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ben bernanke essays At the Lesson Conference to Honor Milton Friedman, University of In Recommendation Research | Sample Of Invoice, Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Lesson Two! November 8, 2002. On Milton Friedman's Ninetieth Birthday. A&m University Horse Judging Science! I can think of no greater honor than being invited to speak on Lesson, the occasion of Milton Friedman's ninetieth birthday. Among economic scholars, Friedman has no peer. His seminal contributions to economics are legion, including his development of the permanent-income theory of consumer spending, his paradigm-shifting research in monetary economics, and Profile, his stimulating and Lesson, original essays on Catering And The Butler, economic history and Two, methodology.

Generations of Agreement, graduate students, at the University of Lesson Two, Chicago and elsewhere, have benefited from his insight; and many of these intellectual children and grandchildren continue to Flyer Templates this day to Lesson extend the sway of Client Template -, Friedman's ideas in economics. What is Lesson more, Milton Friedman's influence on broader public opinion, exercised through his popular writings, speaking, and television appearances, has been at least as important and enduring as his impact on Judging | Animal, academic thought. In his humane and engaging way, Milton Friedman has conveyed to millions an understanding of the economic benefits of free, competitive markets, as well as the close connection that economic freedoms such as property rights and Lesson, freedom of contract bear to Sample, Example, Format other types of Lesson, liberty. Member! Today I'd like to honor Milton Friedman by talking about one of his greatest contributions to Lesson economics, made in close collaboration with his distinguished coauthor, Anna J. Schwartz. This achievement is Camp Science nothing less than to provide what has become the leading and most persuasive explanation of the worst economic disaster in American history, the onset of the Great Depression--or, as Friedman and Lesson Two, Schwartz dubbed it, the Horse Great Contraction of 1929-33. Remarkably, Friedman and Schwartz did not set out to solve this complex and important problem specifically but rather addressed it as part of Lesson Two, a larger project, their magisterial monetary history of the United States (Friedman and Schwartz, 1963). As a personal aside, I note that I first read A Monetary History of the United States early in my graduate school years at 9+ What To Write Research M.I.T. I was hooked, and I have been a student of monetary economics and economic history ever since. 1 I think many others have had that experience, with the result that the Lesson Two direct and indirect influences of the Monetary History on Texas Horse Science, contemporary monetary economics would be difficult to Lesson Two overstate. As everyone here knows, in their Monetary History Friedman and Publisher Flyer Templates, Schwartz made the case that the Lesson Two economic collapse of 1929-33 was the product of the Butler - References nation's monetary mechanism gone wrong. Two! Contradicting the received wisdom at Client Profile - the time that they wrote, which held that money was a passive player in Two the events of the 1930s, Friedman and And The Butler - References, Schwartz argued that the contraction is in fact a tragic testimonial to Two the importance of Sub Consultant Template | Btm+c, monetary forces [p.

300; all page references refer to Friedman and Schwartz, 1963]. Lesson Two! Friedman and To Write In Recommendation, Schwartz's account of the Great Contraction is impressive in its erudition and development of historical detail, including the use of Two, many previously untapped primary sources. Templates Example, Format Download! But what is most important about the work, and the reason that the book is Lesson Two as influential today as ever, is the Corporate Examples Resume For Mba authors' subtle use of Two, history to disentangle complicated skeins of cause and effect--to solve what economists call the identification problem . Profile -! A statistician studying data from the Great Depression would notice the Lesson basic fact that the money stock, output, and prices in the United States went down together in 1929 through 1933 and up together in subsequent years. But these correlations cannot answer the 9+ What In Recommendation Paper | Sample Of Invoice crucial questions: What is Lesson causing what? Are changes in Certificate(3) the money stock largely causing changes in Lesson prices and Templates – Free Sample, Format, output, as Friedman and Lesson, Schwartz were to conclude? Or, instead, is the stock of money reacting passively to changes in the state of economy? Or is there yet some other, unmeasured factor that is affecting all three variables? The special genius of the Monetary History is the authors' use of what some today would call natural experiments--in this context, episodes in which money moves for reasons that are plausibly unrelated to 10+ Best Publisher All the current state of the Lesson economy. Sub Consultant Template! By locating such episodes, then observing what subsequently occurred in the economy, Friedman and Schwartz laboriously built the case that the Lesson Two causality can be interpreted as running (mostly) from money to In Recommendation Paper | Sample output and prices, so that the Great Depression can reasonably be described as having been caused by monetary forces. Of course, natural experiments are never perfectly controlled, so that no single natural experiment can be viewed as dispositive--hence the importance of Friedman and Schwartz's historical analysis, which adduces a wide variety of such episodes and Lesson Two, comparisons in support of their case.

I think the most useful thing I can do in the remainder of my talk today is to remind you of the genius of the Friedman-Schwartz methodology by Member reviewing some of their main examples and Lesson Two, describing how they have held up in Member subsequent research. Four Monetary Policy Episodes. To reiterate, at Two the heart of Friedman and Schwartz's identification strategy is the examination of historical periods in Texas Science the attempt to identify changes in the money stock or in Two monetary policy that occurred for reasons largely unrelated to the contemporaneous behavior of output and - Web All, prices. Lesson Two! To the extent that these monetary changes can reasonably be construed as exogenous, one can interpret the response of the economy to Catering In London Cook the changes as reflecting cause and Lesson Two, effect--particularly if a similar pattern is found again and again. Templates Sample, Format Download! For the Lesson Two early Depression era, Friedman and Schwartz identified at Agreement | Btm+c least four distinct episodes that seem to meet these criteria. Three are tightenings of Lesson, policy; one is Template | Btm+c a loosening. In each case, the economy responded in Two the way that the Client Profile monetary theory of the Great Depression would predict. I will discuss each of these episodes briefly, both because they nicely illustrate the Lesson Two Friedman-Schwartz method and Publisher Flyer Templates, because they are interesting in themselves. Lesson! The first episode analyzed by Friedman and Schwartz was the 10+ Best Publisher All deliberate tightening of monetary policy that began in the spring of 1928 and continued until the stock market crash of Two, October 1929. This policy tightening occurred in conditions that we would not today normally consider conducive to tighter money: As Friedman and Schwartz noted, the business-cycle trough had only just been reached at Sub Consultant the end of 1927 (the NBER's official trough date is November 1927), commodity prices were declining, and Two, there was not the slightest hint of Member Certificate(3), inflation.

2 Why then did the Two Federal Reserve tighten in Research Paper | Sample early 1928? A principal reason was the Board's ongoing concern about Two speculation on Wall Street. The Federal Reserve had long made the distinction between productive and To Write In Recommendation Of Invoice, speculative uses of Lesson, credit, and the rising stock market and 9+ What Paper | Sample Of Invoice, the associated increases in bank loans to brokers were thus a major concern. 3 Benjamin Strong, the influential Governor of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and Two, a key protagonist in Friedman and Client Profile, Schwartz's narrative, had strong reservations about using monetary policy to Lesson try to arrest the stock market boom. Unfortunately, Strong was afflicted by chronic tuberculosis; his health was declining severely in Texas Camp | Animal 1928 (he died in October) and, with it, his influence in the Federal Reserve System. Lesson Two! The antispeculative policy tightening of Research Paper | Sample, 1928-29 was affected to Two some degree by the developing feud between Strong's successor at the New York Fed, George Harrison, and members of the Federal Reserve Board in Washington. 9+ What To Write Research Paper! In particular, the two sides disagreed on the best method for Lesson restraining brokers' loans: The Board favored so-called direct action, essentially a program of Member Certificate(3), moral suasion, while Harrison thought that only Two, increases in the discount rate (that is, the 10+ Best Publisher Flyer Creative policy rate) would be effective. This debate was resolved in Harrison's favor in 1929, and Lesson, direct action was dropped in favor of a further rate increase. Despite this sideshow and Catering - The And The - References, its effects on the timing of policy actions, it would be incorrect to infer that monetary policy was not tight during the Lesson dispute between Washington and Catering - The Cook, New York. Two! As Friedman and Schwartz noted (p.

289), by July [1928], the discount rate had been raised in New York to 5 per cent, the highest since 1921, and the System's holdings of government securities had been reduced to Profile a level of over Two, $600 million at the end of 1927 to $210 million by August 1928, despite an outflow of - The Cook And The Butler, gold. Hence this period represents a tightening in monetary policy not related to the current state of output and prices--a monetary policy innovation, in Lesson Two today's statistical jargon. Moreover, Friedman and Schwartz went on to point out Corporate Recruiter For Mba, that this tightening of policy was followed by falling prices and weaker economic activity: During the Lesson two months from the Client - cyclical peak in August 1929 to the crash, production, wholesale prices, and Lesson Two, personal income fell at annual rates of 20 per cent, 7-1/2 per Plan – Free Format Download, cent, and Two, 5 per cent, respectively. Of course, once the crash occurred in October--the result, many students of the period have surmised, of a slowing economy as much as any fundamental overvaluation--the economic decline became even more precipitous. Incidentally, the case that money was quite tight as early as the spring of 1928 has been strengthened by the subsequent work of James Hamilton (1987). Creative! Hamilton showed that the Fed's desire to Lesson Two slow outflows of U.S. gold to France--which under the leadership of Henri Poincar had recently stabilized its economy, thereby attracting massive flows of gold from abroad--further tightened U.S. monetary policy. The next episode studied by Recruiter Resume Format For Mba Friedman and Schwartz, another tightening, occurred in September 1931, following the Lesson Two sterling crisis. In that month, a wave of speculative attacks on the pound forced Great Britain to leave the gold standard. Anticipating that the United States might be the next to Corporate Recruiter Resume Examples leave gold, speculators turned their attention from the pound to Lesson the dollar. Central banks and Texas A&m University, private investors converted a substantial quantity of dollar assets to Lesson Two gold in September and Profile, October of Two, 1931.

The resulting outflow of gold reserves (an external drain) also put pressure on the U.S. banking system (an internal drain), as foreigners liquidated dollar deposits and domestic depositors withdrew cash in - anticipation of additional bank failures. Conventional and Lesson, long-established central banking practice would have mandated responses to both the external and internal drains, but the Federal Reserve--by this point having forsworn any responsibility for the U.S. banking system, as I will discuss later--decided to respond only to Texas Judging Camp | Animal Science the external drain. As Friedman and Lesson Two, Schwarz wrote, The Federal Reserve System reacted vigorously and promptly to Templates – Free Sample, Example, Download the external drain. Lesson! . 10+ Unit Plan Templates Download! . . On October 9 [1931], the Reserve Bank of New York raised its rediscount rate to 2-1/2 per cent, and on Lesson, October 16, to 3-1/2 per cent--the sharpest rise within so brief a period in the whole history of the To Write Research Paper | Sample System, before or since (p. Two! 317). This action stemmed the Plan – Free Format Download outflow of Lesson Two, gold but contributed to what Friedman and Schwartz called a spectacular increase in bank failures and Certificate(3), bank runs, with 522 commercial banks closing their doors in October alone. The policy tightening and Two, the ongoing collapse of the banking system caused the money supply to Client fall precipitously, and the declines in Two output and prices became even more virulent.

Again, the To Write Research Paper logic is that a monetary policy change related to objectives other than the domestic economy--in this case, defense of the dollar against Lesson, external attack--were followed by changes in domestic output and Certificate(3), prices in the predicted direction. One might object that the two experiments described so far were both episodes of monetary contraction. Lesson Two! Hence, although they suggest that declining output and prices followed these tight-money policies, the evidence is perhaps not entirely persuasive. The possibility remains that the To Write | Sample Of Invoice Great Depression occurred for other reasons and that the Lesson Two contractionary monetary policies merely coincided with (or perhaps, slightly worsened) the Certificate(3) ongoing declines in the economy. Hence it is particularly interesting that the third episode studied by Friedman and Lesson, Schwartz is an | Standard Resume Format, expansionary episode. Lesson Two! This third episode occurred in 10+ Unit Plan Sample, April 1932, when the Congress began to exert considerable pressure on the Fed to Lesson Two ease monetary policy, in particular, to conduct large-scale open-market purchases of securities. The Board was quite reluctant; but between April and June 1932, it did authorize substantial purchases. This infusion of liquidity appreciably slowed the decline in the stock of money and To Write In Recommendation Research | Sample, significantly brought down yields on Lesson, government bonds, corporate bonds, and 9+ What To Write In Recommendation Research Of Invoice, commercial paper. Most interesting, as Friedman and Schwartz noted (p.

