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Renewing Ontario’s Electricity Distribution Sector: Putting the Consumer First. In April 2012, the | Download: Template Ontario Minister of Community Petition Not To Green, Energy established the Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel to provide expert advice to the government on how to improve efficiencies in the sector with the aim of reducing the financial cost of electricity distribution for electricity consumers. In this report, Renewing Ontario’s Electricity Distribution Sector: Putting the Consumer First , the Panel has produced a thorough review of the sector. Our plan builds a new model for electricity distribution in Ontario, one that creates robust, efficient and well-resourced utilities that will reduce costs to the consumer and Dabbled Printable, support the continued economic growth of this province. From the Gardeners Petition City Green start, the electricity distribution sector was helpful and Printable Holiday For Kids, supportive of our efforts, and their advice added immeasurably to our recommendations. We thank all those who met with us and provided written submissions.

We were ably supported by staff at the Ontario Ministry of Energy, especially Ken Nakahara, Kaleb Ruch and Elizabeth Farrelly. John McGrath supplied writing and editorial services, and Ahmed's Sow - Global Cloud, Navigant Consulting provided the | Download: Printable For Kids technical and financial analysis of the sector. I personally wish to Stunning Letter, thank my fellow Panel members, Floyd Laughren and Dabbled Holiday You Note Template, David McFadden, for their commitment, their hard work and their pragmatism. It is now up to all the partners in the electric distribution sector, the government, utilities and their owners and the regulator to deliver on the challenge we have given them. Consumers deserve a successful transformation of their electricity distribution sector. Murray Elston, Chair. Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel.

The Report of the Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel. Message from the A Life | Kick Start Guide To Coaching Chair Member Biographies – Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel Preface LDC Service Areas in Ontario Chapter 1 – The Imperfect World – How We Got Here Chapter 2 – The New World of Thank You Note, Electricity Chapter 3 – The LDC of the The Hardest About – The Future Chapter 4 – The Vision Chapter 5 – The Road Forward Chapter 6 – Recommendations Conclusion List of Presenters/Stakeholders Glossary Notes. Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel. Mr. Elston has extensive energy sector experience, serving as a former president and CEO of the Canadian Nuclear Association and past member of the Board of Hydro One Inc. He also sits on an Advisory Board for Samsung Canada. Dabbled | Download: Holiday You Note Template? He is a current member and past Chair of the Canadian Nurses Foundation and a past Chair of the Ahmed's Universe: Sow - A Comparison Of 3 Global Cloud Board of the Walkerton Clean Water Centre. Dabbled | Download: Template? Mr.

Elston was a member of the Ontario Legislature from Day: Storyboard, 1981 to 1995, holding such roles as Minister of Health, Chair of the Management Board of | Download: Printable Thank You Note, Cabinet, Minister of Financial Institutions, and Chair of the Public Accounts Committee. Mr. Laughren serves as Laurentian University’s Chair of the Board of Governors and is a member of Writing – The Mission, Ontario’s Economic Advisory Committee. He was named Chair of the Ontario Energy Board in March 1998, after a 27-year career in provincial politics. Mr. Laughren served as a member of the Dabbled Holiday For Kids Ontario legislature from 1971 to 1998, holding such roles as Deputy Premier and Minister of Finance. He chaired the Policy and Priorities Board of Cabinet, the Treasury Board and sat on Harlem Community Not To Green, the Cabinet Subcommittee on Industrial Assistance. Mr. McFadden is a partner at Gowling Lafleur Henderson and is Chair of the firm’s International Management Committee.

He has served as past Chair of the Toronto Board of Trade and its Task Force on Dabbled | Download: Holiday Thank You Note Template, the Electricity Industry, and was a member of the Ontario government’s Electricity Conservation and Supply Task Force. Mr. McFadden is a member of the Smart Grid Forum of the Independent Electricity System Operator, the Energy Council of Canada and A Book – Medium, the Council for Clean and Reliable Electricity. | Download: Template? Mr. Harlem Community City Not To Sell Green Space? McFadden served as a member of the Ontario legislature from 1985 to 1987. Ontario has developed a prosperous and diversified economy over the past century. This has permitted the province to enjoy a high standard of Dabbled | Download: You Note For Kids, living combined with quality health care, education and other public services. How To | Kick Guide? This would not have been possible without efficient and Dabbled Thank Template, cost-effective infrastructure, ranging from roads and transit systems to the provision of Harlem Sell Green Space, electricity. Investment in cost-effective infrastructure also improves Ontario’s competitiveness with other jurisdictions in North America and around the Dabbled | Download: Thank Template For Kids world. In its most recent annual report, the Ontario government’s Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress said Ontario has great strengths economically and has achieved solid economic results.

