support. In 1983, a unique National Security Decision Directive, number 77, was signed into action to coordinate U.S. government agencies to enhance U.S. national security and counter anti-American propaganda through public diplomacy. U.S. officials had their work cut out for them in Afghanistan where media coverage was hindered by war and propaganda. To overcome these obstacles, the National Security Council, in keeping with NSDD 77, formed the inter-agency Afghan Working Group, which met twice a month to Sample Material List - 8+ In Word, discuss ways of increasing media coverage of the war and generating sympathy and support for the mujahidin. News coverage of the war was indeed limited, especially when one considers that this was the Chart Quote Cover longest war in Soviet history, the Order Form Instructions largest CIA paramilitary operation since Vietnam, and, with 1 million dead Afghans, the bloodiest regional conflict in the world at the time. Quote Letter Quality Assurance! Nevertheless, no major American newspaper saw fit to Support Engineer Best station a reporter in Chart Quote | Resume Assurance, Peshawar, Pakistan, the base of rebel political and military operations, and American television crews rarely ventured up to the Khyber Pass for a glimpse of the war.
A major reason for this, of course, was the Work Order Request Instructions risk involved in reporting a guerrilla war, especially this one. A journalist who wished to go inside faced a number of hazards ranging from contracting a serious disease to the chance of being killed in an air raid or ambush. What coverage there was tended to be biased toward the mujahidin. Several factors explain this. Foreign correspondents and stringers who did go to Peshawar or managed to | Resume Cover Letter go inside with the rebels encountered thousands of uprooted Afghans who all had horrific stories to tell about losing homes and relatives to Soviet/Afghan government counterinsurgency operations. Indeed, craters from - Agency Access, Soviet bombs marked the landscape, villages were often emptied of their inhabitants, and many Afghans who found their way to Pakistan walked the streets with artificial limbs, victims of land mines. In addition, the Quote Cover Letter Quality Afghan government often proved to be an Engineer Best In 2017, unreliable source of information, causing Western journalists to rely heavily on U.S. officials for details of the war.
The DRA in 1980, for example, reported how Walter Cronkite (apparently confusing him with Dan Rather) on a visit into Afghanistan had ordered the execution of two Afghans?Islamic style. That same year the DRA expelled 18 Western journalists for Chart Quote Cover Letter Assurance biased coverage. When the government allowed journalists to return to Petition Secretary Skills the country in 1986, the journalists discovered in | Resume Letter, Kabul another side to the story: victims of rebel land mines and indiscriminate mujahidin rocket attacks on Work Order Request Instructions, the capital. Thus, for much of the Raci Chart Letter war most reporters found it physically and Order Request Form Instructions journalistically safer to rely on Western diplomatic sources in Pakistan, the cover for U.S. officials at the Consulate in Peshawar or the Embassy in | Resume Cover Letter, Islamabad. Despite the pro-mujahidin slant of Western news coverage, however, U.S. Sample List - 8+ Pdf! officials still complained of its limited nature. In 1985, Senator Humphrey sought to remedy that problem. He pushed legislation through Congress that tasked the United States Information Agency (USIA) to teach Afghan rebels how to Raci Chart Quote Letter film and Petition · Vince Cable, Secretary write about their jihad.
The USIA subcontracted Boston University?s School of Communications to Chart Quote Cover Assurance train Afghans in Peshawar to Petition Cable, become television and newsprint journalists. Raci Chart Quote! This program stirred controversy, drawing criticism from Legal - Seo - Agency, professors at the university and several American journalists who called the Quote | Resume Assurance exercise in public diplomacy a government propaganda operation. Documents on Petition Cable, Of State Skills, the project, which went forth despite the criticism, show how the United States worked with rebel parties, Pakistan, a CBS cameraman and several private organizations to Chart Quote Cover increase and improve coverage of the war. The United States was also able to influence coverage by taking advantage of Western journalists? inability to cover the war extensively first-hand. Once a week, a USIA officer in Islamabad would read to foreign journalists portions of Work Request Form Instructions a Situation Report originating from the Embassy in Raci Chart Quote | Resume Quality Assurance, Kabul. These Sitreps were to serve two purposes. They provided U.S. officials at Free Mockup home and abroad with detailed information on the political and | Resume Quality Assurance military situation in Afghanistan. They also formed part of the Afghan Working Group?s press and public information strategy to punch holes in the Soviet news blackout. 55+ Best Free Download! The press, however, was usually allowed to hear only the first several pages of the Sitrep, which gave a relatively simplistic overview of the situation in the country, paying special attention to government human rights abuses and mujahidin military gains. The following 20-25 detail-filled pages of the many now declassified Sitreps depicted a much more complicated and Quote | Resume Cover Letter Assurance bizarre war being fought on more levels than just that of Soviet-backed communists against freedom-fighting Muslims. Beyond the refugee camps and press conferences in Pakistan, a real and very destructive war was going on inside Afghanistan.
Cables from Kabul, AID cross-border reports, DIA summaries and journal articles by Work Request the few reporters who bravely ventured into war zones reveal how pockets of mountain tribesmen, toting Chinese automatic rifles and Raci | Resume Quality Assurance U.S. Stinger missiles, went up against Work Request, well-armed Soviet and Afghan government forces. Rebel hit-and-run attacks, assassinations of PDPA members, car bombs, rocket attacks on government-held garrisons and cities and other guerrilla tactics were met with massive aerial bombardments, mine-sowing operations, bribes and civic action campaigns from Kabul. Places like Paghman, Khost, the Panjshir Valley, Sarobi, and Chart Quote | Resume Letter Quality Assurance Jalalabad, where the mujahidin continually bogged Soviet forces down, became familiar names to observers of Support Best this war just as Hue and Khe Sanh had in Vietnam, where for years Viet Cong rebels tied down U.S. and South Vietnamese troops. But as fierce as they were, the Muj were not the | Resume Letter Quality Assurance Viet Cong. It is true that U.S. Cable,! military aid improved the rebels? battlefield performance. One Pentagon report claimed that Stingers forced more tactical and air support changes in the last quarter of 1986 and the first quarter of 1987 than in the previous 7 years of the conflict.(21) Also, more and better land mines allowed the rebels to disrupt Soviet supply lines and ground communications, which were already hampered by the lack of railways and good roads. No matter how much military, humanitarian, or psychological support the United States provided them, however, the Raci Chart Quote Cover Letter Quality Assurance mujahidin remained fractious. It was not uncommon for one rebel group to turn its guns on another. The United States was well aware of Legal - Seo Agreement rebel infighting even before the Soviet intervention.
In 1979, rebel leaders confided to U.S. Chart Cover Letter Quality Assurance! officials that they likened the idea of Free Mockup a dissident provisional government to putting five different animals in the same cage.(22) Saudi Arabia managed to stimulate some rebel unity by withholding aid from the various mujahidin parties until they agreed to coalesce and form a united opposition front. Raci Chart Quote | Resume Cover Letter Quality! Yet foreign aid often did more to divide the rebels than to unite them. Free Brochure Mockup Download! The Saudi government, which deposited many of Raci Quote Cover Letter Quality Assurance its contributions into a CIA Swiss bank account, also gave direct support to Senior Support Engineer Job Description - The Best In 2017 several fundamentalist groups. Some of these groups practiced Wahabbism, a puritanical brand of Islam which was alien to the majority of Afghans. Iran supported the Shiite rebels, who played an important military role in Raci Quote | Resume Quality, the western part of the country but were left out of power-sharing arrangements made by Agreement - Agency the Sunni alliance in Peshawar. For its part, the Pakistani military doled out a disproportionate amount of CIA-purchased weapons to Hekmatyar?s radical Hizb-i Islami party, which often used the Chart | Resume Letter Quality arms against Retro Wedding Card Template, rival rebel groups. The lack of unity impeded rebel attempts to overthrow the PDPA. The more moderate, or traditionalist, rebel groups, such as those led by Sibghatullah Mojaddedi and Sayyid Ahmad Gailani, proposed finding a unifying leader, and Raci Quote Cover Quality they had a candidate: former king Zahir Shah.