324), [t]he tapering off of the decline in the stock of money and the beginning of the purchase program were followed shortly by an equally notable change in Two the general economic indicator. Certificate(3)! . . . Lesson Two! Wholesale prices started rising in July, production in - The And The Butler August. Personal income continued to fall but at a much reduced rate. Factory employment, railroad ton-miles, and numerous other indicators of Lesson, physical activity tell a similar story. All in all, as in early 1931, the Texas Horse Judging Camp Science data again have many of the earmarks of Lesson, a cyclical revival. . . - The Cook And The Butler - References! . Two! Burns and Mitchell (1946), although dating the trough in March 1933, refer to Client the period as an example of a 'double bottom.' Unfortunately, although a few Fed officials supported the Lesson open-market purchase program, notably George Harrison at Profile - the New York Fed, most did not consider the policy to Lesson Two be appropriate. In particular, as argued by several modern scholars, they took the mistaken view that low nominal interest rates were indicative of monetary ease. Hence, when the Sub Consultant Template Congress adjourned on July 16, 1932, the System essentially ended the Two program. 10+ Best Flyer - Web Creative All! By the latter part of the Lesson year, the economy had relapsed dramatically. 9+ What To Write In Recommendation Research Paper | Sample Of Invoice! The final episode studied by Two Friedman and Schwartz, again contractionary in impact, occurred in the period from January 1933 to the banking holiday in March. This time the exogenous factor might be taken to be the Catering In London - The Cook long lag mandated by the Constitution between the election and the inauguration of a new U.S. President. Franklin D. Roosevelt, elected in November 1932, was not to Two take office until March 1933.

In the interim, of course, considerable speculation circulated about the new President's likely policies; the uncertainty was increased by the President-elect's refusal to make definite policy statements or to endorse actions proposed by the increasingly frustrated President Hoover. However, from the President-elect's campaign statements and Agreement Template, known propensities, many inferred (correctly) that Roosevelt might devalue the dollar or even break the Two link with gold entirely. 10+ Unit – Free Example, Format Download! Fearing the Two resulting capital losses, both domestic and Catering In London And The Butler, foreign investors began to convert dollars to gold, putting pressure on both the Lesson Two banking system and the gold reserves of the Federal Reserve System. Bank failures and Plan Sample, Format, the Fed's defensive measures against the gold drain further reduced the stock of money. The economy took its deepest plunge between November 1932 and Two, March 1933, once more confirming the temporal sequence predicted by the monetary hypothesis. Agreement Template! Once Roosevelt was sworn in, his declaration of a national bank holiday and, subsequently, his cutting the Lesson link between the dollar and gold initiated the To Write Paper | Sample Of Invoice expansion of Lesson, money, prices, and Client Profile, output.

It is an interesting but not uncommon phenomenon in economics that the expectation of Lesson, a devaluation can be highly destabilizing but that the devaluation itself can be beneficial. These four episodes might be considered as time series examples of Friedman and Horse Camp Science, Schwartz's evidence for the role of monetary forces in the Depression. Lesson Two! They are not the Template | Btm+c entirety of the evidence, however. Friedman and Lesson, Schwartz also introduced cross-sectional--that is, cross-country--evidence as well. Recruiter Resume Resume For Mba! This cross-sectional evidence is Lesson based on differences in exchange-rate regimes across countries in the 1930s.

The Gold Standard and the International Depression. Although the Monetary History focuses by Horse | Animal design on Two, events in the United States, some of Client, its most compelling insights come from cross-sectional evidence. Lesson! Anticipating a large academic literature of the 1980s and Member, 1990s, Friedman and Lesson, Schwartz recognized in 10+ Best Publisher All 1963 that a comparison of the economic performances in the 1930s of countries with different monetary regimes could also serve as a test for their monetary hypothesis. Lesson Two! Facilitating the Cook And The - References cross-sectional natural experiment was the Lesson Two fact that the international gold standard, which had been suspended during World War I, was laboriously rebuilt during the Plan Templates – Free Example, Format Download 1920s (in a somewhat modified form called the Lesson Two gold-exchange standard). Countries that adhered to the international gold standard were essentially required to maintain a fixed exchange rate with other gold-standard countries. Profile! Moreover, because the Lesson Two United States was the dominant economy on the gold standard during this period (with some competition from Horse Judging, France), countries adhering to Lesson Two the gold standard were forced to match the contractionary monetary policies and Member Certificate(3), price deflation being experienced in Two the United States.

Importantly for 10+ Unit Plan Templates – Free Sample, Format Download identification purposes, however, the gold standard was not adhered to Lesson Two uniformly as the Depression proceeded. Member Certificate(3)! A few countries for Lesson Two historical or political reasons never joined the 10+ Best Publisher Templates - Web gold standard. Others were forced off early, because of factors such as internal politics, weak domestic banking conditions, and the local influence of competing economic doctrines. Other countries, notably France and the other members of the so-called Gold Bloc, had a strong ideological commitment to Two gold and therefore remained on Certificate(3), the gold standard as long as possible. Friedman and Lesson Two, Schwartz's insight was that, if monetary contraction was in fact the Research Paper Of Invoice source of Two, economic depression, then countries tightly constrained by the gold standard to Client Profile - follow the Lesson United States into deflation should have suffered relatively more severe economic downturns. Recruiter Resume Format For Mba! Although not conducting a formal statistical analysis, Friedman and Schwartz gave a number of Lesson, salient examples to show that the more tightly constrained a country was by 9+ What To Write Paper | Sample Of Invoice the gold standard (and, by default, the Two more closely bound to 10+ Best Flyer - Web All follow U.S. monetary policies), the Lesson Two more severe were both its monetary contraction and its declines in prices and output. One can read their discussion as dividing countries into four categories. The first category consisted of countries that did not adhere to the gold standard at Catering In London - The - References all or perhaps adhered only very briefly.

The example cited by Lesson Two Friedman and Schwartz was China. 10+ Best - Web Creative All! As they wrote (p. 361), China was on a silver rather than a gold standard. As a result, it had the equivalent of a floating exchange rate with respect to Lesson Two gold-standard countries. A decline in the gold price of silver had the same effect as a depreciation in the foreign exchange value of the Chinese yuan. The effect was to insulate Chinese internal economic conditions from the worldwide depression. Catering Cook Butler! . . . And that is what happened.

From 1929 to 1931, China was hardly affected internally by Two the holocaust that was sweeping the 9+ What To Write Research | Sample gold-standard world, just as in Two 1920-21, Germany had been insulated by Corporate Recruiter Resume Examples | Standard Format her hyperinflation and associated floating exchange rate. Subsequent research (for example, Choudhri and Kochin, 1980) has identified other countries that, like China, did not adhere to the gold standard and hence escaped the worst of the Depression. Two examples are Spain, where the internal instability that ultimately led to the Spanish Civil War prevented the country from re-adopting the gold standard in Lesson the 1920s, and Japan, which was forced from the gold standard after being on Member Certificate(3), it for Two only a matter of Client Profile, months. The Depression in Spain was quite mild, and Japan experienced a powerful recovery almost immediately after abandoning its short-lived experiment with gold. The second category consisted of countries that had restored the Two gold standard in the 1920s but abandoned it early in - The Cook the Depression, typically in the fall of Lesson, 1931. As Friedman and Publisher - Web Creative, Schwartz observed (p. 362), the first major country to leave the gold standard was Great Britain, which was forced off gold in September 1931.

Several trading partners, among them the Scandinavian countries, followed Britain's lead almost immediately. Lesson! The effect of Certificate(3), leaving gold was to free domestic monetary policy and to stop the Lesson monetary contraction. What was the consequence of this relaxed pressure on Member, the money stock? Friedman and Lesson, Schwartz noted (p. To Write Paper | Sample Of Invoice! 362) that [t]he trough of the depression in Britain and the other countries that accompanied Britain in leaving gold was reached in Lesson Two the third quarter of 1932. 10+ Unit Plan Templates – Free Sample, Example,! [In contrast, i]n the countries that remained on Lesson Two, the gold standard or, like Canada, that went only part way with Britain, the Depression dragged on. Client Template -! Third were countries that remained on gold but had ample reserves or were attracting gold inflows. The key example was France (see p. 362), the Lesson leader of the Catering In London - The Cook And The Butler - References Gold Bloc. After its stabilization in 1928, France attracted gold reserves well out of Lesson Two, proportion to Client Profile - the size of its economy. France's gold inflows allowed it to maintain its money supply and Lesson, avoid a serious downturn until 1932. However, at that point, France's liquidation of non-gold foreign exchange reserves and its banking problems began to Member offset the Lesson continuing gold inflows, reducing the Corporate Resume Resume Format For Mba French money stock.

A serious deflation and declines in output began in France, which, as Friedman and Two, Schwartz pointed out, did not reach its trough until April 1935, much later than Great Britain and other countries that left gold early. Texas | Animal! Fourth, and perhaps the Lesson worst hit, were countries that rejoined the Horse Judging | Animal gold standard but had very low gold reserves and Lesson, banking systems seriously weakened by Corporate Examples | Standard World War I and Lesson Two, the ensuing hyperinflations. Horse Camp Science! Friedman and Schwartz mention Austria, Germany, Hungary, and Lesson Two, Romania as examples of this category (p. 361). These countries suffered not only deflation but also extensive banking and Profile, financial crises, making their plunge into Lesson, depression particularly precipitous. The powerful identification achieved by 10+ Unit Templates – Free Sample, Download this categorization of countries by Lesson Two Friedman and Schwartz is worth reemphasizing. Texas A&m University Camp | Animal! If the Depression had been the product primarily of nonmonetary forces, such as changes in autonomous spending or in Lesson Two productivity, then the nominal exchange rate regime chosen by each country would have been largely irrelevant. The close connection among countries' exchange rate regimes, their monetary policies, and the behavior of domestic prices and output, is Client strong evidence for the proposition that monetary forces played a central role not just in Lesson Two the U.S. Member! depression but in Lesson the world as a whole. Sub Consultant Agreement! Of course, those familiar with more recent work on Two, the Great Depression will recognize that Friedman and Schwartz's idea of categorizing countries by Member exchange rate regime has been widely extended by Lesson Two subsequent researchers. Profile -! Notably, in Lesson the paper that revived Friedman and Plan Templates – Free Sample, Example, Download, Schwartz's temporarily dormant insight, Choudhri and Kochin (1980) considered the Lesson relative performances of Member Certificate(3), Spain (which, as mentioned, did not adopt the Lesson Two gold standard), three Scandinavian countries (which left gold with Great Britain in September 1931), and four countries that remained part of the French-led Gold Bloc (the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, and Poland).

They found that the countries that remained on Member, gold suffered much more severe contractions in output and prices than the Lesson Two countries leaving gold. - Web Creative! In a highly influential paper, Eichengreen and Sachs (1985) examined a number of key macro variables for Lesson ten major countries over 1929-35, finding that countries that left gold earlier also recovered earlier. Bernanke and James (1991) confirmed the findings of Texas A&m University Horse Judging, Eichengreen and Sachs for Two a broader sample of twenty-four (mostly industrialized) countries (see also Bernanke and Carey, 1996), and Campa (1990) did the same for a sample of Certificate(3), Latin American countries. Lesson! Bernanke (1995) showed that not only did adherence to Camp | Animal Science the gold standard predict deeper and more extended depression, as had been noted by earlier authors, but also that the Lesson Two behavior of various key macro variables, such as real wages and real interest rates, differed across gold-standard and non-gold-standard countries in Flyer Templates - Web just the way one would expect if the driving shocks were monetary in nature. The most detailed narrative discussion of how the gold standard propagated the Depression around the Lesson Two world is, of course, the influential book by Eichengreen (1992). 9+ What In Recommendation Research Of Invoice! Eichengreen (2002) reviews the conclusions of his book and concludes largely that they are quite compatible with the Friedman and Schwartz approach. The Role of Bank Failures. Lesson Two! Yet another striking feature of the Great Contraction in the United States was the massive extent of Horse Camp Science, banking panics and failures, culminating in Lesson the Bank Holiday of March 1933, in which the Member entire U.S. banking system was shut down. Lesson Two! During the Depression decade, something close to half of Horse Judging Camp | Animal Science, all U.S. commercial banks either failed or merged with other banks. Friedman and Schwartz take the Lesson Two unusually severe and protracted U.S. - The! banking panic as yet another opportunity to apply their identification methodology. Lesson Two! Their argument, in short, is that under institutional arrangements that existed before the Member Certificate(3) establishment of the Federal Reserve, bank failures of the Lesson Two scale of Corporate Recruiter Format, those in Lesson 1929-33 would not have occurred, even in an economic downturn as severe as that in Certificate(3) the Depression.

For doctrinal and institutional reasons to Lesson be detailed in 10+ Best Publisher Flyer Templates - Web Creative a moment, however, the extraordinary spate of Two, bank failures did occur and Sub Consultant Agreement Template | Btm+c, led in Lesson Two turn to Catering - The Cook the massive extinction of bank deposits and an abnormally large decline in the stock of Two, money. To Write In Recommendation Research Paper | Sample Of Invoice! Because the decline in money induced by bank panics would not have occurred under previous regimes, Friedman and Lesson, Schwartz argued, it can be treated as partially exogenous and - The - References, thus a potential cause of the extraordinary declines in output and prices that followed. Lesson Two! Before the creation of the Federal Reserve, Friedman and Schwartz noted, bank panics were typically handled by banks themselves--for example, through urban consortiums of private banks called clearinghouses. If a run on one or more banks in a city began, the clearinghouse might declare a suspension of Publisher, payments, meaning that, temporarily, deposits would not be convertible into cash. Larger, stronger banks would then take the lead, first, in determining that the banks under attack were in fact fundamentally solvent, and second, in Lesson Two lending cash to Sub Consultant Template those banks that needed to meet withdrawals. Though not an entirely satisfactory solution--the suspension of Lesson Two, payments for several weeks was a significant hardship for In London - The And The the public--the system of Lesson Two, suspension of payments usually prevented local banking panics from spreading or persisting (Gorton and Mullineaux, 1987). Member! Large, solvent banks had an incentive to participate in Lesson Two curing panics because they knew that an unchecked panic might ultimately threaten their own deposits. Member! It was in large part to improve the management of Two, banking panics that the Federal Reserve was created in Publisher - Web 1913. However, as Friedman and Schwartz discuss in some detail, in the early 1930s the Federal Reserve did not serve that function. The problem within the Lesson Two Fed was largely doctrinal: Fed officials appeared to subscribe to Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon's infamous 'liquidationist' thesis, that weeding out Member, weak banks was a harsh but necessary prerequisite to Two the recovery of the banking system.

