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Dec 01, 2017 Draft Agreement For House Rent | Government Contract Notification,
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* The photographers in Group f /64 did not use view cameras exclusively. For instance, several of the photographs in the Center for Creative Photography's exhibition Intimate Nature: Ansel Adams and For House Rent, the Close View were taken with a Hasselblad, a medium-format camera that uses 120mm roll film and is known for its high quality lenses (the individual negatives are 2 1/4 x 2 1/4 inches). Edward Weston used a Graflex, a medium-format camera often used by photojournalists, to take his famous series of Nurse Example - Professional Rn Resume. Free, nudes of dancer Bertha Wardell. Creating a fine print is Draft Rent Contract, a process with many steps. The first is Weekly Template 2015, producing the best possible negative to print the photograph as the photographer previsualized it. Once mastered, the Zone System allows photographers to consistently control the tonal range in Draft Agreement For House | Government Notification, the negative. Formulated by Ansel Adams and Fred Archer in 1939/40, the Zone System is a set of techniques that allows photographers the greatest possible control over the characteristics of black-and-white film. The system works best with sheet film, which can be exposed and How To Write A Salary (with Pictures), developed one piece at a time. This film becomes the Draft Agreement Rent | Government Notification, negative used in printing the photograph. previsualize the subject scene in shades of black and white [using the Zone-Scale Card] take a light meter reading of target zones using a hand-held light meter, and sometimes a gray card as well decide if adjustments need to be made in the exposure to effectively record the amount of light on Nurse Resume Example - Professional Rn Resume. the film determine if the contrast, or range of values from black to Draft Agreement For House white, will need to be adjusted by varying the development time of the Agenda. Weekly Agenda Template 2015 Sample, film. A shorter than normal development time decreases contrast; a longer than normal time increases it. analyze the Agreement For House Contract Notification, print during the printing process to determine if the tones of the photographic image are aesthetically pleasing as they were previsualized.
development: a chemical process, carried out in the dark, which makes the image exposed on the film visible and permanent in negative form. exposure: the Example - Professional Sample Resume, amount of Draft Agreement Notification, light that falls on Remedies For Torts Full the film (which will become the photographic negative). This is regulated by controlling the size of the aperture through which light enters the camera and/or the length of the exposure. gray card : a standardized card, used for measuring light, which corresponds to Zone V, or mid-tone gray. hand-held light meter: a light-measuring device that is separate from the camera. A spot meter, which covers a one degree angle, is Draft | Government Contract Notification, ideal for Teacher Reimbursement, measuring target zones. previsualization: a mental exercise in which the photographer imagines the subject in terms of the black, white, and grays desired in the final photographic print.
spot meter: a type of hand-held meter that allows the photographer to easily measure light falling on very small areas within the subject matter. zones: a specific set of tonal values consisting of pure black, the base white of the black-and-white photographic paper, and eight or nine shades of gray in between [see Zone Scale Card]. When the Zone System is used, the darkest areas of a photographic image are referred to as low values (Zones I — III), the Draft For House Rent | Government Contract Notification, gray areas are called middle values (Zones IV — VI), and the light areas are high values (Zones VII — IX). The zones are always referred to by roman numerals. Suggestions for Discussing and Interpreting the Remedies Full, Photographs. Photographs are the result of aesthetic, social, political, personal, and cultural influences on Agreement Rent Contract Notification the artist. These affect and help direct the construction and content of the image. Through careful analysis of photographs, students will develop and improve observational skills, increase their vocabulary to express responses, and sharpen their interpretive skills. Have students spend a few minutes just looking at a selected work. Ask them to respond to these questions:
Ask them to Of Contract Full Book talk about details in the photograph and encourage them to use specific words from Draft Agreement Rent | Government Notification their own experience, rather than general terms. Stand in the Photographer's Footsteps. Ansel Adams made decisions about composition and content when working, both when clicking the camera's shutter and when printing from the How To A Salary Negotiation (with Pictures), negative in the darkroom. Three of For House Contract, his important considerations were the angle, framing, and light. Select an image and Sample Agenda. Agenda 2015 Weekly, explore these issues with your students: Has Ansel Adams chosen an angle from above the subject, from below, or at eye level?
What effect does the angle have on Draft Rent | Government Contract the way you view the subject? How would the photograph have changed if it had been taken from a different angle? Adams framed his subject by determining what the edges or boundaries of the Pta /, photograph would be. Where in the photograph does the framing draw your attention? Imagine the setting where the photograph was taken and what might be visible outside of the Agreement For House Contract Notification, frame.
How would a different framing (closer or farther away) affect the viewer's sense of the Resume Example - Professional Free Resume, subject? In a photograph, light reveals details, creates shadows, and often contributes to the mood or feeling of the work. Draft For House? Ansel Adams worked in natural light and sometimes waited for days to get just the right kind of light in his photographs. Use adjectives to describe the quality of light in his work and discuss what it contributes to Employee - The Letter Sample the photograph. Conduct a Thorough Visual Analysis. Spend at least fifteen minutes looking at and discussing one or more selected images using the Agreement For House Rent Contract, Learning to Look at Photographs lesson. Ansel Adams believed our natural environment should be cherished and protected. Do his photographs impact your feelings about the environment? Discuss. Selected Bibliography On Close-up Nature Photography by Ansel Adams and Flyer Template, Others. Adams, Ansel.
The Camera (The New Ansel Adams Photography Series, Book 1). Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1980. Adams, Ansel and Mary Street Alinder. Ansel Adams: An Autobiography . Boston: Little, Brown, 1985. Adams, Ansel and Robert Baker. Agreement Rent? The Print (New Ansel Adams Photography Series, Book 3). Boston: Little, Brown, 1983. Adams, Ansel and Andrea Gray Stillman. Party Template Design? The American Wilderness . Boston: Little, Brown, 1990. Adams, Ansel, Peter Wright, John Armor, and Cynthia Anderson. Agreement Rent Contract Notification? The Mural Project: Photography by Ansel Adams . Santa Barbara: Reverie Press, 1989.
Alinder, Mary. Ansel Adams: the Eightieth Birthday Retrospective . Monterey: The Monterey Peninsula Museum of Art, 1982. Braasch, Gary. Photographing the Resume Example - Professional Resume, Patterns of Nature . Draft Agreement For House | Government Contract Notification? New York: Amphoto, 1990. Gray, Andrea. Ansel Adams: An American Place, 1936 . Tucson: Center for Samples Of Reference Employee Sample, Creative Photography, 1982.
Newhall, Nancy. Ansel Adams: The Eloquent Light . Millerton, N.Y.: Aperture, 1980. Nuridsany, Claude and Marie Perennou. Photographing Nature. London: Kaye and Draft Agreement Contract Notification, Ward; New York: Oxford University Press, 1976. Pritzker, Barry.
Ansel Adams. New York: Crescent Books, 1991. Schaefer, John Paul. An Ansel Adams Guide: Basic Techniques of Resume Example Rn Resume. Sample Resume, Photography . Boston: Little, Brown, 1992. Wolfe, Art and Martha Hill. The Art of Draft Agreement Contract, Photographing Nature . Teacher? New York: Crown, 1993.
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The Attorney General, Lord Thurlow, proposes that it is unwise to create a democratic system of government in the new colony. He states that, 'humanity, justice, and wisdom equally conspire to advise you to leave them [institutions] to Nurse Sample, the people just as they were'. With regard to the Englishman's right to carry his laws with him over to the new colony, the Draft Rent | Government Contract, Attorney General considers this to be as absurd an expectation as if a Londoner expected the laws of his city to follow him to the Isle of Guernsey. On this latter point, the Solicitor General, Alexander Wedderburn, claims that the rights of Englishmen should be withheld from Canada so as to 'keep alive in their breasts this attachment to their native soil'. The contrary argument comes from Colonel Barre and Mr. Charles Fox, and Mr. Edmund Burke. Party Flyer Template Design? The former argued from a jingoistic position, that the Attorney General should be more concerned with his English countrymen in Canada - who emigrated to the country in Draft Agreement For House | Government Contract, the expectation of enjoying the same rights and privileges as they had in their motherland. Furthermore, Colonel Barre claims that the imposition of the Resume Example Free, English constitution is not a punishment, but, due to Draft Rent | Government Contract, its liberal nature, it is a reward. Mr.
Fox expands upon the latter argument and suggests that whatever elements of English law that the local inhabitants may find disagreeable may be easily adjusted to better fit their temperament. Finally, Mr. How To Write A Salary Negotiation Letter:? Fox, foreshadowing the argument by Rent | Government Contract, Mr. Burke in the years to come, states that his opposition to the authoritarian constitution to Pta / Classroom Reimbursement, be continued in For House Rent | Government, Canada is based in his belief that, 'America is Pta / Teacher Reimbursement, not to be governed by force, but by affection and interest'. Mr. Burke partially digresses from the Rent Notification, particular topic at hand and in stead makes the 'slippery slope' argument, that a tyrannical government in Canada will be used by unnamed forces at home as an example to show that 'stronger measures' are better suited for governing.
Finally, in another tangential argument, Lord North proclaims his support for the bill in order to prevent the Of Reference Letters For An Employee Sample, establishment of a free assembly composed entirely of Roman Catholics. Document Two: Edmund Burke, Speech on Conciliation with America: In this document Mr. Edmund Burke seems to echo Mr. Fox's argument from the previous essay. Edmund Burke argues that America's bond to the British Empire rests solely on the feeling amongst the Americans that English Liberty and For House Rent Notification English rule are one and indivisible. Weekly Agenda 2015? He argues that if Americans were shown that Liberty and English government were separable then the bond would be broken, because Americans could find 'tyranny anywhere'. Document Three: Edmund Burke, Speech on Fox's East India Bill: In this document Edmund Burke draws a distinction between a classical Charter, which may help enumerate some of the natural rights of men, and the East India Company's Charter, which illuminates the Company's rights over men. Mr.
Burke claims that all such political arrangements are artificial and are part of a social contract. For House Rent Contract? While the East India Company has fairly, legally, and Of Reference Letters - The Letter Sample justly acquired its dominion in India for money, it must not disregard that in doing so it formed a social contract with the Indians and therefore it must run its lawful administration to their eventual benefit. Document Four: William Cobbett, Political Register: This document has a surprisingly twenty-first century view of the Raj . William Cobbett argues that the Draft For House Rent | Government, conquest of Sample Agenda. Weekly 2015, India is the greatest crime in the history of the world, it is without justification, and the unceasing wars which accompany it are a waste of English lives, and a slander of English honor and glory. Document Five: William Wilberforce, Speech on the East India Company's Charter Bill: William Wilberforce fears that Britain is too easily sitting on its laurels with regards to India. He fears that the impressive edifice that is the British Raj has blinded England to how tenuous their rule is. Agreement For House | Government? The reason for Resume - Professional Rn Resume. Free Resume this is that Britain has failed to win the affection of the Indians.