In July 1987, a poll conducted among Afghan refugees by the independent Afghan Information Center indicated popular support for Senior Support Engineer - The Zahir Shah as an alternative head of state for Afghanistan. Hekmatyar and Raci Quote | Resume Cover Quality other leaders denounced the Sample Material List In Word, poll as propaganda by the monarchists. But U.S. officials had evidence from Raci | Resume Quality, their own observations and Legal - Seo Agreement - Agency conversations that many Afghans might unite around the former king for an interim period if only to help find a more expedient way to negotiate a Soviet withdrawal and an end to the war. Many Afghans also believed that the king, who they conceded could have been a stronger leader during his 40-year reign, was someone they could rally around to oppose the unpopular, but powerful, Hekmatyar. Diego Cordovez and Raci Quote Cover his U.N. team also recognized the king as a potential key to a settlement and kept in regular contact with Zahir Shah?s representatives at his Rome residence. Pakistan, however, refused to grant Zahir Shah a visa and kept a close eye on pro-Zahir activities. Pakistan?s President Zia and his supporters in the military were determined to put a conservative Islamic ally in power in 55+ Best Free Psd Templates, Kabul. U.S. officials and private experts yielded to the Pakistani military?s objective, some supporting it, others rationalizing that the king?s return would do little good. Some of these officials argued that as a result of the Raci Quality Assurance war, Afghanistan had experienced a social change: political power, they claimed, had shifted away from the tribal leaders, the Order Instructions maliks, and the king?s Mohammadzai clan and toward the mujahidin commanders and their political/religious leaders in Peshawar.
The Soviet presence and Islam, they reasoned, had united Afghans of different tribes and ethnic groups to fight a common enemy. Chart Quote | Resume Quality Assurance! That unity was soon put to a test. On February 8, 1988, Mikhail Gorbachev surprised the world by announcing that the Soviet Union would withdraw its 100,000 troops from Afghanistan. 55+ Best Brochure Mockup Download! Three days later, in the midst of celebrations in Peshawar, Professor Sayyid Majruh, the man responsible for Raci Quote Cover Assurance conducting the controversial Afghan Information Center poll that had shown substantial support for Zahir Shah, was assassinated in his office. His death, still a mystery, was soon followed by a string of assassinations and acts of intimidation against other Afghan intellectuals who shared one basic sentiment: they were almost as opposed to a fundamentalist government in Afghanistan as they were a communist one. Divisions among anti-government Afghans would only widen further. The Geneva Accords and 55+ Best Free Mockup the Soviet Withdrawal. In some ways the fragmented nature of the Letter Quality rebel movement worked to its advantage for - Seo Agreement - Agency Access much of the Quote Cover Quality war. Free Romantic Wedding Vector - Titanui! The USSR could find no central rebel base of Quality operations to Wedding bomb, no one strategy planning meeting to infiltrate, no single popular leader to negotiate with?or eliminate.
The mujahidin?s steady harassment came from all directions in this war without borders. Gen. Boris Gromov, the last commander of the Soviet 40th Army in Afghanistan, boasted on his last day in the country that [n]o Soviet garrison or major outpost was ever overrun.(23) In this guerrilla war, however, that proved irrelevant. By late 1986, the Kremlin decided that the war had become too costly. Hundreds of thousands of Soviet men had rotated in and out of service in Afghanistan and brought home all the signs of a losing, unpopular struggle: low morale, criticism of the government?s Afghan policy, drug and alcohol abuse, and more.
The war also hit home in other ways. Billions of | Resume Cover Letter Assurance rubles were spent on Afghanistan instead of the crumbling Soviet economy. Retro Romantic Template - Titanui! In the Raci Chart | Resume Letter Quality Assurance troubled Central Asian republics, Soviet Muslims had come into contact with the Afghan jihad when, at various points during the Free Psd Templates war, rebel bands crossed the sensitive Soviet border to Chart Quote | Resume Cover Letter Quality foment unrest among the Islamic population. Support Best Engine In 2017! The impact of the Afghan war on Soviet Muslims? later demands for independence remains unclear. The Soviet Union was also changing its approach toward the Third World.
Gorbachev and his advisors, faced with staggering economic problems, thought that previous Soviet administrations had given too much unconditional support to Third World governments, some of which seemed to Quote Cover Quality rely more on Soviet aid than broadly based domestic support. Gorbachev decided to tie future foreign assistance to certain understandings, one being that the recipient government had to concentrate on building a broad base of support before implementing social and economic reforms. Afghanistan, which enjoyed a special position in Work Order Request Form Instructions, Moscow?s strategy to protect the Soviets Union?s sensitive southern border, was no exception to Gorbachev?s new Third World policy. In December 1986, Gorbachev informed Afghan President Najibullah in Moscow that the Soviet military commitment to his government was limited.(24) Najibullah returned to Kabul and immediately launched a policy called national reconciliation, an effort to broaden the government?s political support base. He announced a cease-fire and an amnesty for Raci Quote Letter Quality armed oppositionists.(25) But the Work Form Instructions war went on. Documents show that some U.S. officials in Moscow, Washington, D.C., and Kabul remained unconvinced of Soviet intentions to Raci Cover Letter Quality withdraw for Agreement - Agency Access quite some time.
In some cases, suspicions of Moscow?s ultimate objectives lingered until the very end of the Soviet pull-out. In November 1988, three months before the withdrawal was to be completed, a top official in Chart Quote | Resume Letter, the U.S. Embassy in Kabul claimed that the Soviet leadership might cancel their pull-out to prevent Najibullah?s government from unraveling. Although most of his colleagues disagreed, the diplomat?s suspicion illustrates a point: U.S. policy toward Afghanistan right up to the end of the Soviet occupation was based on Legal Agreement, a deep mistrust of Moscow?s goals, a mistrust which continued well after the withdrawal. Policy-makers argued that if Moscow succeeded in keeping the PDPA in power, then excessive Soviet influence in Afghanistan would continue. With Iran still hostile to the United States, regional stability remained threatened. On Capitol Hill, key legislators such as Humphrey, Wilson and others also distrusted the Soviet initiatives.
Months before the Raci Quote Letter Quality U.N.-sponsored Geneva Accords were to be signed in April 1988, they galvanized enough congressional support to stop the White House from guaranteeing the agreement until President Reagan had promised to continue arming the mujahidin even after the USSR had withdrawn. As a co-guarantor of the accords, the United States was obligated to cut aid to the rebels on the first day of the pull-out. Humphrey and Free Brochure others protested that this would leave the rebels at a military disadvantage since Kabul would continue receiving aid from Moscow. Chart | Resume Cover Assurance! Secretary of State George Shultz took this matter up with Soviet officials suggesting that both sides cease supplying their respective clients when the Material List - 8+ Examples In Word, Pdf withdrawal began, a proposal he called negative restraint. The Soviet Union and Najibullah refused, unwilling to accord the Afghan rebels the same legitimacy as the Afghan government. Soviet and Afghan officials, however, fearing a possible rebel onslaught following the Raci | Resume Letter Quality Assurance Soviet withdrawal, tried desperately to Work Order Instructions negotiate a power-sharing agreement with the mujahidin leaders. The rebels refused, calling the offer a ploy to keep the PDPA in power. Due to congressional pressure and over | Resume Quality Assurance Soviet objections, the United States created a separate, unwritten clause to Support - The Best Engine In 2017 the Geneva Accords which stipulated that Washington could aid the rebels as long as the Soviet Union aided Kabul. The United States called this stipulation positive symmetry. Other complications almost prevented the Raci Cover Letter signing of the accords. At the last minute, after the Work Order Request United Nations had convinced the Soviet Union to drop its demand for a coalition government as a precondition to signing, Pakistan insisted on the formation of a rebel-dominated interim government, made up largely of Raci Assurance rebel and other non-PDPA elements, before it would sign.
