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Gospel Topics Essay: Translation and Historicity of the Book of Abraham. Note: The Mormon Church began publishing essays on a variety of historical and doctrinal issues. To see an overview of the articles, you can go here: Gospel Topic Essays: Fixing History? In this review of an article titled “Translation and Council Forms | Boy Scouts Of America Historicity of the Book of Abraham: A Gospel Topics Essay,” the entire article will be cited (all underlined), with my comments throughout. Here is the 5-part Viewpoint on Mormonism series broadcast during the Templates - Youtube, week of December 1, 2014: The Church of Scouts Of America Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints embraces the book of Workers Form Templates Abraham as scripture. Before we go any further, I must comment on the word embraces . How can the Mormon Church leaders “embrace” the Book of Abraham?
After all, this book in Health | Boy Of America, the LDS canon is perhaps the biggest reason church members leave Mormonism. There is plenty of evidence to show the Book of Abraham is Resume Examples Word Of Acting Resume, fraudulent, a false bill of sales, an invitation to join a Ponzi scheme, and Council Health Scouts Of America so much worse. If the church “embraces” this book, then we must wonder why so very little has been said about it at General Conferences held since the 1970s. Rather, I believe this part of Sample LDS scripture is an embarrassment to Health Scouts the church, so don’t be fooled by this statement. As far as the reference to the “ book” of Abraham, I’m not sure why the small letter “b” is used. The “Book” of Mormon is always capitalized. And although many sources on lds.org don’t capitalize the word “book,” others do. (For example, see here.) It is also capitalized in the explanatory note preceding the book in the LDS canon (“ A Translation of Resources Objective Best Resume some ancient Records that have fallen into our hands from the Council Health | Boy Of America, catacombs of Human Resources Resume Objective Egypt. The writings of Abraham while he was in Egypt, called the Book of Abraham, written by his own hand, upon papyrus.”) The media traditionally capitalize it (i.e. see here and here). Health | Boy Scouts Of America. Even LDS apologists capitalize it. No explanation is given for making it lowercased, but in this article, I will retain the traditional capitalized “Book” of Impressive Business Contract Example For Sale And Purchase Abraham and leave the underlined portions intact. This book, a record of the Council Health Forms Scouts Of America, biblical prophet and patriarch Abraham, recounts how Abraham sought the blessings of the priesthood, rejected the idolatry of Examples Sample Of Acting Resume his father, covenanted with Jehovah, married Sarai, moved to Canaan and Egypt, and received knowledge about the Creation.
The book of Abraham largely follows the biblical narrative but adds important information regarding Abraham’s life and teachings. This isn’t the first time where a church publication lifted the Book of Abraham to a lofty position. A church manual boasts: The book of Abraham is an evidence of the inspired calling of the Prophet Joseph Smith. It came forth at Council Forms | Boy Scouts a time when the study of the ancient Egyptian language and culture was just beginning.
The scholars of the 1800s had scarcely begun to Impressive Contract explore the field of Egyptology, and yet, with no formal training in ancient languages and no knowledge of ancient Egypt (except his work with the Book of Forms Mormon), Joseph Smith began his translation of the ancient manuscripts. His knowledge and ability came through the power and gift of God, together with his own determination and A Tailored Plan For Your Small faith. ( Pearl of Great Price Student Manual Religion 327 , 2000, p. 29). Another one states: In 1967 eleven fragments of the Joseph Smith papyri were rediscovered by Doctor Aziz S. Atiya, in the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art. Studies of them have confirmed that they are mainly ancient Egyptian funerary texts of the Council Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, sort commonly buried with royalty and nobility and Examples Sample Resume Template designed to guide them through their eternal journeyings. This has renewed the question about the connection between the records and the book of Abraham. Joseph Smith did not explain the method of translating the book of Abraham, just as he did not explain fully how the Book of Mormon was translated. Nevertheless, like the Book of Mormon, the book of Abraham is its own evidence that it came about Council Health | Boy Scouts through the gift and power of God ( Church History in the Fulness of Times: Religion 341-43 , p. 258). According to these manuals, Smith was inspired. Even though these are mainly Egyptian funerary texts and not writings from the patriarch Abraham, the reader is Objective Objective, supposed to believe that “the book of Abraham is its own evidence that it came about through the gift and power of God.”
So what do we do with the Book of Abraham? There are only two possibilities: 1) Joseph Smith really did receive authentic papyri that contained the writings of Abraham. 2) Joseph Smith really never had papyri with writings of Abraham. For the Health, sake of argument, let’s assume the Create, first possibility is correct and Smith did receive authentic papyri filled with the words of Health | Boy Scouts Abraham. If this is the case, then we still have two more possibilities: 1) Joseph Smith really did know how to translate these Egyptian hieroglyphics and put them into Compensation Example Templates English, which we have today and found in Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, the Book of Abraham. 2) Joseph Smith really did not know how to translate these Egyptian hieroglyphics. If Joseph Smith never had papyri with writings of Workers Form Example | Sample Abraham, we are left with three possibilities. Joseph Smith was.
As the Gospel Topics essay explains, the Mormon Church continues to “embrace the book of Abraham as scripture.” In other words, a person must have faith that this book is authentic (#1 in the first scenario) and translatable by the hand of Joseph Smith (#1 in the second scenario). If the second possibility in either scenario is correct, then the Book of Abraham is not what it is touted to be by LDS Church leaders. The book of Abraham was first published in 1842 and was canonized as part of the Pearl of Great Price in 1880. The book originated with Egyptian papyri that Joseph Smith translated beginning in 1835. Many people saw the papyri, but no eyewitness account of the translation survives, making it impossible to reconstruct the process. Only small fragments of the Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts, long papyrus scrolls once in Joseph Smith’s possession exist today. The relationship between those fragments and the text we have today is largely a matter of conjecture. Let’s provide a little background.
In July 1835 Joseph Smith met a traveling showman by the name of Michael H. Chandler who was displaying four Egyptian mummies in Kirtland, Ohio. Along with the mummies, Chandler possessed two rolls of papyri that contained a number of hieroglyphics, which he sold to How To Create A Tailored For Your the Mormons for $2,400. The next day, Smith proclaimed that the manuscripts were actually written by none other than two Old Testament patriarchs: I commenced the Health | Boy Scouts, translation of some of the characters or hieroglyphics, and much to our joy found that one of the Form Example, rolls contained the writings of Abraham, another the writings of Health Scouts Of America Joseph of Egypt, etc. ( History of the Church, 2:235–36.) To stumble on such an incredible find was, in itself, an amazing stroke of what Mormons would view as divine providence. Imagine for Resume Word Resume a moment what a discovery this would be if, in fact, Smith had really come across the writings of Abraham and Joseph.
They would be priceless, predating the Book of Genesis by about five hundred years. If, as some LDS leaders believed, the Book of Abraham was actually written by the patriarch himself, they would be the only autograph manuscripts of biblical personalities currently available. For example, President Wilford Woodruff said, The Lord is Blessing Joseph with Power to Forms Of America reveal mysteries of the kingdom of God; to translate through the Form Templates, urim and Thummim Ancient records Hyeroglyphics as old as Abraham or Adam. . . . Forms | Boy Scouts. Joseph the Seer has presented us some of the Book of Abraham which was written by his own hand but hid from the knowledged of man for the last four thousand years. . Impressive Between. . . (Susan Staker, ed., Waiting for World’s End: The Diaries of Wilford Woodruff (Salt Lake City, Utah: Signature Books, 1993), 50-51. Ellipsis and Of America spelling in original. For more information on this topic, see here.)
Of the two papyri, Smith chose to focus on the one he claimed was written by the patriarch Abraham, who, according to the text, supposedly held the priesthood well before it was even formulated by God in the days of the Levites. In 1842 the Mormon periodical Times and Seasons printed everything that Smith was able to translate until that time. These were the 1 March, 15 March, and 16 May 1842 issues of the Times and Seasons. Circumstances would prohibit him from “translating” the rest of the Book of Make - Youtube Abraham papyrus or the other papyrus that he called the Book of Joseph. In 1851 Smith’s uncompleted translation was published as a part of the Pearl of Great Price . Council Scouts Of America. This was canonized in 1880, thus elevating the Book of Abraham to the level of LDS scripture. One of the major doctrines emanating from the Book of Abraham is the “curse of Cain.” Abraham 1:21-26 states, Now this king of Egypt was a descendant from the loins of Ham, and was a partaker of the blood of the Canaanites by birth. From this descent sprang all the Best Resume Objective, Egyptians, and thus the blood of the Canaanites was preserved in the land. The land of Egypt being first discovered by Scouts Of America, a woman, who was the daughter of Ham, and the daughter of Egyptus, which in the Chaldean signifies Egypt, which signifies that which is forbidden; When this woman discovered the land it was under water, who afterward settled her sons in it; and thus, from Ham, sprang that race which preserved the curse in the land. Now the Templates - Youtube, first government of Egypt was established by Pharaoh, the eldest son of Egyptus, the daughter of Ham, and Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts it was after the Template | Free Printable Templates,, manner of the government of Ham, which was patriarchal.
Pharaoh, being a righteous man, established his kingdom and judged his people wisely and justly all his days, seeking earnestly to Council Health imitate that order established by the fathers in the first generations, in the days of the Resources Resume Objective, first patriarchal reign, even in the reign of Adam, and also of Noah, his father, who blessed him with the blessings of the Council Forms Scouts, earth, and with the blessings of wisdom, but cursed him as pertaining to the Priesthood. Smith used this passage in 1836 to claim that those with African heritage had inherited this “curse,” the impetus for the later ban of Blacks from the How To Make - Youtube, LDS priesthood. It wasn’t until 1978 when this stringent ban was lifted. Health Forms | Boy Of America. Today, however, no changes have been made to this portion of LDS scripture and the entire book remains in Disability Template | Free Printable, the standard works canon. In 1966, eleven pieces of Smith’s original papyri were discovered in | Boy Scouts Of America, the Metropolitan Museum in New York, which were later turned over to the LDS Church. This discovery would be a major blow to the idea that the Book of Abraham should be considered authentic scripture from the patriarch. Thus, the Gospel Topics essay says that ““only small fragments of the long papyrus scrolls once in Joseph Smith’s possession exist today” and that there is a large segment of the scroll now missing. Human Resources Resume Best Resume. Such an assertion is simply not true.
Egyptologists have said that, if anything is missing, it is a minute fraction. When Smith’s “translation” of the Egyptian hieroglyphics is considered, we can see that he had no clue as to what he was doing. For instance, he took one backwards E letter—which, in Council Forms Of America, the Egyptian, was part of a series of letters that mean “pool”—and turned this letter into 73 words (Abraham 1:13-14). In fact, this practice was common throughout his “translation.” Charles Larson states, On some occasions Joseph Smith separated a single Egyptian word to derive characters for his “translation,” while at other times he combined more than one Egyptian word into a single set of characters. In all cases his translation attributes a far more complex explanation to the Egyptian letters and words of Papyrus Joseph Smith XI than do professional Egyptologists, and Smith ascribes meanings to words which are totally unrelated to Business Example For Sale their actual denotation. Council Forms Scouts. Thus, Joseph Smith’s “translation” is completely incorrect in A Tailored Small, both method and content. ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 96)
The content of the writing is not even close to what Smith “translates,” a fact offered by David Persuitte: Papyrus No. XI and its associated pieces were actually a version of what is called the Egyptian “Book of Breathings,” or a “Breathing Permit.” The papyri upon which it is found are sometimes called “Sen-Sen” papyri because of the Egyptian word for “breathing,” which occurs frequently in the text. The Book of Breathings represents an attempt by the Egyptians to consolidate those elements of Council Health Forms their beliefs that were essential parts of How To Chibi - Youtube their funeral rites. It was, in short, a sort of talisman that was buried with the dead to assure their well-being in the afterlife. ( Joseph Smith and the Origins of the Book of Mormon , 292). According to Dr.
Robert Ritner from the University of Chicago, the Book of Health | Boy Breathings is, for all intents and How To Templates - Youtube purposes, intact; there are no substantial missing pieces. He stated, Assuming no reason that this particular Book of Breathings scroll must be expanded much beyond the surviving length, I have now read the entire document from the beginning to the end and Health | Boy have made up what one could make out on Business Contract Between, the poor copy of the final vignette. The most that is missing from this text is simply two columns of Egyptian hieratic and possibly a small vignette, but other than that there would be nothing more that would inflate its current length other than its current size. It is both unprecedented and unreasonable to Council Health Of America assume that an intrusive text about a completely different matter, a narrative history about Abraham and his descendants, would have been inserted into a document whose beginning, middle, and end is devoted specifically to Impressive Example And Purchase Between the resurrection of an Egyptian priest. It would disrupt the document and have nothing to do with this content. ( The Lost Book of Scouts Of America Abraham , quoted at 40 minutes) I’ll quote Dr. Ritner elsewhere in this paper, as he is an Egyptologist who is most willing to talk about this specific Book of Abraham issue.
As a scholar, he is not very impressed with the scholarship of the Mormon community, and the Gospel Topics essay did not convince him that the Book of Resources Objective For Human Abraham is authentic. In a review of the essay called “A Response to ‘Translation and Health Forms Historicity of the Book of Abraham,'” Dr. Ritner wrote: The recent web posting on Sample Of Acting Resume Template, the Book of Abraham by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- Day Saints (hereafter the LDS church) represents new reflection on a document whose authenticity as verifiable history is now officially acknowledged to be in serious dispute. Thus the position paper concludes with a concession by noting (unnamed) modern scholarly opposition to Council Health the Book of Abraham, followed by Compensation Form Templates, a defense against any such scholarly debate: “The veracity and value of the book of Abraham cannot be settled by Forms Of America, scholarly debate concerning the How To Make On Instagram, book’s translation and historicity.” Rather, the truth of the book is sought in ways that cannot be verified externally, relying exclusively upon traditional faith: “a careful study of its teachings, sincere prayer, and the confirmation of the Spirit.”
Such a declaration may seem reasonable to those already predisposed to accept it, but on closer reading, the LDS church posting suggests discomfort with its own conclusions and reasoning. Council | Boy Scouts Of America. Not a single opposing scholar is mentioned by name, nor are their reasons for Create Web Marketing rejecting the Council | Boy Scouts, Book of Abraham. Resume Sample Of Acting Resume Template. Yet the Council Of America, LDS paper attempts to engage in Make Chibi On Instagram, scholarly debate from a one-sided position, repeatedly citing in the footnotes the same limited set of apologists who are primarily church employees at BYU in Provo. The significance of Council Health Forms | Boy Of America these apologetic publications will be discussed below. If scholarly dispute over translation and historicity is ultimately irrelevant, why bother to Disability Printable devote extended paragraphs to rebuttals of unmentioned objections on “Translation and Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts the Book of Abraham,” “The Papyri,” and “The Book of Abraham and the Ancient World”? According to Dr. Chibi On Instagram - Youtube. Ritner, the “works cited” for this paper is not much different from the LDS scholars who have been attempting to Health Of America defend their scripture over the years. Examples Word Resume Template. This makes sense because, most likely, these same scholars are the ones who probably wrote the unattributed Gospel Topics essay in the first place! These Mormon scholars have created a number of theories have been proposed over the years to prop up the efficacy of the Book of Abraham. In fact, consider the “Hidden Meaning” theory, the “Mnemonic Device” theory, the “Any Egyptian Connection” theory, the “Scribes Did It” theory, the “Missing Black and Red Scroll” theory, the Council Health | Boy Scouts, “Mistaken Identity” theory, the “Catalyst” Theory, and the “Nobody Really Understands Egyptian Anyway” theory. Some of these “theories” are as far-fetched as Bigfoot eating the Loch Ness Monster.
Not one of these theories has been able to Compensation Form | Sample hold up when the evidence is considered. (See chapter 11 (“The Intellectual Approaches”) in By His Own Hand Upon Papyru s by Charles Larson for Council Health Scouts Of America explanations of each theory.) Instead of focusing on missing pieces of the Book of Abraham (for which there is little evidence), perhaps LDS scholars and apologists should be dealing with the problems caused by what we is available. Absolutely nothing that we have today provides any support for Compensation Form | Sample Smith’s LDS scripture. We do know some things about the Health Forms | Boy Of America, translation process. The word translation typically assumes an How To Create For Your expert knowledge of Forms Scouts Of America multiple languages. Joseph Smith claimed no expertise in any language. He readily acknowledged that he was one of the “weak things of the world,” called to A Tailored Plan For Your Small speak words sent “from heaven.” Speaking of the Forms Of America, translation of the Book of Disability | Free Printable Word Mormon, the Lord said, “You cannot write that which is sacred save it be given you from Council | Boy Scouts, me.” The same principle can be applied to the book of Abraham. The Lord did not require Joseph Smith to have knowledge of Egyptian. By the gift and Contract Example And Purchase Between power of Forms | Boy God, Joseph received knowledge about the life and teachings of Abraham. The LDS article explains how “Smith claimed no expertise in any language,” including Egyptian. Make Chibi - Youtube. By making this admission, the Council Health | Boy Of America, argument maintains that Smith must have been given divine revelation to make his Book of A Tailored Web Marketing Small Abraham translation. After all, he had previously done this a few years before with the “reformed Egyptian” text of the Book of Mormon, which he claimed he did “by the gift and power of God.” And voila, here are the same words being used in this essay to show how his divine inspiration (rather than his understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphics) allowing him to make his translation of the Council Forms | Boy Of America, Book of Abraham.
Is this a coincidence? Hardly. Comparing the Book of How To Make Chibi Templates On Instagram - Youtube Mormon to the Book of Abraham, Christian author H. Michael Marquardt states: Only part of the original 1829 manuscript of the Book of Mormon pages of the dictated text is extent. We do not have the gold plates to determine how accurate Joseph Smith’s dictation from the Egyptian was.
But we do have the Egyptian papyri, Joseph Smith’s Egyptian Alphabet, and the Book of Abraham Translation Manuscripts. Health Forms | Boy Scouts. These later manuscripts together with Joseph Smith’s journal and Objective Resume knowing when his scribes worked with him all place the dictation process in the last half of 1835. Council Forms Of America. With all of this historical background we have enough information to examine Joseph Smith’s competence with the ancient Egyptian language. ( The Rise of Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 407.) Let’s consider how the Resume Examples Word, LDS prophet was able to get away with this ploy. In Smith’s day few people could have been considered experts in the field of Egyptology. The famous Rosetta Stone, currently on Forms | Boy Of America, display at the British Museum in London, was discovered accidentally in 1799 by Napoleon’s troops in Egypt. Contract Example For Sale And Purchase. A number of scholars worked for Health | Boy Scouts years to decipher the stone, which contained hieroglyphic Egyptian, demotic Egyptian, and Greek characters. Finally, Jean Francois Champollion announced his results in 1822. Yet getting this information communicated to a general population would take many years before the Information Age took place. As Dr. Ritner explains:
In the | Free, 1840s in the United States, the Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, ancient Egyptian language was virtually unknown. Template | Free Printable Templates,. It had only been to be deciphered in 1822 and that knowledge simply had not crossed the Atlantic. So any interpretation given to Council Health Forms | Boy Of America an Egyptian document in 1842 or 45 or 50 or even 1860 would have been believable to a general audience. We would have no way of comparing it with the actual truth ( The Lost Book of Abraham, 14 minutes in) By 1861, T. Deveria had noted a series of anachronisms and Make Chibi On Instagram absurdities in the supposed translations and woodcut vignettes, and in 1912 a solicitation for professional opinions on the matter drew uniformly derisive assessments from A. H. Sayce, W. M. F. Petrie, J. H. Breasted, A. C. Mace, J. Peters, S. A. B. Mercer, E. Meyer, and | Boy Scouts Of America F. W. von Bissing Dr. Form Template | Free Templates,. Ritner did an extended study on the different papyri that were discovered in 1967. As far as Facsmilies 1 and Council Forms 2, he writes: Comparison of the surviving initial vignette of the Hor papyrus with Facsimile 1 proves beyond doubt, as the LDS web post agrees, that it was “the vignette that became facsimile 1.” However, neither Facsimile 1 nor 2 is a true copy, and both contain added forgeries, including the human-head and knife of the supposed “idolatrous priest of Elkenah” (Fig. 3 on Facsimile 1) as can be seen in the crude pencil additions to the original papyrus sheet as mounted and Disability Form “improved” for publication by the LDS church in 1842. NOTE: Go here to see an excellent portrayal of Facsimiles 1-3 by Infographics. In a video, he explained,
What this document really is is an extended prayer on behalf of a deceased Egyptian priest, which begins with an Forms invocation to the god of Small mummification, probably, certainly with a picture of the god of mummification, to ensure the priest’s continued existence into the next world, and then it’s followed by | Boy Scouts Of America, a series of statements where “Oh deified Horus, may you walk as you head down in life, may your ears function, may your eyes function, may the gods receive you.” Long series of invocations on this, essentially assuring that this dead priest is able to Form | Sample Templates function in death as he had in life, but now as part of a company of the ancient Egyptian gods. Abraham is not mentioned once. Council Health. ( The Lost Book of Abraham video, 38 minutes in) Smith’s papyrus was both torn and attached to a backing that held it in Business Contract Example For Sale, place. On the backing someone, possibly Smith, filled in areas that were missing. An examination of Joseph Smith’s Facsimile No.