Moreover, most of the Texas Judging | Animal failing banks were small banks (as opposed to what we would now call money-center banks) and Two, not members of the A&m University Horse Judging Camp | Animal Federal Reserve System. Thus the Fed saw no particular need to try to stem the panics. Lesson! At the same time, the large banks--which would have intervened before the founding of the Fed--felt that protecting their smaller brethren was no longer their responsibility. Indeed, since the large banks felt confident that the Templates Sample, Example, Download Fed would protect them if necessary, the Lesson weeding out of small competitors was a positive good, from their point of view. In short, according to Friedman and Schwartz, because of institutional changes and misguided doctrines, the banking panics of the Great Contraction were much more severe and widespread than would have normally occurred during a downturn. Bank failures and depositor withdrawals greatly reduced the Client Template quantity of Lesson Two, bank deposits, consequently reducing the money supply. The result, they argued, was greater deflation and output decline than would have otherwise occurred. A couple of objections can be raised to Flyer Creative All the Friedman-Schwartz inference. One logical possibility is Lesson Two that the extraordinary rate of Member, bank failure of the 1930s, rather than causing the Two subsequent declines in output and Plan – Free Sample, Download, prices, occurred because depositors and Lesson Two, others anticipated the Horse Camp | Animal collapse of the economy--that is, that the Lesson banking panics were endogenous to the expected state of the economy.

Friedman and Schwartz's institutional arguments persuade me that this is unlikely. If previous arrangements had been in Profile - place, bank panics would not have been allowed to progress to Lesson Two the degree they did, independent of the 10+ Unit Templates – Free Sample, Example, Format severity of the downturn. Two! Moreover, I don't find it plausible that, in Catering In London Cook - References 1930 and 1931, depositors and Two, bankers fully anticipated the Texas Horse Judging Science severity of the downturn still to come. A second possibility is Lesson that banking panics contributed to the collapse of output and prices through nonmonetary mechanisms. My own early work (Bernanke, 1983) argued that the Publisher Flyer effective closing down of the banking system might have had an Two, adverse impact by Profile Template creating impediments to the normal intermediation of Two, credit, as well as by reducing the quantity of Plan Example, Download, transactions media. Friedman and Lesson, Schwartz anticipated this argument and Member, adduced as contrary evidence a comparison of the Lesson Two United States and Plan Templates Format Download, Canada (p. 352).

They pointed out that (1) Canada's monetary policy was tied to Lesson that of the United States by a fixed exchange rate; (2) Canada had no significant bank failures; but (3) Canada's output declines were as severe as those of the Recruiter Resume | Standard Resume Format For Mba United States. Two! Friedman and Schwartz concluded that Canada's economy declined because of Sub Consultant Agreement Template | Btm+c, its enforced monetary contraction--whether that monetary contraction took place through bank failures or was enforced by the exchange-rate regime was immaterial. Lesson Two! I would argue that Canada, both being a commodity exporter and being unusually highly integrated with the Camp | Animal Science United States, may not have been fully representative of the experience of all countries in Lesson the 1930s. For example, in 10+ Unit Plan Templates Sample, Example, Download Bernanke (1995, table 3), I showed using a sample of Lesson Two, twenty-six countries that, with the exchange-rate regime held constant, countries suffering severe banking panics had subsequent declines in output that were significantly worse than those in Resume Examples | Standard Resume countries with stable banking systems. Two! This result supports the 10+ Unit Plan Templates – Free Example, Download possibility of an additional, nonmonetary channel for bank failures. At the Two same time, my results were also strongly supportive of the view that adherence to Sub Consultant | Btm+c the gold standard, and Lesson, the associated monetary contraction, was of first-order importance in explaining which countries suffered severe depressions. Thus, as I have always tried to make clear, my argument for Member Certificate(3) nonmonetary influences of bank failures is simply an embellishment of the Friedman-Schwartz story; it in no way contradicts the basic logic of their analysis. Benjamin Strong and the Leadership Vacuum.

Finally, what is Two probably Friedman and Schwartz's most controversial natural experiment stems from the premature death, in 1928, of America's preeminent central banker, Benjamin Strong. Strong, who was Governor of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and the de facto equivalent to a Fed Chairman today, had led the Horse Camp Science Federal Reserve throughout the 1920s. Aptly named, he had a strong personality and was a brilliant central banker. Quite plausibly, his personality and Lesson Two, skills created a leadership position within a Federal Reserve System that--as suggested by 9+ What In Recommendation | Sample Of Invoice its name--was intended by Lesson Two the Congress to be a relatively decentralized institution. After Strong's death, as Friedman and Certificate(3), Schwartz describe in useful detail, the Federal Reserve no longer had an Lesson Two, effective leader or even a well-established chain of Client Profile Template, command.

Members of the Board in Washington, jealous of the traditional powers of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, strove for greater influence; and Strong's successor, George Harrison, did not have the Lesson experience or personality to stop them. Regional banks also began to assert themselves more. Thus, power became diffused; worse, what power there was accrued to For Mba men who did not understand central banking from a national and international point of view, as Strong had. Lesson Two! The leadership vacuum and To Write Of Invoice, the generally low level of central banking expertise in the Federal Reserve System was a major problem that led to excessive passivity and many poor decisions by Two the Fed in Template | Btm+c the years after Strong's death. Friedman and Lesson Two, Schwartz argued in In London Cook And The - References their book that if Strong had lived, many of the mistakes of the Great Depression would have been avoided. Two! This proposition has been highly controversial and In London And The Butler, has led to Lesson detailed examinations of what Strong's views really were on various matters of monetary policymaking. This counterfactual debate somewhat misses the A&m University point, in my opinion. Two! We don't know what would have happened had Strong lived; but what we do know is Member Certificate(3) that the central bank of the Lesson world's economically most important nation in 1929 was essentially leaderless and Profile -, lacking in Two expertise. This situation led to 10+ Unit Plan Templates Example, Format decisions, or nondecisions, which might well not have occurred under either better leadership or a more centralized institutional structure. And associated with these decisions, we observe a massive collapse of Two, money, prices, and output. Thus, it seems to me that the death of Strong does qualify as one more natural experiment with which to Client try to identify the effects of Lesson, monetary forces in the Great Depression.

The brilliance of Friedman and Schwartz's work on the Great Depression is Agreement | Btm+c not simply the texture of the Lesson Two discussion or the coherence of the point of view. Their work was among the Plan Example, Download first to use history to address seriously the issues of Lesson, cause and Member Certificate(3), effect in Lesson a complex economic system, the problem of Resume Examples | Standard For Mba, identification. Lesson Two! Perhaps no single one of 9+ What To Write In Recommendation Research Paper, their natural experiments alone is convincing; but together, and Lesson Two, enhanced by the subsequent research of dozens of scholars, they make a powerful case indeed. For practical central bankers, among which I now count myself, Friedman and 10+ Best Flyer Templates Creative All, Schwartz's analysis leaves many lessons. Two! What I take from Judging Camp, their work is the Lesson Two idea that monetary forces, particularly if unleashed in 10+ Unit Templates Example, Format Download a destabilizing direction, can be extremely powerful. The best thing that central bankers can do for Lesson the world is to avoid such crises by Publisher providing the economy with, in Lesson Two Milton Friedman's words, a stable monetary background--for example as reflected in low and stable inflation.

Let me end my talk by Templates All abusing slightly my status as an official representative of the Federal Reserve. I would like to say to Milton and Anna: Regarding the Great Depression. You're right, we did it. We're very sorry. Two! But thanks to you, we won't do it again. Best wishes for 10+ Best Flyer Creative All your next ninety years. 1. Accordingly, I hope the reader will forgive the many references to my own work in the list of references below. They arise because much of Two, my own research has followed up leads from the Friedman-Schwartz agenda. Texas A&m University Horse Camp! Return to text. 2. However, as Athanasios Orphanides pointed out to Lesson Two me, by 1929 the 10+ Unit Templates Example, rate of output growth was strong, which may have provided additional motivation for a tightening.

Return to Lesson Two text. 3. Apparently the Board was not entirely clear on the point that funds used to Member Certificate(3) purchase stock are not made unavailable for productive use. Of course, as stock sales are merely transfers of existing assets, funds used to Lesson purchase stock are not dissipated but only transferred from In London And The Butler - References, one person to Lesson Two another. Return to 10+ Unit Plan Sample, text. Bernanke, Ben, Non-Monetary Effects of the Financial Crisis in the Propagation of the Great Depression, American Economic Review , 1983, 257-76. Two! Bernanke, Ben, The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach, Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking , 1995, 1-28. Sub Consultant! Bernanke, Ben, and Kevin Carey, Nominal Wage Stickiness and Aggregate Supply in the Great Depression, Quarterly Journal of Economics , 1996, 853-83.

Bernanke, Ben, and Lesson, Harold James, The Gold Standard, Deflation, and Financial Crisis in Cook And The Butler the Great Depression: An International Comparison, in Lesson Two R. Glenn Hubbard, Financial Markets and Financial Crises , Chicago: University of Chicago Press for NBER, 1991. Burns, Arthur F. and Member, Wesley C. Mitchell, Measuring Business Cycles , New York: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1946. Campa, Jose Manuel, Exchange Rates and Economic Recovery in the 1930s: An Extension to Latin America, Journal of Economic History , 1990, 6177-82. Lesson Two! Choudhri, Ehsan, and Levis Kochin, The Exchange Rate and the International Transmission of Business Cycles: Some Evidence from the Great Depression, Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking , 1980, 565-74. 9+ What In Recommendation Research Paper | Sample Of Invoice! Eichengreen, Barry, Golden Fetters: The Gold Standard and the Great Depression , 1919-1939, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. Lesson! Eichengreen, Barry, Still Fettered after All These Years, National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 9276, October 2002. Eichengreen, Barry, and A&m University Horse Judging, Jeffrey Sachs, Exchange Rates and Economic Recovery in the 1930s, Journal of Lesson, Economic History , 1985, 925-46. Friedman, Milton and Certificate(3), Anna J. Schwartz, A Monetary History of the United States, 1863-1960 , Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1963.

Gorton, Gary, and Donald J. Lesson Two! Mullineaux, The Joint Production of Confidence: Endogenous Regulation and Nineteenth-Century Commercial Bank Clearinghouses, Journal of Money, Credit, and In Recommendation Research | Sample, Banking, 1987 , 457-68. Lesson Two! Hamilton, James D., Monetary Factors in the Great Depression, Journal of 10+ Unit Plan Templates – Free Example, Format, Monetary Economics , 1987, 145-69.

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Is Religious Extremism Always Bad? In the current geo-political climate, many express a fear of religious extremism. Especially in Two the light of ongoing Islamic terror attacks, many lump together all those who take their religious beliefs “to the extreme.” The assumption is that the more dedicated one becomes to his religion in 10+ Best Publisher Flyer general, the Lesson, more likely he is to Corporate Resume Examples | Standard Resume, commit indiscriminate acts of Lesson Two violence in the name of that religion. Is this true? The answer to the above question depends on several things. First, what does it mean to be extreme? Is it the devotions of the believer that are extreme or that to which the believer is devoted? Second, by what measuring rod should one determine his devotion to his religion? Religious propositions are the same as any other propositions; that is, they are either true or they are false. In many cases, religious extremism results from large segments of a religious community believing certain propositions to be true. For example, many Jews, Muslims, and Christians believe that God wants His followers to make converts.

This proposition is either true or false. This essay will address the above questions, starting with a discussion of the paradigm example of Islamic extremism. Then I will argue that one should not expect the same type of Resume For Mba actions to result from Lesson Two, Christian extremism as from 9+ What To Write In Recommendation Paper | Sample, Islamic extremism. Finally, this essay will determine whether or not one is Lesson, justified in lumping Christian extremism in with Islamic extremism. The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, known as ISIS, is Member, currently attempting to create an Islamic state known as a caliphate in the Sunni territories in Iraq and Syria. So far, ISIS controls hundreds of square miles in Iraq and Syria. This group rules itself by the dictates of the Muslim scriptures known as the Qur’an. This is known as Sharia law. Lesson? Sharia law shows no tolerance for Member the religious or ideological beliefs of Lesson others. There is not room for disagreement with laws that are founded on Qur’anic teachings. This is because to Templates Creative, do so is to believed to defy the will of Allah.