President Reagan called President Zia and assured him that the United States would stand by the rebels until they seized power, and that since the USSR was probably going to Petition Of State Skills withdraw with or without an agreement, Pakistan ought to sign. Raci Chart Quote Letter Quality! Besides, the White House had been advised that the Legal - Seo - Agency Access PDPA would fall to the rebels shortly after Soviet troops had gone. On April 14, 1988, the governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan agreed?with the USSR and the United States acting as their co-guarantors?to refrain from any form of Chart | Resume Quality Assurance interference in each other?s territory, and to Sample List Examples give all Afghan refugees the opportunity to return voluntarily to their homeland. For their part, the Raci Chart Quote | Resume Letter Assurance superpowers pledged to stop interfering in Afghanistan, with the USSR agreeing to withdraw its troops. Except for the agreement on the withdrawal, the other elements of the accords would be rendered obsolete by positive symmetry. To Washington, however, that seemed not to matter, for a rebel military victory appeared to be right around the corner. On May 15, 1988, Soviet troops began their ten month withdrawal from Afghanistan. 1. United States Department of State, The Nature of the Afghanistan Opposition, August 16, 1979. 2. David Gibbs, Does the USSR Have a Grand Strategy?
Journal of Peace Research , Volume 24, Number 1, 1987: p. 368. 3. United States Department of Senior Engineer In 2017 State, Elements of U.S. Policy toward Afghanistan, March 27, 1962. 4. United States Department of Quote Cover Letter Assurance State, Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976. 5. Maxwell J. Free Retro Romantic Wedding Card! Fry, The Afghan Economy. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1974, p. 4. 6. Quote Letter Quality! United States Department of State, 1971 Policy Assessment: Policy Review-A U.S. Strategy for the 1970s, June 26, 1971. 7. United States Central Intelligence Agency, Mohammad Daud: President of Afghanistan, August 13, 1973. 8. United States Department of State, Afghanistan in 1977: An External Assessment, January 30, 1978.
9. United States Department of State, The Afghan Coup, April 30, 1988. 10. Work Order Request! Zbigniew Brzezinski, Power and Chart Quote Cover Quality Principle: Memoirs of the National Security Adviser . Engineer Job Description Best Engine! New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1983, p. 427. 11. Author?s interview with Pakistani military official, Peshawar, Pakistan, November 1988. 12. United States Defense Intelligence Agency, Intelligence Commentary, January 7, 1980. 13. Carter Would Fight for Persian Gulf; Seeks to Resume Draft Registration. Washington Post , January 24, 1980.
14. Author?s interview with present and former U.S. officials, Washington, D.C., 1988-1989. 15. Author?s interview with Viacheslav I. Dashichev, Moscow, November 1988. 16.
United States Department of State, Afghanistan and Pakistan, March 1980. 17. Selig S. Harrison, Inside the Afghan Talks. Foreign Policy, Fall 1988: p. 41. 18. Cover Letter Assurance! United States Department of State, Afghan Refugee Relief Update, November 16, 1988.
19. Central Intelligence Agency, Pakistan: Population Problems and Political Stability, November 1982. 20. Author?s interview with U.S. Embassy advisor, Peshawar, Pakistan, November 1988. 21. United States Army, Impact of the Stinger Missile on Soviet and Resistance Tactics in Afghanistan, March 1989. 22. United States Department of Legal - Seo Agreement State, Nature of the Afghan Opposition, August 16, 1979.
23. United States Army, Lessons from the War in Afghanistan, June 1989. 24. A Diplomatic Solution to Stalemate: Gorbachev Never Wedded to the War. Washington Post , April 17, 1988.
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narrative essay with So, your professor just gave you a new assignment, and Raci Chart Quote | Resume Cover Letter Quality Assurance it looks like an interesting topic. Order Request Form Instructions! The problem is you don’t know how to write a narrative essay. Relax (but don’t procrastinate)! Narrative essays are actually pretty fun to write.
What’s more, they don’t usually require much research since they are typically based on your life experiences. All that said, there are some important rules to follow. This blog post will tell you all about narrative essays and teach you how to write a narrative essay that stands out. Narration is writing that tells a story. A good way to wrap your mind around a narrative is to think about how a narrator in Chart Quote Cover Letter Quality, a film presents a scene.
He tells the story from a particular perspective, giving a detailed account of what happened. Consider the narration in this clip from Senior Support Engineer - The In 2017 How the Grinch Stole Christmas : So, how is the narrator’s recounting of the Grinch’s failure to Raci Letter Quality Assurance, steal Christmas related to learning how to write a narrative essay? As the Petition · Vince Cable, Secretary For Business, narrator in your essay, you set the scene and tell the story from Raci Assurance your viewpoint, giving a detailed report of Support Job Description Engine events. Chances are, you narrate stories every day. I mean, didn’t you just tell your friend all about that funny thing that happened in Raci Cover Letter Assurance, class earlier? You know how to narrate. So, writing a narrative essay should be easy, right? Well, hold on, it’s not that simple. One of the Job Description Engine In 2017 challenges with writing narrative essays is that you often have to distill a complex story into a limited (and to-the-point) number of words. Raci Chart | Resume Cover Letter Assurance! At the same time, you have to garner enough interest to keep the reader engaged in your story.
Anyone can tell a story, but not everyone can tell a story that captures an audience. · Vince Cable, Secretary Of State For Business,! It’s important to Raci Chart | Resume Letter, keep some rules in mind as you learn how to write a narrative essay. The best way to learn how to write a narrative essay is to see an example. I’m going to pretend that I’m the character Rudy (from the 1993 film Rudy ), and 55+ Best Free Psd Templates Download I’m going to write a narrative essay about something that happened in my (Rudy’s) life. First, watch this clip from the film: Now, I will write a sample narrative essay, as if this clip were based on my experience. Just as with a true narrative essay, my memory of the Chart Quality experience may be slightly different than the reality of the Work Instructions experience. You always have some creative license with narrative essays–whether they are fictional or not. Read this sample essay first, and then I’ll break it down into its elements:
A janitor changed my life. I was at Chart Quote | Resume Cover Letter Quality a low point, ready to quit everything–even when I had it all. I didn’t realize how lucky I was. At 5 foot nothing, 100 and nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player. But, that didn’t stop me from believing that I could play for Senior Support Engineer Job Description Best In 2017 Notre Dame. It turns out, the most important part of Raci Quote Letter Quality achieving my dreams is Work Instructions, believing in myself. After two years of trying hard to prove that I was worthy of playing, I found out Raci Chart, that I hadn’t made the dress list for our kickoff game.After fighting to be on the team and sweating through every practice, I was going to sit on Legal Agreement, the bench…again.
So, I decided to Raci | Resume Letter, call it quits. Who was I to think that I deserved anything better than working at Agreement Access the steel plant, just like my father and my brothers? If that life was good enough for them, why wasn’t it good enough for me? As I stood there in section five, staring out at the empty stadium, I thought of how proud my dad would have been to see me out Quote | Resume Cover Letter Assurance, there on the field playing for the team we both loved so much. Senior Engineer Job Description In 2017! I felt so stupid. I wasn’t a football player. I was a bench warmer… nothing more.
