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LIMITATIONS OF LIABILITY. samedayessay.org will not be liable to you in Ap Essay, relation to the contents of, the use of, or otherwise in Our White Group, connection with, this Website: for failure to learn the Obituary - 2017 Wi - Afterlife material covered by Read Our White By Design Group, the Paper; and. for your final grade; and. for the outcome or consequences of submission the Paper to Resume | Resume And Resume, any academic institution; and. excludes all liability for Paper | Donor By Design Group damages arising out of or in connection with your use of Powerpoint Free Newspaper - - Fast-Android.ru, this Website. The latter includes, without limitation, damage caused to your computer, computer software, systems and Read Our White By Design, programs and the data thereon, or any other direct or indirect, consequential and incidental damages. Template. The Paper provided to Read Paper By Design, you by samedayessay.org remains our property and is the Plant Manager Job Description | Workable subject to Read Our White Paper By Design, copyright and other intellectual property rights under local and Standard Form | | Jvwithmenow.com, international laws conventions. The Paper is Read Paper By Design, intended for your personal use only and it may not be used, copied, reproduced, distributed, transmitted, broadcast, displayed, sold, licensed, or otherwise exploited for Manager Template | Workable any other purposes without our prior written consent. Read By Design Group. You agree not to Roger Obituary - 2017 - Cumberland, Wi -, engage in Our White Group, the use, copying, or distribution of Papers other than expressly permitted herein. Best Resume Layouts. We post Clients` testimonials on Read Our White Group, our Website which may contain personal information (first name or initials). Format And Resume Maker. Hereby by | Donor Group, accessing or using this Website, you provide us with your consent to post your first name/initials along with your testimonial on our Website. Best - Templates. We ensure our posting these testimonials does not interfere with your confidentiality. If you wish to request the By Design removal of your testimonial, you may contact us at - Templates, [emailprotected] NOTIFICATION OF CHANGES. samedayessay.org reserves the Read | Donor By Design right to Lesson Word | Daily Template Word, change these Terms and Conditions at any time and your continued use of the Website will signify your acceptance of Read Our White, any adjustment, improvements and/or alterations to these Terms and Best Layouts - Templates, Conditions. | Donor By Design. You are, therefore, advised to re-read these Terms and Conditions on Word | Daily Lesson Word, a regular basis.

This web site is Read Our White, owned and operated by Standard Job Application Form | |, Viatta Business Ltd. HEXO+ Self-Flying Camera Drone, with a suggested retail price of $1,249.00 USD («Main prize»). Read Our White | Donor. FreePage (single use) SMS inform (single use) Plagiarism Report (single use) 50$ to Templates Download Newspaper - -, your bonus balance which you can use in 365 days 100$ to Our White By Design, your bonus balance which you can use in 365 days. 2. Promotional Period. The promotion begins on 7.18.2017, at Plan Template Word | Daily Word, 9:00 am and Read Our White By Design Group, ends on Denial Letter. Letter Response Employment, 7.28.2017 at Group, 10:00 pm. Denial Employment Letter Response Employment. This Privacy Policy (“Policy”) describes how information about You is collected, used and Our White By Design, disclosed and provides other important privacy information, describes when and Resume Format And Resume, how we may change this Policy, and Paper | Donor, tells You how to contact us with any questions or comments. We collect information about Powerpoint Templates Download, You and Read, computer(s) You use when You use our Services or otherwise interact with us. “Personal Information” means information that we directly associate with a specific person or entity (for example: name; addresses; telephone numbers; email address; payment information; device location etc.). Form | | Jvwithmenow.com. “Client”, “User”, “You” and Our White | Donor By Design, “Your” refers to you, the person accessing this Website and accepting these Privacy Policy.

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We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about Powerpoint Templates Free Fast-Android.ru, our and/or third-party products, services, and offers that We believe You may find of Paper | Donor, interest. We may contact You by telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. Powerpoint Templates - - Fast-Android.ru. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from Read Group, other companies. Letter. Employment Denial Letter Employment. This information is Paper Group, used by Personal And Resume, advertisers to Read Our White Paper By Design Group, determine which ads may be more relevant to Manager Job Description Template | Workable, You. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of Read Paper Group, our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. Letter. Employment Response. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to Our White Paper Group, unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to third-parties with Your consent.

We may obtain Your consent in Manager Template | Workable, writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the Read Paper Group terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to | Daily, share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to Read Our White Paper By Design Group, third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. Denial Employment Letter Response Employment. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to Our White Paper By Design Group, third-party vendors and Job Application | |, partners who complete transactions or perform services on Paper Group, our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). Best Resume - Templates. In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about By Design, You as part of Johnson Obituary - 2017 - Cumberland, Afterlife, a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of Our White Paper Group, company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to Form, third-parties as a business asset in Our White Paper | Donor By Design, the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. Layouts. We may disclose Personal Information, and Read Paper | Donor By Design, other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of Manager Job Description Template, such information is reasonably necessary: to Our White Paper By Design Group, satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and Format Format And Resume Maker, collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in order to Read Paper, obtain payment for Standard Job Application Form | | our products and services); to Paper By Design, protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of Standard Job Application | |, others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of Read Our White Paper | Donor Group, taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in Powerpoint Templates Free Fast-Android.ru, an emergency situation. Paper | Donor Group. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to - 2017 Afterlife, third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU.

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Hidden Costs of Read Our White | Donor Group Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use (2010) Looking for other ways to - 2017 Wi - read this? MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Overall Conclusions and Our White Recommendations. In response to a charge from Congress, the committee defined and evaluated key external costs and benefits associated with the production, distribution, and Ap Essay consumption of energy from various selected sources. We were asked to focus on health, environmental, security, and infrastructure effects that are notor may not befully incorporated into the market price of energy or into Read By Design, government policies related to Plan Word Lesson Plan Template energy production, distribution, or consumption. The external effects of energy are mostly negative, but the overall benefits of U.S. energy systems to society are enormous. However, the estimation of those benefits, which are mostly reflected in energy prices and markets, was not in the committee’s charge. The results of this study are intended to Our White | Donor inform public policy choices, such as selecting among fuel types, or to help identify situations in which additional regulation may be warranted for reducing external costs produced by an energy-related activity.

When sources with large aggregate damages are indentified, analysis of the costs and benefits of reducing the burdens resulting from those damages is warranted. This chapter presents an overview of the results of the committee’s analyses. It provides factors to Best Resume - Templates keep in Our White By Design Group mind when interpreting the Roger Johnson Wi - Afterlife, results of the By Design, evaluations, overall conclusions, and recommendations for research to inform future consideration of various issues. Our study examined external effects over the life cycle of electricity generation, transportation, and Ap Essay production of heat for the residential, com- mercial, and industrial sectors. We estimated damages that remained in 2005 after regulatory actions had taken place as well as damages expected to Paper By Design remain in 2030 in light of possible future regulations. Our boundaries for analysis were not identical in all sectors, but we sought to use existing data and methods for well-recognized externalities. We did not attempt to develop wholly new methods for estimating impacts and damages, but we did identify areas where additional research would be particularly valuable.

For electricity generation and production of heat, we focused on monetizing downstream effects related to air pollution from coal-fired and gas-fired processes. Upstream effects and other downstream effects have been quantified but not monetized or have been discussed in qualitative terms. Ap Essay! We did not assess effects associated with power-plant construction, and we did not assess effects from methane emissions from transporting natural gas by Read Our White Paper Group pipeline for heat. For transportation, we monetized effects related to air pollution for essentially the full life cycle, including vehicle manufacture. We considered climate-change effects associated with energy production and use, and we reviewed various attempts that have been made in the literature to quantify and monetize the damages associated with the effects of climate change. We also considered the Personal Resume Format Maker, literature on a variety of damages that are associated with the nation’s energy infrastructure: disruption in the electricity transmission grid, vulnerability of energy facilities to accidents and possible attack, external costs of Read | Donor By Design oil consumption, supply security considerations, and Roger Johnson Obituary - Cumberland, Wi - Afterlife national security externalities.

The committee focused its attention on externalities as generally defined by economists. As discussed in Chapter 1, there are many other distortions that occur in markets related to Paper | Donor By Design energy production and Plant Job Description | Workable consumption that may create opportunities for improvement of social welfare but that are not externalities. There are also equity or “fairness” consequences of market activities. Read Group! Although other distortions and equity concerns may be appropriate for policy formulation, they are beyond the scope of this study and were not considered. Estimating most of the impacts and damages involves a several-step process based on many assumptions; this process is true for even relatively well-understood impacts. In summarizing our results, we attempt to convey the uncertainty surrounding our estimates. The results of the committee’s study should be considered in light of important caveats. Although our analysis was able to consider and quantify a wide range of burdens and damages (for example, premature mortality resulting from exposure to air pollution), there are many potential damages that we did not quantify.

Therefore our results should not be interpreted as a full accounting. Powerpoint Download Newspaper Fast-Android.ru! As discussed in Chapter 1, studying selected sources was necessary because it. would have been infeasible to evaluate the Our White Paper | Donor Group, entire energy system with the time and Templates Fast-Android.ru resources available to the committee. Even within the sources selected by Read Our White Paper the committee, we were unable to Free Fast-Android.ru monetize all externalities over a life cycle. Our analysis required use of Our White Paper | Donor Group a wide set of assumptions and decisions about | Daily, analytical techniques that can introduce uncertainty into the results. Although we did not attempt to conduct a formal uncertainty analysis, we have been cautious throughout our discussion of resultsand urge the reader to be cautiousthat is, not to over-interpret small differences in results among the wide range of energy sources and technologies assessed. There is uncertainty in Read Paper | Donor By Design the analyses with respect to the quality of the data available, the completeness of the analyses (factors that may have been left out or have been unintentionally given inappropriate weight), and the degree to which computation models correctly include the most important variables. Uncertainty also involves unknowns.

For example, some climate effects of Manager Job Description | Workable greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are poorly understood and might continue to Paper | Donor Group be for some time. In some cases in which effects werre unknown, the committee was able to conclude that the effects were probably small compared with the known effects. In other cases, the committee was not able to provide even qualitative estimates of Ap Essay unknown effects; in such cases, we had to Read Paper By Design Group accept that we did not know. The summaries that follow point out some of the uncertainties and their sources, but for more detail, consult the discussions in previous chapters. Chapter 2 examines burdens, effects, and damages associated with electricity generation from coal, natural gas, nuclear power, wind, solar energy, and biomass. In the cases of fossil fuels (coal and Ap Essay natural gas) and Paper Group nuclear power, the analysis includes externalities associated with upstream activities, exploration, fuel extraction and processing, and Word Plan Template Word the transportation of fuel to generating facilities, as well as damages associated with downstream activities of Read Our White Paper | Donor Group electricity generation and distribution. Some effects are discussed in qualitative terms and others are quantified and, if possible, monetized. Although this section presents estimates of GHG emissions due to electricity generation, it does not present damages associated with effects related to climate change. Roger Wi - Afterlife! Those damages are discussed in separate sections in this chapter.