1 exposes a number of discrepancies between Smith’s interpretation and Council Health Scouts that of modern Egyptologists. How To Create A Tailored Plan. Smith claimed that the Council Forms Scouts, facsimile portrays Abraham lying on an altar. Standing next to him is the How To Create A Tailored Web Marketing Plan Small, idolatrous priest Elkanah who holds a knife in his hand. Smith claimed that Elkanah was attempting to offer Abraham as a sacrifice. Council Scouts. Below the altar are figures that Smith describes as idolatrous gods.
Smith named a bird that hovers above the head of Abraham as the angel of the Template Printable, Lord. Richard A. Parker, once the chairman of the department of Egyptology at Brown University, disagreed with Smith’s assessment. He claimed: This is a well-known scene from the Osiris mysteries, with Anubis, the jackal-headed god, on Forms | Boy Of America, the left ministering to the dead Osiris on the bier. The pencilled(?) restoration is incorrect. Compensation Form Templates. Anubis should be jackal-headed. The left arm of Osiris is in Council Scouts Of America, reality lying at his side under him. Resume Word Of Acting Resume. The apparent upper hand is part of the wing of Health | Boy Scouts Of America a second bird which is hovering over the erect phallus of Osiris (now broken away). The second bird is Isis and she is magically impregnated by A Tailored, the dead Osiris and then later gives birth to Horus who avenges his father and takes over his inheritance.
The complete bird represents Nephthys, sister to Osiris and Isis. Beneath the bier are the four canopic jars with heads representative of the four sons of Horus, human-headed Imseti, baboon-headed Hapy, jackal-headed Duamutef and falcon-headed Kebehsenuf. (Richard A. Forms Of America. Parker, “The Joseph Smith Papyri: A Preliminary Report,” Dialogue 3, no. Impressive Business Contract Example For Sale And Purchase. 2 (summer 1968): 86.) For a comparison of Health Forms Joseph Smith’s interpretation of Facsimile 1 compared to what it really was, click here. Other problems develop when Facsimile No. 2 is considered. This circular drawing supposedly verified the LDS teaching that God lives near a planet called Kolob. Smith also claimed it gave reference to “grand Key-words of the Word Of Acting Template, Priesthood.” (Explanation of figure seven opposite Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, Facsimile No. 2.) Key words are an essential part of the LDS temple ceremony. Speaking specifically about Facsmilie 2, Dr.
Ritner states, Facsimile 2 derives from a separate burial, for an individual named Sheshonq. Large portions of this published “facsimile” were improperly inserted from unrelated papyri. All of Smith’s published “explanations” are incorrect, including the lone example defended by the new web posting. According to Egyptologist Stephen E. Thompson:
Facsimile 2 is a drawing of an Egyptian funerary amulet known as a hypocephalus, which was placed under the head of the mummy and was intended to protect the head of the deceased, provide him with the sun’s life-giving warmth, and to make it possible for Resume Template him to join the sun god Re in his celestial boat, and thereby insure his continued, pleasant existence in the next life. (Stephen Thompson, “Egyptology and the Book of Mormon,” Dialogue 28, no. 1 (spring 1995): 149–50.) Thompson went on to say: Concerning Joseph Smith’s interpretations of the figures in this facsimile, it has been stated that “his explanations, are, in general, reasonable in light of modern Egyptological knowledge.” A comparison of Smith’s interpretations with current Egyptological scholarship shows that this statement is also incorrect. (Ibid., 150.) For a look at the translation of Facsimilie 2 by Of America, Smith versus what the Egyptian really said, click here. And for Facsimile 3, he writes, In Facsimile 3, Smith confuses human and animal heads and males with females. No amount of special pleading can change the Examples Of Acting Template, female “Isis the great, the god’s mother” (Facsimile 3, Fig. Of America. 2) into the male “King Pharaoh, whose name is given in the characters above his hand,” as even the LDS author Michael D. Rhodes accepts. Here Smith also misunderstands “Pharaoh” as a personal name rather than a title meaning “king,” so he reads “king king” for a goddess’s name that he claims to have understood on Workers Compensation Example, the papyrus!
For a look at Facsimile 3, click here. When the manuscript of the Book of Abraham became available in the 1960s, scholars were now able to investigate whether or not Joseph Smith was indeed a prophet inspired by God with the ability to translate another language. As it turns out, Smith had no clue about the Egyptian language. Marquardt writes, Joseph Smith’s work on his Book of Abraham Egyptian alphabet, seven years later shows that he could not understand or interpret documents written anciently. From examinations done by Health Forms | Boy Scouts, Egyptologists, their studies show that Smith had not the Objective, slightest idea what the Egyptian characters meant relating to names, places, and Council Forms | Boy Of America subject matter. These manuscript pages clearly show that Joseph Smith pretended to translate Egyptian records.
The claim that they had been written by the biblical Abraham is without a solid foundation. The manuscript pages show that Smith used the Compensation Form Example | Sample, Bible like he did when he dictated the Book of Forms | Boy Mormon text. How To Create Web Marketing Plan. ( The Rise of Council Health Forms | Boy Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 406.) Egyptologists are unanimous that Smith’s “translation” was inaccurate and that his source was, in fact, of pagan origin, having nothing to do with the patriarch Abraham. As Charles Larson explains, Based on comparisons of the Metropolitan papyri to every available resource, including descriptions contemporary with Joseph Smith of the so-called Abraham and Joseph scrolls, as well as to Disability Form | Free Printable Templates, a number of original translation manuscripts and other notes of the time, the papyrus scroll Joseph Smith represented as containing “the writings of Abraham” was shown to Health Forms be merely a common pagan funeral papyrus of Disability Form Printable Word Templates, late date known as the Book of Breathings. The scroll thought to contain the “writings of Joseph of Egypt” was also identified as a typical late copy of the Egyptian Book of the | Boy Of America, Bead, which had been prepared for Resources Resume Objective Resume Objective For Human a woman named Ta-shert-Min. Neither scroll ever had anything to Of America do with the Templates,, biblical patriarchs Abraham or Joseph, except in the mind of Joseph Smith. ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 173-74.) He also wrote on page 175: Not a single word, thought, or concept from Joseph Smith’s Book of Abraham, including his explanations of Council Forms his three facsimiles, is in any way related to the subject matter of the common Egyptian funeral texts from which they were supposedly translated. Dr.
Lanny Bell, who teaches Egyptology at Brown University, adds, From the evidence we have today, it’s quite safe to say that Joseph Smith did not have the Book of Abraham or the How To Create Web Marketing Plan For Your Small, Book of Joseph in front of him in Council Health | Boy Scouts, the form of these papyri because they bear no relationship to the context of these stories or his translation. Their findings are exactly the same as the Impressive Example For Sale And Purchase Between, research given by Egyptologists going back to the 19 th century, including Dr. A. H. Sayce (Oxford University), Dr. Health | Boy Of America. W.M. Flinders Petrie (London University), Dr. James H. Breasted (University of Chicago), Dr.
Arthur C. Mace (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York), Dr. John Peters (University of Compensation | Sample Pennsylvania), Dr. Edward Meyer (University of Council Health Forms Berlin), Dr. Freidrick Freiheer Von Bissing (University of Munich), and Dr. Samnuel A. B. Create. Mercer (Western Theological Seminary). (For these quotes, see What Every Mormon (and Non-Mormon) Should Know , written by Edmond C. Gruss and Lane A. Thuet, pp. 162-164.) In fact, we know of no reputable Egyptologist (outside of the LDS Church’s John Gee) who has accepted Smith’s translation. On many particulars, the book of Abraham is consistent with historical knowledge about the ancient world. Health Forms. Some of this knowledge, which is discussed later in Best Resume For Human, this essay, had not yet been discovered or was not well known in 1842. But even this evidence of ancient origins, substantial though it may be, cannot prove the truthfulness of the Council Health Scouts, book of Abraham any more than archaeological evidence can prove the exodus of the Resume Examples Of Acting, Israelites from Egypt or the Resurrection of the Son of God. The book of Abraham’s status as scripture ultimately rests on faith in the saving truths found within the book itself as witnessed by the Holy Ghost.
This claim is very similar to one made in a 2000 church manual: The Prophet Joseph Smith never communicated his method of Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America translating these records. As with all other scriptures, a testimony of the truthfulness of these writing is primarily a matter of Workers Form Example | Sample Templates faith. The greatest evidence of the truthfulness of the book of Abraham is not found in Council Health Forms Scouts, an analysis of Create A Tailored Web Marketing Plan physical evidence nor historical background, but in prayerful consideration of its contents and power. ( The Pearl of Great Price Student Manual – Religion 327 , 2000, p. Scouts. 28). Ahh, so here we have it. Apparently a Mormon is encouraged to Word Sample Template disregard any evidence that might weigh against the Book of Council Forms Scouts Of America Abraham. Make On Instagram. Let’s take the examples given in the essay regarding archaeological evidence: Exodus of the Israelites from Council | Boy, Egypt: Of course, we have no archaeological evidence from the Exodus, nor would we expect to find anything. After all, the people of Israel were nomads for 40 years and did not build anything. Nothing will ever be found to support this biblical story. It’s interesting that this example is Create A Tailored, used.
New evidence continually comes up in the Holy Land to support the story of the Bible. (For examples of Council | Boy Scouts evidence found in Resources Objective For Human, 2013, see here.) It is possible to visit Jericho, Ai, Caesarea, and Scouts Bet Shean to get an idea of what took place thousands of years ago. Certainly an Templates - Youtube element of Health Forms Scouts faith is needed to accept the events and people talked about in the Bible, but the historical/archaeological evidence is a huge support. In fact, there is much more to How To A Tailored Small support the Bible than the Council Health | Boy Scouts Of America, Book of A Tailored For Your Small Mormon, for that matter! The Resurrection: Talk about evidence! According to Paul in the fifteenth chapter of Council Health | Boy 1 Corinthians: 3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to For Sale the scriptures; 4 And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to Forms | Boy Of America the scriptures: 5 And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve: 6 After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep.
7 After that, he was seen of James; then of all the apostles. 8 And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time. There is good historical evidence for the resurrection. Of course, it still takes faith. But the leap of faith is a jump into the light, not the darkness. (For a fuller depiction of reasons why a person should believe in the resurrection, click here.) These cases are much different from the faith a person must have to believe in the Book of Abraham, for Business Contract Example And Purchase which the evidence screams “fraud” rather than lending support to its veracity. The Bible is very clear that we must “test everything” (1 Thess. Council Health Forms. 5:21).
Indeed, we are supposed to “test the spirits to see if they are true for many false prophets have gone out into Form Template Printable the world” (1 John 4:1). Jesus described in the Sermon on the Mount how there are many false prophets masquerading as sheep when they are really ravenous wolves. When the Bereans tested what Paul taught them in Forms | Boy, Acts 17, they were considered nobler than the Thessalonians because they went to scripture to ascertain truth. To suggest, as this essay seems to do, that the facts ought to take a back seat to faith is Disability Template | Free Printable Word, flawed, no matter how spiritual a Mormon may think it sounds. At this point, I want to bring something up about the language. The Jews in those days spoke Hebrew.
There is no evidence a Jew ever wrote using Egyptian hieroglyphics. It would seem that Moses—who authored the Pentateuch—is the more likely candidate to have written in Egyptian since he grew up in the palace of Pharaoh! Of course, Abraham did travel to Health Forms Scouts Of America Egypt, as recorded in Genesis chapter 12, and even stayed there for a short time. But this was not the land of Human Resume Objective For Human his friends and Scouts family. Instead, it was a place where, according to Abraham 1:5, “the worshiping of the gods of the heathen” was common. Thus, a Mormon needs to ask why Abraham would have written in a non-native language and style (hieroglyphics) belonging to pagans who worshiped other gods.
It is also curious that, just by chance, these very words of Abraham found their way to Kirtland, Ohio, and into the hands of a man who just so happened had the Resume, ability to “translate” them. Yet the English of the Book of Abraham is completely out of context with the Egyptian style. Dr. Ritner explains that the “translation” provided by Smith is Health Forms | Boy Of America, just like trying to mix Chinese and Disability Template Printable Templates, Ethiopian: The narrative style of the Book of Abraham does not correspond to Forms Scouts Of America Egyptian verbiage. Impressive Business Example Between. It’s not the Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, kind of thing Egyptians would say, they wouldn’t say it in that way, and it certainly would never appear in that way in a context such as this. It couldn’t possibly be more out of place. ( The Lost Book of Contract For Sale Abraham , 40 minutes in) We’ll consider more details that are detrimental to the Book of Abraham, and when everything is put together, the chances the Book of Abraham is authentic scripture lands between slim and none. The Book of Abraham as Scripture. Thousands of years ago, the prophet Nephi learned that one purpose of the Book of Mormon was to “establish the truth” of the Health Forms Scouts, Bible. In a similar way, the book of Human Resources Resume Objective Abraham supports, expands, and clarifies the biblical account of Abraham’s life.
In the biblical account, God covenants with Abraham to “make of thee a great nation.” The book of Abraham provides context for Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America that covenant by showing that Abraham was a seeker of “great knowledge” and a “follower of righteousness” who chose the right path in spite of great hardship. He rejected the wickedness of Disability Printable his father’s household and Health Forms | Boy spurned the idols of the surrounding culture, despite the threat of death. In the Bible, God’s covenant with Abraham appears to begin during Abraham’s life. According to the book of Abraham, the covenant began before the foundation of the earth and was passed down through Adam, Noah, and other prophets. Make - Youtube. Abraham thus takes his place in a long line of prophets and patriarchs whose mission is to Health Forms Scouts Of America preserve and And Purchase extend God’s covenant on earth. The heart of this covenant is the priesthood, through which “the blessings of Council Health Forms Scouts Of America salvation, even of life eternal” are conveyed. In order to believe that we have new things to learn about Abraham, a person must trust that this book is How To Make Chibi, true. Health Forms | Boy. To get to Business Contract Example And Purchase this point, Joseph Smith must be trusted. When we look at Council Forms Scouts the life of the Mormon founder, doubts should be placed in our minds.
The book of Abraham clarifies several teachings that are obscure in the Bible. Human Resume Objective For Human. Life did not begin at birth, as is commonly believed. Scouts Of America. Prior to coming to earth, individuals existed as spirits. In a vision, Abraham saw that one of the spirits was “like unto God.” This divine being, Jesus Christ, led other spirits in organizing the earth out of “materials” or preexisting matter, not ex nihilo or out of nothing, as many Christians later came to believe. Abraham further learned that mortal life was crucial to the plan of happiness God would provide for His children: “We will prove them herewith,” God stated, “to see if they will do all things whatsoever the Lord their God shall command them,” adding a promise to add glory forever upon the faithful. Workers Form | Sample. Nowhere in the Bible is the purpose and potential of earth life stated so clearly as in the book of Abraham. A quick scan through the third chapter of the Book of Abraham (where the information from this part of the essay came) can easily show how Joseph Smith merely took verses from other parts of the Old Testament and restated them here. Writes Marquardt, While dictating the Council Scouts, Book of Abraham (what is Business Contract Example And Purchase, now chapter 2) Joseph Smith used the KJV Genesis as a guide and Council | Boy Of America text for part of his story.
The actual wording in the story suggests the use of Genesis in composing this work. This would indicate that the wording dictated was basically a copying effort of a preestablished text. At times he revised the KVV text to make it an autobiographical account by Abraham. The wording as printed in the KJV was used as part of the Human Resources Resume, text Abraham supposedly wrote by his own hand. It is clear that Joseph Smith had the Bible open to the book of Genesis as he dictated this section of the Book of Abraham. | Boy Of America. ( The Rise of Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 402.) If a plagiarist wanted to make his writing sound biblical, what would keep him from copying key phrases and ideas from the book already in his hands? Consider, for example, the following: 2:11: “And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse them that curse thee.” (Compare Genesis 12:3.) 3:11: “ Thus I, Abraham, talked with the Lord, face to face, as one man talketh with another; and he told me of the works which his hands had made.” Compare with Exodus 33:11 and Numbers 12:8. 3:14: “And it was in the night time when the Lord spake these words unto me: I will multiply thee, and Disability thy seed after thee, like unto these; and if thou canst count the number of Council Health Forms | Boy sands, so shall be the number of thy seeds.” Compare with Genesis 22:17.
3:23: “And God saw these souls that they were good, and Human Resources Resume Best Resume For Human he stood in the midst of them, and he said: These I will make my rulers; for he stood among those that were spirits, and he saw that they were good; and he said unto me: Abraham, thou art one of them; thou wast chosen before thou wast born.” Compare with Jeremiah 1:5. 3:27: “And the Lord said: Whom shall I send? And one answered like unto the Son of Man: Here am I, send me. And another answered and said: Here am I, send me. And the Lord said: I will send the first.” Compare with Isaiah 6:8.
But there are other odds parts to the Book of Council Scouts Abraham. For example, in How To Web Marketing Plan For Your, Abraham 1:10, it reads, “Even the thank-offering of a child did the priest of Pharaoh offer upon the altar which stood by the hill called Potiphar’s Hill, at the head of the plain of Olishem.” (Also see verse 20.) Potiphar was the | Boy Scouts Of America, husband of the woman who made it look like the biblical Joseph had tried to rape her. This event took place several generations after Abraham. Perhaps this hill could have been named after another “Potiphar.” But I have no doubt that Joseph got this name from the Bible. In Abraham 1:16, it reads, “And his voice was unto me: Abraham, Abraham, behold, my name is Jehovah, and I have heard thee, and How To Make Chibi - Youtube have come down to deliver thee, and to take thee away from thy father’s house, and from all thy kinsfolk, into a strange land which thou knowest not of.” And Abraham 2:8 says, “My name is Jehovah, and I know the end from the | Boy Of America, beginning; therefore my hand shall be over thee.” It must be understood that Jehovah is an English word. It is not found in the Bible, as it is Workers Form Example, neither Greek or Hebrew. Rather, the word is a result of combining the Tetragrammaton (YHWH, a word for “God”) with “Adonai,” a Greek word meaning “Lord.” Combining the vowels from the Greek and inserting them into the Hebrew YHWH created “Jehovah.” This was done well after the time that both the Bible and the Book of Abraham were originally written. Health Forms | Boy Of America. The Mormon must explain how the made-up English word “Jehovah” get into the Egyptian language when it was not even invented until a thousand years after Christ.
In 2:16-17, it reads, “Therefore, eternity was our covering and our rock and our salvation, as we journeyed from Haran by Human Resume Best Objective, the way of Jershon, to come to the land of Canaan. Now I, Abraham, built an altar in the land of Health Forms Scouts Jershon.” However, “Jershon” is a Book of Mormon place name found in Alma 35 and is not mentioned once in the Bible. Neither Abraham nor Moses would have had knowledge of New World names. Is this just another way Smith added words he had already created to show that his new revelation added new details and was somehow necessary as a supplement to Genesis? Abraham 2:22-24 reads: And it came to pass when I was come near to enter into Egypt, the Lord said unto me: Behold, Sarai, thy wife, is a very fair woman to look upon; Therefore it shall come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see her, they will say—She is his wife; and they will kill you, but they will save her alive; therefore see that ye do on this wise: Let her say unto the Egyptians, she is thy sister, and thy soul shall live. According to the Book of Abraham, God told Abraham to lie. If true, this leads to two problems: 1) God is culpable of lying because he told someone (Abraham) to do this.
2) This contradicts the biblical version which, for whatever reason, leaves this part out completely. Then, referring to the creation of the world in Abraham chapter 4 and 5, Abraham moves to the plural use of “gods” (i.e. “the Gods, organized and formed the heavens and Disability Template | Free Word Templates, the earth,” “the Spirit of the Gods was brooding upon the face of the waters,” “and they (the Gods) comprehended the light, for Forms it was bright,” “and the Gods called the A Tailored, light Day,” and “and the Gods ordered the Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts, expanse”), using the plural instead of the singular for the creation of the world. Indeed, the Hebrew “Elohim” is Create A Tailored For Your Small, plural, but no reputable translator has ever translated this word as “gods.” When it comes to the last two chapters of the Book of Abraham, nothing is unique. In fact, Abraham 4 and Genesis 1 are parallel. The Creation: Comparing Genesis 1 and Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America Abraham 4.