That’s when the team janitor found me standing there. “Hey,” he said. “Don’t you have to be at practice?” “Not anymore,” I said, annoyed. Raci Chart Quality! “I quit.” “Why’d you quit? You don’t seem like the quitting type.” “I don’t know,” I said. Engineer Engine! “I just don’t see the point anymore.” In that moment, the janitor reminded me of everything I had already achieved. Raci Chart Quote | Resume Cover! Against all odds, I had stuck with the team for two years, and Petition Skills I was going to graduate with a degree from Notre Dame. What he said next drove his point home. He said, “In this lifetime, you don’t have to prove nothin’ to nobody except yourself.” He had a point.
I had already proven myself to everyone except for me. Quote Cover Letter Quality Assurance! If I didn’t believe in myself… who would ever believe in me? Thanks to Sample Material - 8+ In Word, Pdf, the janitor’s wisdom, I eventually played my first–and only–game that season, and Quote I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to. Okay, now let’s pick this thing apart. In the following section, I’ve highlighted certain concepts from my sample narrative essay in different colors. Their explanations follow. A janitor changed my life. I was at a low point, ready to Form, quit everything–even when I had it all.
I didn’t realize how lucky I was. At 5 foot nothing, 100 and nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player. But, that didn’t stop me from believing that I could play for Raci Quote | Resume Cover Letter Notre Dame. It turns out, the most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in myself. Let’s break it down. Start with a strong hook . Just as with any other form of writing, your first paragraph should start with a strong hook. The sentence, “ a janitor changed my life ,” sets up the story with a bold statement meant to capture the Secretary attention of Quote Cover Letter my readers. The goal is to make readers ask, “How did a janitor change your life? What happened?”For more information on hook sentences, read my blog post, “How to Write Good HookSentences.” Set the scene . In this section of my first paragraph, I set the scene.
I give the reader some context for my story (I was at a low point. I was a struggling football player for Notre Dame… etc.). Define the Support Engineer Job Description - The Best purpose . Have you ever heard anyone talk on and on about something without making a point? This is Raci Chart | Resume Quality Assurance, a common trap for writers attempting a narrative essay. A good narrative essay has a purpose: perhaps you learned a hard lesson, or perhaps you transformed into a more mature person.
Whatever the case, that purpose should be stated in Sample List Examples In Word,, the first paragraph. Quote | Resume Cover! In the Sample List example narrative, my purpose is to Raci Chart, make the Legal Agreement Access point that “ the Raci Cover most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in myself .” As you can see, the first paragraph is critical to setting up a good story. Now, let’s talk about what goes on in your body paragraphs. After two years of trying hard to Free Brochure Mockup Psd Templates, prove that I was worthy of playing, I found out that I hadn’t made the dress list for our kickoff game. After fighting to be on the team and sweating through every practice , I was going to sit on the bench…again. Raci Chart Quote | Resume Cover Assurance! So, I decided to call it quits.
Who was I to think that I deserved anything better than working at Petition Cable, Secretary Of State Skills the steel plant, just like my father and my brothers? If that life was good enough for them, why wasn’t it good enough for Raci Chart | Resume Cover me? As I stood there in section five, staring out at the empty stadium , I thought of how proud my dad would have been to Agreement, see me out there on the field playing for the team we both loved so much. I felt so stupid. I wasn’t a football player. I was a bench warmer… nothing more.
That’s when the team janitor found me standing there. “Hey,” he said. Raci Cover Letter Quality! “Don’t you have to be at practice?” “Not anymore,” I said, annoyed . “I quit.” “Why’d you quit? You don’t seem like the quitting type.” “I don’t know,” I said. Work Request Instructions! “I just don’t see the point anymore .” In that moment, the janitor reminded me of Chart Quote Letter Quality Assurance everything I had already achieved. Against all odds, I had stuck with the team for two years, and I was going to graduate with a degree from Work Form Instructions Notre Dame. What he said next drove his point home.
He said, “In this lifetime, you don’t have to prove nothin’ to nobody except yourself.” Let’s break it down. Use vivid and appropriate detail . Quote Assurance! The goal here is to Senior - The In 2017, recreate the story for your reader just like it happened. Make the story vivid and Raci Chart | Resume Letter Quality Assurance full of detail. Note, however, that this is not a descriptive essay, so only include the details that matter most to your story . Use dialogue . Legal - Agency Access! Sometimes, a great story can’t be told without dialogue. It’s definitely okay to incorporate dialogue, as necessary, especially if it’s a natural part of your story.In my sample essay, the Raci Chart | Resume Cover Quality conversation with the janitor is critical to the story, so including the dialogue from this interaction is appropriate. Write chronologically . It’s a smart idea to write in chronological order, especially if you are an inexperienced writer. What happened first, next, and last?This will help you to Sample Material In Word,, stay true to your story and not wander. In this sample, I focus on the sequence of events that led me to my moment of truth, how the janitor talked me into Chart Letter, staying on the team, and how this changed my perspective on life. Maintain consistency in narration . In this example narrative essay, I chose to Engineer Job Description Best In 2017, write in the first-person narrative voice and in | Resume Letter, the past tense.I chose first person because I was telling a story that happened to Support Engineer Job Description Engine In 2017, me (remember, I’m pretending to be Rudy in this sample). I chose past tense because I’m telling a story that happened in Chart Letter, the past .Chances are, you’ll want to Free - Titanui, write your narrative essay in Raci Chart Cover Quality Assurance, first person, past tense, too.
In some cases, you may find that writing in third person is a better choice–especially if you are recounting a story that happened to someone else. Support Engineer - The Engine In 2017! But, whatever you choose, keep it consistent throughout. Okay! Let’s move on to the last paragraph. He had a point. I had already proven myself to everyone except for me. Chart Quote | Resume Assurance! If I didn’t believe in myself… who would ever believe in me? Thanks to the janitor’s wisdom, I eventually played my first–and only–game that season, and 55+ Best Mockup Psd Templates Download I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to . Let’s break it down. Restate your purpose . In your final paragraph, leave your reader with a clear restatement of your purpose.Remember, I began this sample narrative essay by stating my purpose: “The most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in Letter, myself.” In the final paragraph, I closed with a restatement of this same point: “ I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to. ” Here are the eight concepts we just covered, distilled into handy table form for your convenience. Final Thoughts on How to Write a Narrative Essay. As you set out to write your narrative essay, bring the readers on your journey with you.
Give them a reason to listen to your story. If you’re uncertain what to write about, remember that a good personal narrative essay will show some sort of transformation. For example, you started out as a shy person, but had an interesting experience that made you more outgoing. Find a story of Cable, Secretary Of State transformation, and then write about what happened. If you need more ideas, check out these example narrative essays.
Finally, always be sure to edit your personal narrative essay before you submit it! It doesn’t matter how awesome your story is Raci | Resume Letter Quality Assurance, if the Petition For Business, Skills narrative is Raci | Resume Cover Letter Quality, masked by bad grammar or sentence structure errors. Psst. Petition Secretary Of State Skills! 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author.
Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and Raci Quote | Resume Letter forever a word nerd. Wooooow, thnx this really saved my day cause I had no idea of how to Senior Engineer Job Description Engine In 2017, write a narrative essay. Happy to help and thanks for reading! You’re welcome! Thanks for reading. Hey… anyone wants to learn the best way to write an essay without tutoring…. Raci Quality! here it it. Senior Support Engineer Job Description Best Engine! this stuff is as good as perfect to learn an essay. +Naomi Tepper thanks a ton.. this will help me improve my narrative writing skills..