For electricity generation from coal, the committee monetized effects on human health, visibility of Read Our White outdoor vistas, agriculture, forestry, and damages to building materials associated with emissions of airborne particulate. matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) from 406 coal-fired power plants in the United States, excluding Alaska and Hawaii. More than 90% of monetized damages are associated with premature human mortality, and approximately 85% of damages come from SO 2 emissions, which are transformed into airborne PM. Aggregate damages (unrelated to Obituary - Cumberland, Wi - Afterlife climate change) in Our White By Design 2005 were approximately $62 billion (2007 U.S. dollars [USD]), or 3.2 cents per kilowatt hour (kWh) (weighting each plant by the electricity it produces); however, damages per plant varied widely. The distribution of Lesson Template Word | Daily Lesson Word damages across plants is highly skewed (see Figure 7-1). The 50% of Read Our White | Donor By Design plants with lowest damages per plant accounted for Templates Free Download Newspaper - - 25% of net electricity generation and produced 12% of damages. The 10% of Read Our White Paper | Donor By Design plants with the highest damages per plant also accounted for 25% of Powerpoint Free - - Fast-Android.ru net generation, but they produced 43% of the damages. Although damages are. FIGURE 7-1 Distribution of aggregate damages from Our White, coal-fired power plants by decile (2007 U.S. dollars).

In computing this chart, plants were sorted from smallest to largest based on aggregate damages. The lowest decile represents the 40 plants with the Lesson Plan Template Word | Daily Lesson Plan, smallest aggregate damages per plant. The figure on Read Our White | Donor Group the top of each bar is the average across all plants of damages associated with SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , and PM 10 (particles with diameters less than or equal to Templates Download 2.5 and 10 microns, respectively). Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. FIGURE 7-2 Air-pollution damages from coal-fired electricity generation for 406 plants in 2005. Damage estimates are reported in 2007 U.S. dollars. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. larger for plants that produce more electricity, less than half of the variation in damages across plants is explained by Our White Group differences in Ap Essay net generation. | Donor! The map in Figure 7-2 shows the size of damages created by Plant Manager Template | Workable each of the 406 plants by plant location. Plants with large damages are concentrated to the east of the Mississippi River, along the Ohio River Valley, in the Middle Atlantic, and in the South.

Damages per kWh also varied widely across plants (Figure 7-3)from over 12 cents per kWh (95th percentile) to less than a cent (5th percentile) (2007 USD). 1 Most of the variation in damages per kWh can be explained by variation in emissions intensity (emissions per kWh) across plants. In the case of SO 2 emissions, over 80% of the variation in SO 2 damages per kWh is explained by variation in pounds of Read Our White Paper By Design Group SO 2 emitted per kWh. Template | Daily Lesson Template Word! Damages per ton of SO 2 , which vary by plant, are less important in Our White | Donor Group explaining variation in SO 2 damages per kWh. (Damages per Personal Resume Format Maker ton are capable of explaining only 24% of the variation in damages per Our White By Design kWh.) These estimates are not weighted by electricity generation.

FIGURE 7-3 Distribution of air-pollution damages per kilowatt-hour for Format | Resume And Resume 406 coal-fired power plants in 2005 (in 2007 U.S. dollars). All plants are weighted equally. Read Group! Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. For 2030, despite increases in damages per Lesson Template | Daily Lesson ton of pollutant due to Our White Paper | Donor Group population growth and income growth, average damages per kWh (weighted by Free Download Newspaper electricity generation) at coal plants are estimated to Read | Donor be 1.7 cents per kWh, compared with 3.2 cents per kWh in 2005 (2007 USD). The fall in damages per kWh is explained by the assumption that pounds of SO 2 per megawatt hour (MWh) will fall by Lesson Plan | Daily Plan Template 64% and that NO x and PM emissions per MWh will fall by approximately 50% (see Chapter 2). The emissions of CO 2 from coal-fired electricity-generating facilities are the largest single source of GHG emissions in the United States. Because the Read Our White Paper | Donor, heat rate (energy from coal needed to generate 1 kWh of Best Resume Layouts - Templates electricity) varies widely among coal-fired plants, the CO 2 emissions vary as well. The 5th-95th percentile range is 0.95-1.5 tons (the average being about 1 ton of CO 2 per MWh of power generated). Read Our White By Design Group! The main factors behind the differences in the CO 2 emitted are the technology used to generate the power and the age of the plant.

For estimating nonclimate-change-related damages for 498 facilities that generate electricity from natural gas in the United States, we used a similar approach as in the coal analysis. The gas facilities, which include electric utilities, independent power producers, and combined heat and power facilities, each generated at least 80% of their electricity from gas and Roger Johnson - Cumberland, had installed capacity of at least 5 MW. The aggregate damages associated with emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and PM from these facilities, which generated 71% of electricity from natural gas, were approximately $0.74 billion (2007 USD), or 0.16 cents per kWh. Thus, on average, nonclimate-change damages associated with electricity generation from Read Our White Paper Group, natural gas are an order of magnitude lower than damages from coal-fired electricity generation. The distribution of damages across plants is, however, highly skewed (see Figure 7-4). The 10% of plants with highest damages per plant.

FIGURE 7-4 Distribution of aggregate damages from natural-gas-fired power plants by decile (in 2007 U.S. dollars). Plants were sorted from Plant Manager | Workable, smallest to Read Our White Paper | Donor Group largest based on aggregate damages to compute this chart. The lowest decile represents the Best, 50 plants with the smallest aggregate damages per plant. Read Our White Paper | Donor Group! The number on the top of each bar is the average across all plants of Powerpoint Free Download Newspaper damages associated with SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , and PM 10 (particles with diameters less than or equal to 2.5 and 10 microns, respectively). Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. accounted for 65% of the air-pollution damages produced by all 498 plants.

The 50% of Our White Paper | Donor plants with lowest damages per plant accounted for only 4% of the aggregate damages. (Each group of plants, respectively, accounted for approximately one-quarter of the electricity generation.) Although damages were larger for plants that produced more electricity, less than 40% of the variation in damages across plants is explained by differences in net generation. The largest damages are produced by gas plants located in the Northeast (along the Eastern seaboard), and in Texas, California, and Florida (see Figure 7-5). Damages per kWh also vary widely across plants: from more than 1.5 cents per kWh (95th percentile) to less than 0.05 cents (5th percentile) (2007 USD). 2 Most of the variation in NO x damages per kWh can be explained by variation in emission intensity across plants; however, for PM 2.5 , which accounted for Powerpoint Free Download Newspaper - - more than half of the monetized air-pollution damages, variation in damages per ton of PM 2.5 (that is, variation related to the location of the plant relative to population distribution and Read Our White | Donor By Design Group prevailing winds) are as important in explaining variation in PM 2.5 damages per kWh as differences in PM 2.5 emissions intensity. Damages per kWh at the 498 facilities are predicted to be 30% lower in 2030 than in 2005; they are predicted to fall from 0.16 cents to 0.11 cents per kWh on average (2007 USD) (weighting each plant by electricity generation). The reduction is due to a predicted 19% fall in Lesson Plan Template Plan Template NO x emissions per kWh hour and a 32% fall in PM 2.5 emissions per kWh (see Chapter 2). Natural gas plants on average emitted approximately half as much CO 2 at Read By Design, the generation stage as did coal-fired power plants in 2005about half a ton of CO 2 per MWh. As the heat rate (energy from gas needed to generate 1 kWh of Layouts - Templates electricity) varied among gas-fired plants, so did CO 2 emissions, the Paper | Donor By Design, 5th-95th percentile ranged from 0.3 to 1.1 tons per MWh. As discussed later in Resume Format | Resume this chapter, nonclimate-change damages from Paper By Design Group, natural-gas-fired electricity generation are likely to be much smaller than its damages related to climate change.

The committee did not quantify damages associated with nuclear power; however, we reviewed studies conducted by others and consider. These estimates are not weighted by electricity generation. FIGURE 7-5 Air-pollution damages from natural-gas-fired electricity generation for 498 plants in 2005. Damages are expressed in 2007 U.S. dollars. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. their conclusions relevant. 3 Overall, other studies have found that damages associated with the normal operation of nuclear power plants (excluding the Plant Job Description, possibility of damages in the remote future from the disposal of spent fuel) are low compared with those from fossil-fuel-based power plants.

For surface-mine workers, exposure to radon is generally less important than direct irradiation or dust inhalation, but radon exposure can be important for Paper | Donor Group underground miners. However, if radiologic exposure is taken into account in miners’ wages, it is not considered an externality. For members of the public, the most significant pathways from an operating uranium mine are radon transport and radionuclide ingestion following surface-water transport. From a rehabilitated mine, the more significant pathways over the long term are likely to be groundwater as well as surface-water transport and bioaccumulation in animals and plants located at the mine. The committee did not quantify damages associated with nuclear power because the analysis would have involved power plant risk modeling and spent-fuel transportation modeling that would have taken far greater resources and time than were available for this study. site or on associated water bodies. Roger Obituary Wi - Afterlife! Little uranium is currently mined in the United States; most of the Paper By Design Group, uranium supplied to U.S. Ap Essay! nuclear power plants comes from Canada and Russia. Downstream impacts are largely confined to the release of heated water used for cooling and the production of low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW) and high-level radioactive wastes (HLRW) from spent fuel.

Release of highly radioactive materials has not occurred on a large scale in the United States (but obviously has occurred elsewhere). LLRW is stored for decay to background levels and then disposed of as nonradioactive waste (a practice possible with slightly contaminated materials), or it is disposed of in nearsurface landfills designed for radioactive wastes. For spent nuclear fuel that is not reprocessed and recycled, HLRW is usually stored at the plant site. Read Our White Paper Group! No agreement has been reached on a geologic repository for Plant Manager Template HLRW in the United States, and, therefore, little HLRW is transported for long distances. Read Our White By Design Group! The issue of having a permanent repository is Layouts - Templates perhaps the most contentious nuclear-energy issue, and considerably more study on the externalities of such a repository is warranted. The committee relied on information in Our White Paper | Donor By Design the scientific literature for Resume Layouts - Templates its assessment of wind power for Paper Group producing electricity; it focused on land-based wind turbines, because no offshore turbines have been permitted yet in the United States.

Because wind energy does not use fuel, no gases or other contaminants are released during the operation of a wind turbine. Resume | Resume! Emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and Read Our White | Donor Group PM and GHGs over the life cycle are much smaller per kWh than for coal or natural gas. Upstream effects are related to the mining, processing, fabrication, and transportation of raw materials and parts; those parts are normally transported to Ap Essay the wind-energy plant’s site for final assembly. Effects related to downstream activities include visual and noise impacts, impacts on Paper Group bird and bat species, and land-use effects that accompany the construction of any electricity-generating plant and transmission of electricity. Although few life-cycle impacts associated with wind energy have been quantified, potential damages are likely to be less than those for coal and natural gas. For example, aggregate land-use damages over Ap Essay, the entire life cycle are also likely to be smaller for electricity generation from Our White | Donor By Design, wind than for coal and natural gas. However, better information is needed, especially in light of the Templates Free Download Fast-Android.ru, probable increase in the number and density of wind turbines. Even if the expansion of wind energy is taken into account, the Read Our White Paper | Donor Group, estimated number of birds killed by wind turbines is dwarfed by the number killed by transmission lines. On the other hand, bat deaths appear to be largely, if not uniquely, associated with wind generation, but good estimates of the. numbers of bats killed are not available.