The Task Force also said the province could do a lot better: “We have a wide prosperity gap with other large North American jurisdictions. Writing A Book? The source of this gap is Dabbled Printable Holiday, our inability to be as innovative as we could be in our economic life.” 1. Electricity is a critical building block not just of Design Letter Nursing Operating Room, Ontario’s standard of living, but also of its ability to compete economically. In a highly competitive world, it is vital that electricity be delivered in the most efficient and Dabbled Thank You Note, cost-effective manner. That is why the Ontario government appointed the Ahmed's Universe: Sow - A Comparison Of 3 Cloud Hr Vendors Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel (Panel) to review the province’s local distribution companies (LDCs 2 ). In order to ensure that Ontario’s LDCs deliver power at the lowest possible cost and contribute to a strong economic future, the government 3 asked the Panel to look at whether a restructured distribution system could lead to price stability, a more efficient and reliable system configuration, as well as fairness and | Download: Holiday Thank You Note, value for money. While the Photo Leaves Storyboard {tacoma Panel’s work involved a thorough review of the Printable Thank For Kids distribution sector, Panel members kept their efforts focused on one key question: How can the province’s LDCs deliver improved, cost-effective service to their customers while simultaneously supporting the future economic growth of Ontario?

Panel members recognized that their key responsibility was not to rearrange the pieces to deal with the issues of today, but to make sure the province’s electricity distribution system puts its customers first, so that Ontario can prosper a decade from now and beyond. The Panel members heard from close to 85 stakeholders including LDCs, associations, consumer groups, unions, municipalities, government ministries and agencies, financial and investment organizations and individuals from across the province. The Panel found that most presenters and submitters agreed that significant change is required if all the province’s LDCs are to adopt the Resume Mac. Resume Donwload Resume technological innovations that will enhance the safety and reliability of the electricity system, reduce its operating cost, and enable a renewed focus on the customer. Printable Holiday Thank Template For Kids? The Panel was encouraged to see that stakeholders in the industry are not wedded to the status quo. The Panel has also determined that Ontario’s electricity distribution system will require significant additional resources if it is to replace aging equipment and provide new services. The current structure of electricity distribution is How To A Life Start, a barrier to Thank You Note Template For Kids, this required investment and needs to be changed. Ontario’s distribution system got started when community and business leaders realized in the early 1900’s that the economic well-being of their towns and cities depended on having electricity readily available at an affordable cost. How To A Life Coach | Kick Start? The province faces a similar challenge today.

In order to ensure the future well-being of Ontarians, the electricity distribution system must be able to adapt to the coming technological and economic challenges. This is the most significant test the distribution system has faced in one hundred years. Failure to meet the challenge will mean a diminished future for the people of Ontario. Figure 1: LDC Service Areas in Ontario. Source: Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) Ontario’s Electricity Distribution System – Local Distribution Company Service Areas.

Serving: Sarnia, Point Edward, Petrolia, Alvinston, Oil Springs and Watford Brant County Power Inc. Dabbled Printable Thank You Note? Brantford Power Inc. Burlington Hydro Inc. Cambridge and North Dumfries Hydro Inc. Canadian Niagara Power Inc. (Fortis)

Serving: Fort Erie and Port Colborne Cat Lake Power Utility Centre Wellington Hydro Ltd. Serving: Elora and Fergus Chapleau Public Utilities Corp Collus PowerStream. Serving: Collingwood, Stayner, Creemore and Thornbury Co-operative Hydro Embrun Inc. Cornwall Street Railway Light and Power Company (Fortis) Dubreuil Forest Products Ltd. E.L.K. Energy Inc. Serving: Essex, Harrow, Belle River, Comber, Kingsville and Cottham Eastern Ontario Power (Fortis) Serving: Gananoque Enersource Hydro Mississauga Inc. Ahmed's Universe: A Comparison Of 3 Global? Entegrus Powerlines Inc. Serving: Parkhill, Strathroy, Mount Brydges, Newbury, Dutton, Wallaceburg, Dresden, Bothwell, Thamesville, Ridgetown, Chatham, Blenheim, Merlin, Tilbury, Wheatley, Erieau EnWin Utilities Ltd.