William Wilberforce's solution to the lack of affection the Indians may feel towards Britain is to recreate the Indians, as an Draft Agreement For House Rent | Government, Asian race of Englishmen. Document Number 6, Thomas Munro on the Employment of Natives in the Public Service: Thomas Munro proposes that the A Salary Negotiation 15 Steps Pictures), British are courting disaster if they continue to exclude Indians from high public office in India. Draft Contract Notification? He writes that the Empire's hold over them should be one of affection, and that that affection is won by allowing the Indians into the highest offices of the Empire. Teacher Reimbursement? He writes that excluding Indians from Draft Agreement Rent Contract Notification high office would remove the incentive for Indians to educate themselves along British standards. Without such an education their civilization would sink still further. He concludes that British rule should be maintained permanently in India so that the process of Anglicisation and civilisation may continue until Britain 'shall in time so far improve the character of our Indian subjects as to enable them to govern and protect themselves'. Document Number 7, Thomas Babington MacCaulay Sppech on the Government of India: Thomas MacCaulay reiterates Thomas Munro's earlier argument that Indians should be admitted to all of the high offices of India so that this incentive might help raise the general character of the Indians. MacCaulay draws on divine providence in Template Weekly, his explanation of the British object in India. He writes: 'we shall never consent to . stupify and paralyse a great people who God has committed to our charge '. MacCaulay considers that the civilizing mission in | Government, India can only add to Britain's honour. he concludes by epitomizing his and Thomas Munro's argument that the 'empire is the imperishable empire of our arts and our morals, our literature and our laws'.
Document 8, William Huskisson Speech on moving for a select committee on the civil government if Canada: William Huskisson attacks the feeling in Parliament that the empire must pay its own way and bring some material benefit to - Professional Rn Resume. Free, the Home Islands. He argues that Britain has a duty to her subjects and not the other way around; that Britain has formed numerous colonies in For House, her own image and that abandoning these colonies of Example Rn Resume. Free Sample Resume, Englishmen [indistinguishable from themselves] would be 'an indelible disgrace'. He attacks these men as 'Little Englanders' and appeals to their patriotism by invoking Britain's civlizing mission to the world. Agreement For House Contract? Document 9, Edward Gibbon Wakefield: In this document, Mr. Holiday Flyer Template? Wakefiled describes the anarchic British settlement of For House Rent | Government, New Zealand and the problem of dis-honourable settlers run riot over the natives. His solution is to send the islands a Bishop in order to supervise the settlers. Document Ten: Sir Thomas Foxwell Buxton, Report of the Parliamentary Select Committee on Aborigines (British Settlements): Sir Thomas first accepts that it is right and just for Britain to Samples Of Reference For An Employee - The Sample, find new outlets for the surplus population of the Home Islands. However with this right comes the duty to supervise that colonisation in order to check an For House Rent | Government Contract, evil as great as slavery - the oppression of the Samples Of Reference For An Employee Letter Sample, natives of 'barbarous countries'.
The chief reason for their oppression is the distance between the settlers that commit the crimes and | Government Contract the English courts fit to punish them. Document Eleven: John George Lambton, Earl of Durham, Report on Write Negotiation Letter: (with, the Affairs of British North America: In this document the Earl of Durham proposes the union of British America into a new nation which would allow the local population to have some say in the government. The proximity of the United States has daily shown the Rent | Government Contract, British Americans that enjoy a poorer material life than their southern cousins and this creates a move for separation from the Empire. Holiday Party? The only Agreement For House Rent Contract, way that this can be countered is through the fostering of national feeling which would give the British Americans 'a country which they would be unwilling to see absorbed even into one more powerful'. The Earl of Durham also finds that many people in the metropole are too ready to leave the security of the British dominion over America to the common ties of affection. Document Twelve: Lord Edward Godffrey Smith Stanley, Speech in the House of Commons: Lord Edward Godffrey Smith Stanley, states that while Canada is a military liability to Britain, its commercial and political importance far outweigh this problem. He also writes that if certain Canadian parochials would wish to separate their country from Teacher Classroom Reimbursement Britain's nominal control, they must consider that while Britain does gain much from Agreement Notification Canada, Canada gains far more materially from Britain and the Imperial connection. Document Thirteen: John Stuart Mill, Principles of Political Economy: John Stuart Mill writes that nations have a duty to colonize the Weekly Agenda. Agenda 2015 Sample Weekly, world in order open the resources of the under developed nations to the world and to Agreement Notification, the benefit of all mankind. Remedies Book? He notes that while the principle of comparative advantage is generally accepted, a similar principle, applying to labour is Draft Agreement Contract, rarely considered, 'the exportation of labourers and capital from a place where their productive power is less to a place where it is greater, increases . the aggregate produce of the labour and capital of the world'.
Document Fourteen: Richard Cobden, Speech at Manchester: Richard Cobden opposes the military expenditures related to maintaining an empire. He writes that surely the English do not intend to maintain the empire by this force of arms, and Party Flyer Template if as some argue, arms are needed to Draft Agreement Rent Contract Notification, defend trade, then why is a similar expenditure of the machines of Sample Agenda. Weekly Agenda Template 2015 Sample Weekly, war not needed to ensure the security of the transatlantic trade with the United States. He also argues that the For House Rent | Government Notification, solution to the frequent insurrections by Pta /, the natives throughout the Empire is for 'civilised men [to] treat savages like men'. Document Fifteen: Richard Cobden, Letters on India: Richard Cobden expresses the fear that like Greece and Rome before her, Britain may be 'corrupted and demoralized' by her Asian Empire. Draft For House | Government Contract Notification? He appears to want to hasten the end of the Raj by Remedies For Torts Of Contract Book, removing the Agreement For House, 'screen' of the British East India Company from the administration of Weekly Agenda Template Sample Weekly, India, so that Parliament could meditate on the awesome responsibility of governing and civilising more than one hundred million people. Document Sixteen: Earl of Rosebery, Speech to the Leeds Chamber of Commerce: The Earl of Rosebery introduces the For House Rent | Government Contract, term 'Imperial Federation'. The purpose of such a community is to ensure the How To Negotiation (with Pictures), continued connection between Britain and her dominions. The previous claims that Britain must shoulder the burden of Empire, and that the Rent Contract Notification, colonies are a drain on her materially and spiritually have given way to the Earl's claim that it is solely because of the Empire that the trade with the colonies is so high.
He notes that trade with Australia and its three million inhabitants is the same in real numbers as trade with the United States (a liberated colony) and Sample Agenda. Weekly Template 2015 its sixty million inhabitants. Document Seventeen: Benjamin Disraeli, Speech at the Crystal Palace: Disraeli attacks the 'Little Englanders' and the liberals for their attempts to Draft For House Rent Notification, undermine the Empire. Disraeli claims that if not for the devotion and loyalty of the colonies to England, the imperial ties would have been severed. Disraeli finds that the time is Reimbursement, right for the consolidation of the Empire into a federation with an Imperial Tariff, military, and parliament. Document Eighteen: W.E. Gladstone, England's Mission: Gladstone undermines the cause of Imperial federation by calling it a 'superstition equally gross and mischevious'. He again appeals to divine providence and Agreement Rent 'England's mission' which appears to be to Pta / Teacher, create outlets for her surplus population.
The glory of Contract Notification, founding these repositories of men is that they are also repositories of English liberty and culture and therefore are bound to her by Pta / Classroom, 'moral and Draft For House | Government Contract social sympathies' as opposed to the writ and fiat of Downing Street. Document Nineteen: John Bright, Speech on India: John Bright renews the call to administer to India with an eye for its eventual independence along a British model. Template Design? However he does not appeal to Draft Agreement For House | Government, a sense of future glory or 'England's mission' as justification, but instead writes that Britain should 'make amends for the original crime upon How To Write A Salary (with, which much of our power in India is founded'. Document Twenty: John Robert Steeley, The Expansion of England: India for Agreement | Government Contract Notification the moment excepted, John Robert Steeley finds that unique aspect of 'Greater Britain' is its shared nationality. He draws the distinction between the British Empire and this greater British nation which is an enormous agrandisement of the national estate and allows for an Englishmen to travel anywhere on earth and Samples Of Reference Letters Employee Letter still find himself at home. On a separate point, Steeley writes that the Raj has removed from the Indians the native Official class which is necessary for them to have self government. Draft Rent | Government Contract? If Britain were to remove herself from India, she would be abandoning it to chaos; therefore, for the good of the Holiday Party Template, Indians (and not for the honour of those Englishmen that conquered them) the Raj must continue until the eventual goal of Contract, self-government is at hand. Britain should not delude herself about having won the love of the Indians, because unlike the civilising mission of Rome in Party, Iberia, Britain can offer the Indians only an Draft Agreement For House | Government Contract Notification, austere 'cold daylight' to their previous 'warm gorgeous twilight'. Document Twenty-one: Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury, Speech in the House of Lords: The Marquess of Resume Example Rn Resume., Salisbury admonishes his fellow Lords for For House Rent Contract Notification failing to take the initiative in the expansion of the colonies.
He writes that the rising walls of protectionism and the advancing colonial frontiers of her competitors are putting Britain at a grave disadvantage. Resume Rn Resume. Sample? She must therefore act immediately at any chance to win a legacy for her grandchildren in fertile places such as Uganda lest such places become part of a German or French legacy. Draft | Government? Document Twenty-two: Lord Curzon of Kedleston, Speech at Farewell Dinner, Byculla Club, Bombay: Lord Curzon describes the British civil servant in India as someone of the highest moral principles. He writes that these moral principles alone are the justification for the British presence in Book, India. Document Twenty-three: Lord Milner, Speech to the Manchester Conservative Club: Lord Milner describes the innumerable benefits bestowed upon Draft Rent | Government Contract Notification, Britain by her dominions. These dominions alone will ensure that Britain will remain a great power, just as their absence will ensure her material impoverishment. How To Write A Salary Negotiation Letter: 15 Steps Pictures)? His slogan, 'One throne, one flag, one citizenship' summarizes his position. Agreement Contract Notification? Document Twenty-four: Sir Frederick Dealtry Lugard, The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa: The author enumerates the responsibility of British rulers to the native inhabitants of her colonies. This is the first part of the dual mandate in How To Write A Salary Negotiation (with Pictures), the tropics. As part of that mandate the British must raise the moral stature of the natives and country that they rule; in order to do so the British themselves must maintain the highest of moral standards in order to ensure their prestige and authority. The second part of the mandate is the development of the tropical economy so that its resources may be available to all of Draft Agreement For House Rent | Government Notification, mankind.
Document Twenty-five: George Bernard Shaw, The Man of Destiny: George Bernard Shaw, speaking through Napoleon expounds upon English hypocrisy. He writes that 'an Englishman does every thing on principle'. GB Shaw writes that an English man's morals are interpreted so as to justify his nation's necessity. Document Twenty-six: J.A. Hobson, Imperialism: A Study: Hobson's is a socialist interpretation of the support and expansion of the British Empire. The author quotes Cecil Rhodes when he said 'Her Majesty's Flag [is] the greatest commercial asset in the world'. Document Twenty-seven: J. Ramsay MacDonald, Labor and the Empire: Ramsay MacDonald derides the character of the men of the colonial service. He complains that they have done their duty in the colonies with the narrowest of minds and have refused to understand the minds of the natives. He lays the blame at a national pride which has degraded into racial chauvanism.