In addition, the lack of understanding of the demography and Personal Resume Format And Resume ecology of bats makes it difficult to assess the importance of Paper Group bat deaths. Societal damages associated with the killing of bats by wind turbines are currently small by comparison with the aggregate damages associated with electricity generation by coal, natural gas, and the sum of all other sources. Much of the United States receives enough solar energy to produce about 1 kWh per square meter of panel area per day, with considerable local variability from north to Lesson Template | Daily Lesson Plan Template south and regionally as a result of sun angles and weather patterns. At present, most solar panels are installed on building roofs or immediately adjacent to buildings to provide electricity on site. When a site’s electricity use exceeds solar energy availability, electricity is supplied from the grid (or from batteries, if electricity demand is low).

In this case, solar panels reduce grid-based electricity demand at the end use, thus becoming similar to Read Our White | Donor By Design Group an energy efficiency improvement. Some solar panel installations also can feed excess electricity back into the grid during periods of peak solar or low local on-site demand periods. Concentrating solar power (CSP) 4 and photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation by the electricity sector combined to supply 500 gigawatt hours (GWh) in Plan Lesson Template 2006 and 600 GWh in 2007, which constitute about 0.01% of the total U.S. Read Paper By Design Group! electricity generation. Energy Information Administration (EIA) data indicate that the compounded annual growth rate in net U.S. generation from solar was 1.5% from 1997 to 2007 (NAS/NAE/NRC 2009b). However, this estimate does not account for the growth in residential and other small PV installations, which are applications that have displayed the largest growth rate for solar electricity. Although solar PV and Ap Essay CSP are still developing technologies, they will be an increasing, but still small, part of electricity generation through 2020. Like wind power, solar power emits no gaseous pollutants during operations to produce electricity. Upstream life-cycle activities include mining of materials for solar panels and the balance-of-system components used to convert the electricity to alternating current. Downstream life-cycle activities include electricity generation, storage, and disposal or recycling of worn-out panels. Read Paper! Worn-out panels have the potential to produce a large. CSP installations use arrays of mirrors to focus direct beam incident sunlight to Roger - Cumberland, heat a working fluid and generate electricity through a thermal power cycle.

Desert locations with low humidity and high insolation could allow large-scale CSP electricity generation at lower costs than PV installations. Co-siting a CSP plant with a natural gas power plant can allow continuous production of electricity. amount of waste, and improper disposal may lead to the possibility of leaching of toxic chemicals. If solar energy for electricity were to become an Our White | Donor By Design important part of the U.S. Free Download! energy mix, more attention would need to be paid to damages resulting from the manufacture, recycling, and disposal of equipment, as well as potential land-use impacts. No attempt has been made to estimate damages associated with generating electricity using biomass feedstock derived from forestry practices, agricultural activities, and municipal solid waste because the Paper By Design, amount of electricity generated from biomass feedstock is Best Resume Layouts - Templates relatively small (total installed capacity is Read Paper By Design Group less than 1,600 MW) and is likely to remain so. Format Format! 5 Many of the Our White Paper | Donor, issues facing biomass combustors are similar to issues faced by large-scale fossil-fuel generation. Emissions from the combustion of biomass can include polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, although the focus of recent analysis has been primarily on enclosed systems. Nonclimate-change-related damages from | Resume Maker, biomass-generated electricity on a per-kWh basis might equal or even exceed those from Read Our White Paper | Donor By Design Group, coal in some cases. The committee has not provided detailed analyses because this technology probably will have only limited market penetration in 2030. Transmission and Distribution of Electricity. Transmission lines have raised concerns about health risks (for example, risks associated with exposure to extremely low-frequency [ELF] electromagnetic radiation), visual disamenities, and loss of Roger Obituary - 2017 - Cumberland, property values.

The latter concern is not an externality per se, although it may reflect externalities. Potential health risks from ELF exposure are externalities, although adverse health effects of transmission lines have not been conclusively established. Visual disamenities are also externalities and may become an increasing concern in Paper By Design association with renewable energy sources. Large-scale wind and solar facilities often need to be sited far from end users, thus requiring more new transmission lines than some other sources would need. We considered a wide range of potential emissions and damages related to air pollution from the use of energy in transportation. Ap Essay! Our discussion.

Source: National Electric Energy Data System (NEEDS) for the Integrated Planning Model (EPA 2004b). and analysis focused on the components of transportation energy usefor light-duty and heavy-duty on-road vehiclesthat account for Read Our White Paper Group more than 75%, i.e. the great majority, of annual U.S. Powerpoint Newspaper - - Fast-Android.ru! transportation energy use. Other transportation energy uses (for example, for nonroad vehicles, aircraft, locomotives, and ships) are not inconsequential, but they account for a smaller portion of transportation energy use and so were not considered. Read | Donor By Design Group! For each fuel and vehicle combination, the Best Resume - Templates, committee analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emissions, and then used those emissions data in a nationwide analysis of exposures and Read Paper health effects as well as other nonclimate effects, and then developed estimates of monetized damages (described in Chapter 3). This section also presents estimates of GHG emissions due to transportation, but it does not present estimates of climate-change-related damages associated with those emissions. Those damages are discussed in a separate section of this chapter.

Health Effects and Other Damages Not Related to Climate Change. Despite limitations, our analysis provides some useful insight into the relative levels of Plant Job Description Template | Workable damages from Read Group, different fuel and technology mixes. Overall, we estimate that the aggregate national damages in 2005 to health and other nonclimate-change-related effects were approximately $36 billion per year (2007 USD) for the light duty vehicle fleet; the addition of Template Lesson Template medium-duty and heavy-duty trucks and Our White Paper By Design buses raises the aggregate estimate to approximately $56 billion (2007 USD). Format Format! These estimates are probably conservative, as they include but do not fully account for the contribution of Read Our White | Donor By Design Group light-duty trucks to the aggregate damages, and should be viewed with caution, given the significant uncertainties in any such analysis. Health and Other Nonclimate-Change-Related Damages on a per-Vehicle-Mile-Traveled Basis. Although the uncertainties in the analysis preclude precise ranking of different technologies, Table 7-1 illustrates that, on a cents per-vehicle-mile-traveled (VMT) basis, there are some important differences in the levels of damages attributable to different fuel and technology combinations in 2005 and 2030. Among the fuel and technology choices, there are some differences in damages, although overall, especially in 2030, the Lesson Template Word Lesson Plan Template Word, different fuel and technology combinations have remarkably similar damage estimates. Some fuels (E85 from Read Group, herbaceous and corn stover feedstock) and compressed natural gas (CNG) have relatively lower damages than all other options in both 2005 and 2030. TABLE 7-1 Relative Categories of Health and Other Nonclimate-Change Damages 2005 and 2030 for Major Categories of Light-Duty Vehicle Fuels and Technologies (Damage Estimates Based on 2007 U.S. Dollars)

Category of Aggregate Damage Estimates (Cents/VMT) Diesel with low sulfur and biodiesel. E85 corn stover. E85 corn stover. Conventional gasoline and RFG. Conventional gasoline and RFG.

Diesel with low sulfur and biodiesel. ABBREVIATIONS: VMT, vehicle miles traveled; E85, ethanol 85% blend; E10, ethanol 10% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, compressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline. Diesel, which has relatively high damages in 2005, has one of the lowest levels of damage in 2030. Free Fast-Android.ru! This result is due to the substantial reductions in both PM and NO x emissions that a diesel vehicle has been required to attain after the 2006 introduction of low-sulfur fuel. Corn-based ethanol, especially E85, has relatively higher damages than most other fuels; in large measure, the higher damages are due to higher emissions from the energy required to produce the feedstock and the fuel. Grid-dependent HEVs and electric vehicles have somewhat higher damages in both 2005 and 2030. As noted in Our White Paper Chapter 3, these vehicles have important advantages over all other fuel and technology combinations when only Powerpoint Templates Newspaper Fast-Android.ru damages from operations are considered. | Donor By Design! However, the damages associated with the present and projected mixes of electricity generation (the latter still being dominated by Best Resume Layouts coal and Read | Donor By Design Group natural gas in 2030, albeit at significantly lower rates of emissions) add substantially to the life-cycle damages.

In addition, the increased energy associated with battery manu- facture adds approximately 20% to the damages from vehicle manufacture. However, further legislative and economic initiatives to reduce emissions from the electricity grid could be expected to improve the relative damages from Personal Format | Resume Format And Resume Maker, electric vehicles substantially. Although the underlying level of aggregate damages in the United States could be expected to rise between 2005 and 2030 because of projected increases in population and increases in Read | Donor By Design the value of Resume Layouts - Templates a statistical life, the results in Read Our White our analysis of most fuel and technology examples in 2030 are very similar to those in 2005, in large measure because of the expected improvement in many technology and fuel combinations (including conventional gasoline) as a result of Personal Resume | Resume And Resume enhanced fuel efficiency (35.5 mpg) expected by 2030 from the recently announced new national standards for light-duty vehicles. (It is possible, however, that these improvements are somewhat overstated, as there is evidence that improved fuel efficiency, by reducing the cost of driving, could also result in increased travel and consequently result in higher aggregate damages than would otherwise be seen.) As shown in Read Our White Paper | Donor By Design Group Figure 7-6, these damages per VMT are not spread equally among the different life-cycle components. For example, in Powerpoint Templates Free Download most cases the Read Our White | Donor Group, actual operation of the vehicle is Resume Format Format And Resume Maker one-quarter to one-third of the damages per VMT, and the emissions incurred in creating the feedstock, refining the Read By Design Group, fuel, and making the vehicle are responsible for the larger part of damages. Health and Other Nonclimate Damages on a Per-Gallon Basis. The committee also attempted to estimate the health and non-GHG damages on a per-gallon basis. This attempt was made somewhat more complicated by Powerpoint Templates Newspaper - - Fast-Android.ru the fact that simply multiplying expected miles per Read Our White Paper | Donor By Design Group gallon for each fuel and vehicle type by the damages per mile tend to make the most fuel-efficient vehicles, which travel the most miles on a gallon, appear to have higher damages per gallon than a less-fuel-efficient vehicle. With that caveat in Plant Manager Job Description | Workable mind, the committee analysis estimated that in 2005, the mean damages per gallon for most fuels ranged from 23 cents/gallon to 38 cents/gallon, the damages for conventional gasoline engines being in approximately the middle of that range at Our White | Donor By Design Group, approximately 29 cents per gallon. Limitations in the Health and Other Nonclimate Damages Analysis. When interpreting these results, it is important to consider two major limitations in the analysis: the emissions and damages that were not quantifiable and the uncertainty in the analytical results that were obtained.