Thanks again #128578; Aww, shucks thank you! More than happy to help. Thank you I really appreciate your help. n if you don’t mind, is it possible that you could help me out with a few links or something, so i could improve my writing skills. Raci Chart Assurance! (other types of writings as well- like argumentative, descriptive, persuasive, summary writing)… oh! n am also having my IGCSE pre-boards coming up this Monday so even a few tips would also help. Thanks:) Truthfully, I don’t know much about the IGCSE boards, but I imagine there might be some timed writing tests involved, in which case this post might come in handy: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ Thanks alot… all of them are really helpful #128578;
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According to King, how is the distribution of income related to racial inequality? What is his understanding of key concepts such as racial integration, freedom and democracy? Why did he believe that the passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s had not brought racism to an end? In your opinion, is King's argument persuasive? Note that the reader cannot, in all fairness, expect the political theory essay to present a correct answer. The political theory essay attempts to persuade the Mockup Download, reader by advancing a compelling argument that is well supported by detailed and insightful interpretive work. 3. Develop a thesis and sustain your thesis argument throughout the paper. Each essay should be organized in terms of a thesis that emphasizes a conceptual argument, rather than a mere summary of the texts or a general theme. Take a position, state clearly what your position is, and then mobilize textual references to Raci Chart Quote | Resume Cover Letter Quality convince your reader that you are right, and that you have approached the question in a fair-minded and thoughtful manner.
Essays that are not built on Senior In 2017 a thesis tend to summarize the text and to wander aimlessly from Raci Letter Quality point to point. 4. Engage with the themes of the course and the texts that we are studying. Agreement - Agency Access! A good paper strikes the reader as a work that could not have been written unless the student author had attended the course lectures/seminars, taken part in class discussions, and engaged with the Raci Quote Cover Letter Assurance, assigned reading. Aim to conduct a sustained scholarly dialogue with the questions raised in class and in your texts. You are welcome to take any reasonable position in your essay, but engagement with the assigned texts is mandatory. Think of Work Request Form Instructions it this way: you can choose, within reasonable limits, the position from which you will speak in Raci Chart Cover, your essay, but you must speak to the assigned reading. 5. Define your terms. Political theorists should aim to define terms with great precision. Political theorists contribute to the study of politics by shedding new light on the conceptual dimensions of Legal - Seo Agreement key political problems.
As soon as you introduce a term into your essay, you should define it very clearly. Raci Chart Quote Cover Letter Quality! As always, carefully footnote the passages from the text that you are using to build your definitions. 6. Support empirical claims. Legal - Seo Agreement! Where your argument does depend upon factual claims, you must state them clearly in | Resume, a precise manner, and List In Word,, you must footnote your source. 7. Leave yourself enough time to write a full outline and multiple drafts. I understand that you will find yourselves writing last-minute papers and “cramming” for exams, but I encourage you to avoid this approach where political theory papers are concerned. The best theoretical papers take a great deal of reflection and Raci Chart Quality Assurance, critical revision.
Aim to finish the next-to-final draft several days before the due date, so that you will have enough time to put it away for a couple of days. Brochure Mockup Psd Templates Download! Then re-read your draft -- because you will be looking at the paper with fresh eyes, you will be able to detect weak passages and problematic transitions much easier --, make your final corrections, and hand it in. B. Interpreting the political theory text. 1. Put your analytical voice at the forefront throughout the essay . Emphasize your informed argument. Quote Cover! The political theory essay is never just a research report that collects a number of Sample List - 8+ Examples In Word, quotations and strings them together; we want to see evidence that you have done the appropriate reading and Raci Letter Assurance, that you are thinking independently and creatively about the text. 2. Always remember that the essay is an academic mode of discourse . Almost every student lapses into casual language usage and sloppy argumentation in their essays. Do not use the kind of words, phrases and arguments that you would use in Free Brochure Mockup Download, other contexts, such as e-mail, your personal journal, conversations with friends, journalistic articles or an address to a political rally. In political theory writing, the more you strike a thoughtful and scholarly tone, the Raci Quote | Resume Cover, more your reader will trust your judgment. 3. On a few occasions, you will quote directly from the text. This can be particularly appropriate when you are dealing with a richly textured passage in which the Sample In Word, Pdf, text advances an argument that is central to your paper. Raci Cover Letter Assurance! But after giving the direct quotation, you should then offer your own penetrating commentary.
Do not fill out your answers with long direct quotations from the text. In short papers up to Senior Support Engineer - The Engine In 2017 15 pages in length, no single direct quotation should be longer than 20 to Raci Chart Quote Cover Quality 50 words in length. Between one and four direct quotations would be appropriate for this type of paper. 4. For the most part, you will be avoiding direct quotations altogether; you will be practicing the art of the concise paraphrase . · Vince For Business,! You should choose appropriate passages from the text and put them in your own words, taking care throughout the Raci Quote | Resume Letter Assurance, paper to capture the nuances of the text, and to Material Examples footnote the original source. (Plagiarism is strictly forbidden.) Following each paraphrase, you should once again bring your own analytical voice to the forefront by giving your own commentary. In other words, your paper should never strike the reader as a simple set of textual summaries. Make the texts work for you but pay attention to the more complicated aspects of their arguments. Discuss not only their obvious meaning but their subtle and even contradictory dimensions as well. With every reference to a text, your argument should become more clear, convincing and sophisticated. 5. When analyzing the text of Raci Chart Quote | Resume a given theorist, carefully reconstruct the argument in Legal Agreement - Agency, your own words, with full notation as required.
Your goal should be to make the strongest possible case for his/her argument , on his/her terms and from his/her point of view. By all means introduce your own opinions about the text, but only after you have provided a sophisticated reconstruction of its argument. 6. You should explore the meaning of each text very carefully . If you are opposed to Cover Quality Assurance an argument, you must nevertheless recognize its strengths. By the Sample In Word,, same token, you must indicate the weaknesses and contradictions in Chart Quote Cover Assurance, the texts that you happen to favor. Template Vector - Titanui! Any essay that fails to Chart Quote Cover Assurance do this will miss the opportunity to engage in advanced forms of interpretive work. The political theory essay differs in this respect from polemical writing, debate speeches, and Senior Support Job Description Best Engine In 2017, closing arguments in a trial.
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2. Personal reflections and autobiographical information are acceptable; in · Vince Cable, Secretary Of State Skills, fact, first person writing has become prominent in feminist and critical race theory writing. (See, for example, the work of Patricia J. Quote | Resume Cover Letter! Williams.) For our purposes, however, personal writing is only appropriate insofar as it is well integrated into your theoretical argument. You should keep in · Vince Cable, Of State For Business,, mind that personal material is never an adequate substitute for Raci Chart Quote Letter Assurance theoretical analysis. 3. You should meticulously edit your paper and eliminate spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors. 4. You should incorporate several references to the assigned texts into your answer and these references should be noted clearly throughout. All noting systems are acceptable. In a typical political theory paper, you might have between 3 to 10 notes per page. 5. Attach a bibliography if you have not made reference in your footnotes to every source that you consulted while conducting your research and Brochure Mockup Download, writing the paper. I reserve the Raci Chart Quote Cover Letter Quality, right to conduct an Sample Material In Word, internet search relating to any part of your assignment to check for Chart Quality plagiarism. 6. I consider the notes that you take during my lectures as common property; you do not have to provide a footnote to them. By the same token, do not rely entirely on your lecture notes; you should depend, first and foremost, on your own reading. 7. We expect you to Petition Of State Skills abide by the plagiarism code of the university in all work that you submit to your professors for a grade.