Abraham 4:1: “And then the Lord said: Let us go down. And they went down at the beginning, and they, that is the Gods, organized and formed the heavens and the earth.” Genesis 1:1: “In the beginning God created the Word Of Acting Resume Template, heavens and the earth.” Abraham 4:2: “And the earth, after it was formed, was empty and Council Forms desolate, because they had not formed anything but the earth; and Impressive Contract Example For Sale darkness reigned upon the face of the deep, and the Spirit of the Gods was brooding upon the face of the waters. Genesis 1:2: “And the Forms, earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep.
And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.” Abraham 4:3: “And they (the Gods) said: Let there be light; and there was light.” Genesis 1:3: “And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.” Abraham 4:4: “And they (the Gods) comprehended the light, for it was bright; and they divided the light, or caused it to be divided, from the darkness.” Genesis 1:4: “ And God saw the light, that it was good: and Web Marketing Plan Small God divided the light from the darkness.” Abraham 4:5: “And the Gods called the light Day, and the darkness they called Night. And it came to pass that from the evening until morning they called night; and from the morning until the Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, evening they called day; and this was the first, or the beginning, of that which they called day and night.”
Genesis 1:5: “ And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.” Abraham 4:6: “And the Gods also said: Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and it shall divide the waters from the waters.” Genesis 1:6: “And God said, Let there be a firmament in Impressive Business, the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.” Abraham 4:7: “And the Gods ordered the expanse, so that it divided the waters which were under the expanse from the waters which were above the expanse; and it was so, even as they ordered.” Genesis 1:7: “ And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.” Abraham 4:8 “And the Gods called the expanse, Heaven. Council | Boy. And it came to pass that it was from evening until morning that they called night; and it came to pass that it was from morning until evening that they called day; and Chibi Templates - Youtube this was the second time that they called night and day.” Genesis 1:8: “And God called the firmament Heaven. And the Council Forms | Boy Scouts, evening and the morning were the second day.”
Abraham 4:9: “And the Gods ordered, saying: Let the How To A Tailored For Your, waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the | Boy Scouts, earth come up dry; and it was so as they ordered; Genesis 1:9: “And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.” Abraham 4:10: “And the Gods pronounced the dry land, Earth; and the gathering together of the waters, pronounced they, Great Waters; and the Gods saw that they were obeyed.” Genesis 1:10: “And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.” Abraham 4:11: “And the Gods said: Let us prepare the earth to bring forth grass; the herb yielding seed; the fruit tree yielding fruit, after his kind, whose seed in itself yieldeth its own likeness upon the earth; and it was so, even as they ordered.” Genesis 1:11: “And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.” Abraham 4:12: “And the Gods organized the earth to bring forth grass from its own seed, and the herb to bring forth herb from its own seed, yielding seed after his kind; and the earth to bring forth the | Sample, tree from its own seed, yielding fruit, whose seed could only bring forth the same in itself, after his kind; and the Gods saw that they were obeyed.”
Genesis 1:12: “And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.” Abraham 4:13: “And it came to pass that they numbered the days; from the evening until the morning they called night; and it came to pass, from the morning until the evening they called day; and it was the third time.” Genesis 1:13: “And the evening and the morning were the third day. Abraham 4:14: “And the Gods organized the lights in the expanse of the Council, heaven, and caused them to divide the Workers Form Example | Sample Templates, day from the Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, night; and organized them to be for | Sample signs and for seasons, and for days and for years;” Genesis 1:14: “And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years.” Abraham 4:15: “And organized them to be for lights in the expanse of the heaven to give light upon the earth; and it was so.” Genesis 1:15: “And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.”
Abraham 4:16: “And the Gods organized the two great lights, the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the Council Health Forms Of America, night; with the lesser light they set the Resources Objective Best Objective, stars also;” Genesis 1:16: “And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and Council Health | Boy Scouts Of America the lesser light to How To Make Chibi Templates On Instagram rule the night: he made the stars also.” Abraham 4:17-18: “And the Gods set them in the expanse of the heavens, to Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America give light upon the earth, and to rule over the day and over the night, and to cause to Word divide the light from the darkness. And the Gods watched those things which they had ordered until they obeyed.” Genesis 1:17-18: “And God set them in the firmament of the Council Health | Boy Scouts Of America, heaven to give light upon the earth, and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and Human Resume Resume Objective For Human God saw that it was good.” Abraham 4:19: “And it came to pass that it was from evening until morning that it was night; and it came to pass that it was from Council | Boy Scouts Of America, morning until evening that it was day; and it was the fourth time.” Genesis 1:19: “And the evening and the morning were the Impressive Business Contract, fourth day.” Abraham 4:20: “And the Gods said: Let us prepare the waters to bring forth abundantly the moving creatures that have life; and the fowl, that they may fly above the earth in the open expanse of Forms | Boy Of America heaven.” Genesis 1:20: “And God said, Let the How To Chibi Templates - Youtube, waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and Health Forms fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.” Abraham 4:21: “And the Gods prepared the waters that they might bring forth great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters were to How To Make Chibi Templates On Instagram - Youtube bring forth abundantly after their kind; and every winged fowl after their kind. And the Gods saw that they would be obeyed, and that their plan was good.”
Genesis 1:21: “And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.” Abraham 4:22: “And the Gods said: We will bless them, and cause them to be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas or great waters; and cause the fowl to multiply in Council Health Forms Scouts Of America, the earth.” Genesis 1:22: “And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in How To Make Templates - Youtube, the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.” Abraham 4:23: “And it came to pass that it was from evening until morning that they called night; and it came to pass that it was from morning until evening that they called day; and it was the fifth time.” Genesis 1:23: “And the Council Health | Boy Scouts Of America, evening and the morning were the fifth day.” Abraham 4:24: “And the Gods prepared the earth to bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle and Resume Word Of Acting Resume Template creeping things, and beasts of the earth after their kind; and it was so, as they had said.” Genesis 1:24: “And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.” Abraham 4:25: “And the Gods organized the earth to bring forth the beasts after their kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after its kind; and the Gods saw they would obey.”
Genesis 1:25: “And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon Council, the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.” Abraham 4:26-27: “And the Gods took counsel among themselves and said: Let us go down and Form | Sample Templates form man in our image, after our likeness; and we will give them dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. So the Gods went down to organize man in their own image, in the image of the | Boy Scouts, Gods to Human Resources Objective Objective For Human form they him, male and | Boy Of America female to Form Printable Word Templates, form they them.” Genesis 1:26-27: “And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the Forms, sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over Create For Your Small every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.” Abraham 4:28: “And the Gods said: We will bless them.
And the Gods said: We will cause them to be fruitful and multiply, and Council Forms Scouts Of America replenish the earth, and subdue it, and to have dominion over the fish of the Human Resume Resume For Human, sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.” Genesis 1:28: “And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.” Abraham 1:29: “And the Gods said: Behold, we will give them every herb bearing seed that shall come upon the face of all the earth, and every tree which shall have fruit upon it; yea, the fruit of the tree yielding seed to them we will give it; it shall be for their meat.” Genesis 1:29: “And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.” Abraham 4:30: “And to every beast of the earth, and to Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America every fowl of the air, and to Resume Best Resume Objective For Human every thing that creepeth upon Council Forms Scouts, the earth, behold, we will give them life, and Human Objective also we will give to them every green herb for meat, and | Boy all these things shall be thus organized.” Genesis 1:30: “And to Workers Compensation Form | Sample every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to Council Forms Scouts Of America every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so.” Abraham 4:31: “And the Gods said: We will do everything that we have said, and organize them; and behold, they shall be very obedient. And it came to pass that it was from evening until morning they called night; and it came to pass that it was from morning until evening that they called day; and they numbered the sixth time.” Genesis 1:31: “And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. Resources Resume Objective Best Objective. And the evening and the morning were the Council Health Forms, sixth day.”
While it’s not “word for word,” Abraham chapter 4 directly correlates with Genesis 1. Objective Resume. A coincidence? Obviously not. Smith was intent on changing the singular God with the plural “Gods.” And at the end of each of the days, he used the same formula. Forms | Boy Scouts. Yet Joseph Smith had a chance to Web Marketing Plan For Your change Genesis 1 in his Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible. However, even though he “translated” this chapter just a couple years before, he did not use “gods” for “God.” In a single stroke, Smith uses the Book of Forms Scouts Abraham to contradict both the Bible and, for that matter, the Book of Form Templates Mormon (which Smith called “the most correct book on earth”). This change goes against the very teaching of the Pentateuch, as its cornerstone is Forms Scouts Of America, Deuteronomy 6:4. Web Marketing Small. Called the Health | Boy Scouts Of America, Shemah, the most important verse in Jewish history clearly states, “Hear O Israel, the Lord thy God, the Disability Printable Word Templates,, Lord is one.” Jesus quoted this in Council Forms Scouts, Mark 12:29.
Literally, it says that God is Sample Of Acting Template, one essence; there can be no plurality of gods. To believe this is to acquiesce to the pagan gods of the surrounding nations. Throughout the Bible, God is quite adamant that there are “no” gods before or after me” (singular) in Isaiah 43:10, and in Isaiah 44:6-8, God claims to know of no other gods. Consider Genesis 1:26-27 in Council Forms Scouts, relation to Abraham 4:26-27. Contract For Sale. Bill McKeever explains.
how a Mormon must demonstrate that the preincarnate Jehovah had a body of flesh and bones at the time the conversation in Genesis 1:26, 27 took place. Tenth LDS President Joseph Fielding Smith admitted that Jesus “did not always have a tangible body” ( Doctrines of Salvation , 1:11). A statement issued in 1916 by the First Presidency and Council of the Twelve made it clear that, during the Council Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, preexistence, Christ did not have a tangible body. “In all His dealings with the human family Jesus the Son has represented and yet represents Elohim His Father in power and authority. This is true of Christ in Impressive Contract For Sale Between, His preexistent, antemortal, or unembodied state, in Health | Boy Scouts, the which He was known as Jehovah.” ( Messages of the Workers | Sample Templates, First Presidency 5:31, 32. Also cited in the Encyclopedia of Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America Mormonism 4:720, emphasis mine.)
Speaking in conference in Make Chibi, April 1921, Charles W. Penrose noted, “The Holy Ghost is a personage of spirit, as Jesus Christ was when he was Jehovah. He was Jehovah from the beginning of the world, according to the history we have in the Old Testament scriptures. He was a personage of spirit, and he came here to the earth that he might be exactly like his brethren and like his Father, and Council Forms | Boy Of America have a body made out of the lower elements of the universe.” ( Conference Report , p.12, emphasis mine). In making a similar distinction between the personages of the LDS godhead, Mormon Apostle Bruce McConkie wrote, “The Holy Ghost has not a body of flesh and Resources Resume Objective bones,’ however, ‘but is a personage of Spirit.’ (DC 130:22.) He is Health | Boy Scouts Of America, thus a spirit man, a spirit person, a spirit entity. He lives and moves and has his being separate and apart from his fellow Gods. His spirit body is in all respects comparable to the kind of a body that the Lord Jehovah possessed before that beloved and chosen one made flesh his tabernacle by the process of mortal birth.” ( A New Witness for the Articles of Faith , pp.253, 254, emphasis mine.)
Notice that these LDS leaders concede that prior to His mortal birth, Jesus was “unembodied” and a “personage of spirit.” This is the key to discovering the Resources Resume Resume For Human, error so many Mormons make when it comes to the Genesis passages. According to LDS teaching, Jehovah, the preincarnate Jesus, did not have a body until he became flesh “by the process of mortal birth.” That being so, it is wrong for Mormons to assume that the words “image” and “likeness” refer to flesh and bones since the Mormon “Jehovah” (and Mormon “Holy Ghost”) had no such image or likeness when the Council | Boy, conversation in Business Contract And Purchase Between, Genesis 1:26 took place. The Creation: Comparing Genesis 2 with Abraham 5. In the final chapter of the Book of Abraham, an even closer copying of Genesis is | Boy Scouts Of America, made. Consider a verse-by-verse comparison: Abraham 5:1: “And thus we will finish the Examples Template, heavens and the earth, and all the hosts of them.” Genesis 2:1: “Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.” Abraham 5:2: “And the Gods said among themselves: On the seventh time we will end our work, which we have counseled; and we will rest on Council Health Forms Scouts Of America, the seventh time from all our work which we have counseled.” Genesis 2:2: “And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.” Abraham 5:3: “And the Gods concluded upon the seventh time, because that on the seventh time they would rest from all their works which they (the Gods) counseled among themselves to form; and sanctified it. Resources Resume Best Objective. And thus were their decisions at the time that they counseled among themselves to form the heavens and Council Health Forms Scouts the earth.”
Genesis 2:3: “And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made.” Abraham 5:4 And the Gods came down and formed these the generations of the heavens and Example of the earth, when they were formed in Council Health | Boy, the day that the Gods formed the earth and the heavens, Genesis 2:4: “These are the Resume Word Sample Of Acting Resume Template, generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens,” Abraham 5:5: “According to Council Of America all that which they had said concerning every plant of the field before it was in Human Objective Resume, the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew; for the Gods had not caused it to rain upon the earth when they counseled to do them, and had not formed a man to till the Forms | Boy Scouts, ground.” Genesis 2:5: “And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground.” Abraham 5:6: “But there went up a mist from the A Tailored Plan Small, earth, and watered the whole face of the ground.” Genesis 2:6: “But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground.” Abraham 5:7: “And the Gods formed man from the dust of the ground, and took his spirit (that is, the man’s spirit), and put it into him; and Council Health Forms breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul.” Genesis 2:7: “And the Lord God formed man of the Compensation Example | Sample Templates, dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.”
Abraham 5:8: “And the Gods planted a garden, eastward in Council Health Forms | Boy Of America, Eden, and Form Template | Free Word there they put the man, whose spirit they had put into the body which they had formed.” Genesis 2:8: “And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Council Health | Boy Scouts Of America, Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed.” Abraham 5:8: “And the Gods planted a garden, eastward in Eden, and there they put the man, whose spirit they had put into the body which they had formed. Genesis 2:8: “And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed.” Abraham 5:9: “And out of the Template Printable Templates,, ground made the Gods to grow every tree that is pleasant to Council Scouts the sight and good for food; the tree of life, also, in the midst of the garden, and Impressive Business Contract For Sale And Purchase the tree of Council Scouts Of America knowledge of good and evil.” Genesis 2:9: “And out of the Disability Form Template, ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.” Abraham 5:10: There was a river running out of Eden, to water the Council Health, garden, and from thence it was parted and became into four heads. Genesis 2:10: “And a river went out of Eden to Form Template | Free Printable Word water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads.” Abraham 5:11: “And the Gods took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden, to dress it and to keep it.” Genesis 2:15: “And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.” Abraham 5:12-13: “And the Council Forms Of America, Gods commanded the man, saying: Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat, But of the tree of knowledge of good and Example | Sample Templates evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the time that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die.
Now I, Abraham, saw that it was after the Lord’s time, which was after the time of Forms | Boy Of America Kolob; for Impressive Business Example For Sale as yet the Gods had not appointed unto Adam his reckoning.” Genesis 2:16-17: “And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: But of the tree of the Council Health Forms | Boy, knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.” Abraham 5:14: “And the Make Templates On Instagram, Gods said: Let us make an help meet for the man, for it is not good that the man should be alone, therefore we will form an help meet for Forms Scouts him.” Genesis 2:18: “And the Lord God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him.” Abraham 5:15: “And the Gods caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam; and And Purchase he slept, and they took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh in Of America, the stead thereof;”
Genesis 2:21: “And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof;” Abraham 5:16: “And of the rib which the Impressive Contract Example For Sale Between, Gods had taken from man, formed they a woman, and brought her unto the man.” Genesis 2:22: “And the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.” Abraham 5:17-18: “And Adam said: This was bone of my bones, and flesh of Council Forms Scouts my flesh; now she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of man; Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh. Genesis 2:23-24: “And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of Make - Youtube my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.” Abraham 5:19: “And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.” Genesis 2:25: “And they were both naked, the Forms Scouts Of America, man and his wife, and were not ashamed.” Abraham 5:20: “And out of the ground the Gods formed every beast of the field, and How To Small every fowl of the air, and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them; and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that should be the name thereof.”
Genesis 2:19: “And out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the Council Forms | Boy Of America, field, and every fowl of the Workers Compensation Example | Sample, air; and Council Health Forms Of America brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof.” Abraham 5:21: “And Adam gave names to all cattle, to Workers Form Templates the fowl of the air, to every beast of the field; and for Adam, there was found an Health Forms | Boy Of America helpmeet for Impressive Business Contract Example For Sale him.” Genesis 2:20: “And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the Of America, air, and to every beast of the Disability Form, field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him.” Considering the Health Forms Scouts Of America, parallels between Abraham chapters 3 and 4 and Genesis 1 and 2, it is obvious that Joseph Smith had his King James Version of the How To Create A Tailored For Your Small, Bible open when making his “translation” of the Book of Abraham. The structure is clearly the Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, same, while the main change involves changing the singular “God” into a plurality of gods. Too many questions remain unanswered: If the book of Genesis was really written in Disability Template Word Templates,, Hebrew and Scouts Of America the Book of Abraham in Egyptian, how could the “translations” be so alike? Why do no competent scholars translate the Business Example For Sale Between, Hebrew “Elohim” into the plural “gods”? If the entire text became corrupted, when did it become corrupted? (Note: The Dead Sea Scrolls fragments of Genesis are very close to the Masoretic text (AD 900) and do not lend itself to being translated “gods”) Why does the Book of Mormon—called by Joseph Smith as “the most correct book on earth”—not correspond with such a translation?
Because there are so many similarities, “plagiarism” screams out and takes ownership of this situation. Origin of the Book of Abraham. The powerful truths found in the book of Abraham emerged from a set of unique historical events. In the summer of 1835, an entrepreneur named Michael Chandler arrived at Church headquarters in Kirtland, Ohio, with four mummies and multiple scrolls of papyrus. Chandler found a ready audience. Due partly to the exploits of the French emperor Napoleon, the antiquities unearthed in the catacombs of Egypt had created a fascination across the Western world. Chandler capitalized on this interest by touring with ancient Egyptian artifacts and charging visitors a fee to see them. These artifacts had been uncovered by Antonio Lebolo, a former cavalryman in the Italian army. Lebolo, who oversaw some of the Council Forms | Boy, excavations for the consul general of France, pulled 11 mummies from a tomb not far from the ancient city of Thebes. Lebolo shipped the artifacts to Italy, and after his death, they ended up in New York.
At some point the mummies and scrolls came into Chandler’s possession. By the time the collection arrived in Kirtland, all but four mummies and Resources Resume Best For Human several papyrus scrolls had already been sold. A group of Latter-day Saints in Kirtland purchased the remaining artifacts for the Church. Council Health Forms Scouts. After Joseph Smith examined the papyri and Human Resources commenced “the translation of Health | Boy Scouts Of America some of the characters or hieroglyphics,” his history recounts, “much to our joy [we] found that one of the rolls contained the writings of Abraham.” Translation and the Book of Abraham.
Joseph Smith worked on the translation of the book of How To Create Plan For Your Small Abraham during the summer and fall of 1835, by which time he completed at least the first chapter and part of the second chapter. His journal next speaks of translating the papyri in the spring of 1842, after the Saints had relocated to Nauvoo, Illinois. All five chapters of the book of Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America Abraham, along with three illustrations (now known as facsimiles 1, 2, and 3), were published in the Times and Seasons, the Form Example, Church’s newspaper in Nauvoo, between March and May 1842. The book of Abraham was the last of Joseph Smith’s translation efforts. In these inspired translations, Joseph Smith did not claim to know the ancient languages of the records he was translating. Much like the Council Forms Scouts, Book of Mormon, Joseph’s translation of the Disability Form | Free Word Templates,, book of Abraham was recorded in the language of the King James Bible. This was the idiom of scripture familiar to early Latter-day Saints, and Health Forms | Boy Of America its use was consistent with the Lord’s pattern of revealing His truths “after the manner of their [His servants’] language, that they might come to understanding.” A person could make a translation similar to the King James Version of the Bible, but this wouldn’t mean that the words would be (for the most part) word for word from the translation originally done in 1611. The point made in the following manual ought to be considered, as the LDS teacher is being instructed how to teach the difficulty of “translating” from one language into another:
Write a simple sentence on Example Templates, the board and ask for a volunteer to translate it into any foreign language. Then ask for a volunteer to translate a more difficult sentence (such as Abraham 1:2). Discuss some of the challenges involved in translating writings from one language to another. Council Forms | Boy Scouts Of America. Invite students to look at Abraham Facsimile 1 and ‘translate’ it into Form Template Printable Word Templates, a story line, without looking at the explanation below it. ( The Pearl of Great Price Teacher Manual Religion 327 , p. 35). This is exactly right. So here we have two resources: the Bible (Genesis) and Council | Boy Of America the Pearl of Great Price (the Book of Resources Resume Objective For Human Abraham). When we compare one translation (from Hebrew to English = Genesis) with another translation (from Egyptian to English = Abraham), we can see that there is much similarity with Abraham 4-5 and Council Health | Boy Genesis 1-2.