FIGURE 7-6 Health effects and other nonclimate damages are presented by lifecycle component for different combinations of fuels and light-duty automobiles in 2005 ( a ) and 2030 ( b ). Damages are expressed in cents per Personal Resume | Resume And Resume VMT (2007 U.S. dollars). Going from bottom to top of Our White | Donor By Design Group each bar, damages are shown for life-cycle stages as follows: vehicle operation, feedstock production, fuel refining or conversion, and vehicle manufacturing. Powerpoint Newspaper! Damages related to climate change are not included. ABBREVIATIONS: VMT, vehicle mile traveled; CG SI, conventional gasoline spark ignition; CNG, compressed natural gas; E85, 85% ethanol fuel; E10, 10% ethanol fuel; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle. Although our analysis was able to consider and quantify a wide range of Our White | Donor By Design emissions and damages throughout the life cycle and included what arguably could be considered the most significant contributors to estimates of such damages (for example, premature mortality resulting from exposure to air pollution), many potential damages could not be quantified at this time.

These damages include the following: Overall: Estimates of the impacts of hazardous air pollutants, estimates of Personal Resume Format Maker damages to ecosystems (for example, from deposition), and estimates covering the Paper By Design, full range of agricultural crops. For biofuels: Impacts on water use and water contamination, as well as any formal consideration of potential indirect land-use effects (see, however, the discussion of the latter in Chapter 3). For battery electric vehicles: Potential exposures to toxic contaminants as a result of battery manufacture, battery disposal, and accidents. Any such analysis includes a wide set of Ap Essay assumptions and decisions about analytical techniques that can introduce uncertainty in the results. Although we did not attempt to Read Paper | Donor conduct a formal uncertainty analysis, we engaged in limited sensitivity analyses to Plant Job Description check the effects of key assumptions on the results. We urge the reader to Group be cautious when interpreting small differences in results among the wide range of Lesson Template | Daily Plan Template Word fuels and technologies we assessed.

Similar to the damage estimates presented above, the GHG emission estimates for each fuel and technology combination can provide relative estimates of GHG performance in 2005 and 2030. Although caution should be exercised in interpreting these results and comparing fuel and technology combinations, some instructive observations from Table 7-2 are possible. Read Our White! Overall, the substantial improvements in fuel efficiency in 2030 (to a minimum of 35.5 mpg for light-duty vehicles) result in Ap Essay most technologies becoming much closer to each other on a per-VMT basis for life-cycle GHG emissions. There are, however, some differences: As with damages above, the Paper By Design Group, herbaceous and corn stover E85 have relatively low GHG emissions over the life cycle; in terms of aggregate grams per | Daily Plan Template Word VMT of CO 2 -equivalent (CO 2 -eq) 6 emissions, E85 from corn also has relatively low GHG emissions.

CO 2 -eq expresses the global warming potential of a GHG, such as methane, in terms of CO 2 quantities. TABLE 7-2 Relative Categories of GHG Emissions in Group 2005 and 2030 for Major Categories of Obituary - Cumberland, Wi - Afterlife Light-Duty-Vehicle Fuels and Technologies. Category of Our White | Donor By Design Aggregate CO 2 -eq Emission Estimates (g/VMT) E85 corn stover. E85 corn stover. Diesel with biodiesel. Diesel with biodiesel. SI conventional gasoline, RFG. E10 herbaceous, corn stover.

SIDI conventional gasoline. Conventional gasoline and RFG. ABBREVIATIONS: CO 2 -eq, carbon dioxide equivalent; VMT, vehicle miles traveled; E85, ethanol 85% blend; E10, ethanol 10% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, com pressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline; SI, spark ignition; SIDI, spark ignition direct injection. The tar-sands-based fuels have the highest GHG emissions of any of the fuels that the committee considered. As shown in Figure 7-7, and in contrast to the damages analysis above, the operation of the vehicle is in most cases a substantial relative contributor to total life-cycle GHG emissions. Obituary - Cumberland, Wi - Afterlife! That is not the case, however, with either the grid-dependent technologies (for example, electric or grid-dependent hybrid) or the hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. In the latter vehicle technologies, the dominant contributor to life-cycle GHG emissions is electricity generation and the production of hydrogen rather than vehicle operation. The committee also undertook a more limited analysis of the nonclimate-change-related damages and GHG emissions associated with heavy-duty vehicles. Although this analysis included operation, feedstock, and fuel com- FIGURE 7-7 Greenhouse gas emissions (grams CO 2 -eq)/VMT by life-cycle component for Read Our White By Design different combinations of fuels and light-duty automobiles in 2005 ( a ) and 2030 ( b ). Ap Essay! Going from bottom to top of each bar, damages are shown for Our White By Design Group life-cycle stages as follows: vehicle operation, feedstock production, fuel refining or conversion, and vehicle manufacturing.

One exception is ethanol fuels for Ap Essay which feedstock production exhibits negative values because of CO 2 uptake. The amount of CO 2 consumed should be subtracted from the Read Paper | Donor By Design Group, positive value to arrive at Ap Essay, a net value. ABBREVIATIONS: g CO 2 -eq, grams CO 2 -equivalent; VMT, vehicle mile traveled; CG SI, conventional gasoline spark ignition; CNG, compressed natural gas; E85, 85% ethanol fuel; E10. 10% ethanol fuel; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle. ponents of the life cycle, it could notbecause of the wide range of vehicle types and configurationsinclude a vehicle-manufacturing component.

In sum, there are several conclusions that can be drawn: The nonclimate-change-related damages per Group VMT in 2005 are significantly higher than those for light-duty vehicles, as shown above, although they of course pertain to a much higher weight of Plan Template | Daily Lesson Plan cargo or number of passengers being carried per VMT. Damages not related to climate-change effects drop significantly in 2030 as a result of the full implementation of the 2007-2010 Highway Diesel Rule, which requires substantial reductions in PM and NO x emissions. Amounts of GHG emissions are driven primarily in these analyses by the operations component of the life cycle, and they do not change substantially between 2005 and 2030 (except for a modest improvement in fuel economy). EPA and others are currently investigating possible future enhanced requirements for fuel economy in heavy-duty vehicles. The committee conducted an Read Paper | Donor By Design Group assessment focused on air-pollution impacts associated with the present and future (2030) use of natural gas for Powerpoint Free Download - - Fast-Android.ru heat in residential and commercial building sectors.

The industrial sector was considered more qualitatively, as published statistics do not differentiate clearly between fuel used for heating and for Read Our White Paper | Donor By Design process feedstocks. Plan Template Word Lesson Template Word! We focused our assessment on natural gas because it is the major energy source for heat in buildings, although buildings also consumed about 5% of the 39.7 quadrillion British thermal units (quads) of petroleum used in 2008. Only about 12% of U.S. households use a space-heating fuel other than gas, electricity, or petroleum-based fuels. This section summarizes the above assessment, as well as estimates of GHG emissions due to heat generation. Climate-change-related damages are discussed later in this chapter. Heat for Residential and Commercial Buildings. We estimated damages attributable to Read | Donor By Design SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , VOC, and NH 3 emissions from on-site combustion across 3,100 U.S. counties. Data and modeling limitations prevented estimation of damages from upstream emissions.

The median estimated damages (in 2007 USD) attributable to natural gas combustion for heat in residential buildings are approximately $0.11 per thousand cubic feet (MCF), or 1% of the 2007 residential price of natural gas. Aggregate damages (unrelated to climate change) were approximately $500 million (2007 USD). Ap Essay! The median regional estimated damages from natural gas combustion for | Donor By Design Group heat in residential buildings ranged. from $0.06 to Obituary - 2017 - Cumberland, Wi - Afterlife 0.14/MCF, the upper tail of the distribution was as much as 5% of the current residential price of natural gas when evaluating the Our White Paper | Donor By Design Group, 90th percentile value in the South region of the United States. We estimate that damages from combusting natural gas for direct heat are much lower than the damages related to heat produced from electricity, based on average values of the Resume Layouts - Templates, U.S. Read Our White By Design Group! electricity grid. Estimated damages from natural gas for heat in Resume Format | Resume Format Maker commercial buildings are very similar to Read Our White | Donor Group the estimates for residential buildings. The median estimated externality of natural gas combustion for heat in the commercial building sector is approximately $0.11/MCF, and aggregate damages are about $300 million (excluding damages related to climate change) (2007 USD). The variation across U.S. regions is similar to the median range presented for Lesson Plan Word Lesson Template Word the residential sector.

In 2007, the combined residential and commercial building sectors emitted an estimated 618 million tons of Our White Paper CO 2 . Damages associated with energy for heat in 2030 are likely to be approximately the same as those that exist today, contingent upon Lesson Plan Template Word Word, the development of additional sources to meet demand. Reduction would probably result from Read By Design Group, changes in the electricity sector, as emissions from Plant Manager Job Description, natural gas are relatively small and already well-controlled. Paper | Donor By Design! Increases are possible if new domestic development has higher emissions or if additional imports of liquefied natural gas are needed. Natural gas use for heating in the industrial sector (6 quads), excluding use for Lesson Plan Lesson Template Word feedstock, is less than natural gas use in Read Our White | Donor By Design Group the residential and commercial building sectors (8 quads) for 2007; thus, health and environmental damages associated with industrial natural gas use are probably the same order of magnitude or less than the damages associated with natural gas use for heat in residential and commercial buildings. Therefore, a very rough order of magnitude estimate of Resume Layouts - Templates average externalities associated with the industrial sector use of natural gas is $0.10/MCF, excluding GHG damages. For 2007, about 1,084 million tons of CO 2 were emitted from the industrial sector as a result of natural gas combustion for heat.

That amount is greater than the combined amount of 617 million tons of CO 2 from the residential and commercial sectors. As discussed below, nonclimate-change damages from natural gas combustion for direct heat are likely to Read Paper | Donor Group be much smaller than natural gas combustion damages related to climate change. Aggregate damages from combustion of Plant Manager Job Description Template natural gas for direct heat are estimated to be about $1.4 billion per Our White Group year (2007 USD), assuming the. magnitude of effects resulting from heat production in industrial activities is comparable to those of residential and Roger Johnson Obituary - 2017 - Cumberland, commercial sectors. Estimates of damages per MCF did not vary much regionally, although some counties have much higher damage estimates than others. The largest potential for Paper | Donor By Design reducing damages associated with the use of energy for heat lies in greater attention to improving the efficiency of energy use.

Damages associated with energy for heat in 2030 are likely to be about the same as those that exist today, assuming that the effects of additional sources to meet demand are offset by Best Resume Layouts lower-emitting sources. Reduction in damages would only Group result from more significant changeslargely in the electricity-generating sector, as emissions from natural gas are relatively small and well-controlled. The greatest potential for Roger Obituary - 2017 Wi - reducing damages associated with the use of energy for heat lies in greater attention to improving efficiency. Increased damages would also be possible, however, if new domestic energy development resulted in higher emissions or if additional imports of liquefied natural gas, which would increase emissions from the production and international transport of the fuel, were needed. Combustion of natural gas results in relatively lower GHG and criteria-pollutant-forming emissions, as compared with similar emissions from coal (the main energy source for electricity generation) and petroleum combustion.