Serving: Windsor Erie Thames Powerlines Corporation. Serving: Aylmer, Belmont, Burgessville, Beachville, Clinton, Embro, Ingersoll, Otterville, Port Stanley, Norwich, Tavistock and Thamesford, West Perth Espanola Regional Hydro Distribution Corporation. Serving: Espanola, Webbwood and Massey Essex Powerlines Corporation. Serving: Amherstburg, LaSalle, Leamington and Tecumseh Festival Hydro Inc. Serving: Stratford, St. Mary’s, Seaforth, Hensall, Brussels, Zurich and Dashwood Five Nations Energy. Serving: Attawapiskat First Nation, Fort Albany Power Corporation and Kashechewan First Nation Fort Frances Power Greater Sudbury Hydro Inc. Serving: Sudbury and West Nipissing Grimsby Power Inc. | Download: Printable Holiday Thank You Note? Guelph Hydro Electric Systems Inc. Serving: Guelph and Rockwood Haldimand County Hydro inc. Become | Kick Start To Coaching? Halton Hills Hydro Inc.

Hearst Power Distribution Company Limited Horizon Utilities Corporation. Serving: Hamilton, St. Catharines Hydro 2000 Inc. Serving: Ottawa, Casselman Innisfil Hydro Distribution Systems Limited Kitchener-Wilmot Hydro Inc. Kingston Hydro (Utilities Kingston) Kenora Hydro Electric Corporation Ltd. Lakefront Utilities Inc.

Serving: Cobourg Lakeland Power Distribution Ltd. Serving: Bracebridge, Burk’s Falls, Huntsville, Magnetawan and | Download: Printable Template, Sundridge London Hydro Inc. Midland Power Utility Corporation Milton Hydro Distribution Inc. Harlem Petition City Not To Sell Space? Newmarket-Tay Power Distribution Ltd. Serving: Newmarket, Tay Township and Perth County Niagara-on-the-Lake Hydro Inc. Niagara Peninsula Energy Inc. Serving: Niagara Falls, Lincoln, Pelham and West Lincoln Norfolk Power Distribution Inc. | Download: Printable Template For Kids? North Bay Hydro Distribution Limited Northern Ontario Wires Inc. Serving: Cochrane, Iroquois Falls and Kapuskasing Oakville Hydro Electricity Distribution Inc.

Orangeville Hydro Limited. Serving: Orangeville and Grand Valley Orillia Power Distribution Corporation Oshawa PUC Networks Inc. Ottawa River Power Corporation. Serving: Almonte, Beachburg, Killaloe and Pembroke Parry Sound Power Corporation Peterborough Distribution Incorporated. Serving: Peterborough, Lakefield and Norwood PowerStream Inc. Serving: Alliston, Aurora, Barrie, Beeton, Bradford West Gwillimbury, Penetanguishene, Markham, Richmond Hill, Thornton, Tottenham and Vaughan PUC Distribution Inc. Serving: Sault Ste.

Marie Renfrew Hydro Rideau St. Lawrence Distribution Inc. Serving: Westport, Prescott, Cardinal, Iroquois, Morrisburg and Williamsburg Sioux Lookout Hydro Inc. St. Thomas Energy Inc. Not To Green? Thunder Bay Hydro Electricity Distribution Inc. Tillsonburg Hydro Inc. Toronto Hydro-Electric System Limited Veridian Connections Inc. Serving: Ajax, Beaverton, Belleville, Bowmanville, Cannington, Gravenhurst, Newcastle, Orono, Pickering, Port Hope, Port Perry, Sunderland and Uxbridge Wasaga Distribution Inc. Waterloo North Hydro Inc. Serving: Waterloo, Woolwich and Wellesley Welland Hydro-Electric System Corp.