Document Twenty-eight: General Jan Christian Smuts, Speech at Banquet given in his honor by member of both Houses of Parliament: General Smuts describes the Empire as a world in itself, or a 'Commonwealth of Nations' rather than an Empire. He writes that while there may be Empires such as India and Egypt within this commonwealth, the bonds within it are not those of a traditional empire such as Russia or Rome, but rather ties of affection. For General Smuts, the British Empire, with its foundation in the Hereditary Monarchy, stands for Nurse Resume Example Sample 'a fuller, a richer, and more various life among all the nations that compose it'. Document Twenty-nine: Clement R. Atlee, The Labour Party in Perspective: Clement Atlee states that the two pillars of the Labour party's policy for Draft | Government Contract Notification the Empire are 'self government' and Reimbursement 'socialisation'. The first pillar involves allowing for self-government where it is possible, and where it is not possible, formally recognizing the colonies as mandates within the League of nations structure. By opening the Draft Agreement For House Contract Notification, colonies for inspection by the League of Nations, the Weekly Agenda. Weekly Agenda Template Sample, Labour Party intended to Agreement Notification, ensure that the League accepted some of the responsibility for Weekly Weekly Template 2015 Sample Weekly defending the colonies, thus taking some of the pressure off of the British military. The second pillar is less defined. The only concrete proposal of Atlee's is to turn over the control of the 'means of Draft Agreement Contract Notification, production' in the colonies to the League of Nations.
Criminology 135 Assignment Three Robert Jago 200015294 In his book, Multicultural Citizenship, Will Kymlicka expounds upon the basis of the collective rights of the several types of groups that make up Canada. Pta /? He claims that there are first and foremost the Draft Rent | Government, two founding nations; This primary grouping is composed of the descendants of the colonizers who created the state in their image. This primary group founded the state with their conceptions of rights and privileges in Write Letter: (with Pictures), mind. Kymlicka states that these two founding groups are rightfully afforded every chance at self-government. Together with the founders there are immigrants, or 'New Canadians'. Immigrants and other non-primary (or non-founding) groups do not share in the primary groups' rights. These non-primary groups have no legitimate or just claims to have separate self-governing institutions. Most importantly, these non-primary groups have no moral right whatsoever to have their cultures or languages recognized in an official capacity. The reason that the non-primary groups do not hold the same types of nationality rights as the primary groups is because they voluntarily surrendered their rights as a distinct people by emigrating to an established state and society. The duty of New Canadians is to assimilate themselves into the dominant society.
The hundreds of Agreement For House | Government Contract Notification, Aboriginal peoples that inhabit Canada poses a different sort of rights than either the founders or the immigrants do. Because aboriginal or 'native' Canadians are part of in Samples Of Reference For An Employee - The, Canada because of force, they continue to possess the same nationality rights that any other sovereign people posses. Native rights were never surrendered voluntarily, therefore they continue to exist. It is should be noted that all individuals, regardless of their group affiliation [or lack thereof], have certain 'natural rights' such as the Rent | Government Contract Notification, freedom of How To Write Letter:, speech and assembly and of life, liberty and property. As sovereign peoples, aboriginals continue to Draft Agreement For House | Government Contract, have the right to their own justice system. They have a right to conscript people, they have a right to execute people and so on and so forth. They also have a right to A Salary Letter: 15 Steps Pictures), be un-democratic; the rights of peoples and Draft Rent Notification nations have long been recognized as entirely separate from the natural rights of Pta / Teacher Classroom, individuals. With it decided that aboriginal nations continue to posses a broad range of nationality rights, the main question at hand is Agreement For House, whether or not they should exercise any of these rights. A further question is what is the duty of the Canadian state, if any, to aboriginal individuals, who have a legal status as native and, Canadian citizens. A further question is, should non-status natives, who in many respects are similar to new Canadians, be considered part of this equation. To begin to answer these questions there needs first to be a summary of the state of affairs for Full Book natives in the criminal justice system.
It is commonly agreed that the central problem behind much native crime is substance abuse , whether that be heroin on the streets of Vancouver, Alcohol in the reserves of Agreement, Saskatchewan, or gasoline and glue in the shanties of Agenda. Weekly Sample, Labrador. On some reserves, alcohol is responsible for 95% of crime, with nearly 100% of the adult population involved in some way or other. Furthermore, this alcohol abuse leads to a disproportionate amount of violent crime including spousal and For House Rent | Government child abuse - both of which may lead to further cycles of family violence. Outside of reserves, natives are disproportionately represented in violent crime and drug related crime as well as domestic violence. Natives comprise between 8 and 68 percent of the provincial prison populations, well beyond their share of the population. There are numerous reasons why natives come into constant conflict with the law. One such reason for native conflict with the law is what can be termed, 'a problem of policing'. Remedies For Torts And Breach Of Contract Book? Several studies have shown that white police officers are more likely to deal with a complaint involving white people without recourse to arrest. When these same white police officers come into similar conflicts with native or black individuals they are more likely to resort to arrest. Agreement For House Rent Notification? One response to Remedies And Breach Full, this problem of policing is to hire native police officers to serve in Draft Agreement For House Rent | Government Contract Notification, areas with large native populations.
However, by enlisting natives to police natives one can be said to be pandering to racial biases; it is not dissimilar from enlisting whites to Write (with Pictures), police whites, blacks to police blacks, and so forth - it is at Agreement For House | Government Notification, best an unsettling proposal. Furthermore, besides the task of How To A Salary Letter: (with, making such a proposal socially acceptable there is a growing body of Draft Rent | Government Contract, evidence which shows that the Write Letter: (with Pictures), racial biases that native police officers would have may not necessarily benefit natives. In a study regarding the use of deadly force in the United States, it was found that black officers were just as likely to shoot black suspects as were white officers. It was hypothesized that there was both an institutional and meta-cultural bias against black men and many police officers had this bias, regardless of Draft Agreement Rent | Government Contract, their own colour. This may also hold true for Of Reference Letters For An Employee - The natives. Draft Agreement For House Rent | Government Notification? Natives have traditionally been under valued in white society and this view may have been internalized by natives. The internalization of colonialism and the affectations of it is apparent in Remedies For Torts Book, Verdun-Jones and Griffiths' text.
They imply that there is a single native society with traditional communal values and that is based on consensus. Each of those assertions is absurd. Native societies are extremely diverse and any unifying aspects are the product of Rent Contract Notification, colonialism- something that the authors blame for the high rates of criminality amongst natives. Traditional native society in British Columbia was not based on communal property in the current sense, but was based on clan or familial property that was viciously guarded. There was no peace amongst the first nations of Write Negotiation Letter: 15 Steps Pictures), British Columbia. Crime fighting in Rent | Government, pre-contact societies more often involved physical violence than consensus and 'community healing'. Agenda. Weekly Agenda? As for communities as they exist today, they are the direct products of colonialism.
Natives never had an egalitarian society with equal justice for all as each type of Draft Agreement For House | Government Notification, criminal reform listed in the text holds as an axiom. Traditional native society in British Columbia was supported upon a superstructure of slavery, violence and the absolute rights of - The Sample, private and family property. Draft Agreement Contract? In order to solve the problems of native communities there must be a whole hearted acceptance of some aspects of European culture. Resume - Professional Rn Resume. Free Sample? There must be a recognition of the pillars of common law. There must be a recognition of the Draft Agreement Rent | Government, formal, legal equality of Pta / Classroom, men ,women, and foreigners.
There must be a recognition of the right to Agreement | Government Contract, confront accused, there must be a statute of limitations, a right of appeal, and all of the basic rights regarding the use of evidence. Before any major reforms can be undertaken there needs to be a recognition that each level of government has some specific responsibilities with regard to natives. The native governments themselves have a responsibility first and foremost for preserving native culture and civilization [the term is Free Sample, here used loosely]. The federal governments under their fiduciary responsibility [held by the crown under section 22] have a duty to native individuals. These dual roles are enshrined in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Draft Agreement Rent | Government Contract? What these roles mean for justice reform is that each government holds a separate interest and Of Reference Sample must guard this interest in any decision regarding reforms. This does impinge upon the inherent and moral right of sovereignty that the various native nations hold, but there are some political realities that supercede these rights and one of them is that native Canadians are - in the least - the Draft Contract, bearers of dual loyalties , national or ethnic and political. The first loyalty is to their own racial government, and the second is to the civil government in Ottawa. With regard to justice reforms, these separate roles do come into conflict. There has been at least one case brought before the Teacher Classroom, courts on Vancouver Island regarding the Draft Agreement For House Rent, excesses of community justice. One man who had become known for drinking and behaving irresponsibly while living in Holiday Flyer Design, Victoria, was kidnapped under the order of his community's native elders, and with the consent of For House Notification, his family, conscripted into Rn Resume. Sample, a traditional native healing ceremony.
If the Draft Rent | Government, interests of the community had prevailed we would have heard little of this case. However, the man in question exercised his rights as a Canadian citizen and invoked the charter against the community that unlawfully attacked him. The men that took him on community orders and beat him into Weekly Agenda Template 2015 Weekly, sobriety were charged with kidnapping and Draft Agreement | Government Notification assault, much to the consternation of his family and community. Teacher Reimbursement? The federal government also has a duty to For House Rent | Government, protect the community at large - that is to say, white Canada from dangerous individuals regardless of race or nationality. Certain offenses such as forcible rape have recently been treated differently if they had been committed by a native. Because of the harsh realities of the residential schools, many natives were sexually abused and have begun to act this out on other people, through forcible rape, or child abuse et. al.. Any federal actions in justice reform must therefore take these many factors into consideration. Flyer Template Design? First and foremost is the right of Draft Agreement Rent | Government Contract Notification, natives to have their own justice system. Second is the general issue of accountability and democracy enshrined in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Third, their is the fiduciary responsibility to native individuals, coupled with the Peace Order and A Salary Negotiation Letter: 15 Steps Good Government related duties of the government to ensure public safety and the general welfare of the Draft For House | Government Contract Notification, non-native populace.
The various native governments have one sole concern on this issue and that is advancing their national self interest. It is an affront to Of Reference - The Letter, the dignity of a sovereign nation to have their nationals arrested, tried and imprisoned in a foreign justice system. The most powerful regular exercise of state power is the ability of the Draft For House Rent Contract, state to Remedies Of Contract Full Book, arrest, try , and Draft Agreement For House detain its wayward citizens. The native governments, if they are to act as real nations do, need this 'big stick' in order to Sample Weekly Agenda. Weekly Agenda Template 2015 Sample, survive and rebuild. Draft Agreement Rent | Government Notification? The nationalization of the justice system by the Native governments is imperative if they are to legitimately exercise authority over their citizens.. The decision on whether or not there should be a native justice system lay entirely with the federal government. The question before the federal government is, should it devolve, delegate, or maintain its current responsibilities for the administration of justice on the native reserves. One option for Holiday Party Template Design the federal government is to create a parallel federal government of Draft Agreement For House Rent Contract, natives with the accompanying institutions such as a court and police system. Remedies Full Book? This was proposed in Agreement For House, the Royal Commission on Native Peoples. Pta /? This option is the most contentious.
The rest of Canada is Draft Agreement Contract, likely to balk at any form of consociational government between the races. Any new political arrangements with natives should be on a territorial basis, because of Canadian's familiarity with this form of Letters For An Letter, governmental responsibility. Another reason for the devolution of justice on a territorial basis is the sheer diversity of Contract Notification, native nations. Some native peoples may not wish to accept responsibility for the administration of their own justice system for one reason or another. Perhaps they do not trust the factions within their nations to be able to impartially administer a court and police system. The record to date of native government and policing has shown that impartiality and the independence of the How To Letter: (with Pictures), police are far from guaranteed. The purpose for constructing a separate native justice system is to mitigate the harmful effects of colonialism which are responsible for the heightened criminality of natives. While the proposition that colonialism has hurt natives more than it has helped them is open to question, what must be dealt with here is whether or not a separate court and policing system for Draft Agreement For House Rent each native nation will 'heal the wounds' of Samples Letters - The Letter, a century or two of colonial rule. The answer is, yes and no. On some reserves or tribes with large enough populations and with the Agreement For House Rent Contract, basic tenets of western-liberal justice and democracy established, a justice system would be a welcome step on the road to becoming full partners in the federation. On reserves here nepotism and Pta / Classroom Reimbursement ancient class and racial bigotry reign, the addition of the police would be half way towards creation of a police state.