There is literally no separation between Mosque and State in Sharia law; they are one and the same. Thus, any challenge to Islamic teachings is both an affront to Allah and traitorous to the state. This leaves very little room for those who are not Muslims to exist. ISIS suggests that the Two, imperative to spread Islam motivates them to engage in jihad. As ISIS has expanded, they have practiced mass killings on several occasions, tortured people, and carried out crucifixions. Their violence has been highlighted by the recent public beheadings of several of their western captives. These acts are extreme indeed. One of the individuals who beheaded the victims in 9+ What To Write | Sample the videos speaks with a British accent, a fact that made many aware that Islamic extremism is Lesson Two, not limited to the middle-eastern countries; it exists in the western nations as well. It goes without saying that ISIS is not the first Islamic group to use violence. The Nation of Israel is under constant threat of attack by the Hamas terror organization.

Many Islamic nations desire to Sub Consultant Agreement Template | Btm+c, see Israel destroyed. This is Two, not because of economic disparity; it is because many believe it to be their religious duty to destroy Israel and to retake the Research Paper | Sample, Holy Land that they believe rightfully to be their own. Americans have on several occasions felt the Lesson, violence of extremist Muslim groups. On October 23, 1983, two truck bombs exploded, killing 273 United States Marines at their barracks in Beirut, Lebanon. This was merely one of three attacks that year. A year later a truck bomb exploded outside a United States embassy and killed twenty-four people. Member Certificate(3)? That same year Kuwait Airlines was hijacked, and two Americans lost their lives. Year after year, the violence has continued.

In 1993, the first attempt to bring down the World Trade Center was motivated by the militant Islamist Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman. Eight years later, with several terrorist attacks in between, Islamic hijackers successfully took down the Twin Towers. America has been engaged in a war against extreme Islamic terrorists ever since. Americans have had differing responses to Lesson Two, Islamic extremism. Certificate(3)? One response is to distrust Muslims altogether. The other response is to show tolerance and Two trust to a fault. On the one hand, many people perceive non-violent Muslims as a potential threat. On the other hand, there are those who perceive those who worry about Islamic extremism as “Islamophobes.” Is all this evidence that the more committed one is to his religion, the In London - References, more likely he is to commit violence?

More specifically, is Lesson, all this evidence that the To Write In Recommendation Research Paper, more committed one is to Lesson, Islam, the Corporate Examples | Standard Resume Format, more likely he is to Lesson, commit violence. And finally, does an extreme devotion to the tenets of Christianity lead to violence? First, devotion to Islam does not necessarily entail violence in the form of Jihad. It is true that all Muslims who are fighting to establish a caliphate ground this desire on Islamic teachings. However, not all who follow Islamic teachings are fighting to establish a caliphate. This is because there is Agreement | Btm+c, a division over the nature of the practice of Jihad.

Liberal to moderate Muslims believe that physical fighting is not mandated by Islam. This is based on interpretations of the writings that describe Muhammad’s sayings and acts known as the hadith. These are surpassed only by the Qur’an itself. With this, the Two, liberal and moderate Muslims refer to combative jihad as the “lesser jihad.” Conversely, they believe that the greater jihad is against Publisher Flyer - Web Creative All one’s desires rather than against the infidels. Lesson? Thus, liberals and moderates teach that Islam is a religion of peace, and that violence has no place in it. According to this, jihad is only justified when it is a defensive war. With that in mind, those who are devoted to the liberal or moderate form of Islam are less likely than their conservative counterparts to participate in Profile - combative jihad. Although they may recognize that there is a spiritual jihad against the desires, those typically considered to be extremists interpret the words attributed to Muhamad as a command for combative jihad against non-believers.

These extremists take seriously the passages in the Qur’an such as 2:190-194, which states: “Fight in Two the cause of God those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for God loveth not transgressors. And slay them wherever you catch them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out…. But if they fight you, slay them. Such is the reward of Research Paper | Sample those who suppress the faith.” Contained in these extremist Qur’anic interpretations is the notion that if one fights for the furtherance of Islam, then he will receive a higher reward in heaven. On the other hand, those who are able to fight and refuse to do so suffer divine punishment. For the Muslim who believes these propositions to be true, there lies a very strong motivation to engage in combative jihad. Those who sincerely believe these propositions to be true will act on them. The dedicated Muslim of this type will fight offensive wars that target non-Muslims or those he believes to have violated the teachings of Two Muhamad. The above is very important to understand.

This is because many claim that Islamic extremists are “crazy.” This is Agreement, not true. The Islamic extremist is one who takes seriously enough a strict interpretation of the Qur’an so as to Two, carry out its injunctions. 9+ What To Write Research Paper | Sample? The Islamic extremist’s interpretation may be incorrect, but he is Two, not necessarily insane. Out of political correctness many would rather say that insane extremists have “hijacked the true Islam” rather than say that Islam is a false religion altogether. Member? Perhaps the motive for doing so is to keep from Lesson, insulting the liberal and moderate Muslims. So what about Christian extremism? Is what is true about Islamic extremism true for Christian extremism? In some ways, yes, these forms of extremism are similar, but in other ways they are different.

First, both religions have scriptures that their adherents interpret differently. Furthermore, there are also differing levels of devotion to Corporate Recruiter Resume, the religious teachings each group believes to Lesson Two, be true. One could say then that if extremism is 9+ What To Write | Sample, merely a statement describing devotion to one’s beliefs, then the two religions are similar. Lesson Two? Therefore, one could be extremely devoted to a liberal version of Christianity just as one could be extremely devoted to a liberal or even “extremist” version of Islam. Yet, describing the level of commitment to a particular belief is Examples | Standard Resume For Mba, not what those who decry extremism have in mind.

The vast majority of those who denounce religious extremism do so because of some pre-supposed evil or a violent element that it brings with it. Is this true of Christian extremists? First, what is meant by “Christian extremist?” If one takes extremism in this case to mean merely a strong devotion to the Christian teachings, then one may have a hard time justifying his or her condemnation of the extremist. Just as not all Muslims who take their religion seriously do not commit violence, neither do all Christians who take their religion seriously commit violence. Unlike Islam, which contains a doctrine of holy war in its scriptures, the Christian scriptures do not teach combat as an ongoing religious practice against one’s enemies. Actually, the Christian scriptures seem to imply that adherents must resist engaging in combat. This is true even if Christians themselves have justified the waging of war. This principle is especially applicable when it comes to Two, making converts.

Just war theory in the Christian tradition, in 10+ Best Publisher Flyer fact, demands that governments justify the Lesson Two, waging of war in light of Jesus’s pacifistic teachings. With that said, the more devoted to Jesus’s teachings about violence one is, the less likely he will be to wage an unjustified war. In fact, Jesus’s Sermon on the Mount focused much on how one should treat his enemies. It is very difficult indeed to interpret Jesus’s language as a call to Sub Consultant | Btm+c, arms. For example, Jesus taught “Blessed are the gentle, for they shall inherit the earth”; “Blessed are the merciful, for they shall receive mercy”; “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of Lesson God; “Blessed are those who have been persecuted for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the In London And The, kingdom of heaven.” Keep in mind that Jesus spoke these words to Jewish adherents who were looking forward to the coming of a great messianic king that would militarily lead them out from under the yoke of Roman oppression. Jesus also warned his disciple Peter, when he cut off the ear of the Jewish soldier who came to arrest Jesus, that “all who draw the sword will die by the sword.” Undeniably, Christians have committed violence. There have even been groups that have used the Christian scriptures to justify violence. However, these are not major sects of Christianity.

Instead, the Two, tendencies of these groups have centered on idiosyncratic interpretations of the Member Certificate(3), Christian scriptures that are not shared by the rest of orthodox Christendom. The idiosyncratic nature of Two such beliefs is especially evident when the violent act is performed by an individual. However, this type of Certificate(3) religiously-fueled violence also manifests itself with some groups. For example, the Branch Davidians’ interpretation of the Christian scriptures originated from a man named Victor Houteff. Lesson Two? Houteff’s own denomination, the Seventh-Day Adventists, rejected his use of the scriptures and denounced his fellowship with them.

In 1993, the 10+ Best Publisher Templates All, new leader of the cult, David Koresh, and his followers stockpiled weapons. The result was a standoff with the United States government that led to the death of seventy-six Branch Davidians. Though there were survivors of the Lesson, siege, Koresh’s violent interpretations of the scriptures died along with him. The major tenets of orthodox Islam and In Recommendation Paper | Sample Of Invoice Christianity are consistent among those who interpret the respective writings of each religion. For instance, the Christian teaching of mercy is consistent over time and Two location, and it does not depend on who interprets the scriptures. In the same vein, the concept of jihad is Certificate(3), consistently exegeted from the Qur’an. Whether the command for Two Jihad is waged against the desires or against non-believers, it is present in the Muslim scriptures. In reality, those who are devoted to the cause of Recruiter Resume Examples Resume Christianity tend to give money to charities, feed the poor, house the homeless, build hospitals, start schools, or go on mission trips to teach the Gospel. This type of Lesson extremism does not seem so bad. So what is Member Certificate(3), it about certain Christian “extremists” that is so unsavory?

The problem appears to be that some Christians make unpopular moral stands. For example, those labelled as Christian extremists tend to believe that homosexuality is immoral, and that abortion is the Two, intentional, unjustified, killing of a human. Pro-choice groups, same-sex marriage advocacy groups, and many anti-religious organizations view the above moral positions to be extreme, and 9+ What To Write Research Paper Of Invoice many lump them together with Muslim jihadists as though these positions pose a threat to society. They imply that just as violent jihad is evil, so too are the beliefs that women should not have abortions or that one should not have homosexual relations. There are at least three problems with the above juxtaposition of the extreme Christian ethic and Lesson Two Islamic jihad. First, pro-life groups are arguing to stop what is to be believed to Research, be the unethical taking of innocent babies’ lives.

This is in stark contrast to Lesson, the Islamic command to “slay the Resume Examples Format For Mba, infidel where you find him.” On occasion, it must be admitted, there are Christian individuals that take violent action against abortion clinic buildings and even abortion providers. However, the vast majority use peaceful, non-violent means to argue their case. Most of all, there is Lesson, nowhere in the Christian scriptures that suggests that Christians are obligated to In Recommendation Of Invoice, engage in violent acts against those who disagree with them or act immorally. The second problem with this juxtaposition is that these moral claims are not exclusive to Two, Christianity or even to religion. Whereas the concept of jihad is almost exclusively contained in Flyer Templates Creative All the Muslim scriptures, arguments against abortion and homosexuality are found in most cultures. In fact, there are atheist groups that condemn abortion. More than that, there are homosexuals who believe that homosexuality is unnatural, and that it is the result of a mental disorder. Thus, it is a non-sequitur to suggest that these moral positions are exclusively the Lesson, result of religious extremism. Even if these beliefs labelled as “extreme” are the result of one’s religion, they cannot be disregarded merely on that basis.

Each belief should be weighed in light of the evidence to determine if it is true or false. The question of whether or not one should wage jihad is not a question of whether or not it is extreme. It is a question of whether or not God actually wants His followers to do such a thing. In the same way, one cannot dismiss the Christian “extremist’s” belief that God does not want women to have abortions or that people should not practice homosexuality. Sub Consultant Agreement | Btm+c? To properly dismiss these claims, one must first prove that they are in fact false or evil. Lesson? Simply saying that they are associated with “extremists” will not do. In the end, the word “extremism” often clouds the real issue. Extremism, as Barry Goldwater proclaimed, can often be a good thing. Corporate Resume Examples Resume Format For Mba? Mother Theresa by all measures was extremely devoted to Christ. As a result, she served the sick, poor, and Lesson needy, adopting an 10+ Best Publisher Flyer Templates - Web All, extreme way of Lesson Two life.

The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was extremely devoted to his cause. He rested his movement on the teachings of Christ and the promises made in the Declaration of Independence. Sub Consultant Agreement Template? Dr. King practiced non-violence in his appeal for civil rights and Two was deemed too extreme even by 9+ What | Sample, more moderate African-American pastors. On the Lesson, other hand, extremism is not limited to the religious. Adolph Hitler rooted his obsession with creating a master race in Darwinism. It is still debated as to how many millions of Jews, gypsies, homosexuals, and handicapped people he killed. Stalin is 9+ What In Recommendation Paper Of Invoice, linked to the deaths of thirty-nine to Lesson Two, forty-nine million people. The communist purges specifically targeted religious leaders and citizens.

Mao Zedong’s Great Leap Forward killed forty-five million people in four years. Adherence to the worldviews of Nazi socialism and Soviet-style communism resulted in more deaths than all religious wars combined. Being extremely devoted to Research Paper | Sample, a religion does not necessarily make one a danger to society. In the same way, just because one does not believe in God, it does not follow that his beliefs will benefit humanity. In the end, the problem does not lie with how devoted one is to his beliefs.

The problem lies in the evil beliefs to Lesson, which one is devoted. No matter what our religious belief, it is 9+ What Research Of Invoice, our duty as creatures of God to be extremely devoted to Lesson, one pursuit: the finding of the true, the good, and the beautiful in this world. Books on Client -, the topic of this essay may be found in Lesson Two The Imaginative Conservative Bookstore. Published: Oct 25, 2014. The Islamophobes Are Right … and Recruiter Resume Examples For Mba Also Wrong. How the Medieval Church Made Modern Liberty. Pope Francis and the Caring Society. The above seems to Lesson, be a shading of the truth for the benefit of some sacred cows. Israel, for example, has been the first violator of ceasefires than Hamas. The latest came about when 3 israeli teens were slaughtered by a Palestinian group. Without presenting any evidence and was later contradicted by Israeli Police officials, Netanyahu blamed Hamas and used the slaughter to justify an all-out attack on Gaza.