For the Compensation Form Example Templates, most part, we can even safely say they use the same words and is, in many parts, written down word for word. Scouts. The main difference is Smith uses the Disability Form | Free Word, plural “gods” for God, but otherwise everything else is the same. How can this be if there are many possible translations from one language to another? Even if the two unique languages (Egyptian and Council Forms Scouts Of America Hebrew) were closely aligned in structure, the odds of having such similar translations are infinitesimally impossible. Just as we can see in the Book of Mormon’s recitation of the King James Version of the Bible, the word-for-word copying is obvious. There is no coincidence if plagiarism is involved. Joseph’s translations took a variety of forms.
Some of his translations, like that of the Book of Mormon, utilized ancient documents in his possession. Other times, his translations were not based on any known physical records. Joseph’s translation of portions of the Impressive Business Contract For Sale Between, Bible, for example, included restoration of original text, harmonization of contradictions within the Bible itself, and inspired commentary. Some Mormons want to distance themselves from a literal symbol-by-symbol “translation” of the Book of Abraham. For example, in 1992, two LDS scholars wrote, “Speculation nevertheless persisted as to Council Forms | Boy Scouts the process Joseph may have used in Human Resume For Human, translating the book, including the Council | Boy Scouts, possibility that even if the How To Make - Youtube, papyri were not contemporary with Abraham they contained material that, under inspiration, turned Joseph’s mind back to ancient Egypt and opened it to direct revelation on the experiences of Council Forms Of America Abraham.
In that case, he may have received these ideas in much the same way he did those of the inspired revision of the Bible. How To Templates On Instagram. In that instance, acting without original documents, the Prophet’s only claim was that by divine inspiration he was able to replace incorrect with correct ideas and restore the original biblical meaning” (James B. Allen and Glen M. Leonard, The Story of the Latter-day Saints , 1992, p. 77). Hold on a second. The preface to the Book of Abraham reads, A translation of some ancient records, that have fallen into Health | Boy our hands—The writings of Word Of Acting Resume Template Abraham while he was in Egypt, called the Book of Abraham, written by his own hand, upon papyrus. See History of the Church 2:235, 236, 348-35.
Charles Larson makes a good point when he says, All of Health Forms | Boy these records show that he [Smith] intended the text of the Book of Human Objective Abraham to be regarded as nothing less than a direct, literal translation , which he had taken from Abraham’s own papyrus record . . . .while Joseph Smith presented himself as able to translate and understand ancient languages, and specifically, while he claimed to have produced the Book of Abraham by translating the Council Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, ancient Egyptian text from one of his papyrus scrolls, we now know that the Joseph Smith papyri are in fact pagan Egyptian documents unrelated to the biblical Abraham. Furthermore, if, as the Disability Form Printable Word, 1992 Encyclopedia of Mormonism maintains, Joseph Smith received the Book of Abraham by revelation, not translation, why did he and his followers pay the enormous sum of $2400—over $28,000 in 1992 U.S. dollars—for pagan Egyptian papyri that have nothing to do with the biblical Abraham? ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 95) When the word “translation” is used, it infers that it came directly from the Health Forms Scouts, original source. If this is not the Human Resources Best Resume Objective For Human, case, then why did the papyrus need to Health | Boy Of America be found in the first place? If Smith could create the proper translation without the actual papyrus (or, for Business Example Between that matter, the gold plates for Council Health Scouts Of America the Book of Workers Compensation Example | Sample Mormon), it seems as if the actual sources just don’t matter. Some evidence suggests that Joseph studied the Council Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, characters on the Egyptian papyri and attempted to learn the Egyptian language. His history reports that, in July 1835, he was “continually engaged in translating an alphabet to the Book of Abraham, and arranging a grammar of the Workers Form, Egyptian language as practiced by the ancients.” This “grammar,” as it was called, consisted of columns of hieroglyphic characters followed by Council Forms Scouts, English translations recorded in a large notebook by Joseph’s scribe, William W. Phelps. Another manuscript, written by Impressive And Purchase Between, Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery, has Egyptian characters followed by explanations. The relationship of Forms | Boy Scouts these documents to the book of Create Plan Small Abraham is Council Health Forms Scouts Of America, not fully understood. Neither the Impressive Business Contract For Sale Between, rules nor the translations in the grammar book correspond to those recognized by Egyptologists today.
Whatever the Council Health | Boy, role of the grammar book, it appears that Joseph Smith began translating portions of the book of Resume Word Of Acting Resume Template Abraham almost immediately after the purchase of the papyri. Phelps apparently viewed Joseph Smith as uniquely capable of understanding the | Boy, Egyptian characters: “As no one could translate these writings,” he told his wife, “they were presented to Disability Printable Word President Smith. He soon knew what they were.” Notice what is said: “Neither the Health | Boy, rules nor the translations in the grammar book correspond to those recognized by Web Marketing Plan, Egyptologists today.” Perhaps the writer(s) of the Gospel Topics essay could have been more clear and stated, “Egyptologists are clueless how Joseph Smith thinks that he actually translated the Book of Abraham from the papyrus he had in front of him.” With a wave of the hand, the | Boy Scouts Of America, writer continues, “Whatever the Workers Example Templates, role of the Health | Boy, grammar book…” In essence, the grammar book doesn’t play any role because it was filled with gibberish that nobody in the 1830s could have understood. After all, Egyptology was a new science that didn’t begin until Napoleon’s troops discovered the Rosetta Stone in 1799. Dr. Ritner explains what he calls the Human Objective For Human, “smoking gun” courtesy of Jerald and Sandra Tanner of the Utah Lighthouse Ministry:
Again in contrast to Council Health | Boy Scouts Of America the new LDS statement, it is - Youtube, not true that “no eyewitness account of the translation survives.” Smith’s secretary Warren Parrish wrote in Council Health Forms | Boy, an 1838 letter in the Painesville Republican: “I have set (sic) by Disability Template | Free Templates,, his side and penned down the Egyptian hieroglyphicks (sic) as he claimed to receive it by direct inspiration from heaven.” Smith’s “divine inspiration” was not, however, divorced from a direct attempt to translate the characters of the Egyptian papyrus, as is Scouts, clear from surviving manuscript pages of the evolving text of the Book of Impressive Business Contract Example For Sale Between Abraham. Council Health Forms Of America. These pages, unmentioned in the new LDS church posting, were published in 1966 in microfilm reproductions and in transcription by Jerald Tanner as Joseph Smith’s Egyptian Alphabet and Grammar, Salt Lake City, Utah Lighthouse Ministry. These microfilm pages are the “smoking gun” evidence that resolves the history of the Resources Resume Objective Best For Human, Book of Abraham translation process. In his introduction to the volume, Jerald Tanner records that his Modern Microfilm Co. was contacted “in the early part of 1965” by a student at the Brigham Young University who had a typed copy of the “Egyptian Alphabet” hand copies, and that “later in the year another man loaned us a microfilm of the | Boy, original document.” The microfilm reproductions found in the Tanner volume were printed from masters produced “in the A Tailored Web Marketing For Your Small, early part of 1966,” the same year that the Tanner volume was published. The dates of 1965-1966 are significant, because the microfilm edition contains not only the “Egyptian Alphabet,” but the evolving manuscript pages for the future Book of Abraham as well. These pages contain copies of specific Egyptian text from the “Breathing Permit of Hor,” column 2. That section of the papyrus was not reproduced in Council Health Scouts, the Book of Abraham or any other publication until the How To Templates - Youtube, rediscovery of the Smith papyri in Forms | Boy Scouts, New York in 1967 and the publication of sepia photographs in The Improvement Era in January and February of How To A Tailored Web Marketing Small 1968. The copies made in 1965 and 1966, and the 1966 publication by Tanner, cannot then be forgeries since no forger could have had the unknown papyrus as a model to copy. The equation of the Book of Abraham and Health Scouts Of America the “Breathing Permit of Hor” is thus undeniable, and the source of Human Best Objective For Human Smith’s nineteenth century composition is settled.
Period. The Tanner volume that first published these manuscripts is cumbersome to use as it lacks running pagination, but relevant manuscript pages are lettered J through M, with a second series labeled out of order S, R, Q, N, P and O. Exactly like the “Alphabet and Grammar,” the pages include copies of Egyptian script on Council Health Forms Scouts Of America, the left corresponding to lengthy English on the right. But in these texts, the English is the text of the Book of Abraham as it was being modified and would be published, with obvious deletions and revisions in the handwritten English text. Create Plan Small. Also unlike the “Alphabet and | Boy Of America Grammar” hand copies, the Egyptian script on most of these sheets is immediately clear and readily translated by modern Egyptologists. Without question, the translation efforts by Disability Template Word Templates,, Smith and his “scribes” were based directly on Smith’s Egyptian papyri. After the Latter-day Saints left Nauvoo, the Egyptian artifacts remained behind. Joseph Smith’s family sold the papyri and the mummies in 1856. The papyri were divided up and sold to various parties; historians believe that most were destroyed in the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Ten papyrus fragments once in Council Forms Scouts Of America, Joseph Smith’s possession ended up in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. In 1967, the museum transferred these fragments to the Church, which subsequently published them in the Church’s magazine, the Resume Sample Of Acting Template, Improvement Era. The discovery of the papyrus fragments renewed debate about Joseph Smith’s translation.
The fragments included one vignette, or illustration, that appears in Health Forms, the book of Disability Template | Free Word Templates, Abraham as facsimile 1. Long before the fragments were published by Council Forms Of America, the Church, some Egyptologists had said that Joseph Smith’s explanations of the various elements of these facsimiles did not match their own interpretations of these drawings. Joseph Smith had published the Impressive Business Contract And Purchase, facsimiles as freestanding drawings, cut off from the hieroglyphs or hieratic characters that originally surrounded the vignettes. The discovery of the fragments meant that readers could now see the hieroglyphs and | Boy Scouts Of America characters immediately surrounding the How To Create A Tailored Plan For Your, vignette that became facsimile. None of the characters on the papyrus fragments mentioned Abraham’s name or any of the events recorded in the book of Abraham. Mormon and non-Mormon Egyptologists agree that the characters on the fragments do not match the translation given in the book of Abraham, though there is not unanimity, even among non-Mormon scholars, about the proper interpretation of the vignettes on these fragments. Scholars have identified the papyrus fragments as parts of standard funerary texts that were deposited with mummified bodies. These fragments date to between the third century B.C.E. and the first century C.E., long after Abraham lived.
Notice the admission: both “Mormon and non-Mormon Egyptologists agree that the characters on the fragments do not match the translation given in the book of Abraham.” This is quite an admission, saying that Joseph Smith did not a) know Egyptian grammar; b) accurately translate the papyrus. Of course, the fragments do not have to be as old as Abraham for the book of Abraham and its illustrations to be authentic. Ancient records are often transmitted as copies or as copies of copies. The record of Abraham could have been edited or redacted by later writers much as the Book of Forms Scouts Of America Mormon prophet-historians Mormon and Moroni revised the writings of Form Template | Free Printable earlier peoples. Council Health Scouts. Moreover, documents initially composed for one context can be repackaged for another context or purpose. Illustrations once connected with Abraham could have either drifted or been dislodged from their original context and reinterpreted hundreds of years later in terms of burial practices in a later period of Egyptian history. The opposite could also be true: illustrations with no clear connection to Abraham anciently could, by revelation, shed light on the life and How To Create Web Marketing Plan For Your teachings of this prophetic figure.
Some have assumed that the hieroglyphs adjacent to and surrounding facsimile 1 must be a source for the text of the book of Abraham. But this claim rests on the assumption that a vignette and its adjacent text must be associated in meaning. In fact, it was not uncommon for ancient Egyptian vignettes to be placed some distance from their associated commentary. Neither the Lord nor Joseph Smith explained the process of translation of the book of Abraham, but some insight can be gained from the Lord’s instructions to Joseph regarding translation. In April 1829, Joseph received a revelation for Oliver Cowdery that taught that both intellectual work and revelation were essential to translating sacred records.
It was necessary to “study it out in your mind” and then seek spiritual confirmation. Records indicate that Joseph and others studied the papyri and that close observers also believed that the translation came by revelation. As John Whitmer observed, “Joseph the Seer saw these Record[s] and by the revelation of Jesus Christ could translate these records.” Once more, a person’s blind faith is requested. Unfortunately, as the church itself admits, “There are no official Church explanations for the Abraham facsimiles besides the Prophet Joseph Smith’s explanations that accompany them.” ( The Pearl of Great Price Teacher Manual: Religion 327 , 35.) Knowing if it is a book really written by Abraham requires great faith, as a church history manual says that, “like the Health Forms | Boy Scouts, Book of Mormon, the book of Abraham is its own evidence that it came about through the gift and power of How To Web Marketing For Your Small God.” ( Church History in the Fulness of Time Student Manual Religion 341 -343, 258.) The Mormon is instructed to believe the prophet because he says he’s a prophet who 1) saw God; 2) was given the Book of Mormon and Health Forms Of America Book of Abraham and “translated” these; and 3) received direct revelation from God (DC). The Bible never requires that we have blind faith. We have evidence to make a wise decision—such as the bodily resurrection (1 Corinthians 15). Template. To believe someone is a prophet who “translated” funeral papyri as originating from the “hand of Abraham”—all because we “study it out” in our minds and seek spiritual confirmation—is foolish. Could Smith be a wolf in sheep’s clothing, as Jesus warned in the Sermon on the Mount?
It is likely futile to assess Joseph’s ability to translate papyri when we now have only Council Of America, a fraction of the How To Chibi Templates - Youtube, papyri he had in his possession. Eyewitnesses spoke of Health Forms Of America “a long roll” or multiple “rolls” of papyrus. Resume Best Resume. Since only fragments survive, it is likely that much of the papyri accessible to Joseph when he translated the book of Abraham is not among these fragments. The loss of a significant portion of the Council Scouts, papyri means the relationship of the papyri to the published text cannot be settled conclusively by How To Chibi, reference to the papyri. This same claim has been made by LDS apologists, an apparent attempt to somehow get the readers to think that, maybe somehow, the crux of the manuscripts are somewhere around. Thus, Mormons wonder if there could have been more that wasn’t found. Was the Health Scouts, papyri found in 1967 in Example Templates, a New York museum the same papyri that Smith had in his possession?
BYU professor Daniel Peterson wrote: Critics have long attempted to make a case against the Book of Abraham. They argue that some ancient texts do not support the book. They point to the fragments of the Joseph Smith papyri that we now possess and claim that since the contents of Health | Boy Scouts Of America these papyri bear little obvious relationship to the book of Abraham, the book is Contract Example For Sale Between, a fraud; but Hugh Nibley has made an exhaustive study of these claims and has shown that the Council Of America, papyri we now have were probably not the ones from which Joseph Smith translated the book of Abraham. ( Ensign, January 1994): 20.) Christian researcher Charles Larson challenges this claim: And there could be no question that the Metropolitan papyri were indeed none other than the ones which Joseph Smith had once purchased and used. The reverse sides of the paper to which they were glued contained such things as architectural drawings of a temple and maps of the Kirtland, Ohio area. (Charles M. Larson, By His Own Hand upon Papyrus (Grand Rapids, MI: Institute for Religious Research, 1992), 36. Could there have been more papyri? In his book Shaken Faith Syndrome , Michael R. Ash writes, It is vital to On Instagram understand that we do not have all the papyri that Joseph Smith had when he translated the Book of Abraham. Some of the papyri were burned in Forms Scouts Of America, the Chicago fire and it’s possible that other fragments were lost or destroyed elsewhere.
Yale-trained Eypgtologist, Dr. John Gee, believes that Joseph Smith originally had five papyrus scrolls–one of which was the hydrocephalus. Of these five scrolls, only eleven fragments of two scrolls are extant. Disability Form Template Word. (p. 115) Do they really think that more documents (conveniently destroyed, no less) will help their case? And if the other parts of the | Boy, papyrus were somehow destroyed in a fire or lost, why did these survive? Even though it’s extremely unlikely that they are right, it ought to be pointed that what we do have proves Smith to How To Make be a fraud. Health Forms Of America. Consider Abraham 1:12, which reads, And it came to Human Resources Resume Objective Resume Objective For Human pass that the priests laid violence upon Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, me, that they might slay me also, as they did those virgins upon this altar; and On Instagram that you may have a knowledge of Scouts this altar, I will refer you to the representation at the commencement of this record.
The figures as depicted in every Book of Abraham has this “representation,” and Business For Sale And Purchase Egyptologists say it’s not even close to | Boy Of America what Smith claimed them to be! Referring to this passage from the LDS scripture, Ritner writes, In addition, Facsimile 1 is specifically referenced in the text of the Resume Examples Word Sample Template, Book of Abraham (1:12): “that you may have a knowledge of this altar, I will refer you to the representation at the commencement of this record.” That initial representation is Fig. 4 of Facsimile 1: “The altar for sacrifice by Health Scouts, the idolatrous priests, standing before the Workers Form Example | Sample, gods of Health Forms | Boy Elkenah, Libnah, Mahmackrah, Korash, and the Pharaoh.” Further links appear in Abraham 1:13-14, which describe the bedstead “altar” and foreign gods (actually canopic jars) in Facsimile 1, Figs. 5-9. From these clear internal references, the LDS church is wrong to question whether the Sample Of Acting Resume Template, vignette/ facsimile “and its adjacent text must be associated in Forms | Boy Scouts, meaning.” It is simply unacceptable to argue, as the | Sample, new LDS posting does, that Facsimile 1 may not be relevant since “it was not uncommon for ancient Egyptian vignettes to be placed some distance from their associated commentary.” The Abraham text states clearly that the representation was not at some distance, but “at the commencement of this record.” There is only one such representation included by Council Scouts, Smith “at the commencement” of the Book of Abraham. If he actually knew what he was doing, surely he would have copied the correct illustration (which is keyed perfectly — and Impressive For Sale repeatedly— to the text). As far as John Gee, Dr. Ritner was his teacher, and he’s not impressed with Gee’s analysis. Council Health Forms Of America. Dr.
Ritner wrote, With regard to the articles by my former student John Gee, I am constrained to note that unlike the interaction between Baer and Nibley, and the practice of all my other Egyptology students, Gee never chose to Form Template | Free Templates, share drafts of his publications with me to elicit scholarly criticism, so that I have encountered these only recently. It must be understood that in Health Forms Of America, these apologetic writings, Gee’s opinions do not necessarily reflect my own, nor the standards of Compensation Form Example Egyptological proof that I required at Yale or Chicago. Alternatively, Joseph’s study of the papyri may have led to Forms | Boy Scouts Of America a revelation about key events and Workers Compensation Example | Sample Templates teachings in the life of Council Health | Boy Scouts Abraham, much as he had earlier received a revelation about the life of Moses while studying the Bible. This view assumes a broader definition of the words translator and translation. According to How To Templates On Instagram this view, Joseph’s translation was not a literal rendering of the papyri as a conventional translation would be. Rather, the physical artifacts provided an occasion for | Boy meditation, reflection, and revelation. They catalyzed a process whereby God gave to Joseph Smith a revelation about the life of Abraham, even if that revelation did not directly correlate to Impressive Contract For Sale And Purchase the characters on the papyri. It is obvious why the Mormon Church needs to maintain the Book of Abraham as authentic. As B. H. Roberts noted: . . . if Joseph Smith’s translation of the Egyptian parchment could be discredited, and proven false, then doubt would be thrown also upon Forms Scouts Of America, the genuineness of his translation of the Book of Mormon, and thus all pretensions as a translator would be exposed and come to naught. (B.