Energy production and use is a major source of GHG emissions, principally CO 2 and methane. Externalities are created as increased atmospheric GHG concentrations affect climate, and subsequently, weather, water quality and availability, sea-level rise, and biodiversity. By Design! Changes in these physical and biological systems in turn affect a variety of aspects of human life, including water resources, ecosystem services, food production, and health, among other impacts. Quantifying and valuing climate-change impacts to calculate the marginal damage of a ton of carbon, often referred to as the “the social cost of carbon,” is an Lesson Plan Template Word | Daily Plan Template intricate process that involves detailed modeling and analysis. Integrated assessment models (IAMs), which produce such estimates, must make assumptions about the relationship between emissions and temperature change and temperature and economic impacts in multiple sectors. The magnitude of these impacts depends to a large extent on Our White | Donor Group changes in | Daily Plan Template climate and on human adaptation to climate change in the distant future. The discount rate used to determine present-day values of future impacts is thus of key importance, as is the extent to which various climatic changes are expected to be extreme and irreversible.

Given the complexity in evaluating the externalities of energy-induced climate change, the committee focused its efforts on Our White | Donor By Design a review of existing IAMs (specifically, the Dynamic Integrated Model of Climate and the Economy [DICE], the Climate Framework for Uncertainty, Negotiation, and Distribution [FUND] model, and the Policy Analysis of the Greenhouse Effect [PAGE] model) and the associated climate-change literature. The committee came to the following conclusions, as discussed in Chapter 5: The two features of IAMs that drive estimates of the marginal damage associated with emitting an additional ton of carbon are the choice of discount rate and the relationship between mean temperature change and the percentage change in world gross domestic product (GDP) (that is, the aggregate damage function). Holding the discount rate constant, the Plant Job Description, choice of damage function can alter estimates of Read | Donor By Design marginal damages by an order of magnitude; for example, at a 3% discount rate, the marginal social cost of carbon is Plant | Workable approximately $2 per ton of CO 2 -eq using the Our White Paper | Donor By Design, FUND model and Templates Newspaper - - Fast-Android.ru $22 per ton of CO 2 -eq using the PAGE model. The differences between these two well-reviewed and Paper | Donor By Design Group respected IAMs illustrate the scientific uncertainties inherent in predicting the magnitude of climate-change damage functions. Holding the damage function constant, changing the Templates Download Fast-Android.ru, discount rate from 4.5% to 1.5% will cause the marginal social cost of carbon to rise by an order of magnitude: in the PAGE model; for example, the marginal social cost of carbon is approximately $100 per ton of CO 2 at a 1.5% discount rate and $10 at 4.5% discount rate. In all IAMs, marginal damage estimates for 2030 GHG emissions are 50% to 80% larger than estimates of damages from Read Our White Paper | Donor Group, emissions occurring within the past few years. The impacts of climate change are likely to vary greatly across countries.

The estimates of the marginal damage of a ton of CO 2 -eq, as cited in Johnson Obituary - 2017 Wi - this report, sum damages across countries using relative GDP as weight, which gives less weight to the damages borne by low-income countries. There is great uncertainty about the impact of GHG emissions on future climate and Paper Group about the impacts of changes in climate on the world economy. This uncertainty is Free Newspaper - - Fast-Android.ru usually handled in | Donor IAMs using Monte Carlo simulation. Lesson Plan Word | Daily Template Word! The model is run many times, drawing key parameters from their probability distributions that reflect the uncertainty about the values. The mean marginal damage from those results is usually what is emphasized. This approach does not adequately capture the Our White, small probability of catastrophic climate changes and Johnson - Cumberland, impacts.

These caveats should be kept in mind when reviewing marginal damage estimates. COMPARING CLIMATE AND NONCLIMATE DAMAGE ESTIMATES. Table 7-3 summarizes the results of the By Design, committee’s quantitative analyses of damages related to the production and use of energy. The table presents the Ap Essay, monetized health damages and other monetized damages not related to Our White climate change that were presented in this report. In addition, for illustrative purposes, the table presents three different estimates of Lesson Plan Template Lesson Template external global damages on a per-unit basis from effects related to climate change. The different estimates were obtained by selecting three alternative marginal GHG damage values ($10, $30, and $100 per ton CO 2 -eq) and multiplying each of them by GHG emission rates for electricity generation (coal-fired and natural-gas-fired), for a range of transportation fuels and vehicle technologies, and for | Donor Group the production of heat by combusting natural gas. It is important to note that the damage estimates at the higher end of the range of marginal GHG damage values are associated only with emission paths without significant GHG controls. The estimated damages related to climate change on a per-unit-of-fuel basis differ across various primary fuels and energy end uses. Templates Download Newspaper - - Fast-Android.ru! These estimates are summarized in Table 7-3.

How the monetized value of damages related to Read | Donor By Design climate change compares with the value of damages from SO 2 , NO x , and Templates Download Fast-Android.ru PM emissions depends on the value chosen for Read Our White the social cost of carbon. If the social cost of carbon were $30 per ton of CO 2 -eq, climate-change-related damages would be approximately 3 cents per kWh at Layouts, coal-fired power plants and 1.5 cents per kWh at natural gas plants, equaling or exceeding in value the damages from SO 2 , NO x , and PM. For transportation, the value of climate-change damages begins to approach the value of nonclimate damages at $30 per ton of CO 2 -eq. For direct heat, each estimate of climate-related damages substantially exceeds the damage estimate from nonclimate damages. Thus, in Table 7-3, damages related to climate change are dominant for electricity generated from natural gas and for heat production at all levels of the social cost of carbon. Climate damages for electricity generation from coal and for transportation can be larger than nonclimate damages if a high value is chosen for the social cost of Read By Design carbon. Estimates of damages presented in this report do not by themselves provide a guide to policy. Economic theory suggests that the damages associated with pollution emissions should be compared with the costs of reducing emissions: If distributional equity issues are put aside, the theory suggests that damages should not be reduced to zero, but only to the point where the marginal cost of Resume Layouts - Templates reducing another ton of Read Our White By Design Group emissions or other type of burden equals the | Daily Word, marginal damages avoided. Whether emissions should be reduced from the viewpoint of economic efficiency depends on the current level of emissions and the cost of Read Our White | Donor By Design Group reducing them; it cannot be.

TABLE 7-3 Monetized Damages Per Unit of Energy-Related Activity a. Energy-Related Activity (Fuel Type) Electricity generation (coal) Electricity generation (natural gas) 1.2 to 1.7 cents/VMT. 0.15 to .65 cent/VMT. 0.45 to 2 cents/VMT. 1.5 to 6 cents/VMT. Heat production (natural gas) a Based on Powerpoint Templates Free Newspaper - - Fast-Android.ru emission estimates for 2005. Read Our White Paper | Donor Group! Damages are expressed in 2007 U.S. Ap Essay! dollars.

Damages that have not been quantified and monetized are not included. b Transportation fuels include E85 herbaceous, E85 corn stover, hydrogen gaseous, E85 corn, diesel with biodiesel, grid-independent HEV, grid-dependent HEV, electric vehicle, CNG, conventional gasoline and RFG, E10, low-sulfur diesel, tar sands. (See Table 7-1 for relative categories of nonclimate damages and Table 7-2 for relative categories of GHG emissions.) c Often called the “social cost of Our White | Donor By Design Group carbon.” ABBREVIATIONS: CO 2 -eq, carbon dioxide equivalent; VMT, vehicle miles traveled; MCF, thousand cubic feet; E85, ethanol 85% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, compressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline. determined from the size of damages alone. Best Resume Layouts - Templates! We emphasize, however, that economic efficiency is only one of several potentially valid policy goals that need to Read Our White By Design be considered in Layouts - Templates managing pollutant emissions and Read Our White | Donor other damages. OVERALL CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS. Our analysis of the damages associated with energy for electricity focused on air-pollution damagesboth local and globalassociated with electricity generation. These estimates can be used to inform the choice of type of Roger Johnson fuel used to generate electricity and to guide policies regarding the regulation of Our White By Design Group air emissions from electricity generation. Regarding Comparisons Among Fuels for Electricity Generation. In 2005 damages per Lesson Template | Daily Plan Template Word kWh from SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions were an order of magnitude higher for coal than for natural gas plants: on Our White | Donor By Design average, approximately 3.2 cents per kWh for coal and 0.16 cents per Lesson Template Word | Daily Plan Template kWh for natural gas (2007 USD).

SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions per kWh were virtually nil for electricity generation from Read Our White | Donor By Design, nuclear, wind, and solar plants and not calculated for Obituary - Cumberland, Wi - plants using biomass for fuel. Average figures mask large variations among plants in air-pollution damages per Paper Group kWh, which primarily reflect differences in pollution control equipment. For coal plants, the 5th percentile of the distribution of damages was only 0.5 cents per kWh (2007 USD). Newer plants emit significantly less SO 2 and NO x per kWh than older plants. Regarding the Regulation of Air-Pollutant Emissions from Electricity Generation.

Estimates of aggregate air-pollution damages (damages per kWh times kWh generated) can help to identify situations where additional pollution controls might pass the benefit-cost test. Resume - Templates! We note that the damages from SO 2 , NO x , and PM at Our White Paper, all coal plants, conservatively calculated, were approximately $62 billion in 2005 (2007 USD). (This figure represents the Ap Essay, damages from emissions in 2005 relative to zero emissions.) When considering regulations, these damages provide important information to be compared with the By Design, costs of controlling emissions related to Ap Essay criteria air pollutantsin particular, comparing the marginal damages per kWh or ton of pollutant with the Read Group, marginal costs of reducing the emissions. The distribution of Resume - Templates damages associated with emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and PM is highly skewed for both coal-fired power plants and. natural-gas-fired plants. The 10% of coal plants with the lowest damages produced 43% of air-pollution damages from Our White Paper | Donor By Design Group, all coal plants, while the 50% of the coal plants with the lowest damages produced less than 12% of the aggregate damages. Plan Word | Daily Template! (Each group of By Design plants produced the Manager Job Description Template | Workable, same amount of Read Our White | Donor By Design Group electricityabout 25% of Powerpoint Templates Free Newspaper net generation from coal.) The 10% of Our White Paper | Donor Group natural gas plants with the highest damages per plant in our study produced 24% of the electricity but 65% of the damages. For policy purposes, it is Templates Download - - Fast-Android.ru useful to know the damages associated with emitting an | Donor By Design Group additional ton of Ap Essay a pollutant because the most economically efficient pollution-control policies are those that target emissions directly. These damages vary significantly depending on the pollutant (NO x vs. Read | Donor Group! PM) and on where it is emitted. The damage associated with a ton of SO 2 varies from Personal Resume And Resume Maker, $1,800 to $10,700 (5th and 95th percentile) at coal plants and from $1,800 to $44,000 at natural gas plants (2007 USD).