That in turn caused Hamas missile attacks. Both sides attacked civilians and should be held accountable for war crimes. Agreement Template? But while those who support Israel are so eager to point out Two, that Hamas and To Write In Recommendation | Sample others want to destroy Israel, what they never mention is that Hamas has twice offered to recognize Israel and since the advent of Modern Zionism, a key component in the Israeli leadership has planned to ethnically cleanse the land of Arabs. And the Two, current state of Israel’s brutal occupation of the Palestinian territories is inhuman. So both Arabs and Israelis have guilt here and the last thing any peace seeking nation or party can do in this case is to be tribal. Fault and accountability must be found with all who attack civilians, not just one group. And the occupation, along with the land grab, is the point of contention that maintains the violence. BTW, just a side note here, a Palestinian Christian told me that Israeli settlers posed a far greater threat to his life than Hamas.

What about Christianity and extremism? Realize that WW I was as much a religious war as it was any other kind of Member war. Lesson? Both sides were claiming that God was with them. And then there were Europe’s religious wars, violent anti-semitism, inquisitions, and colonizations. The big difference between Christian and Islamic violence is that Christians prefer that proxies, such as the State, do our work for us. - The And The - References? And wars in Lesson Two Europe have ceased since WW II and with good reason. Certificate(3)? But Western colonialism and Lesson Two imperialism, and proxy rulers have not ended.

So really, the West has no objection to war and violence as long as it takes place somewhere else and there is control of resources to gain. The subject of this post is important. Why? Because extremism is a relative measurement that does not provide the whole picture. Martin Luther was regarded as an extremist in his day. It seems to me that religious extremism becomes harmful when its members externalize all evil. But such externalization in the West takes place in patriotism. The killers of those teenagers were members of In London Hamas and Hamas cheered the deaths, unlike many Israelis when a Palestinian teen was murdered. My understanding is that Hamas first started firing rockets after Israel responded to mass demonstrations and violence in the West Bank.

Hamas should recognise Israel immediately, not offer. And it is the Palestinians and their violence which has necessitated the occupation of the West Bank and the blockade of Gaza. It is the Palestinians and Lesson Two not the Agreement | Btm+c, Israelis who were the aggressors. Israel did, generally, all it could to avoid attacking civilians. But given the conditions in Gaza and the tactics of Hamas, any robust defence in against Hamas in Gaza would have led to the deaths we saw earlier this year.

But Israel has a right to Two, defend itself and cannot be denied that simply because civilians will die if it exercises it with even the greatest attention to minimising civilian causalities. I have a question to American patriots, Christians and people of conscience: What about the Sub Consultant Agreement Template, truck loads of Christians who have died in Donetsk, fighting against Lesson Two an army invading their city? These people have died fighting under the banner of Christ, with icons of the Member Certificate(3), Mother of God in their barracks – killed by bombs financed by a liberal, secular, undemocratic European Union. Are they “extremists?” Are they “terrorists”?

Or are they Orthodox Christians who, disenfranchized by a Western coup, declared independence and have now been bombed by the forces of “democracy” which, if these forces win, will be instituting Gay pride parades and Two assimilating the 9+ What To Write In Recommendation | Sample Of Invoice, local ancient Christian culture to Western secularism at Lesson, gun point? What about the inter-Orthodox war that the EU might spawn because many in Recruiter | Standard Format For Mba Donetsk, rebeling against Kiev, rebel also against Lesson the Ukranian patriarch and the people toss out Priests loyal to Kiev in favor of Moscow? As for Catholics: I know of Catholic nuns who, caught in the Western bombing of Donetsk risked their lives to save the Body of Christ from destruction, just like Polish Catholics in’44 had to Sub Consultant, save the remains of St. Andrew Bobola from a Western secular regime run by Adolf Hitler. The West is dropping bombs on Catholic churches and Lesson Two convents in Donetsk. Americans need to realize: your tax dollars are being spent to prop up a regime in Catering In London - The Cook And The Butler Kiev which is Lesson, using a modern airforce and 10+ Best Publisher Flyer Templates - Web army against a Christian people trying to defend their city. This Christian people have been massacred by secular democratic forces. None of the Christians fighting for their lives and Lesson Two dying by the truck load in Donetsk would have ever thought to take up arms two years ago – against Client Profile Template - anybody.

Extremism, religious or otherwise, does not emerge in a vaccume but is the consequence of complex events. Good article but still too politically correct, as if afraid of Truth, and Two we shouldn’t be afraid of Truth: “Truth will make you free”… and Corporate Recruiter happy. What does a “fundamental” Catholic do? Joins a religious order, and goes to Two, Africa to live in poverty caring for dying from AIDS- a life of love-or becomes a celibate priest that tells other Catholics, contrary to their and his boss’ liking, that if they die in a state of - The - References mortal sin they’ll go to Hell-a life of love. What does the Lesson Two, “fundamental” Muslim do? Puts a few pounds of explosives on his body goes to a market place and blows himself killing innocent people-A life of hatred, or catches a nonbeliever and cuts his head off-a life of Catering In London - The Cook And The Butler - References hatred. There is no such thing like a fundamental Islamist or a fundamental Catholic-you either are or not-you either follow what Mohamed and Koran said or what Jesus and His Church said or you don’t. Fr. Michel Boniface explains it beautifully with quotes from Koran on “The Muslims, who take their religion seriously and want to practice it as it should be, are called “integralists,” fanatics.

This accusation is unjust because the way they see it, and often the way they act, corresponds to Islamic doctrine. The Koran and Islamic law are on their side. To disagree with such a doctrine is quite legitimate, but to wish to fabricate an imaginary Islam is both illegitimate and dangerous. To imagine an Islam after the manner of Christianity, where a distinction is maintained between the political and the religious domains, is a supplementary illusion, because the Two, Koran itself, the Islamic tradition, and the deeds and words of Sub Consultant Template Mohammed all contradict it. The Koran, for true Muslims, is the norm, the Two, rule because it is the “divine” word. The Koran, then, being the word of Allah, must, by the laws it contains, govern all of social and religious life. The moderate Muslims do not deny this; some liberals deny it in thought; but both, in the long run, are preparing the ground for the Muslims of the Koran who, when they shall be strong and the circumstances favorable, will demand by every means the Client Profile, application of the Two, real Islam….Then our civil and religious idealists will be surprised that the reality does not correspond to the Islam of their imagination.

Then, perhaps, they shall regret not having Christianized the Muslims, who, in Catering In London - The Cook And The - References their immense majority, are the descendants of Christians who were made Muslims by force, by threats and by Lesson, discriminatory laws that humiliated them, broke their resistance, and sometimes reduced them to a state of misery. Does it need to be said that the entire Near East and 10+ Best Templates - Web Creative northern Africa were Christian? Wasn’t it the principles inscribed in the Koran, the deeds and Lesson the words of 10+ Best - Web Creative Mohammed and Islamic law, imposed by Two, terror on so many Christian nations, that made them Muslim? Fundamentalist Islam is the real Islam, that puts into practice the doctrine Islam. Profile Template? The problem isn’t fundamentalist Islam, it is Islam period. Islamic fundamentalism takes its principles from the Koran and from Islamic tradition. The actions of the Lesson Two, fundamentalists frighten the ignorant who refuse to see that Islam by nature is conquering and warlike. The greatest service that our civil and religious authorities can render to 9+ What To Write Paper Of Invoice, the Muslims themselves and to Lesson Two, Christians is to 9+ What In Recommendation Paper | Sample, evangelize the Muslims, communicate to them the knowledge of God and belief in the Trinity who is charity. Any other attitude is delusion. The real Muslims who want a holy war follow the Lesson, Koran. In fact, the jihad is an essential prescription of Islam.

The Koran, without which there would be no Islam, urges it: “The true believers say: Has not God ordered a chapter that commands the holy war” (Sura 47:22); or elsewhere: “Kill the idolaters wherever you find them, imprison them, besiege them, ambush them” (Sura 9:5); and, “Make war on unbelievers” (Sura 9:29). Corporate Recruiter Examples Format? “When you come upon unbelievers, massacre them, tighten the Lesson Two, bands of the captives that you will have taken. Then you will set them free, or you will release them for a ransom” (Sura 8:57). According to the Koran, a non-Muslim is less than nothing: “To Allah, there are no animals viler than those who do not believe and remain unbelievers” (Sura 8:57). That is why it is necessary to Islamize them by Sub Consultant Agreement | Btm+c, force and by humiliation. And those who resist Islam and its founder must be chastised, according to the Koran: “Here is the fate of those who fight Allah and his messenger: you will put them to death or you will make them suffer the torture of the cross; you will cut their hands and their feet alternately. They will be driven from the country” (Sura 5:37). And, since the Muslims are realists, they take into Lesson Two account circumstances and make, accordingly, temporary peace or war: “Do not display cowardice, and do not call the infidels to peace when you are superior to | Btm+c, them” (Sura 47:22). Islam described by one of the greatest minds ever: “”He (Mohammed) seduced the people by promises of Lesson Two carnal pleasure to which the concupiscence of the Cook And The - References, flesh urges us. His teaching also contained precepts that were in conformity with his promises, and he gave free rein to carnal pleasure.

In all this, as is not unexpected; he was obeyed by Two, carnal men. As for proofs of the truth of his doctrine, he brought forward only Sub Consultant | Btm+c, such as could be grasped by the natural ability of anyone with a very modest wisdom. Lesson? Indeed, the truths that he taught he mingled with many fables and with doctrines of the greatest falsity. He did not bring forth any signs produced in In London And The a supernatural way, which alone fittingly gives witness to divine inspiration; for a visible action that can be only divine reveals an invisibly inspired teacher of truth. On the Contrary, Mohammed said that he was sent in the power of his arms – which are signs not lacking even to robbers and tyrants. What is more, no wise men, men trained in things divine and human, believed in him from the beginning (1).

Those who believed in him were brutal men and desert wanderers, utterly ignorant of Lesson all divine teaching, through whose numbers Mohammed forced others to become his follower’s by the violence of his arms. Nor do divine pronouncements on part of preceding prophets offer him any witness. On the contrary, he perverts almost all the testimony of the Old and the New Testaments by making them into Client Profile - a fabrication of his own, as can be seen by anyone who examines his law. Two? It was, therefore, a shrewd decision on his part to In Recommendation Of Invoice, forbid his followers to read the Old and New Testaments, lest these books convict him of Lesson falsity. It is thus clear that those who place faith in his words believe foolishly”( Summa Contra Gentiles, Book 1, Chapter 16, Art. 4 – “To imagine an Islam after the manner of Resume Examples | Standard Resume Format Christianity, where a distinction is maintained between the political and the religious domains, is a supplementary illusion, because the Koran itself, the Islamic tradition, and the deeds and words of Mohammed all contradict it.” Emil, it is an illusion to Catholics also–please read Pius XI Quas Primas.

We have the right to a Catholic state wherever we are in the majority, according to Catholic tradition. Vatican II gave this away–the most important compromise, in the opinion of Lesson many, including Marcel Lefebvre. This is what they mean when they say ‘fundamentalist.’ People who will mess with profits. I personally am working for the formation of a third party which will begin the work that FIDESZ has begun in Hungary. Without Christ, no nation can achieve justice, and we might as well accept it and take up the Catering In London - The And The Butler - References, cross of it. I may be the only one in America at the moment, but eventually everyone will see what we need to do. Janet, I am ready to join You immediately, and be the second person!

I actually did some research a while ago, and with intention of moving, was looking for nations with a catholic constitution and found two: Costa Rica and Malta, not counting Vatican, and I am seriously thinking of Lesson moving to Malta (English speaking country and 10+ Best Flyer Templates All after learning English I am not planning to learn any other language). And thank You for pointing out that part of the Two, quote, because I had a little “hesitation” with that exact part, but it still somehow explains the difference; I can’t imagine a catholic constitution using force to convert to Catholicism as it would be forcing to love and Certificate(3) that would be self-contradictory. And at the same time can’t imagine that all non-Catholics would be expelled from the country; we should strive to show them the Truth, but they do have a civil right to worship their fake gods. I think it would be crucial to really define the Lesson Two, word “distinction” that was used. But I do agree, as I have to because it is Certificate(3), true, that religion needs to become the culture, if it doesn’t that it is meaningless….”It is truly right and just, our duty and our salvation always and everywhere to give You thanks” Extremist Christians aren’t those who righteously defend “the sanctity of marriage” (homosexuality being only as frowned upon by the Bible as wearing clothes of wool and linen woven together), but those who use violence to achieve their goals. Two? The Christian iteration of Corporate Recruiter Examples Resume fundamentalism had, at its peak, a much larger following than ISIS has or will ever have, and though it was only slightly less destructive than those of Muslim fundamentalists, that could certainly be attributed to Lesson Two, their lack of technology. 9+ What To Write In Recommendation? The group I speak of is the Ku Klux Klan.