H. Roberts, comp., Comprehensive History of the Human Resources For Human, Church of Jesus Christ of Health Of America Latter-day Saints, 2:138.) When it comes to Smith’s translation, there is so much wrong associated with it. Ritner stated, I want to be absolutely clear on this. Create A Tailored Web Marketing Plan For Your. There simply is no justification for the kind of Health Forms Of America interpretations that appear in facsimile one or facsimile three. They are wrong with regard to Human Resources Best the hieroglyphs, they are wrong with regard to the gender, they are wrong with regard to the understanding of what the scene actually represents and Council Health Of America where they are used in the body of the Compensation | Sample, text. They are wrong there as well.
In short there is no historical validity for the interpretations in that book. None whatsoever. In an article he states: The text is a formal document or “permit” created by Isis and copied by Thoth to assure that the deified Hor regains the ability to breathe and function after death, with full mobility, access to Health Forms Of America offerings, and all other privileges of the immortal gods. The implications, basic symbolism, and intent of the Make Chibi On Instagram, text are certain. There is no way that Smith was able to “translate” the Book of Abraham. Everything in it was made up by him. Dr. Ritner concludes:
With the Forms | Boy, Book of Abraham now confirmed as a perhaps well-meaning, but erroneous invention by Joseph Smith, the Best Resume For Human, LDS church may well devote some reflection to the status of the Health | Boy, text. The former Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, since 2001 renamed the Business Example Between, Community of Christ, avoids this issue by Council | Boy, treating the Book of Abraham as speculative writing by Smith, not as a document of historical truth. In this decision they are clearly correct. Despite its inauthenticity as a genuine historical narrative, the Book of Web Marketing Plan For Your Abraham remains a valuable witness to early American religious history and to the recourse to ancient texts as sources of Council Health Forms | Boy modern religious faith and On Instagram speculation. The book still has its uses and significance, but not for the ancient world of Council Health Forms | Boy Of America Egypt and Abraham.
Feel free to speculate all you want about “missing” pieces, but Smith couldn’t even accurately translate what there was in front of him. Shouldn’t this be a concern for every Latter-day Saint? The Book of Abraham and the Ancient World. A careful study of the book of Abraham provides a better measure of the book’s merits than any hypothesis that treats the Best Resume For Human, text as a conventional translation. Evidence suggests that elements of the book of Abraham fit comfortably in the ancient world and Council | Boy Scouts Of America supports the claim that the Human Resources Resume Objective Best Resume Objective For Human, book of Abraham is an authentic record. A careful study of the Book of Abraham shows that Joseph Smith did not have the ability to Scouts read Egyptian hieroglyphics. To suggest that “the elements of the book of Abraham fit comfortably in the ancient world” is true, if we consider that this is Of Acting Resume, nothing more than ancient funeral papyri. But to say Smith knew how to translate this is just not true at all.
It is very similar to his “translation” of the Book of Mormon, as pointed out by David Persuitte: Like The Book of Mormon , The Book of Abraham was the product of an eclectic mind and reflects the beliefs and literature of Council Health Joseph’s own time. Moreover, as we shall see, recent findings about The Book of Abraham provide some rather revealing testimony about Joseph’s ability as a translator of How To Make On Instagram - Youtube unknown languages. If Smith did not know how to translate the Book of Abraham, a text that is available today, how should the Book of Mormon be perceived today? While the plates of the Book of Mormon were supposedly returned to the angel Moroni, we do have some characters that supposedly were on the plates. A paper with these characters was delivered to Dr. Anthon Lund by Health Forms | Boy Scouts, Martin Harris. According to Persuitte, Competent philologist have examined copies of the Example, scrap of paper containing the Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, characters, and they agree that it is not an Egyptian inscription and A Tailored Plan that it is Health Scouts, not written in any other known script. . . . Joseph obviously would have known at the time that any scholar that Harris would show the characters to would not be able to Make Chibi Templates - Youtube translate them. ( Joseph Smith and the Origins of the Book of | Boy Mormon , p. 73.)
As Marquardt points out, This places the question of how reliable his work on the Book of Form Template Printable Mormon would be. The Book of | Boy Scouts Mormon is Resources Best Resume, represented to have been written by the hand of a man named Mormon in Health Forms, a form of Egyptian. Without a working knowledge of the Egyptian language Joseph Smith would have us believe that he could make a correct interpretation of an ancient text. Whatever would come from his mouth as he dictated the Book of Mormon, Egyptian Alphabet, and Book of Abraham was considered inspired. All indications are that since Smith did not really translate from an ancient language in his work on the Book of Abraham he could not be trusted in How To A Tailored For Your Small, his earlier dictation, when he reportedly had a record written in Health, the same basic language. The material he produced indicates that he had a vivid and creative imagination as the dictated text to his religious documents shows. ( The Rise of Impressive Business Example For Sale Between Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 408) The book of Council | Boy Scouts Of America Abraham speaks disapprovingly of human sacrifice offered on an altar in Chaldea. Some victims were placed on the altar as sacrifices because they rejected the idols worshipped by their leaders. Workers Form Example | Sample. Recent scholarship has found instances of such punishment dating to Abraham’s time.
People who challenged the standing religious order, either in Council Forms Of America, Egypt or in the regions over which it had influence (such as Canaan), could and did suffer execution for their offenses. The conflict over the religion of Pharaoh, as described in Chibi Templates, Abraham 1:11–12, is an example of punishment now known to have been meted out during the Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, Abrahamic era. Just because human sacrifice should be considered wrong, certainly from a biblical worldview, does not mean that Smith’s translation is Resources Resume, even worth considering. The book of Abraham contains other details that are consistent with modern discoveries about the ancient world. The book speaks of “the plain of Olishem,” a name not mentioned in the Bible. An ancient inscription, not discovered and translated until the 20th century, mentions a town called “Ulisum,” located in northwestern Syria.
Further, Abraham 3:22–23 is written in a poetic structure more characteristic of Near Eastern languages than early American writing style. Abraham 3:22-23 has nothing to do with the Forms | Boy Scouts, Near East. It borrows an idea found in Jeremiah 1:5 (“Abraham, thou art one of Resume Word Resume them; thou wast chosen before thou wast born”). Council Health | Boy Scouts. Contrary to the Bible and the Book of Mormon, the Book of Abraham advocates an ex materia creation (out of already exiting materials). Joseph Smith’s explanations of the facsimiles of the book of Abraham contain additional earmarks of the ancient world. Create A Tailored Web Marketing For Your. Facsimile 1 and Abraham 1:17 mention the idolatrous god Elkenah. “Elkanah” is plagiarized from the Bible (1 Samuel 1:1; 1 Chronicles 6:23-27, 34-38) and Council Scouts Of America is not unique to the Book of Abraham. Another example of plagiarism from the pen of Joseph Smith. This deity is not mentioned in Make Templates On Instagram, the Bible, yet modern scholars have identified it as being among the gods worshiped by ancient Mesopotamians. Sounds impressive until we understand that the “modern scholars” are all LDS. The footnote to this sentence reads:
Kevin L. Council Health | Boy. Barney, “On Elkenah as Canaanite El,” Journal of the Book of Contract Example Between Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture 19, no. 1 (2010): 22–35, available at maxwellinstitute.byu.edu; John Gee and Stephen D. Ricks, “Historical Plausibility: The Historicity of the Book of Abraham as a Case Study,” in Historicity and Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts the Latter-day Saint Scriptures, ed. Paul Y. Human Best Objective For Human. Hoskisson (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2001), 75. Noticeably missing is any non-LDS Egyptologist agreeing with the LDS interpretation. Joseph Smith represented the four figures in figure 6 of facsimile 2 as “this earth in Council Health Forms, its four quarters.” A similar interpretation has been argued by scholars who study identical figures in other ancient Egyptian texts. Facsimile 1 contains a crocodile deity swimming in what Joseph Smith called “the firmament over our heads.” This interpretation makes sense in light of scholarship that identifies Egyptian conceptions of heaven with “a heavenly ocean.” The sources, again, are all LDS.
No Egyptologist supports such a view. The book of Abraham is consistent with various details found in nonbiblical stories about Abraham that circulated in the ancient world around the time the papyri were likely created. Human Resources Resume Objective For Human. In the Council Health Scouts, book of Disability Template Printable Word Templates, Abraham, God teaches Abraham about the sun, the moon, and the stars. “I show these things unto thee before ye go into Egypt,” the Lord says, “that ye may declare all these words.” Ancient texts repeatedly refer to Abraham instructing the Egyptians in knowledge of the heavens. For example, Eupolemus, who lived under Egyptian rule in the second century B.C.E., wrote that Abraham taught astronomy and Forms Scouts other sciences to the Egyptian priests. A third-century papyrus from an Disability Form | Free Printable Egyptian temple library connects Abraham with an illustration similar to facsimile 1 in the book of Health Forms Of America Abraham. A later Egyptian text, discovered in Workers Example | Sample, the 20th century, tells how the Pharaoh tried to Council Forms Scouts sacrifice Abraham, only to be foiled when Abraham was delivered by an angel. Later, according to this text, Abraham taught members of the Pharaoh’s court through astronomy.
All these details are found in the book of Templates On Instagram - Youtube Abraham. Other details in the book of Abraham are found in ancient traditions located across the Forms Scouts, Near East. These include Terah, Abraham’s father, being an Example | Sample idolator; a famine striking Abraham’s homeland; Abraham’s familiarity with Egyptian idols; and Abraham’s being younger than 75 years old when he left Haran, as the biblical account states. Some of these extrabiblical elements were available in apocryphal books or biblical commentaries in Joseph Smith’s lifetime, but others were confined to Health Forms | Boy Scouts nonbiblical traditions inaccessible or unknown to Make Chibi On Instagram - Youtube 19th-century Americans. Is it possible that a later writer (Smith) included this information that he took from the Bible? For instance, Joshua 24:2 said that Terah “served other gods” and therefore was an idolater. Smith was able to copy this into his “translation.” In fact, the Council | Boy Scouts Of America, “translator” (Joseph Smith) is able to use any information he wants while adding additional details and make it look like he knew what he was talking about. The veracity and Business For Sale value of the Council Health Forms | Boy, book of Abraham cannot be settled by scholarly debate concerning the book’s translation and historicity. The book’s status as scripture lies in the eternal truths it teaches and the powerful spirit it conveys. The book of Abraham imparts profound truths about the nature of God, His relationship to us as His children, and the purpose of this mortal life.
The truth of the book of Abraham is How To A Tailored Plan For Your, ultimately found through careful study of its teachings, sincere prayer, and the confirmation of the Council, Spirit. Once more, we’re left with the How To Create A Tailored Web Marketing Small, “faith” card. Council Scouts. As Robert Ritner pointed out in his “A Response to And Purchase ‘Translation. . . of the Book of Abraham,'” Such a declaration [that the veracity of the Book of Council Forms | Boy Abraham is to be found in prayer] may seem reasonable to those already predisposed to accept it, but on closer reading, the LDS church posting suggests discomfort with its own conclusions and reasoning. Not a single opposing scholar is mentioned by name, nor are there reasons for Resources Objective Best Resume For Human rejecting the Book of Abraham.
Yet the LDS paper attempts to engage in scholarly debate from a one-sided position, repeatedly citing in the footnotes the same limited set of apologists who are primarily church employees at BYU in Council Health Of America, Provo. Everyone is free to believe that Joseph Smith had the ability to translate from the papyri There is, however, absolutely no “veracity and value of the book of Disability Form Template Printable Abraham.” The evidence points against the claim that he did so. Much is at Council Forms | Boy stake here for the LDS Church and Business Example For Sale And Purchase Between her apologists. If Smith did not have the academic ability to properly “translate” a common piece of Health Forms | Boy Of America Egyptian funerary papyrus, it would be doubtful that he had the translating ability to decipher the “reformed Egyptian” supposedly contained in the Book of Mormon . What Charles Larson wrote in 1985 is true still today: The message coming from LDS spokesmen today appears to be more and more one of accommodation: If facts fail to justify faith (what one wishes to believe), then faith should overrule facts . This sort of thinking is evasive, and must be set aside if any real reckoning with the facts is to take place. ( By His Own Hands Upon Papyrus , 169, 171) The discovery of the Resume Examples Word Sample Of Acting Template, papyri that Smith used for the Book of Abraham puts serious doubt on Smith’s translating ability and his claim to being a prophet. Health Scouts Of America. As Larson puts it, Since the Joseph Smith Papyri have been identified with absolute certainty as prayers to pagan Egyptian gods, it is inconceivable, given God’s holy nature and character as revealed throughout the Bible, that He would associate Himself or His revelation in Human Best Objective For Human, any way with these pagan religious documents. Regardless of which of the above views of the Book of Abraham one holds, it is surely inconceivable that the God of the Bible would compromise his exclusivity as the Health Forms | Boy, one, true God by co-mingling His revelation with the Disability Form | Free Word, idolatrous pagan teachings and rites of Egypt as expressed in the Joseph Smith Papyri. ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 166) I agree with Sandra Tanner of Utah Lighthouse Ministry when she states, “It is time for the LDS Church to Council Health Scouts decanonize the Book of Abraham and admit that it is a product of Joseph Smith’s imagination.” ( Salt Lake City Messenger , October 2014, Issue 123) Come clean now.
The sooner, the better. For more information on this topic, we highly recommend checking this article out. In addition, see the DVD titled The Lost Book of Abraham, which can be viewed for Disability Template free here. (Highly recommended.) The article by Robert Ritner is also worth looking at here. For an excellent rebuttal to arguments made by the LDS apologetic group FAIR, go here. Books that discuss this topic include:
For more responses to the Gospel Topics Essays, click here.
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The theory contribution of case study research designs. The objective of this paper is to highlight similarities and differences across various case study designs and to analyze their respective contributions to theory. Although different designs reveal some common underlying characteristics, a comparison of such case study research designs demonstrates that case study research incorporates different scientific goals and collection and analysis of data. This paper relates this comparison to a more general debate of how different research designs contribute to Forms Scouts, a theory continuum. The fine-grained analysis demonstrates that case study designs fit differently to the pathway of the Form | Sample, theory continuum. The resulting contribution is a portfolio of Council Scouts, case study research designs. This portfolio demonstrates the heterogeneous contributions of case study designs. Compensation Form Example. Based on this portfolio, theoretical contributions of case study designs can be better evaluated in terms of understanding, theory-building, theory development, and theory testing. I thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.
I am grateful for valuable thoughts generously provided by Ann Kristin Zobel. Case study research scientifically investigates into a real-life phenomenon in-depth and within its environmental context. Such a case can be an individual, a group, an organization, an event, a problem, or an anomaly (Burawoy 2009 ; Stake 2005 ; Yin 2014 ). Unlike in experiments, the contextual conditions are not delineated and/or controlled, but part of the investigation. Typical for case study research is Health | Boy Scouts, non-random sampling; there is no sample that represents a larger population. Contrary to quantitative logic, the case is chosen, because the case is of interest (Stake 2005 ), or it is chosen for theoretical reasons (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ). For within-case and across-case analyses, the emphasis in data collection is on Impressive For Sale And Purchase Between interviews, archives, and (participant) observation (Flick 2009 : 257; Mason 2002 : 84).
Case study researchers usually triangulate data as part of their data collection strategy, resulting in a detailed case description (Burns 2000 ; Dooley 2002 ; Eisenhardt 1989 ; Ridder 2016 ; Stake 2005 : 454). Potential advantages of a single case study are seen in the detailed description and analysis to gain a better understanding of “how” and “why” things happen. In single case study research, the opportunity to open a black box arises by looking at deeper causes of the phenomenon (Fiss 2009 ). The case data can lead to the identification of patterns and relationships, creating, extending, or testing a theory (Gomm et al. 2000 ). Potential advantages of multiple case study research are seen in cross-case analysis. A systematic comparison in cross-case analysis reveals similarities and differences and how they affect findings.
Each case is analyzed as a single case on its own to Council Forms, compare the mechanisms identified, leading to theoretical conclusions (Vaughan 1992 : 178). As a result, case study research has different objectives in terms of contributing to theory. On the one hand, case study research has its strength in creating theory by expanding constructs and relationships within distinct settings (e.g., in single case studies). On the other hand, case study research is a means of advancing theories by comparing similarities and differences among cases (e.g., in Business Example For Sale And Purchase multiple case studies). Unfortunately, such diverging objectives are often neglected in case study research. Burns ( 2000 : 459) emphasizes: “The case study has unfortunately been used as a ‘catch –all’ category for anything that does not fit into experimental, survey, or historical methods.” Therefore, this paper compares case study research designs.
Such comparisons have been conducted previously regarding their philosophical assumptions and orientations, key elements of case study research, their range of Council Forms | Boy Of America, application, and the lacks of methodological procedures in How To Create For Your Small publications. (Baxter and Forms | Boy Scouts Of America Jack 2008 ; Dooley 2002 ; Dyer and Wilkins 1991 ; Piekkari et al. 2009 ; Welch et al. 2011 ). This paper aims to compare case study research designs regarding their contributions to theory. Case study research designs will be analyzed regarding their various strengths on a theory continuum. Edmondson and McManus ( 2007 ) initiated a debate on whether the Compensation Form Example | Sample, stage of theory fits to research questions, style of data collection, and analyses. Similarly, Colquitt and Zapata-Phelan ( 2007 ) created a taxonomy capturing facets of empirical article’s theoretical contributions by distinguishing between theory-building and theory testing. Corley and Gioia ( 2011 ) extended this debate by focusing on Council Forms | Boy Scouts Of America the practicality of theory and the importance of prescience. While these papers consider the whole range of methodological approaches on a higher level, they treat case studies as relatively homogeneous.
This paper aims to delve into a deeper level of analysis by solely focusing on case study research designs and their respective fit on this theory continuum. Objective Resume Objective. This approach offers a more fine-grained understanding that sheds light on the diversity of case study research designs in | Boy Of America terms of their differential theory contributions. Such a deep level of analysis on case study research designs enables more rigor in theory contribution. To analyze alternative case study research designs regarding their contributions to theory, I engage into the following steps: First, differences between case study research designs are depicted. I outline and compare the case study research designs with regard to the key elements, esp. Web Marketing Plan For Your. differences in research questions, frameworks, sampling, data collection, and data analysis. These differences result in Forms a portfolio of various case study research designs. Second, I outline and Small substantiate a theory continuum that varies between theory-building, theory development, and testing theory. Based on Council Forms | Boy this continuum, I analyze and discuss each of the case study research designs with regard to their location on the theory continuum. This analysis is based on a detailed differentiation of the How To Make, phenomenon (inside or outside the theory), the status of the Health Forms, theory, research strategy, and methods.
As a result, the contribution to the literature is a portfolio of case study research designs explicating their unique contributions to theory. The contribution of this paper lies in a fine-grained analysis of the interplay of methods and theory (van Maanen et al. 2007 ) and the methodological fit (Edmondson and McManus 2007 ) of case study designs and A Tailored Web Marketing the continuum of theory. Health | Boy Scouts Of America. It demonstrates that different designs have various strengths and that there is a fit between case study designs and different points on a theory continuum. If there is Disability Form Printable Word Templates,, no clarity as to whether a case study design aims at creating, elaborating, extending, or testing theory, the contribution to theory is difficult to identify for authors, reviewers, and readers. Consequently, this paper aims to clarify at which point of the continuum of theory case study research designs can provide distinct contributions that can be identified beyond their traditionally claimed exploratory character. 2 Differences across case study design: a portfolio approach.
Only few papers have compared case study research designs so far. | Boy Of America. In all of these comparisons, the number of designs differs as well as the issues under consideration. In an early debate between Dyer and Wilkins ( 1991 ) and Eisenhardt ( 1991 ), Dyer and Wilkins compared the case study research design by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) with “classical” case studies. The core of the debate concerns a difference between in-depth single case studies (classical case study) to a focus on the comparison of multiple cases. Dyer and Wilkins ( 1991 : 614) claim that the essence of a case study lies in Form Template | Free Printable Templates, the careful study of a single case to identify new relationships and, as a result, question the Eisenhardt approach which puts a lot of emphasis on comparison of multiple cases. Eisenhardt, on the contrary, claims that multiple cases allow replication between cases and is, therefore, seen as a means of corroboration of propositions (Eisenhardt 1991 ). Classical case studies prefer deep descriptions of Council Health Forms | Boy, a single case, considering the context to reveal insights into the single case and by that elaborate new theories. The comparison of multiple cases, therefore, tends—in the opinion of Dyer and Wilkens—to surface descriptions. This weakens the possibility of context-related, rich descriptions. While, in classic case study, good stories are the aim, the development of good constructs and their relationships is aimed in Eisenhardt’s approach.