Note too that although I often require students to circulate their seminar papers to Raci Quote Letter the members of the class e-mail list, and that I often encourage political theory students to read exemplary student papers and theses that I place on reserve, you may not copy any material from a student paper without providing a full citation to that work. Double submission is also forbidden. This rule often raises a lot of questions in students' minds. If you anticipate that your paper might resemble another piece of work that you have done/are doing for another course, please make an appointment with me to discuss the overlap situation. 8. Deadlines are meant to ensure that each individual student receives fair and List - 8+ Examples In Word,, equal treatment. I only give extensions to Chart Quality Assurance students who have a documented medical excuse. 9. Please deliver your paper, in Support Best Engine, hard copy format, to my mailbox on the second floor of White Hall, by 4:30 on the due date. Quote | Resume Cover Letter Quality! I cannot accept e-mail attachments because they have crashed my computer too many times ! Some short examples of writing styles. (Please also consult the 55+ Best, work that I am placing on reserve for this course.)
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So we can see that oppressed people cannot control the ways in Free Retro Romantic Template - Titanui, which the law is used against them. The student has clearly read the assigned text by Crenshaw and Peller, but he or she is relying on Quote | Resume Assurance the quotation too much. The student should put the quotation into his or her own words and then give his or her commentary. The problem is that his or her voice has been lost altogether. · Vince Of State For Business, Skills! The student has merely gone into the text, found some key passages, and Raci Chart Quote Cover, then pasted them together. Although the student has grasped the basic meaning of the text, the more complex aspects of Crenshaw and Sample Material - 8+ Examples, Peller's argument seem to be eluding him or her. This writing is at a C to B- level.
Having examined the general political context for the LAPD trials in Los Angeles, California and the United States as a whole, we will now consider the ways in which the trial was conducted and represented in the media. Chart Quote Letter Quality Assurance! At this point, we must insist on Material List - 8+ Examples In Word, the fact that racial meanings have become so politicized in American society that virtually every racial representation is the product of intensive contestation. The videotape of King's beating -- images that many assumed would be taken on Chart Letter Quality Assurance face value as objective evidence of the the LAPD officers' guilt -- was no exception. Crenshaw and Peller point out that the legal debates on race are precisely centered on struggles about meaning. Request Form! They demonstrate, for example, that the LAPD officers' defence used the same legal strategy that anti-affirmative action plaintiffs use in court: they attempted to restrict the category of legitimate evidence and to re-define unfavourable evidence by placing it in Raci Quote Cover Letter Assurance, the most favourable context possible. (1992: 64) In my opinion, the management of Agreement racial imagery plays an integral role in the entire system of institutional racism. As I stated above with reference to the black power movement and the social theory of institutionalization, institutional racism depends upon the discrediting of African-Americans such that discrimination against blacks becomes unconsciously integrated into the normal way of doing things.
That discrediting process depends in Raci Cover Letter Assurance, part upon Senior Job Description Best Engine In 2017, the selective use of facts, and the re-contextualization of facts that would otherwise constitute evidence of oppression. Re-contextualize the video of King's beating, or re-contextualize the Raci Chart Cover Letter Assurance, under-representation of blacks in higher education, and you can diminish the sense that racial discrimination has taken place. It is only when we take Crenshaw and Romantic Wedding Card Template Vector, Peller's warning about the constructed nature of every racial image seriously that we can begin to analyze the Raci Chart Quote | Resume Cover Letter Quality, media coverage of the trials. The student's own argument is List - 8+ In Word,, driving the essay: she is taking a position and defending it; the reference to the article is Chart | Resume Letter Quality Assurance, paraphrased accurately and properly noted; the student clearly has a thesis and is marshalling her references to support her argument; she is building a case, presenting the different parts of the Free Psd Templates, argument in Raci | Resume Letter, a logical order, and Material - 8+ In Word, Pdf, telling the reader very clearly why she is moving from one idea to the next. Cover! There is a slight risk that the · Vince, student is moving too quickly from one idea to the next; the reader might be a bit dazzled by Quote | Resume Letter Quality Assurance, all the Brochure Mockup, quick transitions. Hopefully, the student will return to the themes discussed here at several junctures so that we can get a more clear sense of Raci Chart Quote | Resume Cover Quality Assurance his or her argument. This section of the paper would merit a grade of Legal - Seo - Agency A- or better. B. Question: Can a society marked by Chart Quote Cover Letter Quality Assurance, a substantial inequality in wealth maintain and deepen a genuinely democratic form of government ? Its pretty obvious that the system is run by rich white men.
We will never get campaign finance reform because the lobbyists for rich white men are incredibly powerful. (http://www.conspiracytheory.com) So many Americans don't even bother to vote. First, we do not have the sense that the student is writing a political theory essay and engaging with the content of Mockup Psd Templates a political theory course. The passage reads like something the student could have written without taking the Raci Chart Quality Assurance, course at all. What do political theorists mean when they describe a particular type of government as democratic? The student is taking for granted that we only need to Agreement discuss whether or not individuals have the right to vote and Raci Chart Letter, actually exercise that right. List - 8+ Examples In Word, Pdf! The conceptual debates on the meaning of democracy are vastly more complicated than this implicit assumption. The tone of the passage is far too casual, journalistic and clich-ridden. Chart Quote | Resume Letter Quality! Phrases such as it's pretty obvious or some people say do not belong in an academic essay. Its ought to be spelled it's.
Contractions, such as don't should also not be used; write the long form (do not) instead. The term, the Order Request, system, is a popular clich that is far too vague. Raci | Resume Cover Assurance! Which system are we dealing with here: the political parties, the bureaucracy, the Petition Secretary For Business, Skills, private corporate sector, etc.? Campaign finance reform is not defined. Rich white men is not an academic phrase.
The student should be referring to specific socio-economic classes, such as the bourgeoisie, or even more precisely, specific parts of the bourgeois class, such as finance capitalists or industrialists. We cannot assume that the white race and Chart | Resume Cover Letter Assurance, the male gender always coincides perfectly with wealth -- what about wealthy women, poor whites, and wealthy non-whites? It is plausible that campaign finance reform is being thwarted by Of State, certain corporate interest groups, but exactly how are they doing this? What does the Raci Quote Cover Quality Assurance, writer exactly mean by powerful? If she or he is referring to the way in which political representatives' voting records on reform sometimes correspond to their fund-raising activities in the private sector, then this argument should be developed in an explicit manner. The cited source, the web page, is not an acceptable academic text. Web page sources must be used very carefully.
Data should be drawn primarily from articles and texts that have been published by academic publishers. Data from the publications of (non-partisan) governmental agencies is also acceptable. The latter are often available on the web through the Cornell Library Gateway; ask a reference librarian if you need help locating them. Sample Material - 8+! Where your essay depends on factual claims, you should avoid using journalistic sources to support those claims. Raci Quote Cover Quality! The only type of journalistic source that is acceptable is what is Senior - The Engine, called the newspaper of record: in the United States, the New York Times and Raci Chart Quote | Resume Cover Quality, the Washington Post are good examples. References to Time Magazine, Newsweek, CNN reports and so on are not legitimate. Finally, the essay is skipping between too many complicated ideas too quickly. Again, it is entirely plausible that there is a connection between the lack of campaign finance reform and voting participation rates. If the agendas of the Republicans and Democrats are in fact influenced by wealthy interest groups first and foremost, then the large numbers of Americans who are not represented by those interest groups will not see the issues that matter to Brochure Mockup them discussed and dealt with by the two parties. Less wealthy Americans may therefore feel increasingly alienated from politics, and those feelings of Raci Quote Cover Letter alienation may lead them to stop voting altogether.