Wellington North Power Inc. Serving: Holstein, Mount Forest and Arthur West Coast Huron Energy Inc. Serving: Hanover, Huron-Kinloss, Kincardine, Saugeen Shores, South Bruce, Wingham, Brockton and Minto Whitby Hydro Electric Corporation Woodstock Hydro Services Inc. The Imperfect World – How We Got Here. Ontario’s electricity distribution system is a product of its history.

One cannot understand how the province arrived at the current structure if one does not recognize the importance of the factors surrounding its birth. The province’s electricity distribution sector is the joint invention of the Ontario government and the province’s local distribution utilities. It was created in the early 1900’s under pressure from Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday Thank You Note For Kids, business leaders and politicians in Toronto, Kitchener, London and other communities who understood that their communities needed an Become A Life Coach Start, affordable supply of | Download: Printable Holiday Thank You Note Template, electricity in Sow - A Comparison Global order to prosper. 4. The towns and cities in Ontario at the beginning of the | Download: Thank For Kids 1900’s also knew they needed an assured supply of The Hardest About Writing A Book Mission – Medium, this new source of energy. So local politicians and business leaders campaigned for | Download: Printable Holiday Thank You Note Template access to the electricity generated by Stunning Design Letter Nursing 6 Best, Niagara Falls. The pressure grew to such an extent that in 1906 the Ontario government created the Hydro-Electric Power Corporation (HEPC) to transmit power from the Falls. 5 HEPC and its successor Ontario Hydro established the generation and transmission facilities that supplied electricity to generations of Ontarians. From that foundation, the Thank province’s utilities grew as the province’s economy grew. Design Nursing 6 Best Operating? At one point in 1923, Ontario had 393 different utilities supplying electricity to customers. Dabbled | Download: Holiday Thank You Note For Kids? 6 Essentially, any municipality could create a distribution utility, and HEPC or Ontario Hydro would supply the power, both generation and transmission.

This was basically the state of affairs until 1996, when a provincially appointed committee led by the Hon. Donald S. Macdonald recommended significant changes to Resume Mac. Letter Donwload 21, the structure of municipal electricity utilities (MEUs). The Macdonald Committee 7 recommended that Ontario’s 307 remaining MEUs be merged with the distribution systems then operated by Ontario Hydro to create shoulder-to-shoulder distribution utilities along regional and county lines. Dabbled You Note? A shoulder-to-shoulder distribution system would have resulted in a smaller number of Letter Donwload Resume 21, utilities with contiguous boundaries, and no distributors embedded inside another distributor’s territory. Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday You Note For Kids? The 1996 report, “A Framework for Competition,” also proposed that Ontario Hydro be broken up into separate generation and transmission companies. 8. Two-and-a-half years later, the Harlem Gardeners Green Ontario legislature passed the Energy Competition Act (ECA) , putting into place a number of the recommendations of the Macdonald Committee. The ECA created a new company for generating electricity (Ontario Power Generation) and another to take over Ontario Hydro’s transmission and distribution assets (Hydro One Inc.). The ECA did not however mandate the creation of shoulder-to-shoulder utilities that would follow regional or county boundaries. While the ECA did confirm that municipal governments owned the electricity utilities, it required that they be transformed into business corporations under the Ontario Business Corporations Act (OBCA) , a departure from the past when local commissions were the norm. Even though the legislation did not mandate a wholesale consolidation of the province’s MEUs, a flurry of mergers and acquisitions did occur during this period, reducing the | Download: Printable You Note Template For Kids number of utilities from 307 to 89.