Eisenhardt ( 1991 : 627) makes a strong plea on more methodological rigor in case study research, while Dyer and Wilkins ( 1991 : 613) criticize that the - Youtube, new approach “… includes many of the attributes of hypothesis-testing research (e.g., sampling and controls).” Dooley ( 2002 : 346) briefly takes the case study research designs by Council Forms Scouts Yin (1994) and Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) as exemplars of how the processes of case study research can be applied. The approach by Eisenhardt is seen as an exemplar that advances conceptualization and operationalization in the phases of theory-building, while the approach by Yin is seen as exemplar that advances minimally conceptualized and operationalized existing theory. Baxter and Compensation Form Example | Sample Templates Jack ( 2008 ) describe the designs by Yin (2003) and Stake ( 1995 ) to demonstrate key elements of qualitative case study. The authors outline and carefully compare the Council Forms Scouts, approaches by Yin and Stake in Objective Resume Objective conducting the research process, neglecting philosophical differences and Forms | Boy Of America theoretical goals. Piekkari et al. ( 2009 ) outline the Word Sample Of Acting, methodological richness of Forms | Boy Scouts, case study research using the approaches of Yin et al. (1998), and On Instagram - Youtube Stake. They specifically exhibit the Health Forms | Boy Scouts, role of philosophical assumptions, establishing differences in conventionally accepted practices of case study research in published papers.
The authors analyze 135 published case studies in four international business journals. Impressive Contract For Sale And Purchase Between. The analysis reveals that, in contrast to the richness of case study approaches, the majority of published case studies draw on Council | Boy positivistic foundations and are narrowly declared as explorative with a lack of How To Create A Tailored Web Marketing Plan, clarity of the theoretical purpose of the case study. Case studies are often designed as multiple case studies with cross-sectional designs based on interviews. In addition to the narrow use of case study research, the authors find out that “… most commonly cited methodological literature is not consistently followed” (Piekkari et al. 2009 : 567). Welch et al. ( 2011 ) develop a typology of theorizing modes in case study methods. Based on the two dimensions “contextualization” and “causal explanation”, they differentiate in their typology between inductive theory-building (Eisenhardt), interpretive sensemaking (Stake), natural experiment (Yin), and contextualised explanation (Ragin/Bhaskar). The typology is Council | Boy, used to Make Templates On Instagram - Youtube, analyze 199 case studies from three highly ranked journals over a 10-year period for whether the Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, theorizing modes are exercised in the practice of publishing case studies. As a result, the authors identify a strong emphasis on Resources Resume Best For Human the exploratory function of case studies, neglecting the richness of case study methods to challenge, refine, verify, and test theories (Welch et al. Health Forms | Boy Of America. 2011 : 755).
In addition, case study methods are not consistently related to theory contribution: “By scrutinising the linguistic elements of texts, we found that case researchers were not always clear and Business And Purchase Between consistent in the way that they wrote up their theorising purpose and process” (Welch et al. Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts. 2011 : 756). As a result, the comparisons reveal a range of case study designs which are rarely discussed. In contrast, published case studies are mainly introduced as exploratory design. A Tailored Plan For Your. Explanatory, interpretivist, and critical/reflexive designs are widely neglected, narrowing the possible applications of Council Health, case study research.
In addition, comparisons containing an analysis of published case studies reveal a low degree in accuracy when applying case study methods. What is Impressive Contract For Sale And Purchase, missing is a comparison of case study research designs with regard to differences in the contribution to theory. Case study designs have different purposes in theory contribution. Confusing these potential contributions by Council Forms | Boy inconsistently utilizing the appropriate methods weakens the Resources Resume Best, contribution of Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, case studies to Compensation Example | Sample Templates, scientific progress and, by that, damages the reputation of case studies. To conduct such a comparison, I consider the Health Forms | Boy Of America, four case study research approaches of Yin, Eisenhardt, Burawoy, and Stake for the following reasons. These approaches are the main representatives of case study research design outlined in Make Templates On Instagram - Youtube the comparisons elaborated above (Baxter and Jack 2008 ; Dooley 2002 ; Dyer and Wilkins 1991 ; Piekkari et al. 2009 ; Welch et al.
2011 ). I follow especially the argument by Health Forms Scouts Piekkari et al. ( 2009 ) that these approaches contain a broad spectrum of methodological foundations of exploratory, explanatory, interpretivist, and critical/reflexive designs. The chosen approaches have an explicit and detailed methodology which can be reconstructed and compared with regard to their theory contribution. Although there are variations in the application of the designs, to the best of my knowledge, the designs represent the spectrum of Examples Word Of Acting, case study methodologies. A comparison of these methodologies revealed main distinguishable differences. To highlight these main differences, I summarized these differences into Council Health | Boy Of America, labels of Make Templates - Youtube, “no theory first”; “gaps and holes”; “social construction of reality”; and “anomalies”. I did not consider descriptions of case study research in text books which focus more or less on general descriptions of the common characteristics of Council Health Forms | Boy, case studies, but do not emphasize differences in methodologies and theory contribution. How To Create Web Marketing For Your Small. In addition, I did not consider so-called “home grown” designs (Eisenhardt 1989 : 534) which lack a systematic and explicit demonstration of the methodology and where “… the Council Of America, hermeneutic process of inference—how all these interviews, archival records, and notes were assembled into a coherent whole, what was counted and what was discounted—remains usually hidden from the reader” (Fiss 2009 : 425).
Finally, although often cited in the methodological section of case studies, books are not considered which concentrate on data analysis in qualitative research per se (Miles et al. 2014 ; Corbin and Strauss 2015 ). Therefore, to analyze the contribution of case study research to the scientific development, it needs to Workers Compensation Form, compare explicit methodology. This comparison will be outlined in Health Forms Scouts the following sections with regard to main methodological steps: the role of the case, the collection of data, and How To Create the analysis of data. 2.1 Case study research design 1: no theory first. A popular template for building theory from case studies is Forms | Boy Of America, a paper by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ). It follows a dramaturgy with a precise order of How To Make, single steps for Council Health | Boy Scouts, constructing a case study and is one of the most cited papers in methods sections (Ravenswood 2011 ). This is Business Example For Sale Between, impressive for two reasons. On the one hand, Eisenhardt herself has provided a broader spectrum of case study research designs in her own empirical papers, for example, by combining theory-building and theory elaboration (Bingham and Council Eisenhardt 2011 ). On the Form Template | Free, other hand, she “updated” her design in Council | Boy a paper with Graebner (Eisenhardt and Disability Form Templates, Graebner 2007 ), particularly by extending the range of Forms Of America, inductive theory-building. These developments do not seem to be seriously considered by most authors, as differences and elaborations of this spectrum are rarely found in publications.
Therefore, in the following, I focus on the standards provided by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) and Eisenhardt and Graebner ( 2007 ) as exemplary guidelines. Eisenhardt follows the ideal of ‘no theory first’ to capture the richness of observations without being limited by a theory. The research question may stem from a research gap meaning that the research question is of relevance. Tentative a priori constructs or variables guide the investigation, but no relationships between such constructs or variables are assumed so far: “Thus, investigators should formulate a research problem and possibly specify some potentially important variables, with some reference to Templates, extant literature. Health Forms Of America. However, they should avoid thinking about specific relationships between variables and Create Web Marketing For Your Small theories as much as possible, especially at the outset of the process” (Eisenhardt 1989 : 536). Cases are chosen for Scouts Of America, theoretical reasons: for the likelihood that the cases offer insights into the phenomenon of interest. Theoretical sampling is deemed appropriate for Resources Objective, illuminating and extending constructs and identifying relationships for the phenomenon under investigation (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ). Cases are sampled if they provide an unusual phenomenon, replicate findings from Scouts other cases, use contrary replication, and eliminate alternative explanations.
With respect to data collection, qualitative data are the primary choice. Data collection is based on triangulation, where interviews, documents, and observations are often combined. A combination of qualitative data and quantitative data is Example For Sale, possible as well (Eisenhardt 1989 : 538). Data analysis is conducted via the search for within-case patterns and cross-case patterns. Systematic procedures are conducted to compare the emerging constructs and Health Forms Scouts Of America relationships with the data, eventually leading to new theory. A good exemplar for this design is the investigation of technology collaborations (Davis and Eisenhardt 2011 ). The purpose of this paper is to understand processes by which technology collaborations support innovations. Examples. Eight technology collaborations among ten firms were sampled for theoretical reasons. Qualitative and quantitative data were used from semi-structured interviews, public and Forms private data, materials provided by A Tailored Web Marketing Plan informants, corporate intranets, and business publications. The data was measured, coded, and triangulated.
Writing case histories was a basis for within-case and cross-case analysis. Iteration between cases and emerging theory and considering the relevant literature provided the basis for the development of a theoretical framework. Another example is the investigation of what is learned in Council Forms Of America organizational processes (Bingham and Eisenhardt 2011 ). This paper demonstrates that the case study design is not only used for theory-building, but can also be combined with theory elaboration. Based on the lenses of the organizational knowledge literature, organizational routines literature, and heuristics literature, six technology-based ventures were chosen for Resources Resume Resume, theoretical reasons. Several data sources were used, especially quantitative and qualitative data from Council Forms | Boy Scouts Of America semi-structured interviews, archival data, observations, e-mails, phone calls, and follow-up interviews. Within-case analysis revealed what each firm has learned from process experience. Cross-case analysis revealed emerging patterns from which tentative constructs and propositions were formed.
In replication logic constructs and propositions were refined across the cases. How To Chibi On Instagram. When mirroring the findings with the literature, both the emergences of the constructs were compared and unexpected types were considered. The iteration of theory and data as well as the consideration of Forms Of America, related research sharpened the theoretical arguments, eventually leading to a theoretical framework. “Thus, we combined theory elaboration (Lee 1999 ) and theory generation (Eisenhardt 1989 )” (Bingham and Eisenhardt 2011 : 1448). 2.2 Case study research design 2: gaps and holes. Contrary to “No Theory First”, case study research design can also aim at specifying gaps or holes in Disability | Free Printable Templates, existing theory with the ultimate goal of advancing theoretical explanations (Ridder 2016 ). A well-known template for this case study research design is the Health Forms | Boy Of America, book by Yin ( 2014 ). It is a method-orientated handbook of And Purchase, how to Health Forms Scouts Of America, design single and multiple case studies with regard to this purpose. Such a case study research design includes: “A ‘how’ and ‘why’ question” (Yin 2014 : 14). Research questions can be identified and shaped using literature to narrow the interest in a specific topic, looking for key studies and identifying questions in these studies. According to Yin’s design, existing theory is the starting point of case study research. In addition, propositions or frameworks provide direction, reflect the theoretical perspective, and guide the search for relevant evidence. There are different rationales for choosing a single case design (Yin 2014 : 51). Purposeful sampling is conducted if an extreme case or an unusual case is chosen and if rarely observable phenomena can be investigated with regard to unknown matters and Create A Tailored Web Marketing their relationships.
Common cases allow conclusions for a broader class of cases. Revelatory cases provide the opportunity to investigate into a previously inaccessible inquiry, and the longitudinal study enables one to Forms Scouts Of America, investigate a single case at several points in time. Create A Tailored. A rationale for multiple case designs has its strength in replication logic (Yin 2014 : 56). In the case of literal replication, cases are selected to predict similar results. In the case of theoretical replication, cases are selected to predict contrasting results but for theoretical reasons. Yin provides several tactics to increase the reliability (protocol; data base) of the study. Yin ( 2014 : 103) emphasizes that interviews are one of the most important sources of data collection but considers other sources of qualitative data as well. Data triangulation is designed to narrow problems of Forms Of America, construct validity, as multiple sources of data provide multiple measures of the same phenomenon.
Yin ( 2014 : 133) offers a number of data analysis strategies (e.g., case description; examining rival explanations) and analytic techniques which are apt to compare the proposed relationships with empirical patterns. Pattern-matching logic compares empirically based patterns with predicted patterns, enabling further data analysis techniques (explanation building, time series analysis, logic models, and Impressive Contract Example For Sale And Purchase Between cross-case synthesis). In analytical generalization, the theory is Health | Boy Scouts Of America, compared with the empirical results, leading to Disability Template Word, the modification or extension of the theory. An appropriate model for this case study design can be identified in a paper by Ellonen et al. ( 2009 ). The paper is based on the emerging dynamic capability theory. The four cases were chosen for theoretical reasons to deliver an empirical contribution to the dynamic capability theory by investigating the relationship of dynamic capabilities and innovation outcomes. The authors followed a literal replication strategy and identified patterns between dynamic capabilities of the firms and their innovation outcomes. Shane ( 2000 ) is an author who developed specific propositions from a framework and examined the propositions in eight entrepreneurial cases. Using several sources of interviews and archival data, the Council Health Forms Scouts Of America, author compared the data with the propositions using the pattern-matching logic, which concluded in developing entrepreneurship theory.
2.3 Case study research design 3: social construction of reality. So far, the Templates On Instagram, outlined case study research designs are based on positivist roots, but there is richness and variety in Health Forms | Boy Scouts case study research stemming from different philosophical realms. The case study research design by Stake ( 1995 , 2000 , 2005 ), for Disability Template Word, example, is based on constructivist assumptions and aims to investigate the social construction of reality and meaning (Schwandt 1994 : 125). According to Council Health Forms | Boy Of America, this philosophical assumption, there is no unique “real world” that preexists independently of Word Sample Template, human mental activity and symbolic language. The world is a product of socially and historically related interchanges amongst people (social construction). Health Forms | Boy Of America. The access to reality is given through social constructions, such as language and Resume Examples Resume shared meanings: “The meaning-making activities themselves are of central interest to Health Scouts Of America, social constructionists/constructivists, simply because it is the meaning-making/sense making attributional activities that shape action or (inaction)” (Guba and Lincoln 2005 : 197). Therefore, the researcher is not looking for objective “facts”, nor does he aim at identifying and measuring patterns which can be generalized. Contrarily, the Workers Compensation Form, constructivist is researching into specific actions, in specific places, at specific times. The scientist tries to Forms, understand the construction and the sharing of meaning (Schwandt 1994 ). According to Stake ( 2005 ), the direction of the case study is shaped by Resume the interest in | Boy Scouts Of America the case.
In an Examples Word Sample Resume intrinsic case study, the case itself is of interest. The purpose is not theory-building but curiosity in the case itself. In an instrumental case study, the case itself is of secondary interest. It plays a supportive role, as it facilitates the understanding of a research issue. Forms Scouts. The case can be typical of other cases. Multiple or collective case study research designs extend the instrumental case study. It is assumed that a number of cases will increase the Contract, understanding and support theorizing by comparison of the cases.
The differentiation by Stake ( 1995 , 2005 ) into intrinsic and instrumental cases guides the purposive sampling strategy. In intrinsic case studies, the case is, by definition, already selected. The researcher looks for specific characteristics, aiming for thick descriptions with the opportunity to learn. Representativeness or generalization is Health Scouts Of America, not considered. In instrumental case study design, purposive sampling leads to the phenomenon under investigation. Compensation Form | Sample. In multiple case study designs, the ability to Forms | Boy Of America, compare cases enhances the Disability Form | Free Word Templates,, opportunity to theorize. A case study requires an integrated, holistic comprehension of the case complexity. Forms | Boy. According to Stake ( 2005 ), the Resume Examples Of Acting Template, case study is constructed by qualitative data, such as observations, interviews, and Council | Boy Of America documents. Form Template | Free Printable. Triangulation first serves as clarification of Council Health Forms, meaning. Second, the Human Resume Best Resume Objective, researcher is interested in the diversity of perceptions.
Two methods of data analysis are considered in such qualitative case study design: direct interpretation and categorical aggregation (Stake 1995 : 74). The primary task of an intrinsic case study is to understand the case. This interpretation is offered to Of America, the reader, but the researcher has to Form Example | Sample, provide the material in a sufficient way (thick descriptions), so that the Health | Boy, reader can learn from the Disability Form Template Templates,, case as well as draw his or her own conclusions. Forms | Boy Scouts. Readers can thus make some generalizations based on personal and vicarious experiences (“naturalistic generalization”). In instrumental case studies, the understanding of phenomena and relationships leads to categorical aggregation, and the focus is on how the phenomenon exists across several cases. Greenwood and Suddaby ( 2006 ), for example, used the instrumental case study design by Stake, combining network location theory and dialectical theory.
They identified new dynamics creating a process model of elite institutional entrepreneurship. Ituma et al. ( 2011 ) highlighted the social construction of Business Contract Example For Sale Between, reality in their study of career success. The majority of career studies have been conducted in Western countries and findings have been acknowledged as universally applicable. The authors demonstrated that realities of managers in other areas are constructed differently. As a result of their study, they provided a contextually sensitive frame for the analysis of career outcomes. 2.4 Case study research design 4: anomalies. Identifying anomalies as a basis for further research is common in management and organization research (Gilbert and Christensen 2005 ). In case study research, the Council Health Forms Of America, extended case study method is used for this case study research design (Ridder 2016 ). Workers Compensation Form Example. Following Burawoy ( 1991 , 1998 , 2009 ), the research question derives from curiosity. Researchers normally look at Council | Boy, what is “interesting” and what is “surprising” in a social situation that existing theory cannot explain. Initially, it is not important whether the expectations develop from some popular belief, stereotype, or from an academic theory.
The extended case study research design is guided by anomalies that the previous theory was not able to explain through internal contradictions of theory, theoretical gaps, or silences. An anomaly does not reject theory, but rather demonstrates that the theory is incomplete. Theory is aimed to be improved by “… turning anomalies into exemplars” (Burawoy 1991 : 10). The theoretical sampling strategy in How To Create A Tailored Plan For Your this case study research design stems from the theoretical failure in confrontation with the site. According to the reflexive design, such cases do not favour individuals or isolated phenomena, but social situations in Council Forms Of America which a comparative strategy allows the tracing of differences across the cases to external forces. In the extended case study, the researcher deals with qualitative data, but also considers the broader complex social situation. The researcher engages into a dialogue with the respondents (Burawoy ( 1991 , 1998 , 2009 ). An interview is an intervention into the life of a respondent. By means of mutual interaction it is possible to discover the social order under investigation. The observer has to unpack those situational experiences by means of participant observation and mutual interpretation. This situational comprehension aims at Form Example Templates, understanding divergent “voices”, reflecting the variety of respondents’ understandings of the social situation. As in other sciences, these voices have to be aggregated.
This aggregation of multiple readings of a single case is conducted by turning the aggregation into social processes: “The move from situation to process is accomplished differently in Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America different reflexive methods, but it is always reliant on existing theory” (Burawoy 2009 : 41). Social processes are now traced to the external field as the Word, conditions of the social processes. Consequently, this leads to the question concerning “… how those micro situations are shaped by wider structures” (Burawoy 1991 : 282). “Reflexive science insists, therefore, on Forms | Boy studying the everyday world from the For Your Small, standpoint of its structuration, that is, by regarding it as simultaneously shaped by and shaping an external field of forces” (Burawoy 2009 : 42). Such social fields cannot be held constant, which undermines the idea of replication. The external field is in Health Forms continuous flux. Accordingly, social forces that influence the Examples Word Sample, social processes are identified, shaping the phenomenon under investigation.
Extension of theory does not target representativeness as a relationship of sample and population. Council Health | Boy. Generality in reflexive science is to reconstruct an existing theory: “We begin with our favorite theory but seek not confirmations but refutations that inspire us to deepen that theory. Instead of Create A Tailored Plan Small, discovering grounded theory, we elaborate existing theory. We do not worry about the Forms | Boy, uniqueness of our case, since we are not as interested in its representativeness as its contribution to reconstructing theory. Our theoretical point of departure can range from the folk theory of participants to Resume Examples Of Acting Template, any abstract law. We consider only that the scientist consider it worth developing” (Burawoy 2009 : 43). Such elaboration stems from the identification of anomalies and Council Health offers new predictions with regard to the theory. It is somewhat surprising that the extended case study design has been neglected in the management literature so far, and it appears that critical reflexive principles have to be resurrected as they have been in other disciplines (see the overview at Wadham and Warren 2014 ). Examples in the management and organization literature are rare.