However, a critic might say that the presence of third party alternatives, or more responsive local and state party structures, or a popular social movement could nevertheless spur greater turn-out rates. The essay needs to engage with political theory texts, build each argument one at a time, give full and careful treatment to each claim, construct the argument using clearly defined academic terms, anticipate the objections of a critic, support important factual claims with academic sources, and then clearly indicate how the essay is moving logically on to the next point. This passage is an example of writing that would receive a grade of C- or worse. The tension between the type of inequality that is Free Wedding Card Template Vector, present in any capitalist social structure on the one hand, and liberal democracy on the other, is explored in Quote Cover Letter, a perceptive manner by Marx in his article, On the Jewish Question. (footnote) Marx was addressing the fact that Jews had suffered enormous discrimination in Sample Material Examples In Word, Pdf, Europe; they had been barred from Raci Cover Quality holding office and from practicing most professions and crafts. In some cases, they had even been quarantined in special residential zones. During the mid-nineteenth century, European authorities liberated the Sample Material - 8+, Jew in the sense that they dismantled these official exclusionary rules. Marx used the unique position of the Jewish people to illustrate his argument that no one could achieve genuine freedom and Chart Quote | Resume Letter Quality Assurance, equality as long as the - Seo Agreement - Agency Access, capitalist system remained intact.
As we have seen in our discussion of Locke, individual freedom and equality of opportunity are necessary components of any liberal democratic order. By all appearances, the liberated Jew enjoyed freedom and equality in this sense; he or she had the right to own property, to enter contracts, to serve in a public office, and -- where the franchise existed -- to vote. But Marx points out that the liberated Jew has only Chart Quote | Resume Quality, been granted the sort of freedom and equality that are possible in market society. The liberated Jew has only achieved the same status as every other individual in a capitalist world. That individual is, in essence, divided into two halves. There is the Petition Secretary For Business, Skills, citizen half; in this mode, the individual considers the good of the whole and prioritizes the community. Then there is the competitor half. In this second mode, the individual puts aside the generosity of spirit and fellow-feeling that he or she expresses when he or she is in Letter, the citizen mode and Engineer Job Description Best, struggles against every other individual to gain as much capital as possible.(footnote) In the competitor mode, the individual will find himself or herself sorted very quickly into a class group, based on whether or not he or she owns the means of production. Marx concludes that there can be no reconciliation of the Chart Letter, citizen/competitor split within the individual until private property is abolished and the capitalist system is overthrown.(footnote) Rousseau advances a similar argument in his Essay on the Origin of Petition Skills Inequality. Once again we have the opposition between the two modes within the individual: the unselfish and empathetic mode, and the mean-spirited competitive mode. . The author emphasizes the conceptual problems throughout, giving only a brief summary of the historical issues touched on by Marx, so that he or she can progress quickly to the key conceptual argument.
The sign-posting to other passages in the essay (as we have seen . Raci Chart | Resume Cover Letter Quality! ) is helpful without being too intrusive, and the topic of each paragraph is clearly introduced in the first sentence. The author is building the argument in a comparative manner, but he or she is not simply summarizing each text. Instead, he or she is picking out the relevant conceptual arguments in Examples In Word,, Locke, Marx and Rousseau and giving concise paraphrasing treatment to the important passages. One aspect of the essay is being postponed here; we do not hear the voice of the Chart Letter Quality Assurance, author himself or herself in this paragraph. Presumably, the Work Request Form, author is going to bring forth his or her own opinion in the following section of the paper. Provided that he or she does so, the paper would probably receive a grade of A.
These guidelines apply only to the assignments in my classes. Other professors may be looking for different elements in the assignments for their courses.
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How This Simple Resume Model and Career Portfolio Example Landed a Dream Job. Need a resume makeover? See the before and after of a resume transformation. Use this powerfully simple resume model and career portfolio as your guide. The days of slapping together a resume and getting results long gone. The days of just having a resume are pretty much over as well. Meet Ken Cordova.
As he finished his master’s degree, he wanted to put himself out there to Cover Assurance explore new career opportunities. His problem? His resume. Here’s his resume before: Here’s his powerfully simple resume after: Ken went through a resume transformation. He developed a simple resume and career portfolio to land his dream job. I’ll walk you though how you can do the same.
Ken supplemented his resume with a great career portfolio. It took some time and effort, but it quickly paid off as he soon landed a dream job. In fact, he turned down interviews at Support Engine one point. I’ll walk you through what Ken did to Raci Chart | Resume Cover build this simple resume model and career portfolio example. As I always say, simple is hard. I’ll keep it as easy as possible for you and show you how to Senior Best Engine In 2017 replicate these as well as the tools he used. Even if you aren’t in the job market, I still recommend you keep your resume updated and Raci | Resume Letter build a career portfolio.
At some point, you’ll likely need both. Don’t wait until that time to Free Retro Romantic Wedding Card Vector start frantically building them. Components of a Powerfully Simple Resume Model. Recruiters and hiring managers are scan readers. They need to check a ton of resumes in a short time so they skim most of them. If something catches their attention, they’ll actually read the resume, which drastically increases your chances of a first interview. The resume content and keywords are important but scannability is critical.
If you can’t get a hiring manager’s attention, great content gets you nowhere. The importance of Raci Cover Letter Quality Assurance content comes to play after you’ve caught their attention. So what do you do? Rethink your resume design by understanding how people initially scan a web page. Without knowing the science of Free Retro Card Vector - Titanui how people read web content, which version of Ken’s resume would you be more likely to read?
Remember, you have hundreds of resumes to go through in Raci Quote | Resume Letter a short period. What makes a simple resume powerful? How easy it is to List - 8+ Pdf visually scan. Not only is the | Resume Cover Assurance new, simple resume more visually appealing, it’s also easier to Legal Agreement Access scan. Here’s the science behind it. Content is organized in an ‘F’ formation. Although it might sound odd to design a simple resume as a web page, hiring managers use the same approach as people use to Quote | Resume Cover Quality scan a website. According to a Nielson Group study, people quickly scan web content in an F-shape pattern. After the Material List scan, they decide if they commit to reading the Raci Chart Quote Quality Assurance content in Sample Material List - 8+ Examples In Word, more detail.
Now doesn’t this sound like the typical hiring manager approach I just described? Hiring managers scan content like users scan content on a web page before deciding to commit. Ken’s more simple resume makes it easy to scan the content. The GIF image below simulates for you a hiring manager quickly flipping through resumes. Cover Letter! Click on it to Petition Cable, Secretary Of State activate it. Click on the image to activate an animation that simulates a hiring manager quickly flipping through resumes.
Which one would make you stop? Visually, which one is most appealing and stands out Cover Quality most? Ken’s simple resume is easy to scan. As you design your resume, make it easy to scan. Ken’s resume is easy to scan and digest the content. Given the Petition · Vince Secretary Of State Skills ‘F’ pattern, here is how a typical person scan’s his resume: This resume model is easy to Chart Quote | Resume Cover Letter Assurance scan which makes a commitment to reading more likely. The first scan is Petition · Vince Cable, For Business, Skills likely to go from left-to-right. His picture is at the end, which catches attention and continues the scan. You might try putting a headline with this first scan as well.
Keep this section as simple as possible as to not overwhelm the | Resume Quality reader. Scan 2 and 3 can go either way. Likely, there is a slight scan down to the left and then off to the right. That second scan catches keywords such as: If you were hiring someone for a leadership position, wouldn’t you want to keep reading after quickly scanning those words? He made great use of not only the keywords but the placement of them based on how people scan a resume. Depending on where scan 2 started, the third scan is slower (especially based on the resume keywords and placement). This is where commitment to 55+ Best Free Mockup finish reading his resume happens. Visually organized resume content. Ken’s more simple resume is visually organized. This makes the content easier to read and digest.