The devolution of justice to some native nations would allow for the racialization or nationalization of many high paid and professional jobs. Draft For House Rent | Government Contract? This would immediately give a boost to the native societies. Beyond that, native civilians would benefit from Holiday Flyer Design having full access to Draft Agreement For House | Government Contract, people of their own race who share their cultural prejudices and traits. However, it is unclear if these utopian reserves of rights and democracy and brotherhood exist. The most likely and most beneficial choice the Pta / Teacher Classroom, federal government could make for natives is to delegate the responsibility for the court system to them. This would mean the stationing of federal officers on the basis of their race and national origin [presumably native - or more specifically Salish, Tsipsian or whatever] to reserves. Draft Rent Contract Notification? Furthermore it would mean the creation of a separate system of circuit or county courts for Sample Weekly Weekly Template Sample Weekly the reserves that would remain part of the provincial or federal court system. Perhaps this new system could be adjunct to the federal court. A separate layer of the federal or provincial courts that would serve justice on Draft Notification, reserves only would be halfway between an autonomous paralell native federation, and a native archipelago of four or five hundred justice systems. This final option would have the added benefit of maintaining control of the courts in the Department of Pta /, Indian Affairs and or justice. Agreement For House Rent | Government Contract? The judges would be federally appointed from a separate native court bar [just as there is a Supreme Court bar].
Furthermore the separate level of courts would be acceptable to Remedies For Torts Of Contract Book, many non-native Canadians. The court would have a specific territorial entity as its jurisdiction and this entity is not composed exclusively of the people of Rent, one race. The court would administer justice on the territory of the reserves. Just as the supreme court of the How To Write A Salary Negotiation 15 Steps, united states refers to the laws of the states of a cases origin when rendering their decisions, the new federal court could refer to the numerous reserve or national laws when rendering its decisions. A native court, a native bar, and native judges, administering local native laws do not necessarily prevent a native man for getting drunk and beating his wife.
The sense of pride at Draft Rent | Government, having his own court system is Weekly Agenda. Weekly Agenda Template 2015 Sample, likely to do little as well. What is wrong with the reserves is a lack of economic opportunity and a lack of Contract Notification, order. Economic opportunity is Write A Salary Negotiation Letter:, not within the scope of this paper, but order is. If there cannot be a separate federal police force for Agreement For House Rent | Government Notification natives, and if policing cannot be devolved to native governments for Classroom Reimbursement fear if giving too much power to too many corrupt regimes, then what is to be done with the police? A separate police division of the RCMP has been tried and has failed. Draft Rent? What could work is a piece meal response that would have capable reserves with their own police forces and lesser reserves with a force of specially trained RCMP subject to local police boards. This would be coupled with a native court sensitive to coerced evidence, police prejudices and differential use of the arresting power. The separate layers of policing may cut down on many of the unnecessary arrest of natives as well as allow people to have more confidence in the police and Holiday Party Template call them before a domestic disturbance turns violent. This would likely take care of many of the problems of order on the reserves. The courts would both serve as a support for the new policing system and Agreement For House Rent | Government Contract Notification act as a booster of national pride. With the question of law and Write A Salary Letter: 15 Steps Pictures) order on Agreement Rent | Government Notification, the reserves out of the Party Flyer Template, way, there is the Draft Agreement Rent, question of Letters Employee Letter, extra-territoriality and the Metis and non-status natives .The key component of Draft Agreement, any separate system of justice should be that it is based on territorial distinctions.
That is the only practical way of administering justice and selling justice to a population of Remedies Full, fair weather egalitarians like the Canadians . The Metis where they have their own territories should be allowed to be part of the native court and policing systems. Status natives living off reserve should have no recourse to the native courts if their crime was not committed on reserve. Because the court are founded on a territorial basis they have a limited exclusive jurisdiction. Non-status natives have voted with their feet in the same way that all immigrants have, and they have opted out of Contract Notification, native national life, the reserve police and court system should not apply to them. While natives should have no access to Template Design, the reserve court system if they are not physically on a reserve they still will have problems with criminality. The only For House Rent | Government, feasible solution for urban natives is to have regular police officers of native ancestry in areas with large native populations. Besides that, all that can be done is Weekly Agenda. Weekly 2015 Sample Weekly, mandatory awareness campaigns for the police, crown counsel and judges. Such training would focus on the rules of evidence and Agreement For House Rent | Government the differential use of the discretionary power by police and by prosecutors which has resulted in discrimination against natives. The presence of native police officers on the 'native beat' might allow people of native ancestry to feel more comfortable with the officers and to come to them with problems earlier.
Native police officers may treat people of their own race better than people of an other race and Flyer Template Design deal with the former's problems out of court. Draft For House Notification? While this beneficial racial is both unsettling and Weekly Agenda 2015 Sample less than a certainty ,the presence of native police officers in disturbances amongst natives could in the least diffuse the situation and turn it from a racial confrontation to one merely of the police and Draft Agreement | Government Contract Notification a criminal. It is an uncomfortable conclusion to come to, however, it has been arrived at here. A separate Native court system, based on territory is the best means possible to correct the ill effects of the colonial experience. Because white-Canada has shown that it is unlikely to How To A Salary Letter:, accept any system based solely on race and nationality - a separate native court system that would be open to all the natives of Canada is not politically feasible. A territorial division of power is common in Canada, and the extension of this division of powers to natives -while contentious- is not an Draft For House Rent, impossibility. If such a court was kept as an adjunct to the federal court, and had a narrow jurisdiction over the reserves only, it could correct some of the ill effects of the colonial legacy - at Pta / Teacher Classroom Reimbursement, least on the reserves.
However many Natives do not live on reserve, though they do share in the stigma of being native. Because white police officers, prosecutors, and Draft Agreement Rent judges, have been shown to discriminate against natives. The evidence shows that native police officers may be as likely to discriminate against natives as are white police. For Torts And Breach Of Contract Full Book? The best possible solution is the recruitment of native police officers for areas with high native populations in the hope that they would in the least encourage natives to report crime amongst themselves more readily than they do with white officers. In order to Agreement Rent Contract Notification, deal with some of the Of Reference For An Employee - The Letter Sample, discrimination, there also needs to be a sensitivity program to include the police, judges, and prosecutors. While these solutions fall far short of what is needed to solve the problem of native criminality, it is the farthest one can politically go in Draft Agreement Contract, Canada toward a solution. Crim201: Canada?s sexual assault laws were, until recently, based in the customary tradition of the United Kingdom. That tradition in How To Negotiation, itself is based on more ancient traditions. The common thread to most if not all sexual assault laws throughout history has been their exclusion of the Draft Agreement For House | Government Notification, martial relationship as a possible venue for sexual assault.
The first proposed laws on sexual assault in this study originate in classical Athens. This law was not specifically a rape law, but rather dealt with justifiable homicide. Drafted by Plato, it stated that: The man who forcibly violates a free woman or boy shall be slain with impunity by Weekly Weekly Template 2015 Weekly, the person thus violently outraged, or by his father, or brother and sons . And should a man discover his wedded wife being violated, he shall be guiltless if he kills the violator (Cohen 1993, p.8). This law protects both men and women from sexual assault ? which is something that Canadian law did not achieve until 1983. Draft For House? This law still does not protect a spouse from rape by Classroom, his or her partner. It is also important to draw attention to Draft Agreement For House Rent, whom the Letters Employee Letter, offense is being committed against.
It is stated that if a man discovers ?his? wife being raped, he may respond with deadly force. The act itself is not committed against the wife but against the husband?s possession. The next law comes from the Roman Empire. Unlike Athenian and Canadian law, this law provides for Draft For House Rent | Government Notification the possibility of a woman committing rape. Also, unlike Athenian and early American law, rape or ?lewd advances? could be committed against a slave(Russell 1975, p.13). If anyone makes lewd advances, be it a man or a woman, freeborn or freed, he will be liable for the outrage and How To Write A Salary Letter: 15 Steps (with Pictures) even if an attempt is Draft Agreement For House Contract Notification, made on the chastity of a slave, this too is Nurse Example Rn Resume. Free Resume, deemed to be an Draft Contract Notification, outrage (Justinian ca 550, p. And Breach Of Contract Full Book? 166). This law is a codification of earlier Roman law. Among the key points to note about the law is that it falls within the realm of tort. Agreement For House Rent Contract? Sexual assault at this early stage was only a concern for Sample Agenda. Weekly Agenda Template 2015 the state if it was committed by a slave.
It is also important to note that the terms used in this law are not specifically inclusive of husbands and wives. No provision existed for the prosecution of Agreement Rent, rape within marriage. Marriage in Holiday Party Template, the middle ages was, until 1180, an object of contention. While in Rome there were several ways in which one could be married, with different social and legal ramifications (Kolbert 1979, pp.54-57), in Europe Pope Alexander III decreed that there should be but one (Brundage 1993, pp.247-248). The Pope ruled that marriage began after an agreement to marry had been consummated (Ibid. p.248). Draft For House Rent | Government? In several cases involving leprosy, the Rn Resume. Resume, Pope ruled that because the marriage had been consummated, one spouse had a duty to go with the stricken spouse to the leposarium where he will ?give her sexual solace on demand? or where she will provide him with ?marital affection? (Ibid. p.249). Agreement Rent | Government Contract? An emphasis should be put on the term ?consummated?. By the 13th century it had been generally agreed that two sorts of rights existed in marriage(Ibid. p.251). The first set were created with the agreement to Letters For An Letter Sample, marry, and those involved the marital rights such as property. The second set of rights were sexual rights or ?implied consent?.
These second rights were created when the couple consummated their marriage. A 14th century court ruling shows that, while the marital rights could be dissolved by separation, these sexual rights were permanent: We hold the defendant bound to pay the conjugal debt to the plaintiff in her father?s house one night each week and to Agreement For House Rent Contract, keep this obligation faithfully, until we shall order otherwise (Brundage, p.252). The marital debt was a very real and enforceable debt throughout the Resume Example - Professional Rn Resume. Resume, middle ages. By most definitions (positivists excepted), what the court ordered in that case was a weekly, scheduled rape. This practice continued throughout the middle ages. Rape could only be committed by a man against a free woman(Wemple 1993, p.229). Punishments usually involved a fine which varied depending on the amount of force used (5 solidi for For House Contract abduction and rape, 8 more solidi if he used a sword). A common punishment for a man who committed rape was that he must pay the Example Free Sample Resume, offended family the Draft For House Rent | Government Notification, bride-price. If she consented to sex, the price was reduced by one third. Consent was the property of the father or brothers, and sexual assault was an offence against Party Design their property (Ibid.).
Other punishments for rape included enslavement to the offended family (if the offender was a servant or only half free), and death if the offender had the Rent | Government, audacity to flee to a church (Ibid.). Rape in the United Kingdom is a more puzzling affair. While it is commonly accepted that these mediaeval laws persisted, there is some evidence to the contrary. The doctrine on common law and marital rape was stated explicitly in the 1275 and 1285 Statutes of Westminster Johnson and Sigler 1997, p11). This was reiterated by the 17th century judge Sir Mathew Hale. He stated that ?the wife hath given up herself in this kind unto her husband which she cannot retract? (Hall 1984, p.xvi).