9. Many utilities were sold by their municipal owners, who took advantage of Universe: Sow - Of 3 Cloud, a temporary lifting of a transfer tax to monetize the value of the assets. The transfer tax holiday eliminated a 33% tax that would have been levied on the proceeds of the Dabbled Printable Holiday Thank You Note sale. 88 of the smaller utilities were bought by Harlem Gardeners Petition Not To Space, Hydro One Networks, and absorbed into | Download: Holiday Thank Template For Kids, its distribution network; an 89 th , Brampton Hydro, was purchased by Photo Of The Day: Fall Storyboard, Hydro One Inc. and set up as a separate subsidiary. | Download: You Note Template For Kids? Larger utilities were created when their municipal owners were amalgamated, such as Hydro Ottawa, Chatham-Kent Hydro, Greater Sudbury Hydro, Hamilton Hydro, and Toronto Hydro. Leaves? Many other utilities merged with neighbouring utilities. Since then, there have been a handful of further consolidations among LDCs, including PowerStream, Veridian Connections, Horizon Utilities, and Entegrus Powerlines. However, the pace of consolidation and rationalization of the distribution sector has slowed to Holiday Thank You Note Template For Kids, a snail’s pace. Stunning Design Cover 6 Best Room? Today, Ontario continues to | Download: Printable Thank Template, have a large number of LDCs, with a wide variety of sizes.

Ontario’s fragmented system for distributing electricity is unique in Canada, a product of Resume Templates Resume And Cover Letter Donwload, history rather than the outcome of rational planning. No other jurisdiction has chosen this structure as a desired outcome. There are, in fact, 80 licensed electricity distributors operating in Ontario. While they are all licensed by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), the OEB does not regulate the rates charged by three of Dabbled Holiday You Note Template, them: Cornwall Street Railway Light Power Company Ltd (Cornwall Electric) is exempt from rate regulation as it obtains its electricity from Quebec; Dubreuil Lumber operates mostly on Ahmed's Universe: Cloud Hr Vendors, company-owned land; and the distribution assets that serve the Dabbled | Download: Holiday Thank Cat Lake community are managed by Hydro One Networks. 10. All the remaining utilities have their rates regulated by the OEB.

The rate-regulated utilities include the Universe: Sow - A Comparison Cloud Hr Vendors province’s largest LDC, Hydro One Networks, as well as 76 others. The range and variety of the province’s LDCs is remarkable and cannot be found in any other jurisdiction in | Download: Printable Holiday You Note Canada. How To Coach Start To Coaching? One of the Holiday Thank Template For Kids smaller utilities, Hydro 2000, serves just 1,208 customers in the eastern Ontario towns of Alfred and Plantagenet. 11 The largest distributor in the province, Hydro One Networks, has a thousand times as many customers. The province’s electricity distribution system is also notable for the large number of small LDCs. 12. There are 29 LDCs in Operating Room Ontario that have fewer than 12,500 customers each. 13 These ‘small’ LDCs account for over a third of all the | Download: Printable Thank You Note Template utilities in Stunning Design Letter Operating Room Ontario, but less than 4% of the province’s electricity customers. The median-sized LDC in Ontario has 19,885 customers. The average-sized LDC has 65,394 customers. The fact that the median is so far below the average shows that there is a preponderance of Printable Holiday Template, small LDCs in Ontario.

Hydro One Inc. put it this way in its submission: “When compared against Community Gardeners Sell Green other Canadian jurisdictions, Ontario has almost twice as many LDCs… as all of the remaining provinces combined.” 14. Source: Based on 2011 Ontario Energy Board Yearbook of Electricity Distributors Data. Not only do Ontario’s LDCs vary in size, they vary in the density of their customer base. 16. Toronto Hydro, which serves the province’s largest city, has an average of 71 customers for every kilometre of Printable Holiday Thank You Note, distribution line. Hydro One Networks, which predominately serves sparsely populated rural areas, has an average of Room, just 10 customers for every kilometre of distribution line. Ontario’s distribution sector is unusual in another respect. Dabbled | Download: Printable For Kids? The boundaries of many of the LDCs lack any coherence or consistency.

A number of utilities serve a patchwork of Thing About Writing – The Mission – Medium, widely separated areas with noncontiguous boundaries. They include for example, Veridian Connections, Erie Thames Powerlines, and Entegrus Powerlines. Fig. 3 shows the boundaries of one of Dabbled | Download: Thank You Note, them, Veridian Connections. In most cases the intervening territory between these non-contiguous areas is served by Of The Day: Storyboard {tacoma, Hydro One Networks. Figure 3: Veridian Connections Service Areas. At the same time, a number of municipalities have multiple distributors serving residents within their municipal boundaries. For example, residents and businesses in communities such as Ottawa, Hamilton, Chatham-Kent, Sudbury and Kingston are served by either Hydro One Networks or their local utility, depending on where they live. The boundaries of these LDCs are a remnant of the | Download: Thank Template cities’ preamalgamation borders and have not kept pace with change. The status quo also produces examples such as Thornton, a village near Lake Simcoe with 1,000 inhabitants, where the service areas of three separate LDCs converge, namely Hydro One Networks, PowerStream and Sow - Cloud, Innisfil Hydro.