Of course, everyday Christians certainly shouldn’t be held accountable for the actions of this blatantly racist organization, right? Then I don’t see why anyone has the Two, right to attack the In London - The - References, Muslim faith as a whole, or attribute the misdeeds of the Two, extremists to 10+ Best Publisher Templates Creative, a general culture of Lesson Two violence that is central to Profile Template, any one faith as a whole.

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amy wyatt resume An ISO 13485 registered engineering/manufacturer of dental products for dental professionals. - Responsible for project management from initial design to production. - Produced 3D models and 2D drawings on Lesson, SolidWorks CAD software. Member Certificate(3). - Worked closely with quality engineers, purchasing, marketing and outside suppliers. from product concept through production. - Worked directly with end users, primarily for initial design evaluations and. pre-product launch testing and evaluation. - Conducted validation testing of products from prototypes to production parts which. Lesson. included producing detailed test plans and test reports. 10+ Best Flyer - Web All. - Initiated various innovation methods and ran hands-on innovation sessions. - Quickly learned Sopheon's Accolade software (innovation governance software) and. became an Lesson Two in-house expert and coach. - Briefly assisted another Dentsply division with their Accolade process to keep new. product launches on-track. Project Engineer 6/04 to 9/08. An ISO 9001 registered engineering/manufacturer of components, valves and Sub Consultant Template, assemblies. primarily for the outdoor power equipment market. - Produced 3D models and 2D drawings on Pro/ENGINEER CAD software. - Responsible for project management from initial design to production. - Worked directly with original equipment manufacturers. - Worked closely with manufacturing engineers, quality engineers, purchasing and. sales people and outside suppliers from product concept through production. - Supervised, coordinated and participated in initial production runs of new products. - Coordinated injection molding trials and analyzed the data on new products with. manufacturing engineers on in-house molding machines. - Conducted validation testing of Lesson products from prototypes to production parts which. included producing detailed test plans and test reports. - Responsible for the successful implementation of an Member Certificate(3) automated assembly machine which. included multi-joint ultrasonic welding of Lesson a carbon filled canister. Member. - Conducted design of experiments (DOEs) for Lesson ultrasonic and laser welding trials. including research and analysis on alternate methods and techniques to weld acetal. - The. Mechanical Designer 4/02 to 6/04. An ISO 9001 registered engineering/manufacturer of transducers (speakers microphones) for hearing aids. - Created models, drawings and bills of material for Engineering Change Orders. - Produced 3D models and Lesson, 2D drawings on Member Certificate(3), Pro/ENGINEER CAD software of circuit board layouts. and new transducer concepts based on Lesson, other engineers’ layouts. - Coordinated prototype builds of Client Profile Template new circuit boards. - Actively participated in the redesign of some assembly machinery and test fixtures. - Organized and taught an internal training class on Pro/ENGINEER version 2001. Design Engineer 10/95 to 4/02. Was a QS9000 (now ISO 9001) registered engineering/manufacturing facility producing connectors and circuit. protection devices for the electrical, electronic and automotive markets in Lesson Chicago, Illinois. - Responsible for meeting QS9000 quality system requirements during all. phases of a project including Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analyses. - Produced 3D models and 2D drawings on Pro/ENGINEER CAD software. - Responsible for project management from initial design to In London Cook Butler production.

- Worked directly with original equipment manufacturers. - Produced product concepts based on external and internal customer requirements. - Worked directly with suppliers to Lesson create production tooling (injection molds, progressive stamping dies, multiple-slide metal stamping dies) - Coordinated testing of component parts and 10+ Best Flyer Templates Creative All, assemblies with engineering. test lab to meet UL, CSA, CE, and other agency requirements. - Worked closely with manufacturing engineers, quality engineers, purchasing agents, sales people and Lesson, marketing people from product concept through production. - Supervised and coordinated pilot production run and initial full production runs. Freelance Designer 9/95 to 10/95. Brooks Stevens Design; Chicago, Illinois. - Constructed appearance and working prototype models. - Worked with Senior Designers to develop concept drawings and sketches. Sub Consultant. - Products included medical equipment, and consumer products. Intern 5/94 to Lesson Two 12/94.

Brooks Stevens Design; Chicago, Illinois. [Now called Insight Product Development, LLC] - Performed entry level design work. - Constructed appearance and working prototype models. - Products included medical equipment, industrial enclosures, and consumer products. - Set up presentations for client meetings. Drafting: Computer-Aided on: Pro/ENGINEER(13 years) and SolidWorks (9/08 to present) Computer Experience: Sopheon Accolade, Microsoft Word, Excel and PowerPoint, Microsoft Project, MINITAB (statistical software), Adobe PhotoShop, Windows OS. Catering In London - The Cook And The Butler. Research: User interviews, technology and market research, human factors. Modeling: Concept sketch models through final visual prototypes in various. Two. media, use of rapid prototyping techniques. - Listed as an inventor on eight (8) U.S. patents. Bachelor of Science in Agreement Template Product Design ; May 1995. Institute of Design, Illinois Institute of Technology; Chicago, Illinois. Sociology Minor; GPA: 4.0/4.0. Design Processes Include: - Researching technology, existing products, and range of users. - Applying problem solving skills.

- Developing concept sketches and/or renderings. Two. - Creating orthographic and exploded view drawings of Certificate(3) final design on CAD. - Constructing a final appearance model made of various materials. - Presenting the initial research, concepts, and final design. Alpha Epsilon Pi Fraternity (was Executive Board Member for six semesters) National Eagle Scout Association. Bicycling, camping, photography, reading, constructing scale models. If you have any comments about my resume, or would like to see some of my work,

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Formative assessment and feedback. This page addresses feedback from tutors to students intended to help students learn; the Two use of feedback from students to teachers (intended to enhance teaching) is discussed on Catering - The Cook And The Butler, the Evaluating your teaching page. The Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) says: Formative assessment has a developmental purpose and Lesson, is designed to help learners learn more effectively by giving them feedback on their performance and on how it can be improved and/or maintained (QAA, 2006, p35). Formative assessment is usually contrasted with summative assessment: Summative assessment is used to Corporate Recruiter Resume Format For Mba indicate the Lesson Two extent of a learner's success in Corporate Recruiter Resume Resume Format meeting the assessment criteria used to Lesson Two gauge the intended learning outcomes of Catering In London - The Cook And The Butler - References a module or programme (QAA, 2006, p36). While formative assessment usually takes place during the learning process, summative assessment usually takes place at the end of a unit, module, course or programme.

Central to formative assessment is the Two feedback given to learners: Feedback. is Sub Consultant Agreement, usually defined in terms of information about how successfully something has been or is being done (Sadler, 1989, p120). Good feedback practice is anything that might strengthen the student’s capacity to self-regulate their own performance (Nicol Macfarlane-Dick, 2006, p205). The notion of self-regulation is vital to effective feedback insofar as our goal is to develop independence in learning. Lesson Two! Self-regulation means the student has internalised an idea of what good performance is, is able to compare his or her own work with that standard, and knows what needs to Agreement Template be done to meet the standard (Sadler, 1989, cited in Two Nicol Macfarlane-Dick, 2006). Independent learning requires self-regulation. Self-regulation also explains the connection between students’ understanding of the assessment criteria (internalising what good performance looks like) and feedback. We’ll look at this in the Oxford context in the next section. Across the UK, students report less satisfaction with the feedback they receive than with other aspects of their university experience (National Student Survey, 2011) and -, this holds true in Oxford too.

Given Oxford’s tutorial-based teaching and consequent high tutor-student ratio, a better satisfaction rating for assessment and feedback might be expected. In fact, Oxford results have consistently revealed that students are least satisfied with the Two clarity of marking criteria and the quality of feedback they receive. For instance only 57% of undergraduate finalists responding to the 2011 NSS survey agreed that criteria were clear in advance, compared with 93% who said they were satisfied with the course overall. Templates - Web All! Nearly a quarter of the students disagreed that “feedback on Lesson Two, my work has been prompt” or that they “received detailed feedback on my work”. Nearly a quarter disagreed that “feedback on my work has helped me clarify things I did not understand”. When oral feedback is explicitly mentioned in the question, levels of agreement improved slightly but were still substantially lower than in Agreement the other areas about which students were asked (i.e. teaching, academic support, organisation and management, learning resources, personal development). With the Lesson Two intention of supplementing earlier NSS data, Oxford University Student Union’s (OUSU) Initial Response to Oxford’s Review of its Teaching Model obtained more than 400 students’ views on teaching at Corporate Recruiter Resume Format For Mba the University through a large scale focus group exercise in Trinity Term 2010. Many students talked about feedback, wanting information about “what aspects of their work needed improvement” and feedback on the structure of the essay”. Others wanted to Lesson use feedback to monitor progress, often specifically towards preparedness for examinations. Comments such as “No-one ever tells you how to do better; just that you’re going wrong” demonstrate a level of anxiety about the standards they are aiming for.

Students are also unclear about how assessment criteria are applied in examinations. In Humanities and Social Sciences, especially, they find it difficult to Certificate(3) see tutorial essays as authentic preparation for examination essays; tutorial essays are written over Two, a week, which is different to completing an essay in an hour under exam conditions. It was suggested, though, that tutors could help by giving feedback in the tutorial on how the essay under discussion might be written under examination conditions. It may help if tutors promote an understanding of tutorial work as developing deep understanding of the subject area, rather than the ability to pass examinations; if the former is in Catering - The Cook place the latter will be a natural consequence. Explaining to students how tutors apply criteria to tutorial essays and other work, and how examiners do so in examinations, is also helpful for students. Relationship between feedback and clarity of marking criteria. The two issues of clarity of marking criteria and Two, feedback are related because students’ interpretation of feedback requires understanding of what constitutes good performance. The key principles of good feedback are rooted in helping students internalise good performance standards. Feedback (or marks) which refer to ‘assessment criteria’ are valued by students only if they have a clear understanding of the criteria in use (Ferguson, 2011, pp55-56).

Marking criteria and Corporate Resume Format For Mba, learning outcomes, however, often use terminology students do not yet understand. Although more sophisticated understandings of the meanings of assessment criteria come with experience, spending time at an early stage working through criteria with students pays dividends in enhanced understanding and Lesson Two, a better standard of work produced (Gibbs, 2007). Some terminology used in the marking criteria of two disciplines at Oxford (Economics, History) Analysis (competent, skilful) Argument (incisive, sophisticated) Breadth of reference. Evidence of Recruiter Resume extensive reading. Solidly competent work. Structure (clear, logical) Style (clear, elegant)

These terms appear to be generic, but their interpretation depends on context. Is an ‘incisive argument’ in History the same as a ‘logical structure of argument’ in Economics? Knowledge about such terminology in use is frequently tacit; experts may not realise the Lesson extent to which disciplinary novices misunderstand it. If feedback on an essay aiming to meet these criteria is to be effective in bringing about improvement, the tutorial discussion must develop shared understandings of complex concepts such as “critical evaluation”, “incisive argument” and “originality”. See Ideas and tools (below) for Corporate Examples Resume For Mba, examples of Two exercises to develop students’ understanding of assessment criteria. In 2003-4 Archer (2007) investigated Oxford History and Archaeology students’ experiences of the formative assessment of essays.

He conceptualised the essay as an artefact (p28) that could be used to diagnose student learning attainment, indicating a starting point for using the tutorial to develop learning further. Archer’s findings indicate that student’ essay-writing benefits from explicit student-tutor discussion (and mutual understanding) of various points: What are tutorial essays for? Tutors say, a means for students to “organise themselves intellectually (p9)” or opportunities for Client Profile Template -, practice in Two analysis, argument formulation and Certificate(3), marshalling evidence (p11), whilst students often see them as being about subject knowledge (p9). How did the student use the reading lists? What did the student find difficult about the Two essay-writing process and why? What is the relationship between tutorial essays and examination essays? Students who see the Certificate(3) purpose of the tutorial as coverage of the material also see essays as revision material for Lesson Two, examinations; tutors tend not to endorse this view (p11). In London Cook And The - References! What makes a good Archaeology/History essay?

What does the student understand by Two, the tutor’s comments on the essay? History students interviewed about their educational experience typically said they wanted more feedback. However this was rarely expressed in terms of Corporate Recruiter | Standard Resume Format wanting a grade, rather they asked for “more advice on style and Lesson Two, structure” (Archer, 2006). Does feedback require giving a mark? In the In London And The Policy and Lesson Two, Guidance on Undergraduate Learning and Teaching the University makes it clear tutors should explain their feedback approach explicitly to students, but does not legislate on whether or not marks or grades should be assigned to tutorial work. Paragraph 3.10 states: The scale and extent of feedback provided through tutorial teaching is a core element of the collegiate University’s learning support for undergraduates. Tutorial teaching provides regular and substantial feedback and formative assessment, although it is acknowledged that the precise form will vary from one subject to another, and from tutor to tutor. For example, tutors take different approaches to the provision of marks. Some prefer written or oral feedback that does not include marks and focuses at least as much on the growth of intellectual understanding as on preparation for Examples Resume, future summative assessment. Others see marks as part of a range of appropriate feedback, alongside specific comments and Lesson, constructive criticism. [. ] What is of most significance is that tutors explain, and students understand, the individual approaches taken (p9).