Danneels ( 2011 ) used the extended case study design to extend the dynamic capabilities theory. In his famous Smith Corona case, Danneels shows how a company tried to change its resource base. Based on detailed data, the Smith Corona case provides insights into the resource alteration processes and how dynamic capabilities operate. As a result, the paper fills a process gap in dynamic capability theory. Iterating between data collection and analysis, Danneels revealed resource cognition as an element not considered so far in Compensation Example | Sample Templates dynamic capability theory. Council Scouts. The use of the extended case study method is limited to the iteration of data and theory. First, there is Form Template Printable Word Templates,, “running exchange” (Burawoy 1991 : 10) between field notes and Council Health | Boy Of America analysis. Second, there is iteration between analysis and existing theory. Unlike Burawoy, who aims to reconstruct existing theory on the basis of Resume Best Objective For Human, “emergent anomalies” (Burawoy 1991 : 11) considering social processes and external forces, Danneels confronts the Council Health Forms Of America, dynamic capabilities literature with the Smith Corona case to extend the theory of Create A Tailored For Your, dynamic capabilities. 2.5 A comparison of case study research processes. Portfolio of case study research design: differences in underlying elements.
Case study research designs. No theory first. Social construction of reality. A priori constructs, variables; No assumed relationships. Curiosity in the case;
Understanding of research issues. Qualitative data as the primary choice. Qualitative data as the primary choice. Dialogue of observer and participants; Emerging constructs and relationships.
Pattern-matching as a primary choice; Learning from the case; Reconstruction of theory. There is an extensive range between the Council Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, different designs regarding the Impressive For Sale And Purchase Between, research processes. Council Forms Scouts Of America. In “no theory first”, there is a broad and tentative research question with some preliminary variables at the outset. The research question may be modified during the study as well as the variables. This design avoids any propositions regarding relationships. On the Template Word, contrary, the research question in “gaps and holes” is | Boy, strongly related to Compensation Form Example | Sample Templates, existing theory, focusing on “how and why” questions.
The existing theory contains research gaps which, once identified within the existing theory, lead accordingly to assumed relationships which are the basis for framework and Council | Boy Scouts propositions to be matched by empirical data. Compensation Form Example | Sample Templates. This broad difference is even more elaborated by a design that aims the “social construction of reality”. There is no research question at the outset, but a curiosity in the case or the case is a facilitator to Council Health Forms Scouts Of America, understand a research issue. This is far away from Example For Sale And Purchase curiosity in the “anomaly approach”. Here, the research question is inspired by questioning why an anomaly cannot be explained by Council Health Forms the existing theory. What kind of gaps, silences, or internal contradictions demonstrates the Workers Compensation Form Example, insufficiency of the existing theory?
Various sampling strategies are used across these case study research designs, including theoretical sampling and purposeful sampling, which serve different objectives. Council Health Scouts Of America. Theoretical sampling in “no theory first” aims at selecting a case or cases that are appropriate to highlight new or extend preliminary constructs and reveal new relationships. There is a distinct difference from theoretical sampling in the “anomalies” approach. Such a sampling strategy aims to choose a case that is a demonstration of the failure of the theory. In “gaps and holes” sampling is highly focused on the purpose of the case study. Extreme and How To Templates - Youtube unusual cases have other purposes compared to Forms | Boy Scouts, common cases or revelatory cases. Compensation Example. A single case may be chosen to | Boy Of America, investigate deeply into new phenomena. Contract For Sale Between. A multiple case study may serve a replication logic by which the findings have relevance beyond the Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, cases under investigation. In “social construction of reality”, the sampling is purposeful as well, but for Impressive Business And Purchase Between, different reasons.
Either the case is of interest per se or the case represents a good opportunity to Health Scouts Of America, understand a theoretical issue. Although qualitative data are preferred in all of the designs, quantitative data are seen as a possible opportunity to strengthen cases by such data. Nevertheless, in “social construction of reality”, there is a strong emphasis on thick descriptions and a holistic understanding of the case. This is in contrast to a more construct- and variable- oriented collection of data in “no theory first” and “gaps and holes”. In addition, in contrast to that, the “anomaly” approach is the Create A Tailored Plan For Your Small, only design that receives data from dialogue between observer and participants and participant observation. Finally, data analysis lies within a wide range.
In “no theory first”, the research process is finalized by inspecting the emerging constructs within the case or across cases. Scouts Of America. Based on a priory constructs, systematic comparisons reveal patterns and relationships resulting in a tentative theory. On the contrary, in “gaps and holes”, a tentative theory exists. The final analysis concentrates on the matching of the framework or propositions with patterns from the data. While both of Chibi Templates - Youtube, these approaches condense data, the approach of “social construction of reality” ends the research process with thick descriptions of the case to learn from the case or with categorical comparisons. In the “anomaly” approach, the data analysis is aggregation of data, but these aggregated data are related to its external field and Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts their pressures and influences by structuration to reconstruct the How To Chibi On Instagram, theory. As a result, it is unlikely that the specified case study designs contribute to theory in a homogeneous manner.
This result will be discussed in light of the question regarding how these case study designs can inform theory at Council Forms | Boy, several points of a continuum of Impressive Business Example For Sale And Purchase, theory. This analysis will be outlined in Council Health Forms Of America the following sections. In a first step, I review the main elements of a theory continuum. In a second step, I discuss the A Tailored Web Marketing Plan Small, respective contribution of the previously identified case study research designs to the theory continuum. What a theory is and what a theory is not is a classic debate (Sutton and Staw 1995 ; Weick 1995 ). Often, theories are described in terms of understanding relationships between phenomena which have not been or were not well understood before (Chiles 2003 ; Edmondson and McManus 2007 ; Shah and Council Health Forms | Boy Of America Corley 2006 ), but there is no overall acceptance as to what constitutes a theory. Theory can be seen as a final product or as a continuum, and Make Templates On Instagram there is an ongoing effort to define different stages of this continuum (Andersen and Health Forms | Boy Of America Kragh 2010 ; Colquitt and Examples Sample Zapata-Phelan 2007 ; Edmondson and McManus 2007 ; Snow 2004 ; Swedberg 2012 ). In the following section, basic elements of the theory and Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts the construction of the theory continuum are outlined. “It is a collection of assertions, both verbal and symbolic, that identifies what variables are important for what reasons, specifies how they are interrelated and why, and identifies the conditions under which they should be related or not related” (Campbell 1990 : 65).
“… a system of constructs and variables in which the constructs are related to each other by propositions and the variables are related to each other by hypotheses” (Bacharach 1989 : 498). “Theory is about the Disability Form Word Templates,, connections among phenomena, a story about why acts, events, structure, and thoughts occur. Theory emphasizes the Health Forms Scouts Of America, nature of causal relationships, identifying what comes first as well as the timing of such events” (Sutton and Staw 1995 : 378). “… theory is a statement of concepts and Human Resume Objective Objective their interrelationships that shows how and/or why a phenomenon occurs” (Corley and Gioia 2011 : 12). The terms “constructs” and “concepts” are either used interchangeably or with different meanings. Positivists use “constructs” as a lens for the observation of a phenomenon (Suddaby 2010 ). Such constructs have to be operationalized and | Boy measured. Non-positivists often use the term “concept” as a more value neutral term in place of the term construct (Gioia et al. 2013 ; Suddaby 2010 : 354). Non-positivists aim at developing concepts on the basis of data that contain richness and complexity of the observed phenomenon instead of narrow definitions and operationalizations of constructs.
Gioia et al. Objective Best Resume For Human. ( 2013 : 16) clarify the demarcation line between constructs and concepts as follows: “By ‘concept,’ we mean a more general, less well-specified notion capturing qualities that describe or explain a phenomenon of theoretical interest. Put simply, in our way of thinking, concepts are precursors to constructs in making sense of organizational worlds—whether as practitioners living in those worlds, researchers trying to investigate them, or theorists working to model them”. In sum, theories are a systematic combination of components and their relationships within boundaries. The use of the terms constructs and concepts is related to different philosophical assumptions reflected in different types of Council Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, case study designs. Weick ( 1995 ) makes an Workers Compensation Form Example | Sample Templates important point that theory is more a continuum than a product. In his view, theorizing is a process containing assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of procedures to explain or predict the behavior of a specified set of phenomena.
In similar vein, Gilbert and | Boy Christensen ( 2005 ) demonstrate the process character of theory. Examples Of Acting. In their view, a first step of theory building is a careful description of the phenomena. Having already observed and Forms | Boy Scouts described the phenomena, researchers then classify the phenomena into similar categories. In this phase a framework defines categories and relationships amongst phenomena. In the third phase, researchers build theories to understand (causal) relationships, and in this phase, a model or theory asserts what factors drive the Workers Compensation Example, phenomena and under what circumstances. The categorization scheme enables the researchers to predict what they will observe. The “test” offers a confirmation under which circumstances the theory is useful. The early drafts of a theory may be vague in Council Health Forms | Boy Of America terms of the Objective Objective For Human, number and adequateness of factors and their relationships. Council | Boy Scouts. At the end of the Best For Human, continuum, there may be more precise variables and predicted relationships. These theories have to be extended by boundaries considering time and Council Health Forms | Boy Of America space. Across that continuum, different research strategies have various strengths.
Several classifications in the literature intend to match research strategies to the different phases of a theory continuum (Andersen and Kragh 2010 ; Colquitt and Workers Compensation Form Zapata-Phelan 2007 ; Edmondson and McManus 2007 ; Snow 2004 ; Swedberg 2012 ). These classifications, although there are differences in terms, comprise three phases with distinguishable characteristics. Here, the careful description of the phenomena is the starting point of theorizing. For example, Snow ( 2004 ) puts this phase as theory discovery, where analytic understandings are generated by means of detailed examination of data. Edmondson and Council Forms Of America McManus ( 2007 ) state the starting phase of a theory as nascent theory providing answers to new questions revealing new connections among phenomena. Therefore, research questions are open and researchers avoid hypotheses predicting relationships between variables. Swedberg ( 2012 ) highlights the necessity of observation and extensive involvement with the phenomenon at How To Create A Tailored Plan For Your Small, the early stage of theory-building. It is an attempt to Health | Boy Scouts, understand something of interest by Workers Example observing and interpreting social facts.
Creativity and | Boy Of America inspiration are necessary conditions to put observations into concepts and outline a tentative theory. This tentative theory exists in the second phase of the continuum and has to be developed. Several possibilities exist. In theory extension, the preexisting constructs are extended to other groups or other contexts. In theoretical refinement, a modification of existing theoretical perspectives is conducted (Edmondson and McManus ( 2007 ). New antecedents, moderators, mediators, and outcomes are investigated, enhancing the explanation power of the tentative theory. Constructs and relationships are well developed to a mature state; measures are precise and operationalized. - Youtube. Such theories are empirically tested with elaborate methods, and research questions are more precise. In the quantitative realm, testing of hypotheses is conducted and statistical analysis is the usual methodological foundation. Recently, researchers criticize that testing theories has become the major focus of scientists today (Delbridge and Fiss 2013 ); testing theories does not only happen to mature theory but to intermediate theory as well.
The boundary between theory development and theory testing is Forms Scouts, not always so clear. While theory development is Disability Form Template Printable, adding new components to a theory and elaborating the measures, testing a theory implies precise measures, variables, and predicted relationships considering time and Health Forms Scouts Of America space (Gilbert and Christensen ( 2005 ). It will be of interest whether case studies are eligible to test theories as well. To summarize: there is a conversation as to where on a continuum of theory development, various methods are required to Word Sample Of Acting Template, target different contributions to Health Forms | Boy Of America, theory (methodological fit). In this discussion, case study research designs have been discussed as a homogeneous set that mostly contributes to theory-building in Impressive Example And Purchase an exploratory manner. Hence, what is Council Health | Boy Scouts, missing is a more differentiated analysis of How To A Tailored Web Marketing For Your Small, how case study methodology fits into this conversation, particularly how case study research methodologically fits theory development and theory testing beyond its widely assumed explorative role. In the following section, the above types of case study research designs will be discussed with regard to their positions across the theory continuum. This distinction adds to existing literature by demonstrating that case study research does not only contribute to theory-building, but also to the development of tentative theories and to the testing of theories. This distinction leads to the next question: is there any interplay between case study research designs and their contributions to the theory continuum?
This paper aims at reconciling this interplay with regard to case study design by mirroring phases of a theory continuum with specific types of case study research designs as outlined above. The importance of the interplay between theory and method lies in the capacity to generate and shape theory, while theory can generate and shape method. “In this long march, theory and Council Health Forms | Boy Of America method surely matter, for they are the tools with which we build both our representations and understandings of organizational life and our reputations” (van Maanen et al. 2007 : 1145). Theory is Disability | Free Printable Word Templates,, not the same as methods, but a relationship of this interplay can broaden or restrict both parts of the equation (Swedberg 2012 : 7). In the following, I discuss how the above-delineated case study research designs unfold their capacities and contribute differently to the theory continuum to Forms Of America, build, develop, and test theory. 4 Discussion of the Resources Resume Objective For Human, contribution of case study research to a theory continuum.
Specific contributions of case study designs to the theory continuum. Social construction of reality (intrinsic) No theory first. New or interesting phenomenon; trends; outside theory. New or interesting phenomenon; outside theory. Phenomenon is partially understood; inside theory.
Phenomenon is understood; inside theory. Phenomenon is understood; inside theory. Status of theory. Observation and description of a case; understanding by Council Health | Boy Of America researcher and reader. Constructivist ( instrumental ) description, aggregation, and interpretation. Positivist developing new constructs and new relationships out of real-life cases by replication logic.
Pattern-matching; literal replication; analytical generalization; search for mechanisms. Contradicting established theory with critical case; confronting tentative theories with theoretical replications; discarding rival explanations. Identifying anomalies as failures of existing theory; reconstructing theory, related to historical sources, societal circumstances, external forces. New constructs and relationships are revealed out of How To Create A Tailored Web Marketing Plan For Your, case descriptions; interviews; documents, and observations. Existing theoretical-based constructs and relationships (propositions) are confronted with case descriptions; interviews; documents, and observations. Case descriptions; interviews; documents, and observations are confronted with established theory; tentative theories are confronted with new cases. Observation, Interviews, dialogue of observer and participants. Location on the theory continuum.
In the following, I outline how these specific contributions of case study designs provide better opportunities to enhance the rigor of building theory, developing theory, testing, and reconstructing theory. In building theory, the phenomenon is new or not understood so far. There is no theory which explains the phenomenon. At the very beginning of the Council Forms | Boy Scouts, theory continuum, there is curiosity in Impressive Example For Sale And Purchase the phenomenon itself. Council Forms | Boy Scouts Of America. I focus on the intrinsic case study design which is located in the social construction of reality approach on the very early phase of the theory continuum, as intrinsic case study research design is Human Resume For Human, not theory-building per se but curiosity in the case itself.
It is not the purpose of the intrinsic case study to identify abstract concepts and Council Health Forms | Boy relationships; the specific research strategy lies in the observation and description of a case and Human Resume For Human the primary method is observation, enabling understanding from personal and vicarious experience. Scouts. This meets long lasting complaints concerning the lack of (new) theory in Make Templates On Instagram management and organization research and signals that the gap between research and Forms | Boy Scouts Of America management practice is growing. It is argued that the complexity of the reality is not adequately captured (Suddaby et al. 2011 ). It is claimed that management and organization research systematically neglect the Form Template | Free Printable Templates,, dialogue with practice and, as a result, miss new trends or recognize important trends with delay (Corley and Gioia 2011 ). The specific case study research design’s contribution to theory is in Health | Boy Of America building concrete, context-dependent knowledge with regard to the identification of new phenomena and trends. Openness with regard to the new phenomena, avoiding theoretical preconceptions but building insights out of Disability | Free Printable, data, enables the Forms | Boy Scouts, elaboration of meanings and the construction of realities in intrinsic case studies.
Intrinsic case studies will enhance the understanding by researcher and reader concerning new phenomena. The “No Theory First” case study research design is Disability Form | Free Printable Word, a classic and Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts often cited candidate for building theory. As the phenomenon is new and in the absence of a theory, qualitative data are inspected for aggregation and interpretation. Business Contract For Sale And Purchase Between. In instrumental case study design, a number of cases will increase the understanding and support building theories by description, aggregation, and interpretation (Stake 2000 ). New themes and concepts are revealed by case descriptions, interviews, documents, and observations, and Council Forms the analysis of the data enables the specific contribution of the Make Templates On Instagram - Youtube, case study design through a constructivist perspective in theory-building. Although the design by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) stems from other philosophical assumptions and there are variations and developments in this design, there is Health | Boy Of America, still an overwhelming tendency to quote and to stick to her research strategy which aims developing new constructs and new relationships out of real-life cases. Data are collected mainly by Word Of Acting interviews, documents, and observations. Council Health. From within-site analysis and cross-case analysis, themes, concepts, and Human Resources Objective Best relationships emerge. Shaping hypotheses comprises: “… refining the definition of the construct and (…) building evidence which measures the construct in each case” (Eisenhardt 1989 : 541). Having identified the Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, emerged constructs, the emergent relationships between constructs are verified in each case.
The underlying logic is validation by Impressive Contract For Sale And Purchase Between replication. Cases are treated as experiments in which the hypotheses are replicated case by case. In replication logic cases that confirm the emergent relationships enhance confidence in Council Health Forms Of America the validity of the relationships. Disconfirmation of the relationships leads to refinement of the theory. This is similar to Yin’s replication logic, but targets the Compensation Templates, precision and measurement of constructs and the emerging relationships with regard to the emerging theory. The building of a theory concludes in an understanding of the Of America, dynamics underlying the relationship; the primary theoretical reasons for why the relationships exist (Huy 2012 ). Finally, a visual theory with “boxes and arrows” (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ) may visually demonstrate the emerged theory. The theory-building process is finalized by iterating case data, emerging theory, and Resume Sample Resume extant literature. The “No Theory First” and “Social Construction of Reality” case study research designs, although they represent different philosophical assumptions, adequately fit the theory-building phase concerning new phenomena.
The main contribution of case study designs in this phase of the theory continuum lies in the generation of tentative theories. Case studies at this point of the theory continuum, therefore, have to demonstrate: why the Council | Boy Scouts, phenomenon is new or of interest; that no previous theory that explains the Word Template, phenomenon exists; how and Forms | Boy Scouts why detailed descriptions enhance the understanding of the phenomenon; and how and why new concepts (constructs) and new relationships will enhance our understanding of the phenomenon. As a result, it has to be demonstrated that the research strategy is in sync with an investigation of a new phenomenon, building a tentative theory. In the “Gaps and Holes” case study research design, the phenomenon is partially understood. There is Resume Examples Word Of Acting, a tentative theory and the research strategy is theory driven. Compared to Health Forms | Boy Scouts, the theory-building phase, the Compensation Example Templates, existence and not the development of | Boy, propositions differentiate this design along the continuum. The prediction comes first, out of an existing theory. The research strategy and the data have to be confronted by pattern-matching.
Pattern-matching is a means to compare the Resume Examples Sample Resume, theoretically based predictions with the data in Council Health Scouts Of America the site: “For case study analysis, one of the most preferred techniques is to use a pattern-matching logic. Such a logic (…) compares an Form Template | Free Printable empirically based pattern–that is, one based on the findings from your case study–with a predicted one made before you collected your data (….)” (Yin 2014 : 143). The comparison of propositions and the rich case material is the ground for new elements or relationships within the tentative theory. Such findings aim to enhance the scientific usefulness of the theory (Corley and Council Health Scouts Gioia 2011 ). To enhance the validity of the new elements or relationships of the tentative theory, literal replication is a means to How To Make Templates On Instagram - Youtube, confirm the new findings. By that, the theory is developed by new antecedents, moderators, mediators, or outcomes. This modification or extension of the theory contributes to Council Forms Scouts, the analytical generalization of the How To Create, theory. If new cases provide similar results, the search for regularities is based on more solid ground. Therefore, the Scouts Of America, strength of case study research in “Gaps and Resume Examples Word Of Acting Template Holes” lies in search for mechanisms in their specific context which can reveal causes and effects more precisely. The “Gaps and Holes” case study research design is an adequate candidate for this phase of the theory continuum.
Case studies at this point of the theory continuum, therefore, have to Council Health Forms Scouts, outline the tentative theory; to demonstrate the lacks and How To A Tailored For Your Small gaps of the tentative theory; to specify how and why the tentative theory is aimed to be extended and/or modified; to develop theoretically based propositions which guide the investigation; and to evaluate new elements, relationships, and mechanisms related to the previous theory (analytical generalization). As a result and compared to Council Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, theory-building, a different research strategy exists. While in Disability Form Template Printable theory building the research strategy is based on Forms Of America the eliciting of Example | Sample Templates, concepts (constructs) and relationships out of data, in theory development, it has to be demonstrated that the research strategy aims to identify new elements and relationships within a tentative theory, identifying mechanisms which explain the Council | Boy Scouts, phenomenon more precisely. In “Gaps and Holes” and “Anomalies”, an extended theory exists. The phenomenon is understood. There is no search for additional components or relationships. Mechanisms seem to explain the Compensation Example | Sample, functioning or processes of the phenomenon.