He based his judgement on ?ancient common law doctrine?. While the Athenian, Roman, and Papal law cited above does suggest that Sir Mathew was factually accurate, he may not have been technically correct. Common law is an organic law which changes with each judicial ruling. These rulings are able to overturn legal doctrines such as the kind described in this paper so far. In 1631 a man was convicted in England of raping his wife (Hall, p.xvi). This suggests that perhaps, ?ancient common law doctrine? had long since been overturned by the time that Sir Mathew got to it. Nevertheless it persisted unchanged until it was transferred to Canada in 15 Steps (with, the 18th century. In 1800, the laws of England such as they were on September 17th, 1792, became Canadian laws. This was accomplished with the Act for the Further Introduction of English Criminal Law into Agreement For House Rent, Upper Canada (Garley 1989, p.26).
These laws were ineffective. Between 1840 and 1892, in Ontario, there were 228 rape prosecutions and 49 convictions (Ibid. pp. Employee Sample? 29-30). By the late 1800?s the absurdity inherent in Sir Mathew Hale?s proclamation became evident. In R. v. Clarence, the courts decided that while a husband had the Draft Agreement, right to sexual intercourse with his wife, he could not enforce that right by using force(anon. Of Reference Letters For An Employee - The Sample? 2000). The implied consent or the ?sexual rights? were no longer considered to For House Notification, be absolute: Subsequent decisions restricted Hale's proposition to situations where husband and For Torts wife enjoyed ordinary relations between them, thus exposing abusive husbands to prosecution for rape where they were judicially separated or where the wife had initiated divorce proceedings and had been granted a decree nisi (Ibid.). Draft For House Contract Notification? The law continued to crumble throughout the 20th century. In 1935, Southern Australia allowed for the conviction (albeit under exceptionally violent circumstances) of a husband for raping his wife.
In 1965, New Zealand permitted for the prosecution of husbands for raping their wives when a decree nisi was in place. Scotland barred spousal rape altogether in For Torts And Breach Full, 1989, and Agreement Rent | Government England followed suit in 1991 (Ibid.). Canadian rape law throughout this period changed only once. While the How To Write Negotiation 15 Steps Pictures), absolute sexual rights that were referred to in the mediaeval period and reinforced by Sir Mathew Hale did not survive the start of the twentieth century, the formal law still remained in place. It was not until 1983 that the Agreement For House Rent | Government Contract, law shielding a husband from Pta / Teacher a rape prosecution by his wife passed into history. The law as it stood in 1927, and Agreement Rent | Government Notification titled ?Unlawful Carnal Knowledge? reads as follows: 298. Rape is the act of a man having carnal knowledge of a woman who is not his wife without her consent, or with consent which has been extorted by threats or fear of bodily harm, or obtained by personating the woman?s husband, or by false and fraudulent representations as to the nature and quality of the act. Remedies Of Contract Full Book? [emphasis mine] (R.S., 1927, 289, p.87) By 1980, this law remained unchanged(Tremeear?s 1980 Criminal Code 143, p.61). A rape by definition could not be committed by a husband against For House Rent | Government Contract his wife. While the absolute sexual right in perpetuity had ceased to exist, the right was maintained in existing marriages though it was grounds for divorce. The result of these laws was the gross under reporting of rape. It was not simply because many women believed that their attackers would not be punished, but it is that many women did not believe that an attack had taken place (Russell, p.134).
Furthermore, because the state had for so long assumed that a husband had a right to his wife?s body, many wives had accepted and adapted to the situation. For a woman to see her husband as a rapist and to Party Flyer Template Design, continue to Draft Contract Notification, live with him is often too difficult. Many are too dependent on their husbands for Sample Weekly Weekly Agenda 2015 Weekly economic, social, and psychological reasons to leave. One solution for these women is not to Draft For House Contract, see forcible intercourse as rape. Another more common adaptation is to give up the Samples Letters For An Employee Sample, right to say no, to be always sexually available, regardless of Draft Rent | Government, her wishes (Rusell 1975, p.71). Women?s poor economic and social status had allowed for Teacher Classroom Reimbursement their continued use as sexual objects. The law reflected this.
It is a truism to state that Canada is a patriarchal society. There are reasons why this is so easily said, and the law prior to 1983 is one of For House Rent | Government Notification, them. However, the law did change. With bill c-127 (1983) the law expanded to include spousal sexual assaults as part of its jurisdiction (Boritch, pp.234-235). Possibly because of Remedies For Torts Book, this and reforms to the rules of evidence, the Draft Rent | Government Contract Notification, number of Samples For An Letter Sample, reported sexual assaults rose dramatically.
However, while half of all women in Canada will be the victims of sexual assault in Draft For House Rent Notification, their lives (Ontario Woman?s Directorate 2000) only 6 percent of Samples Letters For An Employee Letter Sample, these women will report that assault to the authorities (Boritch 1997, p.213 and p.224). R. v. Draft Rent | Government Notification? White (1-24 C.C.C. 3d,) is an example of a crime that would not have been prosecuted prior to the 1983 reforms. R. v. White is a 1986 case, brought before the British Columbia Court of Template, Appeal. The accused (White) was married to the victim, but they were estranged (Ibid., p.1).
The victim returned home one night to find the accused wearing surgical gloves and holding a pillow. She screamed, at which point he put the Draft Agreement Rent Contract, pillow over her face, and then covered her mouth with a bandage that wrapped around her head. He then beat her, threatened to murder her, and then after a long discussion, she went into the bedroom, where she was raped (Ibid., p.1). Samples Letters - The Letter Sample? Before I continue, I should add that the actions described were perfectly legal until very recently. The accused claimed that the discussion led him to Draft For House Rent | Government Notification, believe that his wife had consented to sex. He stated that he believed that sex was an attempt at Holiday Flyer, reconciliation. The issue at Draft Agreement For House Rent, hand in R. v. White is whether his mistaken belief that his wife consented is a valid defense. While the appeal of his conviction was dismissed, the For Torts And Breach Of Contract Book, fact that it went to trial is significant. If he had engaged in Draft For House | Government, the identical activity three years earlier, he would have committed no crime. The signal difference between the law as it stands today and the law is it stood prior to 1983, was the fact that wives are no longer considered to be the possession of their husbands.
Sexual assault by intimates including spouses comprises 38 percent of all sexual assaults in Canada (Ontario Women?s Directorate). However, while 6 percent of the total number of sexual assaults are reported to police, only 1 percent of these sexual assaults by intimates are reported (Ibid.). Several reasons for this lack of reporting are provided in surveys. One major reason for not reporting sexual assaults by intimates is that the nature of the relationship may lead authorities to Teacher Classroom Reimbursement, suspect that there really was consent. Furthermore, many women may not view a sexual assault by a husband or boyfriend as such. They may internalize the blame and say such things as, ?what did you think he wanted,? ?you drank with him didn't you,? or ?you should have expected something like this to happen.?(Ibid.).
In a search through fifty editions of Canadian Criminal Cases, I found only one case of spousal rape that was prosecuted. The vast majority of Draft Agreement Rent Contract, sexual assault prosecutions continue to - Professional, be for assaults by strangers, on Agreement For House Contract, young women. Prior rape and Resume Example Sample sexual assault laws sought to protect the chastity of the Draft Agreement For House Contract, same class of young women from Sample Weekly Weekly Agenda Sample Weekly sexual predator. The purpose was to defend men?s property. A look at Draft Agreement Rent | Government Contract, which rapes are prosecuted shows that this is still the case. Sexual assault law has existed since the time of Plato. The point of that law, and nearly every law that succeeded it was, in the case of women, not to protect them as victims, but to protect their husbands, brothers, or fathers as guardians. Sexual assault law developed slowly through the mediaeval period, and followed the development of marriage and spousal property. While in the Roman Empire, a woman was a free citizen with the rights to dispose of her property, and enter into free contracts, in the mediaeval period, she was a possession to be transferred for a price from father to Samples Of Reference For An - The, husband.
The mediaeval period saw the development of the principle of a ?sexual right? that comes into existence with the Agreement | Government Contract, consummation of a marriage. This right was so absolute as to allow the authorities to order a former wife to submit to a weekly scheduled rape. As this law came to England it was formalized in the 1275 and 1285 Statutes of Westminster. These confirmed a husband?s right to have sex with his wife, whenever he chose. In 1800, these laws came to Canada. For more than a century , the absolute and unbreakable sexual rights remained unchallenged. By the start of the 20th century, they were slowly chipped away at. A husband lost the absolute right to rape his wife even after they divorced. Samples Of Reference For An Employee Letter? This right was confined to a marriage where ?ordinary relations? persisted. This law stood until 1983.
With bill c-127, the sexual assault laws were finally expanded to Draft Rent Notification, include violence within a marriage. However, regardless of the new law, few reports of spousal rapes are made. Flyer Template Design? The reasons for this are numerous, but the Draft Rent Contract, most troubling is the belief by many wives, that what happened was not an assault. It is not until this last problem of internalized blame is dealt with that two millennia of reforms can have any real deterrent value. Bibliography Annonymous (2000). The Historical Development of the Example Free, Offense of Rape. http:canadiancrimanallaw.com/articles/srticles/rape.htm.
Boritch, Helen. Fallen Women: Female Crime and Criminal Justice in Canada, ITP Nelson (Toronto: 1997). Brundage, James A. Draft For House Rent Contract? Implied Consent to Intercourse pp. Resume - Professional Rn Resume.? 245-256, Consent and Coercion to Sex and Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993). Draft Rent | Government Contract? Cohen, David. Consent and Sexual Relations in Classical Athens pp. 5-16, Consent and Holiday Party Flyer Template Design Coercion to Sex and Marriage in Draft Agreement For House Contract, Ancient and Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993).
The Criminal Code and Other Selected Statutes of Canada, Edmond Cloutier (Ottawa: 1948). Garley, Kenneth David William. A Trust Betrayed: Sexual Assault in Dating/Courtship Relations and the Response of the Canadian Criminal Justice System. Teacher Classroom Reimbursement? Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, B.C.:1989). Hall, Ruth and Selma James and Judit Kertesz, The Rapist Who Pays the Rent, Falling Wall Press (Bristol : 1984). Johnson, Ida M. and Robert Sigler, Forced Sexual Intercourse in Intimate Relationships, Ashgate-Dartmouth (Aldershot:1997). Justinian (trans.) (circa 550) The Digest of Roman Law: Theft, Rapine, Dammage and Insult, C.F. Kolbert ed..Penguin Books (Middlesex, England: 1979) Ontario Women?s Directorate (2000). Sexual Assault Dispelling the Myths. http:www.womanabuseprevention.com/html/sexual_assault.html. R. v. Draft Agreement For House Rent? White (1986), Canadian Criminal Cases, 1-24 C.C.C. (3d) Russell, Diana E.H., The Politics of Party Flyer Design, Rape:The Victim?s Perspective, Stein and Day Publishers (New York: 1975).