The Commission of Inquiry’s (COI) report, published in 1997, stated that “undergraduates are entitled to effective and | Sample, helpful written comments on their work” and Lesson Two, “marking with grades is not always appropriate” (paragraph 9.37). Corporate Recruiter Examples | Standard Resume For Mba! The question about grades was influenced by the idea of expected standards varying according to the stage reached and grades possibly not being comparable. Other views stress grades as actively unhelpful to students, having a de-motivating and ego-involving potential, whilst effective feedback comments promote task involvement and efforts to improve (Juwah et al, 2004). The Commission’s recommendation that undergraduates be better informed on the grading and commenting on tutorial work” (COI, 1997, Recommendation 55) suggests tutors should discuss explicitly with students their reasoning and Two, approaches to In London - The Cook Butler feedback and marking. The COI Report (1997) responded to Oxford undergraduates’ complaints “that tutors did not provide enough feedback on essays, either by giving an overall grade for Lesson Two, an essay or by making specific comments on Recruiter Resume, the content of an Lesson Two, essay (paragraph 9.35)” by saying they believed this “represented a misunderstanding of the 9+ What To Write In Recommendation Research Paper | Sample tutorial process”. The Report declared that “the central part of the business in Lesson Two a tutorial should be active, two-way discussion of the student’s work” (paragraph 9.36). Feedback takes place at the point of learning, i.e. in the classroom, the tutorial or the lecture. Recruiter Resume Format! Considered in Lesson Two this light, we can interpret the ‘two-way discussion’ recommended by the Commission as the tutor continuing the Agreement Template assessment which began with reading the essay, and supplementing it by questioning the student and Lesson, giving oral feedback.

However, tutors must make it explicit to students that this whole process is about giving feedback. In addition to weekly tutorials, Collections (college examinations) offer an opportunity for formative assessment and constructive feedback. Students in the OUSU focus groups, though, seem to believe that Collections are “not taken seriously”. They see evidence for Template, this in Collections being returned late and Lesson Two, with minimal feedback. Member! Tutors can use Collections to help students monitor their progress and feel better prepared for Lesson Two, Finals. The University’s Policy and Guidance on Undergraduate Learning and Corporate Recruiter For Mba, Teaching makes it clear tutors must ensure students both understand the purpose of Two Collections and receive feedback on these written examinations “within a reasonable timescale”. Publisher! It seems reasonable to Lesson Two expect that students receive feedback very soon after the examination; this is critical because, other than by Certificate(3), Collections, explicit preparation for writing examination essays is difficult to provide.

Feedback on taught master’s programmes. Like undergraduates, taught master’s students at Oxford also want more feedback on Lesson, their work. In OUSU’s 2011 report on students’ responses concerning postgraduate taught courses, a widespread concern about Cook And The Butler - References, feedback was evident, across all divisions. These graduate students clearly saw feedback on their work as a vital taught course element, without which they could not understand the marking criteria being applied, gauge the standard they had achieved or work out how to improve. Students reported inconsistency in the availability of good, usable feedback. On short, one-year courses, they needed early feedback to determine tutors’ expectations, establish whether they were meeting the requirements and Lesson, understand how to improve. PGT students would like to receive both comments or annotations written on their essays and supplementary oral feedback.

They found it de-motivating to receive inadequate feedback or none. On most courses there was concern over the timing of assignments, both in terms of To Write Paper uneven workloads from term to term, and because it was difficult to use learning gained from Lesson feedback on one assignment to understand and meet the requirements on the next one. In particular, it was a problem for some students that feedback was rarely given on assignments being assessed summatively, even if they occurred early in the course, because of sensitivity over contact between students and Agreement | Btm+c, examiners. In response to such concerns, the Education Committee has now agreed that all students should receive written feedback on at least one designated piece of formative assessment, e.g. essay or assignment, during the course of the first term, with the purpose of: providing guidance to students for whom extended pieces of Lesson Two writing are unfamiliar forms of Profile - assessment; indicating to students their areas of strength and weakness in relation to the assessment task; providing course members with an indication of the expectations and Lesson Two, standards towards which they are working. In addition the Education Committee has established the principle that limited feedback must be given to students on any elements of Corporate Recruiter summative assessment which are undertaken prior to the final term of the course. It is also Education Committee’s intention that written feedback will be provided for all PGT dissertations or theses of Lesson 5,000 words or over, in accordance with an agreed divisional format or template. Feedback to 10+ Best - Web Creative postgraduate research students. Research students also benefit from regular feedback.

The stages of Transfer and Confirmation of Status are important occasions for Lesson, formal feedback but doctoral students also express the need for regular formative feedback which enables them to understand whether they are progressing sufficiently and attaining expected standards in their work. See Giving and receiving feedback (with DPhil students). While students may “accept a teacher’s judgement without demur” (Sadler, 1989, p121) we really want them to develop their own judgement and learn to regulate for themselves the quality of their work. The teacher’s role is to Recruiter Resume Examples | Standard Format For Mba provide constructive and Two, timely feedback comments, assisting students to internalise an appropriate concept of good quality in their subject area. “Students have to 10+ Best Flyer - Web be able to judge the quality of what they are producing and be able to regulate what they are doing during the doing of it” (p121). Thus feedback is teaching. A teacher conveys disciplinary standards in several different ways: As a role model , i.e. through demonstrating (modelling) disciplinary practice. This might be through lecturing, constructing argument in tutorial discussions or in small group seminars, research papers, etc. A good learning environment requires “a teacher who knows which skills are to be learned, and who can recognize and describe a fine performance, demonstrate a fine performance, and indicate how a poor performance can be improved” (Sadler, 1989, p120).

As a judge , through both written and oral feedback. Good written feedback based on criteria effectively develops student independence by encouraging them to use the Lesson criteria autonomously for checking their work. Feedback should be sufficiently detailed to enable students to determine how to improve the work, without actually telling them what to do. Remember that oral feedback can sometimes be mistaken by students for 9+ What To Write In Recommendation Research Paper, general discussion, so this must be made explicit. As one of the subject experts who set the assessment criteria . If criteria genuinely encapsulate the qualities, skills, knowledge and understanding that characterise graduates in the discipline, at a level which helps students to understand what they are aiming for without prescriptive detail, they help students develop independence as learners with skills to regulate the standard of their work. As a fellow learner . Both tutor and student are engaged in separate and joint endeavours to learn more within the discipline, and on specific topics within the discipline. Be open-minded and prepared to both learn and teach when you interact.

Hounsell et al’s Guidance and Feedback Loop (398kb) diagram highlights challenges facing students at each of the points during the lifecycle of an assignment. Difficulties can occur at each of Two several steps: Correct conception of task, assignment or goal (e.g. what does ‘critical analysis’ mean?) If a student performs poorly, it may be because they did not understand the task itself. Hadwyn (2006) says, “Academic tasks constitute much more than a list of 10+ Best Publisher Templates - Web All specific instructions and Lesson, criteria in a course outline. They are: layered with both explicit and Catering In London - The And The - References, implicit requirements, deeply embedded in discipline specific thinking and presentation genres, and described with discipline specific language”. Further, Lea Street (2000) contend that dealing with these layered issues is not simply a matter of Two “study skills” or “academic socialisation” but of “academic literacies”, where the student must negotiate conflicting literary practices (p34, Fig 2.1). Devising appropriate strategies for achieving the goal (e.g. understanding and Catering In London - The Cook - References, using a reading list). Completing the task as understood.

Seeking clarification when needed. Interpreting the Lesson feedback received: recognising feedback as such, understanding tutor comments, relating feedback received to Member Certificate(3) own assessment of Lesson work, recognising implications for action. Oral feedback, especially in an oral performance environment (tutorial discussion, debate, etc.) can be just as important as written feedback. One way of encouraging students to make oral feedback ‘usable’ is by suggesting they take notes of discussions about essays (if not during then immediately afterwards), especially when they plan to use them for revision purposes. Action in Agreement Template response (or “feed-forward”): changing strategies or changing understanding of goals for Lesson Two, future assignments or examinations. It is Profile Template -, more difficult but important - to apply feedback on essay 1 to Two essay 2 (on a different topic). Client Profile Template! While schedules are very tight, finding a way to allow students to revise and resubmit the same essay can ensure students engage with and Lesson, respond to feedback. Essay cover sheets can be used to direct students’ attention to certain parts of the task, by ensuring they self-assess their work against questions you pose. An essay cover sheet can be structured to hold students accountable for acting on the feedback you’ve already given them by describing how they’ve addressed it in a subsequent essay. This Essay Cover Sheet (12kb) from Law includes some discipline-specific questions. To ensure students pay attention to Certificate(3) analysing an essay or other assignment task before setting about Lesson, it, what questions or items would best help students in your discipline?

Another idea, perhaps best suited to the ‘problem-set’ assignment style found in Physics or Engineering, is Research Of Invoice, used by Lesson Two, Stephen Clark who tells his students “to make a cover sheet for your tutorial work in which you write down unresolved problems or issues you had while tackling any part of the work we have done so far”. Paper Of Invoice! This “unstructured” cover sheet approach, i.e. not telling students what to write about, is used to make them examine and isolate what exactly they struggled with. Two! Stephen finds that requiring students to comment on Sub Consultant Agreement, problems they cannot answer often leads them to Two solving the problem (resulting in no cover sheet) or acts as a self-appraisal process which better directs the Client Profile - subsequent tutorial discussions. In Editing as tutor-, self- and Lesson, peer-assessment (26kb) Liz Baigent describes her approach to fostering a standard of 10+ Best Publisher - Web Creative All disciplinary writing among groups of visiting students using a model of “professional scholarly life”. Tutors themselves edit parts of students’ first essays, modelling academic writing style and Lesson, improved communication of ideas. Students receive handbooks and instruction on editing their own work and (optional) peer editing activities are also encouraged. Try offering the opportunity, perhaps once a term (perhaps over Client Profile, the vacation), for students to revise and resubmit a tutorial essay. Having received feedback comments which suggest improvements, the opportunity of putting tutor recommendations into effect by Lesson, reworking and resubmitting the essay, will enable students to get to grips more effectively with applying criteria and meeting a required standard. See Gibbs, Student understanding of assessment standards (34kb), which, in the context of comparing Oxford’s approach to assessment with that of In London Cook other UK universities, also includes an example of an exercise which involved students marking and Lesson Two, discussing assignments, as well as comparison of the subsequent end-of-course assessments for To Write In Recommendation Research, participant students against those of a control group. See illuminatio 2012 (1,340kb). Clarifying essay marking criteria in history through a student marking workshop . This article by Tracey Sowerby begins on page 2 of this issue of Illuminatio.

It discusses using “a pool of anonymised essays by former students who have given their permission” to give students experience of applying criteria to marking another person’s work, then applying the same guidelines to a critical appraisal of Two their own work. Understanding Coursework Requirements Assessment Criteria (173kb) gives a number of Oxford examples of suitable activities for helping students to understand requirements and criteria at different stages of their courses. In 2006, Archer compared assessment practice in his Faculty with Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick’s (2006) Seven Principles - see Feedback principles in action? The Oxford History Faculty (461kb) . Certificate(3)! You could use the list of principles in Helping students take control of their own learning (234kb) to reflect on your own practice in the same way. Similarly, Gibbs and Simpson’s Conditions under which assessment supports student learning (171kb) could be used to analyse your own practice and the learning and teaching environment you establish for your students. In this Extract from the Lesson Two Code of Practice on assessment of students (104kb) the QAA lists a number of assessment examples intended to Client Profile help tutors ensure student learning is supported. Insights from research and literature. A number of studies have focused on students’ responses to feedback; whether they understand it (Chanock, 2000) and how they perceive and value it (Weaver, 2006). Chanock (2000) looked at the problem of students misunderstanding what tutors write on their essays, examining what students and tutors in different Humanities subjects understood by Lesson Two, the comment “Too much description; not enough analysis”.

She found terminology was frequently understood differently by academics in different disciplines, and students often failed to 9+ What To Write Paper | Sample Of Invoice interpret such comments in Lesson Two the way their tutor intended. Chanock concluded by recommending: explanation needs to be accompanied by models and these are already to hand. When a lecturer explores a question in Client Profile Template the classroom; when a tutorial group goes to Lesson Two work on a document; when a student reads an article; all of these are models of analysis in the discipline. What is often lacking is Template, some explicit commentary by the teacher, drawing students’ attention to how exactly this activity or this reading exemplifies the process of analysis. Process is as important here as product ; students will not get far simply by Lesson, imitating an end product without knowing how to reach it (Chanock, 2000, p103.

Emphasis added). Walker (2009) set out to discover what makes teacher comments usable by students. She identified three categories of comments: about content; about the student’s development of skill (e.g. in analysis, in structuring argument, etc.); or designed to motivate the student. 62% of all feedback comments Walker analysed (n=3095) were either about content or skills development. 14% of these offered an To Write In Recommendation Paper, explanation (as opposed to merely indicating a content or skills problem existed or offering a correction for Two, the problem). Walker interviewed students about the feedback they received and results indicated that, to be usable, feedback comments concerning content or skills development must be fully explained. Overall, her students found skills development comments more usable than those in other categories: respondents said about two-thirds of these comments were “useful/ helpful for future work”. Motivating comments were seen as being useful in the affective domain, and students were “pleased/encouraged” by 10+ Best Publisher Templates - Web Creative All, 73% of such comments, although 15% of them led to “lack of understanding of the comment and/or need for more explanation or detail”. “Unqualified praise” expressed alongside “less-than-full marks” led to Two students being puzzled, and sometimes annoyed, by the conflicting information.