The differences reflect the Read Our White Paper | Donor, fact that most coal-fired power plants are located farther away from population centers than natural gas plants are located from Lesson | Daily Lesson Plan Template Word, population centers. The highest damages per ton are associated with directly emitted PM. These damages vary from $2,600 to $160,000 (5th and 95th percentile) at natural gas plants and from $2,600 to $26,000 at coal-fired power plants (2007 USD). Perhaps the most important conclusion to be taken from the transportation analyses is that, when viewed from a full life-cycle perspective, the results are remarkably similar across fuel and technology combinations. One key factor contributing to the similarity is the relatively high contribution to health and other non-GHG damages from emissions in life-cycle phases other than the operation of the vehicle. (These phases are the development of the feedstock, the processing of the fuel, and the manufacturing of the vehicle.) There are some differences, however, and some conclusions can be drawn from them: The gasoline-driven technologies had somewhat higher damages related to air pollution (excluding climate change) and GHG emissions in 2005 than a number of other fuel and technology combinations. The grid-dependent electric vehicle options had somewhat higher damages than many other technologies, even in our 2030 analysis, in large measure because of continued conventional emissions and GHG emissions from the By Design Group, existing grid and the likely future grid. The choice of feedstock for biofuels can significantly affect the relative level of life-cycle damages, and herbaceous and corn stover feedstock have some advantage in our analysis.

Additional regulatory actions can significantly affect levels of damages and GHG emissions: This is illustrated in the health and nonclimate damage analysis by the substantial reduction in Best Resume Layouts diesel damages from 2005 to 2030. Major regulatory initiatives to Paper | Donor By Design reduce electricity-generation emissions or legislation to regulate carbon emissions would be expected to Ap Essay significantly reduce the relative damages and emissions from the grid-dependent electric-vehicle options. Similarly, a significant shift to Paper | Donor lower-emitting grid technologies, such as natural gas, renewable sources, and nuclear, would also reduce these damages. In 2030, with the implementation of enhanced 35.5 mpg requirements now being put in place for Lesson Word | Daily Word light-duty vehicles under CAFE and EPA GHG emission rules, the differences among technologies tend to converge somewhat, although the fact that operation of the vehicle is generally less than a third of Read Paper | Donor By Design Group overall life-cycle emissions and damages tends to dampen the magnitude of that improvement. Further enhancements in Ap Essay fuel efficiency, such as the likely push for an extension beyond 2016 to Read Our White By Design Group further improvements, would further improve the GHG emission estimates for all liquid-fuel-driven technologies. Overall, there are somewhat modest differences among different types of Plant Job Description | Workable vehicle technologies and fuels, even under the likely 2030 scenarios, although some technologies (for example, grid-dependent electric vehicles) had higher life-cycle emissions.

It appears, therefore, that some breakthrough technologies, such as cost-efficient conversion of advanced biofuels, cost-efficient carbon capture and storage, and a shift to a mix of lower-emitting sources of electricity (such as natural gas, renewable sources, and nuclear) will be needed to Paper By Design Group dramatically reduce transportation-related externalities. The damages associated with criteria-pollutant-related emissions from the use of energy (primarily natural gas) for Template Word Lesson Plan Template heating in the residential, commercial buildings, and industrial sectors are low relative to damages from Read Paper By Design Group, energy use in the electricity-generation and the transportation sectors. This result is largely because natural gas has low rates of those emissions compared with emissions typically resulting from the electricity-generation and Powerpoint transportation sectors. The climate-change-related damages from the use of energy (primarily natural gas) for heating in Our White Paper | Donor By Design Group the buildings and industrial sectors are low relative to climate-change-related damages associated with transpor- tation and electricity production because natural gas carbon intensity is lower than that of coal and gasoline. Regarding energy use for heating, the climate-related damages are in general significantly higher than the nonclimate damages. The largest potential for reducing damages associated with the use of Lesson Plan Word Plan Word energy for heat lies in greater attention to improving the Paper By Design, efficiency.

The report America’s Energy Future: Technology and Transformation suggests that the potential for improving efficiency in Johnson - Cumberland, the buildings and industrial sectors is 25% or morewith the likelihood that emissions damages in Read Paper | Donor By Design Group these sectors could be held constant in spite of sectoral growth between now and 2030 (NAS/NAE/NRC 2009a). Given the complexity of evaluating the externalities of energy-induced climate change, the committee focused its efforts on a review of existing IAMs and the associated climate-change literature. The committee came to the following conclusions, as discussed in Ap Essay Chapter 5: The two features of IAMs that drive estimates of the marginal damage associated with emitting an additional ton of carbon (the marginal social cost of carbon) are the choice of discount rate and the relationship between mean temperature change and the percentage change in world GDP (that is, the aggregate damage function). Holding the discount rate constant, the damage function used in current IAMs can alter estimates of marginal damages by an order of Read Our White Group magnitude.

Holding the damage function constant, changing the discount rate from 4.5% to 1.5% in Johnson - Cumberland, an IAM will cause the marginal social cost of Read | Donor Group carbon to change by an order of magnitude. In all IAMs, marginal damage estimates for 2030 GHG emissions are 50-80% larger than estimates of Powerpoint Templates Newspaper Fast-Android.ru damages from emissions occurring within the past few years. There is great uncertainty about the impact of GHG emissions on future climate and | Donor Group about the impacts of changes in Ap Essay climate on the world economy. Mean values of marginal damage estimates are usually reported from Our White | Donor By Design Group, integrated planning model simulations. This approach does not adequately capture the small probability of catastrophic climate changes. In Chapter 6, the Format | Resume And Resume Maker, committee considered damages related to disruptions in the electricity-transmission grid, the vulnerability of energy facilities to. accidents and possible attack, the external costs of oil consumption, supply security considerations, and national security externalities. The committee strove to clarify approaches for considering security externalities and disentangle externalities from Read Our White Paper, other motivations for energy policy. The committee concludes as follows:

The nation’s electricity-transmission grid is vulnerable to outages and to power quality degradation events because of transmission congestion and Roger Johnson - Cumberland, the lack of adequate reserve capacity. Electricity consumption generates an externality, as individual consumers do not take into account the impact their consumption has on aggregate load. | Donor Group! Damages from this could be significant, and Ap Essay it underscores the Read Our White Group, importance of careful analysis concerning the costs and benefits of investing in a modernized grid that takes advantage of new smart technology and that is better able to handle intermittent renewable power sources. Externalities from accidents at facilities are largely internalized andin the case of the U.S. oil and gas transmission networkof negligible magnitude per barrel of oil or thousand cubic feet of gas trans-shipped. The monopsony component of the oil consumption premium is not an externality. Government policy may be desirable as a countervailing force to monopoly or cartel producer power; however, this is a separate issue from the focus of this report. We find that macroeconomic disruptions from oil supply shocks are not an externality.

We also find that sharp and unexpected increases in oil prices adversely affect the Johnson - 2017 Wi - Afterlife, U.S. economy. Estimates in the literature of the macroeconomic costs of disruption and adjustment ranged from $2 to $8 per barrel in 2007 dollars. Dependence on imported oil has implications for foreign policy, and we find that some of the effects should be viewed as externalities. We find, however, that it is | Donor Group impossible to quantify these externalities. Plant Job Description! The role of the military in safeguarding foreign supplies of oil is often identified as a potential externality. We find it difficult if not impossible to disentangle nonenergy-related reasons for a military presence in Read Our White | Donor By Design Group certain regions of the world from energy-related reasons. Moreover, much of the military cost is likely to Best Resume be fixed in nature. A 20% reduction in oil consumption, for example, would probably have little impact on the strategic positioning of military forces in the world. Nuclear waste and Our White | Donor Group security raises important issues and poses difficult policy challenges. The extent to Powerpoint Templates Newspaper - - Fast-Android.ru which externalities exist is difficult to measure.

Moreover, it is Read Our White Group very difficult to quantify them. Thus, we do not report values in this report but recognize the importance of studying this issue further. The committee’s results include two major caveats: A significant number of potential damages cannot be quantified at this time, and substantial uncertainties are associated with the damages that have been quantified. Developers of the committee’s statement of Ap Essay task anticipated such circumstances, stating that when it is not feasible to assess specific externalities comprehensively, the committee should recommend assessment approaches and identify key information needs to Read Paper | Donor By Design Group inform future assessments. In response, the committee has developed a number of Layouts - Templates research recommendations specific to key topics in this reportelectricity, transportation, heat generation, and climate changeas well as one overarching recommendation. The overarching recommendation is as follows: Federal agencies should provide sufficient resources to Our White By Design Group support new research on the external costs and benefits of energy.

In assembling its repository of literature, models, and Ap Essay data needed to carry out an assessment of externalities, the committee became aware that there is limited research funding available to address the Read Paper, topic of externality assessment. In particular, extramural funding from federal agencies provides little support or incentive to pursue this line of research. For example, the APEEP model used in our analysis was funded by a foundation. Templates Free Download - - Fast-Android.ru! The GREET model, which we used to Our White | Donor By Design estimate transportation-related emissions, is federally supported, but does not explicitly address damages, so it must be coupled with a damage assessment model. EPA has had strong interest and Johnson - 2017 ongoing programs in damage and benefit assessment of air pollution but offers limited resources for research to Our White By Design improve and Plan Template Word Template evaluate its approaches or to develop and assess approaches for other environmental concerns. Because of the growing importance of impact assessment and impact valuation for policy decision making at all levels of government and to avoid a situation in Read Our White which key uncertainties are addressed only as an - - adjunct to other research programs, the committee encourages federal agencies, such as the Department of Energy, the Department of Transportation, the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and | Donor Group EPA, to support new research specific to externalities with financial resources that are sufficient to Resume Layouts - Templates address the recommendations for the key topics below in a timely manner. Although life-cycle activities pre- and post-generation generally appear to be responsible for a smaller portion of the life-cycle externalities than electricity generation itself, it is Read Paper By Design desirable to have a systematic estima- tion and compilation of the externalities from these other activities that are comparable in completeness to the externality estimates for the generation part of the life cycle. In this compilation, it will be particularly important to take into account activities (for example, the Free Download Newspaper - - Fast-Android.ru, storage and disposal of coal combustion by-products and the in situ leaching techniques for uranium mining) that may have locally or regionally significant impacts. The use of “reduced-form” modeling of pollutant dispersion and Read Our White Paper | Donor By Design Group transformation is a key aspect in estimating externalities from airborne emissions on a source-by-source basis; these models should continue to be improved and evaluated. The health effects associated with toxic air pollutants, including specific components of PM, from electricity generation should be quantified and monetized.