Treemar?s 1980 Criminal Code and Miscellaneous Statutes, The Carswell Company ltd. (Toronto: 1980). Wemple, Suzanne F. Consent and Dissent to For House Rent Contract Notification, Sexual Intercourse in Germanic Societies from the Fifth to the Tenth Century pp. 227-244, Consent and Coercion to Sex and Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993). Feminist Crim. When the words ?women? and ?crime? are spoken, the first two words to Samples For An, come to Draft For House Rent Contract, many minds are ?sexual assault?. Of Reference Letters For An Letter Sample? According to most statistics, more than half of all women in Canada will be the victims of sexual assault in their lives (Ontario Woman?s Directorate 2000). In some segments of the population that number rises to 83 percent (Ibid.). While these numbers are high, the numbers of convictions for sexual assault are not.
According to information presented by Agreement Notification, Helen Boritch, 10 percent of women can expect to be sexually assaulted in any given year, while only 6 percent of these women will report that assault to the authorities (Boritch 1997, p.213 and p.224) . There is Letter Sample, a very large discrepency of numbers. The vast majority of sexual assaults go unreported. The vast majority of sexual assaults are committed by someone the victim knows (Ibid. Draft For House Contract? pp.212-213). Perhaps the reason that so many sexual assaults go unreported is because of this overriding fact (Ontario Woman?s Directorate). Sexual assault within families was until recently legal in Canada.
The thinking went as such: The husband cannot be guilty of rape committed by himself upon his lawful wife, for by their mutual matrimonial consent and How To Write (with contract the wife hath given up herself in this kind unto her husband which she cannot retract (Hall, James and Kertesz 1984, p.20). The authorities believed that common law provided for the lawful rape of a wife by her husband. While this is a patently false proposition, by the 18th century, it had become the official line (Ibid. p.xvi). Draft Agreement For House Rent? I didn?t feel that I had been raped. I felt more that I was stupid because I went out with a white fraternity guy. ..so I blamed myself for going out with him. Also I didn?t think of it as rape because I knew him and Resume Free Resume because I consented to go. At the time I thought rape was a man coming out Agreement Rent Contract Notification of the bushes and attacking you, so somebody you knew couldn?t rape you (Russell 1975, p.134). For a woman to Remedies And Breach Of Contract Full Book, see her husband as a rapist and to continue to live with him is often too difficult. Many are too dependent on their husbands for Draft For House | Government Contract Notification economic, social, and psychological reasons to leave. One solution for Resume Rn Resume. Free Resume these women is Notification, not to see forcible intercourse as rape. Another more common adaptation is to give up the right to say no, to be always sexually available, regardless of her wishes (Rusell 1975, p.71).
Crim (Deviancy) : Is there a point in my life when I considered myself to be deviant, or others considered me to be deviant? If so, how was the situation resolved? People are always telling me that I am ?weird?. I disagree with them. I believe that I am one of the least deviant people I know. I am very old fashioned though, so maybe that?s why I get the weird label. Nevertheless, there are few times in my life when I consider myself to Full, be a ?deviant?. My self-concept appears to follow a dialectical pattern. I consider myself to be part of a group, and identify with that group and its values. I increasingly find myself uncomfortable with some of the things which that group does or talks about.
At some point an incident occurs, and I become isolated from the group. I then identify with a new group, and the process starts over. In other words, my membership in the first group can be considered a thesis. The thesis consists of that group?s world-view, which I share in. Draft Notification? The crisis is the antithesis, it is the stage at which the cognitive dissonance that occurred within the thesis comes out into Of Reference Letters Employee, the open. Finally the new group is the synthesis.
In the synthesis, the world-view that I held in the thesis group is largely gone, as are the troubles of the antithesis. The most memorable dialectical shift in my life occurred in 1990-1991. In 1990, I was part of the dominant white clique at my junior high school, in suburban Richmond. While everyone had got along in elementary school, we all divided along racial lines when we got to high school. The Chinese kids all went and spent time together, and even the Chinese kids that could not speak Chinese, went. The East-Indian kids did as the Chinese did, and the white kids followed suit. There was not anything malicious about any of it. Well, that is not entirely true.
Much of our time in the white group was spent making fun of Draft Rent | Government Notification, kids in the East Indian and Chinese groups. However, we were not entirely racist, all the - Professional Rn Resume. Free Sample, black kids in our school were part of our group. Agreement For House | Government? Our group had their own ?territory?, drama and the arts were ours, as well as physical education, while we gave the East-Indian kids shop class, and the Chinese kids, computer science. The rest of the Party Flyer Template, classes were required, so we could not split them up as easily, though we did manage some how. By 1990, I was firmly ensconced in Agreement For House, this group. I had few complaints about it, I am quite good at making fun of people, so I was a valuable asset to the collective. In the summer of 1990, an incident happened which upset my place within the group. On July 11th of Agenda. Agenda Sample, that year, a group of armed Mohawks got into a shooting war with the Quebec provincial police.
My group hated French immersion kids, so it seemed obvious to Rent | Government Contract, me which side we would come down on. How To A Salary 15 Steps (with? I did not worry. Much to my surprise, the general attitude among the white kids was that the Agreement For House Rent | Government Contract Notification, government should send in tanks, and get rid of the ?Indians?. It had not occurred to me until that point that I am half-?Indian?. My family came down firmly on the side of the Mohawks. Most of my male cousins who were old enough went off to join one blockade or another, and at least one got himself sent to prison for Samples Of Reference - The Sample his troubles. Agreement Rent | Government Notification? We went out to the reserve more often. Previously we had gone there for the winter ceremonies, or for birthday parties. This time we were going out there to ?plan things?. Back at Nurse Resume Free Sample, home amongst my friends, I found myself increasingly isolated. I got into more and more fights, both verbal and physical.
People that had been part of my group ? though not friends per se, walked past me like they did not know me. I started spending time with the black kids and the girls, and while they were not as overtly racist as the white boys, they were still racist. Young boys tend not to hide things, while young girls ? at least in that group- seem to believe that in order to be ?nice? it is their duty to hide their opinions. By the end of the summer I found myself completely shut out of the white group. I was the one of only two native kids at For House | Government Contract, my school, so there was no chance of joining the native clique. The other native kid had lighter skin, so he began to pretend that he was Italian. I would say that ?I can?t blame him? but in reality I hated him and consider him to be a two-faced traitor. I spent more time on the reserve and with my younger cousins. With them, all the anger that had developed from being isolated could be vented destructively. It was o.k. in that group to Classroom, hate the police and the government.
It was o.k. to through rocks at Draft Rent Contract Notification, police cars and Example Rn Resume. Free buildings as well as other things that can not be mentioned here. In fact, not only was it o.k. amongst the new clique, but it was accepted and approved of by Rent | Government, the adults around us. The point at which I switched allegiances entirely from white society to native society was at a family barbecue. The barbecue was at an uncle?s house. He was on Remedies Of Contract Full Book, the white side of my family. Draft Agreement Rent | Government Contract? Everyone at the barbecue was white but me. Most of them were family, though there were a few family friends there. My parents stayed at Party Template Design, home. That day happened to be the same day that the army advanced on native positions around Montreal.
Raw footage of the | Government, attack was broadcast on live television. Weekly Agenda Template 2015 Weekly? I was glued to the news, and was very upset. Draft For House Contract? I asked everyone else to come see what was happening. Because they were family I assumed that they would take my side. The group became very upset too, but at the natives.
One of my uncles friends went on a rant and started saying that all those ?Indians? want out of the crisis is money to buy liquor. That is amongst the Flyer, more polite things that he said. I noticed that several of my aunts and uncles agreed with him. Draft Agreement For House Contract Notification? My grandparents refused to say a word in my defense. Resume Sample? When I did open my mouth to yell at him and give him the usual ?shpeel? about oppression et. al., I was hushed up. I got up, and left. I walked home from there and told my parents. Draft For House Rent Contract? My father (he is very white) got into a loud argument over the phone with my uncle and my grandparents.
My mother yelled at Teacher Reimbursement, me for going to the barbecue in the first place. It was after the barbecue that I decided that I would completely abandon ?white? culture in favor of native (Salish) culture, and religion. In a pique of melodrama I went to the living room and threw my bible and little plastic Canadian flag into the fireplace. I have since changed since then, I know have a European wife, and white friends, and Agreement For House | Government Notification while I am no Christian, I certainly would not burn a perfectly good bible today. Samples Of Reference For An Letter? However, I still align myself with the native cause, and have abandoned any pretenses of Canadian citizenship. It is difficult to Agreement For House Rent | Government Contract Notification, understand which theory of deviancy applied to me in Samples For An Letter, that situation. Perhaps demonology applied to me, I did become a heathen, though that was after the fact (Gomme, p.41). Agreement For House Rent | Government Notification? If I was not possessed by the dark forces of the ?fallen one?, maybe I was the product of my environment (Ibid., p.43). However, my environment was a townhouse complex which was at least one quarter Jewish, and was smack in the center of suburban Vancouver. If environment played any role in my formation, I would have joined the Lion?s Club, or become a Freemason.
Two theories of deviance hold the most possibility for explaining my situation. The first is containment theory. Containment theory is the theory of inner and outer forces pushing and pulling someone toward deviance (Ibid., p.81). Gomme writes that: Social forces that push and pull people toward deviant behavior include?membership in an ethnic minority, restricted access to legitimate opportunities (Gomme, p.81). These external social forces included my peers and my extended family. For An Letter Sample? On the Draft For House Contract Notification, one hand, the white side of family, and my white friends ostracized me, and openly attacked me, while on the other hand, the native part of my family, allowed me to vent my frustrations, and Of Reference Letters Employee - The Letter provided friends, and a ready target for teenage anger. Draft Agreement For House? I would also consider that my access to ?legitimate opportunities? was hampered by the activities of the whites around me. By ostracizing me, and making school unpleasant, the whites prevented me from achieving the scholastic success that was due. They also prevented me from pursuing the social relationships that I had established over four or more years. This legitimate frustration sought me to seek success in the native community and to attempt to form social bonds with natives.
Internal forces that constrain an individual from deviancy include, ?a positive self-concept, a strong ego, an intense sense of personal responsibility, and a high frustration threshold? (Gomme, p.81). I know for a fact that I had none of these qualities. More often than not, a poor self-concept, and weak ego, led me to Flyer Template, follow the Draft For House Rent | Government Contract, crowd, and go along with whatever the Weekly Agenda. Agenda Template Sample, group told me to do. As for personal responsibility and Draft Agreement For House Rent the ability to be frustrated, I was suspect that I was an Remedies And Breach Of Contract Full Book, average teenager, and therefore, both of these things were absent. Containment theory appears to Agreement For House Rent | Government Contract Notification, be a perfect fit. I was pushed into deviancy by the people around me. There are other theories that may be a better fit.
I will discount social control theory, because of its reliance on Party Flyer, the concept of deterrence (Ibid., p.89). Agreement | Government Notification? I do not believe that there was either a general or a specific deterrence factor to being native. Up until 1990, being native was an curiosity, like being double jointed; it could be trotted out at Pta / Classroom Reimbursement, parties to impress and entertain people. At that time, there was almost an incentive to be exotic. Incentive does not apply in my case though. Labeling theory has some interesting possibilities. The Oka crisis was an act of primary deviance (Gomme, p.100). If the Canadian State was to defend a burial ground in ? say, France ? from conversion into a golf course, it would be considered to be legitimate. However, because the Mohawks lacked many of the legitimate venues that a Country would have in lobbying another on the international stage, they were forced into an act of Draft Rent | Government Contract Notification, violence ? a blockade. Afterwards they were attacked, and used force to defend themselves ? something that any country would do. However because the Example Sample, Mohawk country is not recognized, what they did was considered to be an act of terrorism, and they were punished for it in Draft Agreement For House, those terms.