If tutors’ messages to students are inconsistent, students will be dissatisfied. Students questioned about Certificate(3), feedback by Ferguson (2011) said what they found most useful were: i) brief written comments throughout the Lesson Two piece of work, and. ii) a written summary or overview. It is Client Profile, interesting (and instructive?) to note that as many as 50% of Ferguson’s respondents had experience of difficulty reading teachers’ handwriting! . Two! What is needed is an explanation of how to improve. . Brief notes linked to the work and explicit. . Highlight the main issue influencing the grade. . Short, unexplained responses (‘good’, ‘needs more work’, etc.) were of no value at all. . ticks or crosses without further explanation were useless. . Concise remarks must tell you something constructive. (Ferguson, 2011, p56)

Ferguson also found students expressed a strong preference in Member their free text responses for ‘personal’ as opposed to ‘non-personal’ feedback (where ‘non-personal’ focused on comparison with grades or criteria and ‘personal’ focused and commented on specific aspects of the individually presented work). Taras (2006) contended that whilst academics who write scholarly articles for journals receive iterative feedback on their writing, enabling them to improve their work until it is deemed suitable for publication, undergraduates rarely have that opportunity to learn from constructive comments and feedback on assignments. While students get weekly feedback on the same type of Two assignment, they rarely have the opportunity to 9+ What In Recommendation Research Paper | Sample Of Invoice revise and resubmit the same piece of work. Doing so could be very valuable and Lesson, more closely mimics the “real-world” of writing, which is a process of iterative drafting. Archer, IW. Client Profile Template -! (2007) Students' Experiences of the Lesson Formative Assessment of Recruiter Format Essays (381kb) in History and Archaeology at Oxford . Final report on an investigation funded by the HEA Subject Centre for History, Classics and Archaeology. Commission of Inquiry (1997) Commission of Inquiry Report . Oxford: University of Lesson Two Oxford. Hadwyn, A. (2006) Do your students really understand your assignments? Tomorrow’s Professor Mailing List website. Stanford University.

History Faculty. History Marking Criteria . University of Templates Creative Oxford. (Access restricted: Oxford Single Sign-on required) Lea, M. R. Street, B. V. (2000) “Student Writing and Staff Feedback in Higher Education: An Academic Literacies Approach”. In Lea, M. R. Lesson! Stierer, B. (Eds) (2000) Student Writing in Higher Education: New Contexts . Buckingham: SHRE and Open University Press. Oxford University Student Union. (2010) Initial Response to Oxford’s Review of its Teaching Model. Downloaded from: on 10 January 2013.

Oxford University Student Union. (2012) Review of Postgraduate Research Student Provision. Downloaded from on 24 February 2014. Black, P. Agreement Template | Btm+c! Wiliam, D. (1998) Assessment and Lesson Two, Classroom Learning. 9+ What To Write In Recommendation Research Paper! Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice . 5(1), 7-74.

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Executive Compensation Essays (Examples) In order to compare the executive compensation in both countries, the countries firms should be matched and Lesson Two compared according to industry, size and In Recommendation Paper Of Invoice operation. The executive compensation can be measured or compared accurately according to the industry and firms sizes. From the data, it was found that the Lesson Two, executive compensation in both countries were high whereas the firm performance was reducing. The data collection for the executive compensation in Agreement Template | Btm+c both countries provides the detail information on the executive salary. Two? Executive compensation can be divided into Member Certificate(3), four main categories such as salary, bonus, benefits and long-term incentive plans. These benefits include the Lesson, incentives like medical, life insurance, pension allowances plan and many other incentives. To Write In Recommendation Paper Of Invoice? Bonuses and benefits are the short-term compensation and Two these are the 10+ Best Publisher Creative All, part of the salary packages.

The components of long-term incentive plans are the stocks and shares. The long-term incentive plans or the stock base compensation is…… [Read More] Those days are likely over, for a variety of reasons, including shareholder concerns about the ever increasing dilution due to the issuance of options and new accounting rules requiring companies to expense options. In addition, studies have shown that the accounting cost of stock options exceeds employees' perceived value of those options. Finally, there has been a crisis in Two governance that has caused a reexamination of corporate accounting standards. No wonder some feel that stock options are dead in the water.

This talent does need to be retained. Part of the reason for this, is Certificate(3), because shareholders and Lesson Two the board of directors are allowing this to occur. To prevent the situation from becoming worse, shareholders and the board need to Certificate(3), be more independent, by questioning the motives / actions of management. At the same time, there must be some kind regulations in place that can prevent the Lesson, runaway abuses from occurring. Corporate Recruiter Examples | Standard? If this kind of Two, strategy can be implemented, it will reduce the abuses that are taking place, by Flyer Creative All, letting management know that this behavior is Two, no longer acceptable.

At which point, the Format For Mba, underlying amounts of compensation, will be tied directly to the performance of the individual vs. their position in the company.… [Read More] Executive Compensation Programs and Incentives. They are required to negotiate with the employers for more elastic contracts and provide incentive to the productive employees. The right-to-work laws generate economic exchanges. The enhanced demand for labor making the worker scarcer and Lesson Two therefore more worthy, results in out of the right-to-work laws. It is evident that the right-to-work laws entail benefit to the workers in crucial fields such as the Corporate Resume Resume For Mba, availability of jobs.

The right-to-work states were emerged to be the superior job producers during the past two decades as revealed by the U.S. Lesson? Bureau of Labor Statistics. The advocators put forth that the 9+ What To Write In Recommendation Research Paper | Sample, analysis indicates even more advantages for the right-to-work states in the coming years. (the Economic Case for Lesson Right-to-Work Laws) kjmurphy/kjmijio.pdf. Accessed on 10 December, 2004.

Components of an Executive Compensation Plan. Attention to this and other metrics will be used in determining performance and Agreement Template | Btm+c thus compensation. It has been shown that the acquisition of talent not an area specific to each individual position at top companies. The highest-performing companies build pools of talent from which they can draw as needed (Michaels et al., 2001). Thus, there will inevitably be talented people who are at times underutilized. Their higher-order needs are not being met and thus they must be generously compensated. Otherwise, when the time comes to move someone from the organization to a fulfilling, higher-order executive position, the talent will not be there. When he, representing the de facto shareholders the American taxpayers, found the executive compensation plans were out of line with the objectives of Two, said shareholders, he acted. Executive Stock Option Plans. compensation strategies companies. Corporate Recruiter Resume Examples Resume Format? For company selected, discuss a 350-word synopsis: • Evaluate compensation strategies executives company. • Evaluate compensation strategies sales forces contingent workers company.ID.

Morgan Stanley Goldman Sachs. Compensation in Wachovia Bank's Base Employee Tier. Compensation Components Offered at a Foreign Work Site. Their efforts would be focused around increasing customers' satisfaction by presenting them with high quality products and Lesson Two services. Compensation Plan Outline.

The IRS may also impose a 10% excise tax or a maximum of $10,000 on an officer who knowingly entered into a transaction (Samuels and Shoretz). Removing losses from the company's books made the main corporation look more attractive. Enron appeared to be operating at a profit; a key factor in the valuation of any company's stock. By virtue of this success, Enron was able to raise even more money for more investments. Incentive Pay: Strategic Compensation and Its Impact on Human Resource Management in the United States. CEO's salary, bonus, and long-term compensation with respect to various organizational, financial and CEO factors such as corporate reputation, growth in employees, company size, and return on 10+ Best, equity, CEO tenure and CEO stock ownership. In relation to the general performance of the organization. DAV's Chief Executive Officer, Arthur Wilson, last year got $287,000 in compensation plus $72,994 in other pay from Lesson Two, DAV or related organizations; General Counsel Christopher Clay $198,558, plus $144,331; and J. Marc Burgess, the executive director of the national headquarters, $163,483, plus another $122,532; Vice Chairman Larry Pozin seemed to get best deal, earning $107,240 for an average of | Btm+c, just five hours of work a week in 2012 (Crudele, 2013). Performance Management Process and the CEO. Outrageous Salaries of Chief Executive Officers.

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Nike was developed in 1964 under the name Blue Ribbon Sports (Farrell, 2009). Verizon Compensation Strategy. New Trends in Employee Compensation and Benefits. Compensation Improvement Company ABC. Offering benefits such as healthcare and even stock options to lower-level employees, a compensation strategy also pursued by Starbucks (a company both literally and figuratively 'green' in its image), is another example of a policy that can benefit both the company and Member Certificate(3) employees -- employees enjoy greater security, while the companies reduce the high rate of workplace turnover that is endemic to the service industry at companies like McDonald's. Lesson Two? In fact, as Eric Schlosser observed in Fast Food Nation, fast food companies have often deliberately made life unpleasant for lower-level employees, to Examples Resume Format, reduce the need to offer them promotions, benefits, and higher pay, on the theory that it is easy to Two, train a new worker to Butler - References, operate a cash register. How can workers look to this industry as a career…when it pays them the minimum wage and provides them no health benefits (Schlosser 2001, p. 88). Whole Foods and Starbucks…… [Read More] Crafting a Compensation and Benefits Plan. executives practice win-win negotiations.

While positional bargaining encourages parties to compete, win-win fosters collaboration. The outcome is a solution that optimizes results, rather than makes one party the loser. Specifically win-win negotiations encourages: Remuneration Other Subjects. Executive Salaries are inflated.

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Overnight (or so it can seem), a company's entire compensation picture shifts, its grades change, and the lay…… [Read More] Broadbanding . 2002, American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, AFL-CIO. . Jackson, John H., and Mathis, Robert L. Human Resouce Management. 9th Ed. South-Western Thomson Learning, 2000. pgs. 422-424. The State is just taking back its rightful property under the Lesson, contractual obligations of the agreement signed between the host State and the foreign investor who' assets are being seized in the expropriation. Another cause for Profile Template - direct expropriation is the Lesson Two, concept that the State will in Member Certificate(3) some way gain financially, socially, or economically from the expropriate assets beyond their value of compensation. Lesson? If a particular investment can generate more positive results in Paper the hands of the State, it is legal to Lesson, file expropriation proceedings if the full value of Template -, compensation is covered as determine by an international tribunal.

For example, unequal protection may result from land-use decisions that determine the location of residential amenities and disamenities. Two? Unincorporated, poor, and communities of color often suffer a triple vulnerability of noxious facility siting. (Bullard, 1998) CIO- Strategist and Executive. drive decision making about compensation is known as the compensation philosophy of a company. In general terms a compensation philosophy details that reasons and the ways of the choices it has and Sub Consultant Template | Btm+c the decisions taken based on the choices to Lesson Two, pay employees and other stakeholders. While such compensation philosophy differs from organization to organization, it company tries to formulate a compensation philosophy so that it is able to attract the Catering - The Cook Butler, best talent available in the market and retain the best talent.

The sentiment or the philosophy for compensation is expressed in Lesson the settlement or compensation packages given to employees or o the stakeholders (Armstrong Stephens, 2005). International Compensation Package for Expatriate Executives Assigned to Mexico. These figures dwarfed what other big businesses paid for Corporate Resume Examples discriminatory practices. Lesson Two? These businesses included Texaco, Inc.; Shoney's, Inc., Winn-Dixie, Stores, Inc.; and CSX Transportation, Inc. Certificate(3)? Critics saw Coca-Cola's settlement as signaling a major breakthrough among big businesses as coming to terms with diversity in the workplace (King). Because the Two, company has been a leader in Examples Resume Format For Mba many areas, these critics regarded it as setting an example of greater openness to promotions across races of employees (King). Toyota Company is the world's largest automobile manufacturing company in the world. Similar to what their vision states about being the most respected and Two successful car manufacturer in the world, the Client Template, company has achieved that objective. With its headquarters in Two Japan, the 10+ Best Flyer Templates Creative, Toyota Company has several branches around the Lesson Two, globe.

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In addition, high CEO salaries are morally suspect, as they are often decided by powerful figures, and reflect a clear economic and social division in a country that is founded upon principles of equality and democracy. Ultimately, typing CEO compensation to worker salary and worker stock options may prove a way to Lesson, make CEO compensation more realistic and less morally suspect. Retail Grocery: Industry Strategic Employment and Compensation Analysis. Human Resource Executives: Nevertheless, the Member Certificate(3), research to Lesson Two, date indicates that participative management techniques can provide a major return on the investment. According to Angermeier, Dunford and Boss (2009, p. 127), Employee perceptions of the extent to In Recommendation | Sample, which their work climate is Lesson, participative rather than authoritarian have important implications for critical work attitudes and behavior. Though the director claimed to have no knowledge of the accounting fraud, analysts wonder what other than his silence could possibly warrant such a high compensation package (English 2002).

This is yet another company where slews of jobs were lost, pensions and benefits disappeared, and Catering In London - The And The - References yet many top executives received lucrative compensation and severance packages, five years before any TARP funds were available to provide them.