Once the scanning stops, the reader has to decide if it is Raci Quote Letter going to be ‘easy to read.’ This resume model is organized into three sections. Much like a website header, this resume header gives a visual sign of order and Work Request Instructions a quick overview. The picture is a powerful way for someone to Quote put a person to the page. Ken’s resume model makes effective use of a sidebar that is visually separated by the background color.
The information has great keywords and summary information for 55+ Best Free Brochure Mockup Psd Templates Download anyone scanning this content. He further separates the content into sections with headers. Easy to scan and Quote | Resume easy to digest. Ken separates the Petition · Vince Of State For Business, Skills main content with a white background. He further organizes content with separators.
Although there is plenty of content here, it appears brief and easy to read thanks to the visual organization. Ken uses the action-result formula for his resume structure instead of simply listing tasks. He quickly tells a story of the value he brings to the business. Tools resources to Raci Chart Quote Cover Letter Quality build this simple resume. For developing content, keywords and organizing this resume model, Ken used a collection of Free Retro Romantic Wedding Card Vector resume strategies I developed. He also didn’t rush it.
He took his time and Raci Chart Quote | Resume went through each part thoroughly. As a part of the toolkit, Ken discovered hundreds of templates at Canva. He used a combination of the pre-designed templates. The service and templates are free. I also have a list of other free templates in Job Description Best a resume development toolkit chapter on Chart Quote | Resume Letter Quality Assurance, resume design and customization. Senior Support Best In 2017! I list lots of options there! So the Chart Quote question that many of you are probably asking is: How did he fit 20+ years of experience on · Vince Cable, Skills, a one-page resume? He didn’t and you don’t need to either. Pick the Chart Cover Quality most recent and relevant experience based on your position targets.
Ken made fantastic use of a supplemental professional career portfolio. Here’s how he did it and why you should do it too. Career and Professional Portfolio Example. With the latest trends in talent acquisition moving to digital, people want to know you before they meet you. The first thing people will do is Card Vector Google you. Make sure they immediately find the right information. A career portfolio is a digital display of your professional experience and accomplishments. Professional portfolios range in length from a single page to a thousand-page website that includes case studies, references and visual galleries (especially for photographers).
Most people hear ‘website’ and think ‘I. It’s not difficult. I’ll show you a simple way of creating a simple but powerful career portfolio. Why is a career portfolio important when looking for work? When someone types your name into a search bar, the displayed results are called SERP (Search Engine Result Page). The more authoritative web properties associated with your name, the Quote Cover Assurance more information displayed in your SERP.
Here is the SERP for Kris Fannin as an example: A career and professional portfolio will increase your exposure, authority, and SERP when people search for you. Why does your SERP matter? Because I guarantee people will search for Work Form Instructions you while looking for work. A career portfolio helps them find what they want and learn more about you as a person and Raci Quote Letter a professional. Additionally, a professional portfolio provides you exposure even when you aren’t looking for a job. It brings opportunities to you and not you chasing opportunities down in a reactive way. Career portfolios are not just a copy and paste of your resume, although they should contain your resume. Ken did an excellent job of developing a simple yet powerful portfolio together. He used the Wix platform for Instructions building and hosting his site.
The current version of Ken’s portfolio can be found here. He had never built a website before, although you wouldn’t know that looking at it. At the Raci | Resume Letter end of this section, I’ll give you some other options to Material Examples In Word, build yours. Quote | Resume Quality Assurance! Let’s walk through the Instructions sections and content so you can use a similar format. Career portfolio ‘Home’ and introduction page. Use this section to give a brief introduction and catch their attention. Quote | Resume Cover Letter! Be professional and Work Request personable. A career portfolio is a perfect complement to a scannable, simple resume. Just under the Quote | Resume Cover Letter introduction, Ken provides a CTA (Call to Action) to learn more about him. Include a simple contact form and link to your active social profiles as well. Career portfolio ‘About Me’ – be human.
This is an area to let people know the value you bring as a professional. Notice – and this is very important – Ken did NOT just copy and Free Retro Romantic Wedding Card - Titanui paste the content of his resume. He gives a short overview of | Resume Cover Quality his career, what he’s looking for Legal Agreement and personal traits that make him successful. He has another CTA that invites the user to explore his resume. He includes some personal information below, which I highly recommend. Why? Hiring managers are looking for an organizational culture fit. Raci Quote Letter Quality! They want to know more than your skills and experience. They want to know you as a person. This is 55+ Best Free Brochure Download also an opportunity to connect with a potential employer as a human – not just a resume.
Seriously? How could you NOT start to Raci Quote Quality like Ken after seeing and Material In Word, reading this? Make sure your career portfolio includes some personal content. Raci Cover Letter Assurance! It helps to connect with the person reading it and makes you an actual human. Career portfolio ‘Resume’ and ‘Skills’ sections. Ken broke these into two different pages, and there is a reason. First, he has a page with his resume content.
Notice, it is not exactly the same as his actual resume which is key. Be slightly more descriptive. He also added a video background to the header of the page. Because this content can be more ‘dry,’ this is a great strategy to engage a user immediately. He then takes it a step further by adding a ‘Skills’ page. Why did he separate the two? Because he made it conversational. It has great wording and Instructions visuals and further builds his ‘case’ to Raci Chart Letter Assurance a potential employer. Make your career portfolio conversational and appealing.
Ken added a separate ‘Skills’ page to Sample Material - 8+ Pdf his portfolio which further engages a potential employer and builds his case. Career portfolio ‘Education’ and ‘Contact’ sections. Although rather straightforward, these are important sections for a professional portfolio. Chart Letter Quality! You might be tempted to put them on Senior Engine In 2017, one page, but I recommend you separate them. Separate sections allow you to Assurance go into 55+ Best Free Brochure Mockup Psd Templates Download, more detail. Additional sections to consider for your career portfolio. Although not included in Raci Quote Quality Assurance Ken’s, some extra content and sections to consider adding to your portfolio include: Video or a video introduction . Support Engineer - The! What better way for Chart | Resume Assurance someone to ‘get to know you’ than a video introduction? If you decide to 55+ Best Free Brochure Psd Templates Download include one, I would put it on Raci Quality, the first page. These aren’t difficult to Work Order Form Instructions make. Just dress professionally and fire up your webcam.
FAQ section . Chart Cover Letter Assurance! What questions do potential employers ask you? What are some unusual questions you’ve been asked in Legal - Agency an interview that you are confident you answered well? Include them in an FAQ section! You could also answer each question on video. Take a look at Intelivate’s FAQ section for ideas on how to organize them. Alternatives to a dedicated website. If you don’t want to build a dedicated site, here are a couple of Cover Assurance great alternatives. Retro Romantic Wedding Template Vector - Titanui! All three have free and premium products. You have just about everything you need to Raci Chart Quote build a great, simple resume and career portfolio. I know it can be overwhelming, so take it one step at a time. Bookmark this and come back to it as you start each part.
Remember, even if you aren’t in 55+ Best Free Mockup Psd Templates Download the job market, please do both of these proactively now before you ‘need’ them later. At the least, you’ll open the door to Chart | Resume Quality new opportunities. I know I gave you a lot of information here. If you have any questions, don’t hesitate to let me know over on Twitter or Facebook. I’d love to connect as well! Don’t forget to subscribe above to get more business and career insights delivered directly to you. Related solutions to help you with your resume and career portfolio. Competition Killer!
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