As for me, the Write Letter:, primary act of deviance was defending the Draft Agreement Contract Notification, Mohawks in the Oka crisis. While the majority of my peers were attacking the Mohawks, I came to their defense. Pta / Teacher Classroom? My first act of defense was primary deviance because it was isolated, and did not result in ?continuous negative social reaction? (Ibid.). Because I did not consider that act of primary deviance to be deviant, I would not be self-identified as a deviant. Gomme writes about what happened next: The application of derogatory labels and Contract Notification the severing of connections to conventional sphere intensify the construction of a deviant identity by How To Write A Salary Letter: (with Pictures), forcing the Draft For House, devalued person to seek out others in similar situations who can provide more favorable reflections of the Sample Agenda. Weekly Template, self. For House Contract? (Gomme, p.101). This description matches my situation to a tee. I was labeled as an ?Indian? (trust me, as a native, that is an insult), and my social connections were severed.
I sought out new social situations in which I would be accepted and my anger approved of. As I wrote at Write Negotiation 15 Steps (with Pictures), the start of this paper, I do not consider myself to be a deviant ? in any sense of the Draft Agreement For House | Government Contract Notification, term. Labeling theory requires that I identify with my deviance. I do not, and did not. My main goal in life is to modernize native society, and help guide it toward independence.
If I accepted native society as it is, I suppose that I could be considered deviant in the labeling theory sense. However, my allegiance to native society, is a biological one, that recognizes my membership in Agenda. Agenda 2015 Sample, it as a fact of biology. My formal association with native life began because I was pushed into it. When that force was removed I formed new friendships with whites. For House Rent | Government? It is because of this that I suspect that the Teacher, best explanation for my period of Agreement For House Rent Contract, deviance is contained in Sample Weekly Agenda., containment theory. I would draw a comparison between my situation and Notification that of people described in ?Normalcy and Visibility?.
While I am not often mistaken as Anglo-Saxon white, I do have a passing resemblance to Samples For An - The Letter Sample, a straight-haired version of a Jewish stereotype; I have also passed as Catalonian, Mexican, and For House | Government Contract Greek. People do not know that I am native until I tell them; I am racially ambiguous. The article gives one major relevant factor to living with an invisible disability. Holiday Party Flyer Template? The first was that people had the option of maintaining a ?semblance of Draft For House | Government, normalcy? (Thorne 1993, p.9). I my case, I have the Reimbursement, option of passing as white. This is disturbingly important in this country. For example , until recently I worked in a West Side grocery store. This store had an up market clientele. Among the items the store sold were bags and cards with native designs on them. After a while began to notice that in spite of this native friendly image that the store had, even middle-class natives could not enter the store without being considered to be a shoplifter by the management. My co-workers also occasionally told stories in which natives were attacked or demeaned.
If I were to reveal my identity, I would face being excluded from these conversations. If I was excluded from Agreement | Government Notification these conversations, I would face being excluded from their social circle in general, and any future options for advancement that arise from being a part of the ?in? group. I decided to Weekly Weekly Agenda Template 2015 Weekly, keep my mouth shut, and get a raise instead. If I was visibly more native that option would not have been open to me. Deviance in my case is not really deviance on my part. When I did have a spell of deviant activity, it was caused by external forces. When those external forces were removed, the Draft Agreement For House Rent Notification, deviancy ended. This deviancy is in some ways voluntary, because I can hide it. However, I do not believe that by Pta /, engaging in a profound act of self-denial can be a reasonable choice, so the voluntary choice is somewhat less real. I have found many other people in similar situations. There are quite a few natives that can pass in white society, and do so, however, they maintain a true allegiance to their nation.
I have found this common thread among many other natives: they had a lot more white friends, until opinions hardened against our peoples. While we hold the same western liberal views that we have always had, we no longer see Canada, or our white liberal peers, as friends but enemies, and dangerous ones at that; and it is not something that we chose. Bibliography Gomme, Ian. The Shadow Line: Deviance and Agreement For House Contract Crime in Of Reference, Canada, Harcourt Brace Jovonovich (Tornto: 1993). Thorne, S.E. (1993).
Normalcy and Visibility. In Social Explanations of Criminal and Deviant Behaviour, Brian Burtch Ed., Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, B.C.: 2000). Crim 135: Essay 2 The major argument in favour of curtailing judicial independence and Agreement Rent Contract Notification prosecutorial discretion is that the justice system needs to be more accountable, more consistent, and more predictable. Each of these counts against the justice system is based on the mistaken assumption that the justice system needs to be a rational and efficient corporate body. That is to say, that the justice system must act as a single entity with the rasion d?etre of fighting, controlling, and deterring crime. The advocates of legal straightjackets have failed to prove their prima facie case. The justice system has no need to be a single solid structure with automated systems of Samples Of Reference Letters - The, judges, lawyers and parole officers. For House Rent Notification? In the strictly constructed systems of our less-democratic cousins, lawyers, judges and their ilk serve only to diagnose the criminal for the sole purpose of placing them in Holiday Party Flyer Template Design, a category of offender, prisoner, and Agreement For House Contract Notification parolee.
The primary fault of the argument in favour of judicial and prosecutorial constraints is that it carries in Weekly Agenda. Weekly Agenda Template, itself the tacit assumption of guilt. For House Rent Notification? By merely categorizing a citizen as an offender under the criminal code, the most authoritarian and Remedies For Torts And Breach Of Contract Book unaccountable element of the For House Notification, justice system, the police, has effectively acted as judge jury and executioner. The citizen, who becomes labeled as an Of Reference Letters Employee - The Letter, offender under the criminal code is For House | Government, shunted off to a holding cell, where, another police official determines if they are to be released. This police official would, at Holiday Party Flyer Template Design, this stage in the current system use subjective criteria to For House Rent | Government Contract Notification, determine if the offender was a significant risk and should be released; in a constrained system, the crime would determine the availability of release automatically. In the constrained system, the belligerent, and indigent, flasher would go free; while the tenured professor whose failing student wrongfully accused him of rape would be sent before a judge. Upon reaching the judge, the charges wold determine the bail-after all, consistency is the modus vivendi of the Holiday Party Flyer Template Design, constrained system.
Griffiths and Verdun-Jones note that those people that have been denied bail and appear at Contract Notification, their trial in state custody are more likely to be found guilty, and, when found so, they are more likely than other convicted citizens to receive a harsh sentence. Beside the clear difficulty encountered by imprisoned people in mounting a defense against the state's accusations, there is a secondary problem of facing a jury of their peers while in custody. To the Weekly Template Weekly, average citizen, the appearance of one of their wayward neighbours in chains is Agreement Rent | Government Notification, likely to prejudice them against him or her. In a future system of 'consistent' justice it is likely that those offences where the punishment is most severe, the Weekly, indictable offences, that the Draft Agreement Notification, citizen is likely to be held in custody; and, it is How To Write Negotiation Letter: (with, those same indictable offences, to be tried before a jury, where the accussed's status as a prisoner is most likely to be held against them. While the accussed's status as a prisoner is not a de jure proclamation of their guilt, to the average citizen of For House Rent, a western liberal democracy, the presence of some person that has been forcibly removed from society is a de facto statement that they are dangerous. In the model state of consistency that certain legal reformers foresee, the police, the justices, prosecutors, and judges would 'apply' the law according to a strict set of rules. The state's agents will act with no prejudice, no leeway, no derogation and no derivation and no mercy. The police would presumably lay every applicable charge against every accused person that is Remedies For Torts Of Contract, brought to their attention. Not only would a person be brought to justice for forcible rape, but also for equally abhorrent crimes such as assault and For House | Government Contract Notification battery, littering, loitering in a public park, attempted murder, reckless endangerment, unlawful confinement, jaywalking, speeding, creating a disturbance, resisting arrest, and any other possible offence related to the crime and the flight from justice.
Griffiths and Verdun-Jones have noted that in Resume Free Sample Resume, the recently more open atmosphere of plea-bargaining, police have become more consistent appliers of Agreement For House Rent, each and every conceivable law. Pta /? Not only has a person been charged with one crime, but also of every other alternative charge available. In the process of plea bargaining, a great deal of trust is needed between the defense counsel and the crown. This trust often resembles collusion. In the process of plea bargaining the For House Rent, multiple -though mutually exclusive- charges against an offender are often reduced to a single charge in exchange for a guilty plea and reciprocal sentencing recommendation. In reality, the accused are bargaining away irrelevant charges for the single charge that they would have faced anyway, in short, the accused gains nothing from a system of bargaining based on consistent policing. There is, however, nothing consistent about plea-bargaining. Pta / Classroom? Plea-bargaining is at the heart of prosecutorial discretion. Draft Rent | Government? Prosecutorial discretion would go the way of inconsistent policing and it would be abolished. For Torts And Breach Full Book? Consistency in prosecution requires that each and every accused be treated identically.
In order for each accused to be seen to be treated identically, they must have each and Agreement For House Rent Contract every charge dealt with in an open court of record. Inconsistency is not a problem with the police, prosecutors, or parole board members. Nurse Resume Free Sample Resume? Inconsistency is what enables the police, prosecutors, and parole board members to consider the human factor of the crime. I f police were to 'throw the Draft Agreement Contract Notification, book' at every criminal, the system what bog down with minor crimes. Furthermore, while some acts may technically be crimes, they may not have been enforced in twenty or thirty years. A possible problem of Nurse Resume Example Sample, inconsistency is Rent Notification, with judges. Sentencing may vary across the country - though there is very little evidence to say if it does or does not. Samples Of Reference Letters For An? There are sentencing guidelines, but there are no uniform statistics on sentencing which would allow the public to determine if these sentencing guidelines are being followed. When sentencing is brought to Draft Agreement For House Contract, the public's attention, it is only in the most extreme cases where a particularly lenient sentence has been given out. Therefore the best solution for inconsistent sentencing is to produce and publish uniform statistics on sentencing in Sample Weekly Agenda. Agenda 2015, order to determine of sentencing guidelines are being followed. Any other reform of the judicial sentencing process before these statistics were produced and Draft Agreement | Government Contract Notification before their impact was observed on the judicial branch would be premature.
It is possible that many judges that have handed out lenient or severe sentences did not realize that they were significantly out of line with the Canadian mainstream. Conclusion Discretion is not a problem, perception is. The police need discretion in order to enforce laws commensurate with the changes in community values. Teacher Reimbursement? Police also need the ability to exercise their discretion in order to enforce laws as they are best able to do and to not get swamped with petty crimes, while resources are needed to deal with serious offences. Draft Agreement Rent | Government Contract? Prosecutors need the ability to exercise discretion in order to plea bargain. Without the ability to plea bargain, prosecutors may find that they send far too much time prosecuting ancillary legal offences while the main crime is Of Reference - The Sample, not given their full attention.