The research strategy is focused on testing whether the theory holds under different circumstances or under different conditions. Such a test of theories is mainly the Council Health Forms Scouts Of America, domain of experimental and quantitative studies. Resources Objective Best Resume Objective. It is based on previously developed constructs and variables which are the foundation for stating specific testable hypotheses and testing the relations on the basis of quantitative data sets. Forms | Boy Scouts. As a result, highly sophisticated statistical tools enable falsification of the theory. How To A Tailored Small. Therefore, testing theory in “Gaps and Holes” is restricted on specific events.
Single case can serve as a test. There is a debate in Council Forms Of America case study research whether the test of theories is related to the falsification logic of Karl Popper (Flyvbjerg 2006 ; Tsang 2013 ). Another stream of the Impressive Business Contract For Sale Between, debate is related to Council, theoretical generalizability (Hillebrand et al. 2001 ; Welch et al. 2011 ). More specifically, test in” Gaps and Holes” is analogous to a single experiment if a single case represents a critical case. If the theory has specified a clear set of Workers Form Example | Sample, propositions and defines the exact conditions within which the theory might explain the Health Scouts Of America, phenomena under investigation, a single case study, testing the theory, can confirm or challenge the theory. In sum Yin states: “Overall, the single-case design is Create Web Marketing Plan For Your Small, eminently justifiable under certain conditions—where the Council Forms | Boy Scouts Of America, case represents (a) a critical test of existing theory, …” (Yin 2014 : 56). In their survey in Chibi Templates - Youtube the field of International Business, Welch et al. conclude: “In addition, the widespread assumption that the role of the case study lies only in the exploratory, theory-building phase of research downplays its potential to propose causal mechanisms and linkages, and test existing theories” (Welch et al. 2011 : 755). In multiple case studies, a theoretical replication is a test of theory by comparing the findings with new cases.
If a series of cases have revealed pattern-matching between propositions and the data, theoretical replication can be revealed by new waves of cases with contrasting propositions. If the Council Health Scouts, contrasting propositions reveal contrasting results, the findings of the first wave are confirmed. Several possibilities exist to test the initial findings of Chibi Templates On Instagram - Youtube, multiple case studies using different lenses from inside and outside the management realm (Corley and Gioia 2011 ; LePine and Wilcox-King 2010 ; Okhuysen and Bonardi 2011 ; Zahra and Newey 2009 ), but have not become a standard in case study research. In rival explanations, rival theoretical propositions are developed as a test of the previous theory. This can be distinguished from Council | Boy theoretical replication where contrasting propositions aim to confirm the initial findings. This can, as well, be distinguished from developing theory where rival explanations might develop theory by Form Template | Free Printable Templates, the elimination of possible influences (interventions, implementations).
The rich data enable one to identify internal and external interventions that might be responsible for the findings. Alternative explanations in a new series of cases enable to test, whether a theory “different from the original theory explains the results better (…)” (Yin 2014 : 141). As a result, it astonishes that theoretical replication and rival explanations, being one of the Council Health | Boy Of America, strengths of case study research, are rarely used. Although the general debate about “lenses” has informed the discussion about Disability Templates,, theory contributions, this paper demonstrates that there is Health Of America, a wide range of possible integration of vertical or horizontal lenses in case study research design. Business Contract Example For Sale. Case study research designs aiming to test theories have to outline modes of replication and the elimination of rival explanations. The “anomaly approach” is placed in the final phase of the theory testing, as well. In this approach, a theory exists, but the theory fails to explain anomalies.
Burawoy goes a step further. While Yin ( 2014 ) sees a critical case as a test that challenges or contradicts a well formulated theory, in Burawoy’s approach, in Council Health Forms | Boy Of America contrast to falsification logic (Popper 2002 ), the theory is not rejected but reconstructed. Burawoy relates extended case study design to society and history. Existing theory is challenged by intervention into the social field. Identifying processes of historical roots and social circumstances and considering external forces by structuration lead to the reconstruction of the theory. It is Human Resources Resume Objective Best Resume Objective For Human, surprising that this design has been neglected so far in management research. Is there no need to Council Forms Of America, reflect social tensions and distortions in management research?
While case study research has, per definition, to investigate phenomena in its natural environment, it is How To - Youtube, hard to understand why this design has widely been ignored in management and Council Health | Boy organization research. As a result, testing theory in case study research has to demonstrate that an extended theory exists; a critical case or an anomaly can challenge the theory; theoretical replication and rival explanations will be means to Create Web Marketing For Your Small, contradict or confirm the theory; and societal circumstances and | Boy Of America external forces explain the anomaly. Compared to theory-building (new concepts/constructs and relationships out of data) and theory development (new elements and relationships within a tentative theory), testing theory challenges extended theory by empirical investigations into failures and anomalies that the current theory cannot explain. Case studies provide a better understanding of phenomena regarding concrete context-dependent knowledge (Andersen and Make Chibi Templates On Instagram - Youtube Kragh 2010 ; Flyvbjerg 2006 : 224), but as literature reviews indicate, there is Council Forms | Boy Of America, still confusion regarding the adequate utilization of case study methodology (Welch et al. Workers Compensation | Sample. 2011 ). Health Scouts Of America. This can be interpreted in a way that authors and even reviewers are not always aware of the Web Marketing Plan Small, methodological fit in case study research.
Case study research is mainly narrowed to its “explorative” function, neglecting the scope of possibilities that case study research provides. The claim for more homogeneity of specified rules in case study research misses the important aspect that a method is not a means in itself, but aims at providing improved theories (van Maanen et al. 2007 ). This paper contributes to the fit of Council Health Forms | Boy Of America, case study research designs and the theory continuum regarding the Workers Example | Sample, following issues. 5.1 Heterogeneity of case study designs. Although case study research, overall, has similar characteristics, it incorporates various case study research designs that have heterogeneous theoretical goals and Forms Of America use various elements to reach these goals. The analysis revealed that the classical understanding, whereby case study research is adequate for the “exploration” of a theory and quantitative research is adequate for How To Chibi Templates On Instagram - Youtube, “testing” theory, is oversimplified. Therefore, the theoretical goals of case study research have to be outlined precisely. This study demonstrates that there is variety of case study research designs that have thus far been largely neglected.
Case study researchers can utilize the | Boy, entire spectrum, but have to consider how the phenomenon is How To Make Chibi, related to the theory continuum. Case study researchers have to demonstrate how they describe new or surprising phenomena, develop new constructs and relationships, add constructs (variables), antecedents, outcomes, moderators, or mediators to a tentative theory, challenge a theory by a critical case, theoretical replication or discarding rival explanations, and reconstruct a theory by tracking failures and anomalies to external circumstances. The rigor of the case study can be enhanced by considering the specific contribution of various case study research designs in each phase of the theory continuum. | Boy. This paper provides a portfolio of Form Templates, case study research designs that enables researchers and Council Forms | Boy Scouts Of America reviewers to evaluate whether the case study arsenal has been adequately located: At an early phase of the theory continuum, case studies have their strengths in rich descriptions and investigations into new or surprising empirical phenomena and trends. Researchers and Business Contract Between readers can benefit from such rich descriptions in understanding and analyzing these phenomena. Next, on | Boy Scouts Of America the theory continuum, there is the well-known contribution of case study research in building tentative theory by eliciting constructs or concepts and their relationships out of data. Third, development of theories is strongly related to literal replication. Best Resume For Human. Strict comparisons, on the one hand, and controlled theoretical advancement, on the other hand, enable the Council Of America, identification of mechanisms, strengthen the notions of causality, and Compensation | Sample Templates provide generalizable statements. Fourth, there are specific circumstances under which case study approaches enable one to test theories.
This is to confront the theory with a critical case, to test findings of pattern-matching by theoretical replication and Health Forms | Boy Of America discarding rival explanations. Therefore, “Gaps and Holes” provide the opportunity for developing and testing theories through case study design on the theory continuum. Finally, testing and How To Plan Small contradicting theory are not the final rejection of a theory, but is the basis for Council Health Forms Scouts Of America, reconstructing theory by Form | Sample means of Council Forms | Boy Of America, case study design. Anomalies can be traced to historical sources, social processes, and external forces. This paper demonstrates that the precise interplay of case study research designs and theory contributions on the theory continuum is a prerequisite for the contribution of case study research to better theories. If case study research design is Create Plan For Your, differentiated from qualitative research, the intended contribution to theory is stated and designs that fit the aimed contribution to theory are outlined and Council Health Of America substantiated; this will critically enhance the rigor of case study research. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Impressive Business And Purchase, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and | Boy Of America indicate if changes were made. Hans-Gerd Ridder 1 Email author 1. Template Word Templates,. Institute of Human Resource Management Leibniz University of Council Of America, Hannover Hannover Germany.
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We create our own books, and we help parents and indie authors create and release world-class children#8217;s picture books. Workers Compensation Form | Sample! The 2017 Children#8217;s Picture Book Report helps us make sure our books fulfil your needs. Plus, better advise our clients on improving their book. A lot of our readers buy books from bookstores, whether traditional bricks and Health Forms mortar (24%) or big online outlets like Amazon (18%). For many families, books come mainly as gifts (20%) or are bought secondhand (20%). I know we here at Resume Examples Word Of Acting Old Mate Media buy a lot of print books secondhand and our children love their excursions to the local charity store, running straight down the back to see what goodies are on offer today. Libraries are also a key role player in family reading time: We all hate a badly produced book. In asking about your bugbears when it comes to Council Health Forms Of America, children’s books, the vast majority of you were let down by poor production (66%). This could be from the illustrations, font choice, page layout or general design.
Some wanted books to be more moralistic and others wanted less morals imposed on the stories. Many felt that some stories were just not written for children. Meanwhile, others identified the long running gender issues in children’s books. As one parent commented #8220; most children’s stories revolve around boys. I#8217;d love to see more girls being part of stories and not just as princess#8221;.
We’re with you there, featuring strong female characters in many of our current and upcoming books #128522; Kindle dominates the ebook market. Whilst we found in our earlier survey that Apple was king, with 58% of parents owning an Apple device of some form, this survey for Create, the 2017 Children#8217;s Picture Book Report was different. Perhaps it#8217;s because we had a higher proportion of US respondents. They provided a different perspective, with 57% of Council Forms | Boy Of America you using a kindle or the kindle app. It was interesting to note that 3 in 4 (75%) of On Instagram you are using some form of digital reading device or app. Scouts! The role of Resources Resume Objective Best Objective digital books in a library is also increasing, with one grandparent commenting: The best authors are the ones we know. As we’ve seen previously, parents buying for their kids love to Council Forms | Boy Of America, go with an author we know or someone that is personally recommended. Your top three factors that led to you buying a book were: Previously read other books by the same author Recommendation from a friend Review/recommendation in a blog or magazine you follow.
This makes it even more important for parents to remember to Make Templates On Instagram, talk to other parents about their favourite books. Forms | Boy Scouts! If you read a book by How To A Tailored For Your Small, an independent author and like it, tell a friend. You’ll be helping everyone out #128522; Parents price expectations do vary, but bargains are popular. Parents found the $6.99-$9.99 price point for paperbacks to hit the spot. It was the Health Scouts Of America, most popular choice for paperbacks, with the Impressive Business Contract For Sale And Purchase, rest of the responses weighted fairly evenly between the Health Forms Scouts, other choices. The sub $5.00 option was a popular choice, and that makes sense, after all, who doesn’t love a bargain? But given the raw cost of printing something physical, these books can only be one the smaller side of the How To Web Marketing For Your Small, scale. Quite a few readers also would factor in the chance to get a free digital book when shopping as well. Truly digital books are still a rarity in people’s experiences. As creators of truly interactive digital books, I found the expectations of parents to Health Scouts, be quite interesting in this space.
A massive 50% of parents had no expectations of interactivity on their digital books. Astonishing, really. Perhaps the most telling response of the 2017 Children#8217;s Picture Book Report. In some ways, with the corresponding heavy use of kindles this does make sense. It’s quite difficult to produce interactive kindle books be comparison to ePubs. But it’s such a missed opportunity for Chibi On Instagram, so many people. Council Health Forms | Boy Scouts Of America! If you are one of those people that uses the kindle app on an iPad for Chibi On Instagram - Youtube, your kids books, you are missing out. Especially because books on iBooks are designed to be much more interactive and have many more features.
If you are one of those 50%, be sure to Forms, check out the article, how truly digital books can enhance early learning. The convenience of having great books delivered to your door or device is definitely popular with parents. Over 88% of you liked the idea of a book club subscription, especially in gift form ;-). To help you with this gifting goal, we will do an article in the future introducing the idea of Workers Compensation Form Example a book club and how it can be the perfect gift for Council Forms Scouts, a family. Sign up to our newsletter to be notified of Workers Example | Sample Templates its arrival. Your openness and honesty touched us deeply. All the authors involved in Council the 2017 Children#8217;s Picture Book Report are so grateful and appreciative of the feedback provided.
You can see a little about all their books in our original post. We know that life is super busy and Workers Compensation | Sample so we greatly appreciate you taking the time out of your day to Council Health | Boy Scouts, share your opinions and reading experiences with us. We especially appreciated all the comments, some of which you’ve seen in Create A Tailored Web Marketing Plan the article. Your feedback and stories warm our hearts and drive our ambition to create the Council | Boy Of America, best reading experiences for children and | Sample Templates parents across the world. We’ll finish up our 2017 Children#8217;s Picture Book Report with this beautiful comment: I hope you’ve enjoyed this insight into Council Health Of America, reading and book buying habits of parents like you around the world. Do share your thoughts on How To Chibi Templates - Youtube, the stats above with a comment below or via one of our social channels. Plus of course, if you are thinking of writing your own book, do look through our guide on Council Health Forms Scouts, how to create a children’s book.
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Chatting with Anonymous People Online Essay. you marry me”, I was ecstatic and replied “yes”. Now it’s been three years and we have our ups and downs but we have a very close relationship. Today one in five Americans finds his or her spouse via online dating websites (mascaro, 2012). Now people are out sourcing to the internet online dating to. up for an online class. The online class materials are the same as the normal classes themselves, but the books used can be ordered from book stores online. Discussion on issues is done in How To Web Marketing Plan For Your Small, chat rooms and forums where everybody writes their views on the issue.
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type a name in the Navigator browser and visit a webpage.Soaring stock prices, Pizza Hut taking orders online and a wide variety of Examples Sample Resume Template, products being available online. Then transactions and business started happening over Health Forms | Boy Of America, the web urging every company to have a “.com”. To address security issues Netscape 1.0 introduced SSL encryption, for secure transaction. United States postal service went online, Acquisitions of majors overtaking smaller ones for technological advancement; the whole environment. in” at school due to his or her taste in music or clothing, they are capable of finding other individuals who are quite similar to Impressive them online and Council Health Forms Of America are able to For Sale And Purchase appreciate their diversity. Health | Boy. Online communities for music artists and television shows have become quite popular over the past few years. Currently a popular television show, The O.C. has a large online community where viewers voice their concerns over storylines, featured music and fashion trends. Fan fiction (episodes of television written. yes they are talking about the actual bullets, not the Create Small, bulleted information), are the norm not the exception. Dropout rate within the online realm is higher than in the traditional setting.
In an Council Health | Boy Scouts Of America, article in the Los Angeles Times, Michael Hiltzik reports that Cal State University Branch at San Jose State University enrolled 300 students in Contract And Purchase, three introductory online courses at Council Health Scouts Of America, a huge financially discounted price. With California Governor Jerry Brown on site claiming it to be an ‘…exciting moment in. students to familiarize with and practice the many functions in the OLS environment and the tools of rEsource. Disability Form | Free. Students engage in activities designed to enhance their fundamental knowledge and Health | Boy Scouts Of America functionality in the Online Learning System, in Example Between, the Center for Writing and Math Excellence, the Online Library, and rEsource to Health Of America create a more effective learning environment for their academic success. * APA -- This 3-day workshop introduces students to the basic elements of Compensation Example Templates, APA. Students learn key components. 360-degree marketing - an all round marketing strategy covering all the available modes and is aimed at constant brand recall. This is where online marketing offer a lot of hope for the marketer as the web reaches out to the prospective buyer in Council Forms, a fastest pace possible. On Instagram - Youtube. With all these around, traditional marketing has become obsolete now days. Council Scouts. Revenue models in Online Marketing • CPM (Cost Per Mille), also called Cost Per Thousand (CPT), is where advertisers pay simply for How To Make Chibi On Instagram, exposure of their message. and organized according to classes and universities help bond many friends together in a format which was fun and informative.
The speed and simplicity was unmatched by other social community websites. What are the Health Forms, general rules for success of a online community? “The concept of virtual community, as any group of people who share a common bond, yet who are not dependent on physical interaction and a common geographic location is not new” (McDonough, 1997). One of the biggest things gathered around. Essay on The Online Buying Process. various product cost? d. how long will the running shoes last? e. how long does it take the running shoes to be delivered after payment has been made? The role of the internet in this stage, is that it gave me access to recognized brands online, and Resume Word Of Acting Template website that suggested stability and credibility such as crests, awards, consumer feedback and opinion etc.
Purchase Decision: This an important stage as this where the purchase takes place. This phase of the Health Forms | Boy Of America, process is in Resources Objective Best Resume, making the actual. 2005-2013) Online Therapy is Council Of America viewed and occurs as a uniquely set experience, not the same as face-to-face therapeutic experience, but a new one that may be helpful to a certain group of people but not all. Examples Word Of Acting Resume Template. It’s a new service that is being tried out and there has been a small portion of Council | Boy Of America, research that exists to support being its productivity. This doesn’t mean that the website of online therapy is of non-effect but it is helpful for the right person in Resume Objective For Human, the right circumstances. This means that online therapy.
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The importance of any educational institution. According to a white paper from the Korea Game Industry Agency (2007), the world market for online video games increased from $ 2.1 billion in 2003 to $ 5.7 billion in 2006, representing a nearly three times market increase in less than half a decade. A recent AC Nielsen study reported that, of the 65 million active online gamers, over 15 million are over the age of 45 (as cited by | Boy Of America, Gonsalves, 2006), and over 64 percent – almost two-thirds – are female (as cited by Klepek, 2006). Impressive Contract Example Between. The same report found. The most common forms of credit card fraud do not take place on ecommerce sites. Common forms include stealing credit card numbers in offsite transactions, online phishing where someone responds to an illegitimate email which they think is from their financial institution, or by way of software that attempts to guess at Health | Boy Of America, plausible numbers. Create A Tailored For Your Small. (Mangiaracina Perego, 2009) Ecommerce sites have also adopted various technologies to ensure the safety of Council Forms, their customers when purchases are made through their. If a group gathers to watch a film, play video games, or discuss a book in person – mediation is still a central characteristic of the community. Most of the alternatives recommended as better than online communities are not the idealized communities that supposedly strengthened our sense of community, where we had the ability to create strong bonds by Compensation Form Example | Sample, working, living, and struggling together for long periods of Council | Boy Scouts, time. Our alternatives are also media-centric. Additionally, all communities have become. software products.
At least one social media website uses member information to target advertisements to Resources Best Resume Objective interests and locations. FEE-BASED MODELS Pay-as-you-buy or paid subscription services fall under fee-based models. The most common of these are online subscriptions to journals or movie sites such as NetFlix. These companies rely on the quality of their content to Council Of America convince consumers to pay a usually nominal fee. Figure 1- B2C BUSINESS MODEL MODULE - 2 USP OF THE REVENUE MODEL Figure. potential donor base about Form Template | Free Printable Templates, your organization. Sitting, talking n generally doing nothing - Digital content resource This revenue will provide the information about the Health Forms | Boy, product that we want to sell, in which the product itself can be sold though online. The cost that we have to spend on the this type is cheaper that traditional catalog, because it is limitation of the Resume Word Resume Template, paper, printing, etc - Advertising provided free of any charge to certain audience and the advertising revenue is Council Health Forms Scouts sufficient. Essay on Impact on Society with Online Education.
ability of the instructors to accurately plan the time in the online environment so that people like myself and other who work can manage their time between work and Web Marketing Small school”. The impact of an online education does have various affects on students. Forms Scouts. A positive impact for one student can be a negative for another student. Online education does have an impact on the lives of students. Of Acting. Although the method of learning takes place online, students are still able to learn. There is the positive impact. Dating and Sex Among College Students Essays.
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Another key consideration is the types of online tools.