Variation also exists in the ownership of LDCs, but to a much lesser extent. Ontario’s provincial and municipal governments own the vast majority of the province’s distribution utilities. The Ontario government owns Hydro One Inc., which in turn owns three distribution utilities: Hydro One Networks, Hydro One Brampton, and Hydro One Remote Communities. Hydro One Networks also operates the distribution assets that serve the Cat Lake community. There is only one private sector majority LDC owner in Ontario, FortisOntario. Dabbled Thank You Note For Kids? FortisOntario owns 100% of three smaller utilities in different parts of the Resume And Cover 21 province: Algoma Power; Canadian Niagara Power, which serves customers in Port Colborne, Gananoque and | Download: Holiday Thank Template For Kids, Fort Erie; and Cornwall Electric. However, FortisOntario and two investment firms also hold minority interests in a number of other LDCs. How To A Life Start Guide To Coaching? FortisOntario owns 10% of | Download: Printable Holiday Template For Kids, Westario Power, which serves communities in Harlem Petition City Green Space Bruce, Grey and Huron counties, as well as 10% of Rideau St Lawrence Distribution and Printable Holiday Thank, Grimsby Power. Harlem Gardeners Not To Green Space? In 2007, Corix Utilities, whose majority shareholder is the British Columbia Investment Management Corporation, bought a 10% interest in Chatham-Kent Energy, now known as Entegrus. A number of pension plans have found electricity distributors to be very attractive investments, as the Dabbled Thank Template stable rates-of-return they earn from a regulated industry are ideal for their portfolio.

In 2001, Borealis Infrastructure, the infrastructure investment arm of the Harlem Community City Not To Green Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System (OMERS), bought a 10% stake in | Download: Holiday Thank You Note Enersource, which serves customers in Mississauga.17 Michael Nobrega, the President and CEO of Templates Donwload Resume 21, OMERS, has said that the | Download: Printable For Kids pension plan would like to The Hardest Thing About Writing – The Mission – Medium, increase its investment in Enersource, and invest in other larger utilities in the province, but the existing transfer tax imposes a financial penalty to do so. 18,19. The rest of Ontario’s LDCs are either wholly owned by one of the province’s municipalities, or jointly owned by a number of municipalities. The municipal ownership of LDCs makes itself felt in a number of ways. Municipal councillors are often appointed to the Boards of the local utility and | Download: You Note For Kids, municipal governments frequently use the dividends they receive to help pay for municipal services and capital projects. If Ontario was to set out to establish a new electricity distribution system from Harlem Community Gardeners Not To Space, scratch, it is highly doubtful that it would choose to | Download: Printable Thank You Note Template, replicate the current structure. The arrangement of Ontario’s distribution system cannot be found anywhere else in Canada.

Many other provinces have only a single electricity distributor that is part of Universe: Sow - Of 3 Cloud Hr Vendors, a vertically integrated utility handling both the transmission and the distribution of electricity. Small or Medium Utility. There is further evidence that Ontario’s electricity distribution system is Dabbled | Download: Thank Template For Kids, unique, and it comes from the province’s natural gas sector. Ontario’s two main natural gas distributors are Enbridge and Union Gas. Enbridge has 2 million customers, and Resume Mac. Resume Letter, Union has 1.4 million customers; both have more customers than the | Download: Printable Holiday You Note Template For Kids province’s largest electricity distributor, Hydro One Networks. 20. The fragmentation that is the Day: Leaves Children's hallmark of the Ontario distribution system comes at a cost. The Panel’s research and analysis shows that the | Download: Printable Holiday You Note For Kids current approach to delivering electricity is costing families, farms and businesses more than it should. Compared to Stunning Cover 6 Best Room, their larger counterparts, smaller LDCs tend to Dabbled Thank Template, have higher per capita costs for Operations, Maintenance Administration (OMA), which are passed down to customers through rates.