The only Contract, reform necessary, is not technically a reform, but is instead a fine-tuning of the current system to allow it to function better, and that is the production and Nurse Example Free Sample Resume publication of uniform statistics on sentencing. Communications 131 Review: Neil Postman?s Amusing Ourselves to Death Robert Jago 200015294 Neil Postman's Amusing Ourselves to Death focuses on Contract Notification, the change from what he calls a 'typographic' society to a televisual society. This change involves the decline of rational, linear thought which is based on the book, to disjointed, a-historical, and non-inferential thought which is based on the standards of television. Postman's prima facie argument is that the medium of communications affects forms of thought. Letter: Pictures)? His first argument is based entirely on conjecture (though later in the book Postman does cite a study by Agreement For House | Government Contract Notification, Gavriel Solomon, p.152 footnote 4). Postman argues that television and its predecessors (the telegraph, the photograph) changed people's modes of thought through operant conditioning. Holiday Flyer Template? Television and electronic communications in general force people to understand only the immediate and to forget the past. Several of Postman's axioms are questionable, and his data is open to competing interpretations. Most importantly, Postman's study of the electronic society focused on it in an immature stage of For House Notification, development. Pta / Classroom Reimbursement? Modern electronic culture is quite different from the one that Postman studied. Draft Agreement For House Contract? Neil Postman's stated purpose for his book is to, show that a great media-metaphor shift has taken place in America, with the Nurse Example - Professional, result that the content of much of our public discourse has become dangerous nonsense(p.16).
To that end, his book opens with a glimpse at the United States of the early nineteen-eighties and an explanation of his use of the word metaphor. For Postman the media metaphor is a metaphor that draws analogies between aspects of the media and aspects of society. Postman states that in Agreement Rent | Government Contract Notification, the literate age, metaphors abounded. Alice in wonderland, became a metaphor for Pta / Classroom a person wandering in 'a world of semantic nonsense' and trying to make sense out of it; Athens became a metaphor for intellectual excellence and so on. In the twentieth century, the printed word added very little in terms of metaphor. Terms such as Orwellian, thought police, but very little else transferred over from the printed page into middle class speech. The metaphor of the For House, later twentieth century was to Holiday Template, be dictated by television. Modes of thought mimicked television production standards.
Postman charts the transition from the typographic mind, through the 'peek - a - boo' world and into the 'now. this' world of television. The larger scale of the medium metaphor is what Postman refers to as resonance. Postman states that resonance is metaphor writ large. What Postman appears to mean here is Draft | Government Contract Notification, that resonance is the stuff of myths, when social customs and norms, and idiosyncrasies become confused with nature. Of Reference Employee Letter? Just as one is seen as peculiar to question the effects of the construction of mountains, one is seen as equally peculiar to question such social constructs as [Noam Chomsky notwithstanding] contemporary English word usage and grammar.
After first explaining his proposition on how the dominant medium of communications affects forms of thought, Postman uses the remainder of the Draft Rent | Government Notification, first part of And Breach Book, his book to describe decline of the printed word in America. He begins with describing 'typographic' America at its peak. Postman describes a country -though not a nation- where the ability to read was nearly universal among men, and, where foreign reading materials were abundant (P. 34). The way in which he describes the empowerment that the average person may have felt is interesting for Agreement For House Rent my third argument [that Postman contrasted typographic America with the wrong era of the electronic age].
By 1772, Jacob Duche could write: 'The poorest labourer upon the shore of the Delaware thinks himself entitled to deliver his sentiment in Write A Salary Letter: 15 Steps, matters of religion or politics with as much freedom as the gentleman or scholar. ' (P. Agreement For House Rent | Government Notification? 33) The printing press dominated the minds of typographic Americans. Their modes of How To Write A Salary Letter: 15 Steps (with, thought mirrored the construction of Draft Rent | Government, books and pamphlets. Books were linear, impersonal, rational, and historical. The written word was never read 'live'. People's minds functioned in these same ways. Samples Letters For An Employee - The Sample? People were rational and For House Rent | Government Contract thought historically and Sample Weekly Template 2015 therefore linearly. Public discourse in typographic America was fundamentally rational and intelligent. Advertising and politics were based on reasoned argument [for the Draft Agreement For House | Government Contract, most part]. According to Postman, the change in Holiday Party Flyer Template Design, public discourse occurred because of the change in the media available to the public.
The first major change that Postman notes is the invention of the telegraph. While it is interesting to note that the industrial revolution, and the rise of the urban centres occurred at roughly the same time as the Contract, invention of the telegraph, it is the Resume Rn Resume., later event that most effected the way that people think and behave. Following the telegraph came the photograph. The telegraph changed the Agreement Rent | Government Notification, meaning of intelligence and information. In preliterate days, intelligence was synonymous with memory. In the typographic age, intelligence became synonymous with rationality. With the electronic age heralded in by the Holiday Party Flyer, telegraph, intelligence became the ability to sift through large amounts of data. News in Agreement Notification, typographic society consisted of useful facts and information. Sample Weekly Agenda. Weekly 2015? Postman describes a type of apathy ratio, what he calls an 'information-action ratio' (P.69).
In typographic America, efficacy as seen through individual responses to 'news' was significantly higher than it is in modern televisual America. The telegraph made trivia in place of news. Surely people in Finland could finally know the day to day events that occurred in Lorado Texas, but, why would they want to? According to Postman, the telegraph made the United States one nation [this was also coincident with the Civil War and the United States' great era of wars of conquest]. The telegraph allowed people on the Pacific and the Atlantic shores to Draft Agreement Rent | Government Contract, know the minutiae of each others every day lives. While the telegraph trivialized the Example Rn Resume. Free Resume, public space with useless information and 'factoids' the photograph came along to act as a magnifying glass for these details. The photograph increased the impact of the proliferating factoids, by giving them a face and a presence greater than a thousand words. Draft Notification? By the time the photograph and the telegraph had become ascendant, the public discourse had irrevocably changed. Advertising became irrelevant, irrational, and the first slogans were developed [following shortly after such election slogans 'fifty-four forty or fight' or 'Tippacannoe and Tyler too' or the Agenda Template Weekly, Democratic Party's anti-Republican song 'Nigger Doodle Dandy'].The era of the photograph and the telegraph are what Postman calls 'the peek-a-boo world'. Part two of the book focuses on the particular ills of the televisual age.
The greatest ill, and one that Neil Postman had focused on in the Draft Rent | Government Contract, past, is the decline in education in Template, favour of entertainment. A prime example for Postman is 'The Voyage of the Draft Agreement For House Rent Contract Notification, Mimi' series. This series is a study that involves a great deal of time on behalf of How To Letter: 15 Steps Pictures), children in order to study whales and navigation among other things. Draft Contract Notification? None of these things are relevant to education in any traditional sense of the word. Postman's analysis of that particular series is that it is an example of the Pta /, education changing in order to meet the needs of television. While there are more books in For House Rent, print in the television age, they do not have the impact of their fewer but more serious predecessors.
As was the case with the Voyage of the Mimi series, books seem to have become 'audio-visual aids'. Books have lost their seriousness. Books in the modern context no longer command the attention that they once did. The printed word in the modern context is a visual aid, it celebrates the dominant medium and is constructed around television's conventions. Pta / Teacher Reimbursement? For example, a glance at any of the Fin de Siecle 'best 100 [or 1'000 et al.] lists that currently proliferate, would show what books are considered to be of substance to this society. In the Globe and For House Rent | Government Mail's list of the Write A Salary Negotiation Letter: 15 Steps, best history books are, a picture book, Atlas of World History, and ESPN Sport Century.
Among the best seller lists are a book of lists, a book by a television writer, a book by Notification, a faded hockey star, a book by a movie writer, a book of trivia. While there are more books in print today than ever before, it is likely that they are to be gems such as ESPN Sport Century, as opposed to Walden or the Native Son. Postman concludes his book by analyzing this 'dangerous' lack of Of Reference For An Sample, substance brought on by the conventions of the television age. Postman uses two of major metaphors of the Agreement For House Rent | Government, decline of western society. the first is the Write 15 Steps (with, Orwellian. Agreement Rent | Government Contract Notification? Today the totalitarian state is confined to Samples Letters For An - The, only a few fourth rate and declining states such as Myanmar and Belarus and Draft Rent Contract Notification so its position as primary threat to Western Liberty has given way. In the place of the Orwellian thought police and Teacher Classroom Reimbursement big brother is Aldous Huxley's 'Brave New World'. The brave new world of Postman's interpretation is one where television has taken the place of Huxley's 'Soma' [an ecstacy like drug]. People have forsaken their liberty and democracy in favour of simple and constant pleasures. Agreement Rent Notification? Postman concludes that television has created a Brave New World where the How To Write (with Pictures), statescraftsmen are given free hand by a public more interested in their leader's private affairs than their economic policies. Draft For House Rent | Government Contract? This new world where seriousness is mocked, and where depth of imagination, and Pta / Teacher Classroom Reimbursement attention span have gone into steep decline is one that has put democracy and freedom in grave danger.
Postman proposes that the solution to the current state of affairs is to inoculate the populous through education. People would be educated to understand the television epistemology, and to not just become media savvy, but to become aware of the myths that surround the dominant medium. The current dominant medium in the United States and Canada is Draft Agreement For House | Government Notification, television. Other media, such as radio, and print are complementary to television and Pta / Teacher Classroom Reimbursement have very little independent sway over societal mores. Postman's analysis could only take into account society up to Notification, the mid 1980's. Remedies Of Contract? That society lacked the Draft Rent Contract Notification, internet, and such venues as digital cable and inexpensive satellite dishes. Remedies For Torts Of Contract? Postman derides libertarians for attacking government censorship but failing to take on the oligarchy of the big-three networks. In his discussion of the Agreement Rent, typographic age, Postman describes the empowerment of the common man by his ability to converse and understand every subject of importance.
Postman takes especial note of Of Reference Employee Letter, Benjamin Franklin's views on the importance of the pamphlet. Each of these points noted by Postman can lead to a different final conclusion if extrapolated into For House Contract, the internet age. To begin with, the modern era of between seventy and Party Template Design five-hundred television channels should have been easily foreseen by Postman. He noted the lack of attention by the general public, and how that brief attention span was created by television. The television of Postman's study was, by current standards, conservative, and for For House | Government lack of a better word, 'deep'. The oligarchy of the Sample Weekly 2015 Sample Weekly, three networks is gone, replaced by a constellation of specialty television networks [though production is now owned by a few industrial concerns].
Attention spans are even briefer, and Draft Agreement For House every whim under the sun can be served by its own television network. Of Reference For An Letter Sample? Contrary to Postman's original argument that the product of a populace obsessed by entertainment is political apathy, entertainment can create political involvement. While Postman described the efficacy felt by the people of the typographic age, he failed to | Government Contract Notification, note that part of the efficacy was inspired by such public proceedings as the public hanging. Postman failed to realize that a public raised on scripted spectacle, would be enraptured by Holiday Design, live reality. In a world of Agreement For House, instant communications, there is enough live spectacle to keep every audience entertained. This entertainment can be translated into efficacy through such means as instant television poll, something that Postman only briefly touched on. Postman's description of the For Torts Of Contract Book, transition from literate to Agreement For House Rent Notification, televised worlds and Of Contract Full the coincident transformation of society from literate and rational to Draft Agreement For House Contract, base and excitable is not entirely accurate. Samples For An? He fails to take into consideration other factors such as the second industrial revolution and the expansion of Agreement For House Contract Notification, liberty within countries which may explain the general decline in the public discourse.
Postman places the blame for the decline in rationality solely on the dominant medium of communications. Furthermore, Postman writes that people have lost the sense of efficacy vis a vis the state. While people may be voting less, they may be participating more. Protest groups, lobby groups, special interest groups, petitions, and the like have proliferated in post-industrial society. Samples Letters - The Sample? People may have transferred their trust from the state to the epistemic community and they may have done this because of a new involving medium.
Bibliography Postman, Neil, Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Buisness, Penguin Books (Toronto: 1986).
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