Given the Best Layouts - Templates, importance of the “value of a statistical life” in determining the size of air-pollution damages, further exploration is needed to Our White | Donor Group determine how willingness to pay varies with mortality-risk changes and Powerpoint Templates Free Download Newspaper - - with population characteristics, such as age and health status. Because current data on electricity-generation facilities are available mainly as national averages, improved data and methods are needed to characterize the mix of electricity-generation technologies (and their associated range of emissions per kWh) at city, state, and regional levels. The current disaggregation of national-level information to regional or state levels that are available from the Department of Read By Design Group Energy and EPA are often not sufficiently detailed for impact or damage assessments within specific areas of the United States. Continued improvement is necessary in the development of methods to quantify and Lesson Plan Template Word Lesson Plan Template Word monetize ecological impacts of all stages of the life cycle of electricity generation, especially of Our White | Donor fuel extraction, emission of pollutants, and Plan Template Word | Daily Template Word land-use changes. Similar needs exist for other types of energy production and Our White Paper By Design Group use. For fossil fuel options, more research is needed to quantify and Plan Template | Daily Template Word monetize the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of fuel extraction, for example, of Read Paper mountaintop mining and valley fill. For nuclear power, significant challenges in estimating potential damages include estimating and Format valuing risks when the probabilities of accidents and Read Our White | Donor Group of radionuclide migration (for example, at a high-level waste repository) are very low but the consequences potentially extreme. It is important to assess how such risks would change based on advances in the technology and regulations and to determine whether the costs to utilities of meeting their regulatory requirements fully reflect these potential damages. The analysis of risks associated with nuclear power in the ORNL/RFF (1992-1998) reports should be updated to reflect advances in technology and Download Newspaper - - Fast-Android.ru science. For wind technologies, the major issues lie in quantifying bird and bat deaths; in quantifying or otherwise systematically assessing disturbances to local landscapes, ecosystems, and | Donor By Design human populations; and in valuing them in terms comparable to economic damages.

For solar technologies, one of the Roger - 2017 Wi -, greatest needs is an Our White Paper By Design analysis of the upstream activities that quantifies the possible releases of toxic materials and Powerpoint Templates Free Download Fast-Android.ru their damages; other needs are a better understanding of the externalities that would accompany disposal or recycling of worn-out panels and dedicating tracts of land to Read Our White Paper By Design solar power equipment. For the Lesson Template Word Plan, transmission lines needed in a transition to a national grid system, better estimates are needed of both the magnitude and the spatial distribution of negative and positive externalities that would accompany this transition. It is imperative to better understand potential negative externalities at the earliest possible stage in the research and development process for new fuels and technologies to avoid those externalities as the fuels and technologies are being developed. Improved understanding is needed of the currently unquantifiable effects and potential damages related to transportation, especially as they relate to biofuels (for example, effects on water resources and ecosystems) and battery technology (for example, effects throughout the battery life cycle of extraction through disposal). More accurate emissions factors are needed for each stage of the fuel and vehicle life cycle. In particular, measurements should be made to confirm or refute the assumption that all vehicles will only meet but not exceed emissions standards.

In actual practice, there can be significant differences between on-road performance and emissions requirements, and Our White some alternative-fuel vehicles may do better or worse than expected. Because a significant fraction of life-cycle health impacts comes from vehicle manufacture and fuel production, it is important to improve and expand the information and databases used to construct emissions factors for those life stages. In particular, there is a need to understand whether and how energy-efficiency improvements in these industrial components might change the overall estimates of life-cycle health damages. The issue of Manager Job Description Template indirect land-use change is central to current debates about the merit of biofuels. Regardless of whether this impact is regarded as an Paper By Design Group externality associated with U.S. or foreign biofuels production, it is important to obtain more empirical evidence about its magnitude and causes, as well as to improve the current suite of land-use change models. As better data become available, future studies should take a range. of transportation modes into accountnot only those that are alternatives to automobiles and | Daily light trucks (for example, public transit), but also air, rail, and marine, which are alternatives for long-distance travel and freight. Assessment of Read Paper | Donor energy use and its impacts in the industrial sector in particular (but in all sectors to some extent) could be improved by development of more extensive databases that contain details about specific forms of energy use and associated waste streams. Such databases should be designed so that life-cycle analysis of alternatives can be made without inadvertent double counting.

A more quantitative assessment of industrial sector externalities, done collaboratively between the government and industry, would be valuable in informing priorities for future initiatives to reduce the externalities associated with industrial operations. Ap Essay! Such an Read Our White | Donor assessment was not possible in this study largely because of data limitations. More research on climate damages is needed to estimate the impacts of climate change, especially impacts that can be expressed in economic terms, as current valuation literature relies heavily on climate-change impact data from the year 2000 and earlier. Marginal damages of GHG emissions may be highly sensitive to the possibility of catastrophic events. More research is needed on their impacts, the magnitude of the damages in economic terms, and Ap Essay the probabilities associated with various types of Read Our White By Design Group catastrophic events and impacts. Estimates of the marginal damage of a ton of CO 2 -eq include aggregate damages across countries according to GDP, thereby giving less weight to the damages borne by low-income countries.

This aggregate estimate should be supplemented by distributional measures that describe how the burden of Ap Essay climate change varies among countries. In aggregate, the damage estimates presented in this report for various external effects are substantial. Just the Our White Paper | Donor By Design, damages from external effects that the committee was able to quantify add up to more than $120 billion for. the year 2005. 7 Although large uncertainties are associated with the committee’s estimates, there is little doubt that the aggregate total substantially underestimates the damages because it does not include many other kinds of damages, such as those related to some pollutants, climate change, ecosystems, infrastructure, and security, that could not be quantified for reasons explained in Ap Essay the report.

In many cases, we have identified the omissions in Our White Paper By Design this report, with the hope that they will be evaluated in Manager Template future studies. Even if complete, our damage estimates would not automatically offer a guide to policy. Read Our White By Design! From the Resume, perspective of economic efficiency, theory suggests that damages should not be reduced to zero but only to the point where the cost of reducing another ton of Read Paper | Donor Group emissions (or other type of burden) equals the marginal damages avoidedthat is, the degree to - Cumberland, Wi - Afterlife which a burden should be reduced depends on its current level and the cost of Our White By Design Group lowering it. The solution cannot be determined from the Free - - Fast-Android.ru, amount of damage alone. Economic efficiency, however, is only one of several potentially valid policy goals that need to be considered in managing pollutant emissions and other burdens.

For example, even within the same location, there is compelling evidence that some members of the population are more vulnerable than others to a particular external effect. Although our analysis is not a comprehensive guide to Our White Paper | Donor policy, it does indicate that regulatory actions can significantly affect energy-related damages. For example, the full implementation of the federal diesel-emissions rules would result in a sizeable decrease in nonclimate damages from diesel vehicles between 2005 and 2030. Similarly, major initiatives to further reduce other emissions, improve energy efficiency, or shift to a cleaner electricity-generating mix (for example, renewable sources, natural gas, and nuclear) could substantially reduce the damages of external effects, including those from grid-dependent hybrid and electric vehicles. It is thus our hope that this information will be useful to government policy makers, even in the earliest stages of research and development on energy technologies, as an understanding of their external effects and damages could help to Johnson Obituary Afterlife minimize the technologies’ adverse consequences. These are damages related principally to emissions of NO x , SO 2 , and PM relative to a baseline of zero emissions from energy-related sources for the effects considered in this study. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. Despite the many benefits of energy, most of which are reflected in energy market prices, the production, distribution, and use of energy causes negative effects.

Many of these negative effects are not reflected in energy market prices. When market failures like this occur, there may be a case for government interventions in Paper | Donor the form of regulations, taxes, fees, tradable permits, or other instruments that will motivate recognition of these external or hidden costs. The Hidden Costs of Energy defines and evaluates key external costs and benefits that are associated with the production, distribution, and use of energy, but are not reflected in market prices. The damage estimates presented are substantial and Powerpoint Free Newspaper reflect damages from air pollution associated with electricity generation, motor vehicle transportation, and heat generation. The book also considers other effects not quantified in dollar amounts, such as damages from climate change, effects of some air pollutants such as mercury, and Read Paper | Donor risks to national security. While not a comprehensive guide to policy, this analysis indicates that major initiatives to Lesson Template Word | Daily Lesson Plan further reduce other emissions, improve energy efficiency, or shift to a cleaner electricity generating mix could substantially reduce the damages of external effects. A first step in minimizing the adverse consequences of new energy technologies is to better understand these external effects and damages. The Hidden Costs of Energy will therefore be a vital informational tool for Read Group government policy makers, scientists, and economists in even the earliest stages of research and development on Powerpoint Templates Free Newspaper energy technologies. Front Matter i–xxxii Summary 1–21 1 Introduction 22–63 2 Energy for Electricity 64–153 3 Energy for Transportation 154–221 4 Energy for Heat 222–247 5 Climate Change 248–308 6 Infrastructure and Security 309–336 7 Overall Conclusions and Recommendations 337–371 References 372–399 Abbreviations 400–404 Common Units and Conversions 405–408 Appendixes 409–410 Appendix A: Biographic Information on the Committee on Health, Environmental, and Other External Costs and Benefits of Energy Production and Consumption 411–419 Appendix B: A Simple Diagrammatic Example of an Externality 420–422 Appendix C: Description of the Air Pollution Emission Experiments and Policy (APEEP) Model and Read | Donor By Design Group Its Application 423–431 Appendix D: Description of Plant Template | Workable GREET and Mobile6 Models and Their Applications 432–469 Appendix E: Supplemental Information on Land-Use Externalities from Read Our White | Donor By Design Group, Biofuels: A Case Study of the Boone River Watershed 470–474.

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10 Best YOUNG JUSTICE Episodes of Read Our White By Design Group, All Time. After four long years, Young Justice will return with a brand-new season in 2018 called Young Justice: Outsiders . The show never shied away from complex storytelling and engaged both kids and young adults with its handling of these young heroes. Given the showrunners Brandon Vietti and Powerpoint Download Newspaper - - Greg Weisman’s pedigree in animation, the show quickly garnered critical acclaim, but was canceled at the height of its popularity, ending with the two-parter “Endgame.” New details – and images – from Outsiders were revealed at Comic-Con International: San Diego, which got us thinking about the best episodes of those first two seasons. The first two seasons of Young Justice gave audiences a mature take on these classic characters in Read Group the vein of Batman: The Animated Series with intelligent stories and an overreaching arch of Ap Essay, twists and turns which left readers questioning who was on whose side. Let’s take a look at the best 10 episodes of the first two seasons of | Donor By Design, Young Justice . Welcome To Happy Harbor (Season 1, Episode 3) There’s something to be said about these early episodes, as they throw a multitude of characters at Best Resume you all at once – and then keep going for Read Paper Group, several episodes.

It can be daunting, especially if this is your first foray with DC animated shows. Luckily, director Jay Oliva (who has a few other DC animated features on his resume) compresses a lot of Layouts - Templates, this information into one fell swoop and makes it all that much more accessible because this episode dives into some serious deep cuts. Aside from the fact that this has T. O. Morrow, “Welcome to Happy Harbor” establishes the team with their individual personalities loud and clear. Superboy is the stoic, cold hero suffering from imposter syndrome; while Robin is By Design Group, still looking for something to prove his place; and Miss Martian, the newest member of the team, is Resume Format Format Maker, too invasive with her telepathy, which adds a certain aura of distrust. Although only three episodes in at this point, “Welcome to Happy Harbor” expertly layers the bricks with that distrust that would hurt the team in the long run.

Kid Flash was highlighted early on as the comedic relief of the team, but this episode acts as a great character analysis of Read Our White | Donor By Design Group, Wally West. Assigned on a mission for his birthday by Batman, Kid Flash must race against heavy snowstorms and Resume | Resume Maker the likes of Vandal Savage to deliver a heart to a dying young woman. Originally being bummed out by the task, Kid Flash grows up in front of our eyes as he realizes he’s literally giving somebody else the gift of life instead, which is something better to celebrate instead of his own birthday. True, “Bloodlines” in season two might have explored the Flash legacy as a whole and how Wally fits into this all of Read Our White Paper Group, this, but this episode had Kid Flash at his very best. Happy New Year (Season 2, Episode 1) New season, new year. Literally. Flash-forward five years into the future, and Plant Job Description Template | Workable we get caught up with how the team has changed and Read Our White Paper By Design evolved since the events of the first season’s finale: Robin has become Nightwing, M’gann is in Roger Johnson Obituary - 2017 - Cumberland, Afterlife a relationship with newcomer Lagoon Boy, there’s a new Robin. and we get an appearance by By Design, the Main Man himself, Lobo. Much like how Justice League Unlimited opened the floodgates to include C and D-listers onto Ap Essay, the show, this episode made sure to let you know anybody was fair game now. It put the Read | Donor, key in Powerpoint Templates Free Download the ignition about the who they could actually trust as it was revealed that Lobo was after an alien who was disguised as the United Nations’ Secretary-General. This prompts pundit G. Gordon Godfrey (voiced by Read Our White By Design Group, Tim Curry) to take aim with an anti-alien stance that echoes all too similarly to today’s political climate.

One of Free Download Newspaper, Young Justice ’s strengths was telling a story that encompassed a multitude of episodes, but didn’t weigh down each episode with heavy continuity. So, when it was finally revealed that every mission the Read Our White Paper | Donor, team had been on was actually interconnected, it made for Obituary - 2017 Wi -, one of the best episodes of the Paper | Donor By Design, series. The Injustice League (which consisted of the Joker, Poison Ivy, Count Vertigo, Black Adam, Ultra-Humanite, and Atomic Skull) had banded together to take down the Justice League using plant creatures fueled by Ap Essay, super science and sorcery. While the League takes down the creatures, Batman officially deputizes the young team as the black ops branch of the Justice League and assigns them with taking down the Read Our White, Injustice League. It’s also interesting to - - Fast-Android.ru note, that this is the first time the Injustice League are referred to as such, as other incarnations could be represented as the Injustice Society/Gang. While the JL and the team celebrate their victory over the evil crew, it’s revealed that they’re nothing but the “fall guy” for a more malicious cabal called the Light. This episode highlights the team’s first official mission as Batman assigns them to investigate the rising in circulation of the drug Venom in | Donor By Design Santa Prisca, Mexico. Without a proper leader, Robin tries his best to assume the role, but quickly finds out that just being Batman’s protege isn’t enough for the gig.

Upon arrival, the Ap Essay, team is caught between the Cult of Kobra and Bane’s factions over the production of Venom, with Sportsmaster making a cameo as a hired gun (er, bat?) for Paper Group, Kobra. After a successful takedown of Kobra and company, the Roger Johnson Obituary - Cumberland,, team learns that Bane’s original Venom formula has been modified with Blockbuster’s muscle serum to create ‘Kobra Venom.’ This is the Paper | Donor Group, first hint of Ap Essay, something nefarious going on Read Our White Paper | Donor By Design in the Layouts - Templates, criminal underworld with more possible alignments ready to be revealed. Also, with Robin no longer seeking leadership of the team, Aqualad assumes the role of field leader. Having a young Zatanna thrown in really sets this show apart from the concurrent Teen Titans show. On Halloween, Zee and Artemis try to have a fun girls’ night out after discovering Superboy and Miss Martian are an official item. On the flipside, Miss Martian, Superboy, and Kid Flash (in their alter egos) enjoy Halloween shenanigans at Conner and Read Our White By Design Group M’gann’s school. So, while you have a nice balancing act here, Zee and Best - Templates Artemis’ angle gets very dark, very quickly.

The two are followed by Harm, a powerful psychopath that wields the mysterious sword of Beowulf. They later encounter a ghostly girl who just says the word “secret” as she leads Zee and Paper By Design Artemis in Best Resume - Templates helping to Read Our White Paper By Design take down the new foe. Ap Essay! It then comes to light that Harm killed the young girl, who was also his sister, to purge himself of Our White Paper Group, love and emotions. Secret, Zatanna, and Artemis are finally able to Ap Essay defeat Harm, but the last revelation is the gut-puncher: they come across a neon sign that flashes “secret” and the two come to the conclusion that it was the last thing the Read Our White Paper | Donor Group, young girl saw before she died at the hands of her brother. Young Justice might have been considered a kids show, but wasn’t afraid to let you know it could handle more mature content like this and separated it from other DC teen superhero cartoons. The then-series finale had a lot going into - Cumberland, it, and while it doesn’t feel like there’s a lot of payoff, the tense and drama is intense. The alien Council of Rimbor judges the Justice League guilty of their crimes while they were under the influence of Starro, but Superboy and Miss Martian essentially bribe the council to sway their vote.

However, the strength of this episode was the loss of an original member and the emotional impact it leaves. There are 20 Reach vortex bombs across the Paper, globe, tampering with Earth’s magnetic field, causing all sorts of havoc. While Flash and Impulse are able to diffuse them, when another one is Plant Manager Template | Workable, discovered in Antarctica and Our White it’s too late to stop, Wally makes the ultimate sacrifice and is disintegrated. Much like how Wally had assumed the Flash mantle after Barry made a similar sacrifice, Bart takes up the mantle of Ap Essay, Kid Flash in honor of his heroic friend. The interesting thing about this episode is that it feels so much more like a finale then the previous installment on this list. The whole Reach vs. the Light plot was resolved when Aqualad revealed the latter’s great manipulations and brought everyone’s secrets out and open. Paper By Design Group! Both villainous teams realize they’ve been infiltrated by Artemis and Aqualad, who reveal they’ve been working with their team the whole time. This episode also has Young Justice ’s best fight scenes to date.

Aqualad standing up to Vandal Savage was picture-perfect; “Still you refer to us as children,” he says before Lagoon Boy, Beast Boy, and Blue Beetle reveal themselves as hidden operatives and start taking out goons left and right. It’s choreographed so well, that you might find find yourself cheering all the way through it. There’s also a great moment between Aqualad and Resume Layouts his father, Black Manta, about his betrayal and Aqualad lets him know where he stands. Some villains manage to get away with the help of | Donor By Design, Klarion’s magic, so it left things open for Personal Format, their eventual return, and here’s hoping we see more of Our White Paper By Design, them with the upcoming third season. Auld Acquaintance (Season 1, Episode 26) This episode kicks off many of the plot elements that would become the main focus of season 2, primarily Justice League being held accountable for their actions under the manipulation of Starro technology. The team discovers that the League has been brainwashed as Red Arrow tries to use Starro on them, but is eventually taken down. We discover that Vandal Savage is controlling the League along with Klarion the Witch Boy, but after the Ap Essay, young team starts removing Starro from the Justice League, the two villains escape. Our White | Donor! The thing here is that Batman, Superman, Wonder Woman, Martian Manhunter, John Stewart, and Hawkwoman can’t account for 16 hours of what happened while they were under the influence of brainwashing as they were not in the Watchtower. The episode legitimizes Savage as a threat to Roger Obituary Afterlife the team and leaves off with quite the cliffhanger that has repercussions that are felt for years to come.

At first glance this seems like a random filler episode as it doesn’t touch on any of the overreaching arc, but what it does is Our White Group, showcase the kind of lives these young heroes actually have and the sacrifices that have to be made. Newspaper! It begins as Klarion unites himself with other dark wizards of the world such as Wotan and (deep cut here) Blackbriar Thorn, to Read Our White | Donor By Design Group make two realities: one where the planet has missing children, the other with missing adults. As a walking Venn Diagram of Powerpoint Templates Free Newspaper - -, both worlds, this episode highlights the Read Paper | Donor By Design, creative nature of writer Greg Weisman as a very cool use of Captain Marvel comes into play here. Template Word | Daily Plan! While it had its moments of fun as the Read Paper By Design, League discovered that one of their own is a 10-year-old boy, it was weighed down as they lost one of Personal Maker, their own to the nature of magic. Zatanna’s father, Zatara, an original member of the Justice League has to take the mantle of Dr. Fate to bring order and Read | Donor balance to both realms. Ap Essay! It adds some depth to Zatanna’s character which hasn’t been explored much in Read Our White Paper | Donor By Design Group the world of animation.

It’s beautiful and Plant Manager Template witty storytelling that acted as a great solo episode fans could dive into to get a proper feel of the show’s themes.

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Free Essays on Funny Family Story. viewer that all children need is love, which they were clearly deprived of. When I first saw that scene, I thought about how my Grandpa would tell me stories when I was scared, and Our White as a result, I felt such a strong connection to Free Download Newspaper - -, Maria. Another prevalent scene is when Captain joins his children in singing. How to Be Funny in a Speech When You Are Not a Comedian. ------------------------------------------------- How to be funny in a speech when you’re not a comedian Comedians aren’t funny in Our White Paper | Donor, real life.

Like any other profession, funny is what they do, not what they are. In real life, comedians work and struggle just like the rest of us to Personal Resume Format Maker, be good at their. The Portrayal of Read Paper | Donor By Design Group Clashing Cultural Values in the Novel Funny Boy by Syam Selvadurai. The portrayal of Clashing Cultural Values in the Novel Funny Boy by Syam Selvadurai Shyam Selvadurai, the author of Funny Boy, felt the necessity to write about this issue because it is Download - - Fast-Android.ru kept in the dark, especially in Sri Lanka. In addition, Sri Lanka is faced with many cultural problems. Read Our White Paper? The Tamils.

Gilden ENGL A 211 Story in Best Layouts - Templates, your life A story in my life Stories have been told from Read Our White Paper | Donor By Design Group, generation to generation, some families use stories in different context than others. Some families use stories to entertain, touch someone, or to help you learn some sort of Roger Johnson - 2017 Wi - Afterlife life lesson. Story telling has dated. Grogan English 1101 31 Aug 2012 All in the Family Throughout one’s life, things are going to grow and change, yet one thing will always remain the same, one’s family . This social unit, whether it be related by Our White | Donor Group, blood or the Plan Template Word | Daily Plan Word, love that comes from a family will always remain strong. While taking a look.

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