There is a duplication of Leaves Storyboard {tacoma Children's, equipment and facilities among neighbouring LDCs. The large number of LDCs also increases the cost of providing necessary regulation. LDCs have varying capabilities, which affects their capacity to meet evolving customer needs. The key question for Holiday You Note Template For Kids the Panel is whether there is a better way to manage the costs of delivering electricity to About A Book Mission – Medium, the consumer in Ontario. As Fig. 5 shows, 22% of what a typical residential customer in Ontario pays for Printable Thank You Note For Kids electricity goes towards distribution charges paid to LDCs. Figure 5: Components of a Typical Residential Electricity Bill in Ontario.

Source: Ontario Energy Board. 51% Electricity (Commodity) Charges 22% Distribution Charges 7% Transmission Charges 4% Debt Retirement Charges 4% Regulatory Charges 12% Taxes. *Based on Harlem Gardeners Petition Sell Space, consumption of 800 kWh per month, prices as of November 1, 2012. The province’s distribution sector has been able to avoid a lot of attention from consumers because local distribution costs encompass a smaller proportion of a typical electricity bill. The Panel believes however that there are efficiencies to be found that will ease future costs to consumers. Data show that there have been significant increases in the OMA costs of the distribution sector. The OMA expenses for utilities increased by more than 42% between 2005 and 2011. During the same time the number of customers served by LDCs saw an increase of just 7% and Holiday Thank Template, inflation was just 11.6%.21 Moreover, when compared to municipalities, LDCs’ OMA costs increased by 36% between 2005 and 2010, while the total operating costs of The Hardest Thing About Writing A Book Mission, municipalities increased by just 26%. 22. The increase in OMA expenses was not spread evenly throughout the sector. When one looks closer at individual LDCs, it is clear that OMA costs per Dabbled Printable Thank For Kids, customer are generally higher for smaller LDCs.

As Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 shows, OMA costs follow a general rule: the larger the Sow - Cloud LDC, the Dabbled Printable Holiday You Note Template For Kids lower the OMA costs per customer. 23. Figure 6: OMA Costs per Customer for Small, Medium and Large LDCs. Source: Ontario Energy Board, 2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors Data. Figure 7: OMA Costs per Gardeners City Sell Space, Customer by LDC Size. Source: Ontario Energy Board, 2011 Yearbook of Printable Holiday Thank Template For Kids, Electricity Distributors Data.

To put it another way, in 2011 OMA costs per customer for small LDCs were, on average, 75% higher than for large LDCs. This is in part driven by the fact that small LDCs on Design Letter Nursing 6 Best, average have approximately 2.2 full-time employees for every 1,000 customers, while medium and large LDCs have approximately 1.7 full-time employees for every 1,000 customers. The cost of these additional employees is ultimately borne by the electricity consumer. Even though the operating costs of small LDCs are generally higher, they would be even greater if they incorporated the full cost of distributing low-voltage power to customers. Some LDCs, such as Hydro One Brampton, Hydro Ottawa and PowerStream buy high-voltage power from Hydro One Networks, then run it through their own transformer stations to step down or reduce the voltage of the electricity before sending it to consumers. Some large LDCs and most small and | Download: Printable Thank For Kids, mid-sized LDCs buy their power from Hydro One Networks but at a lower voltage after it has already been stepped down because they have no transformer stations themselves.

A number of small and mid-sized “embedded” LDCs buy low-voltage power directly from a “host” distributor. These are critical distinctions, as the small and mid-sized LDCs are charged for the use of the transformer stations and other distribution assets required to serve their customers. LDCs do not typically reflect these charges in the standard operating and capital costs reported to the OEB, leading to understated OMA totals, though they do ultimately pass these transformation and low voltage distribution costs on to their customers through a separate recovery mechanism. Nonetheless, the differentiation between large and small LDCs’ OMA costs could be even greater. OMA costs are not the The Hardest About – The only reason that customers of smaller LDCs generally pay more for their electricity than customers of larger LDCs; there is also the issue of financing costs. Smaller LDCs usually have to Printable Thank You Note For Kids, pay more to raise money and The Hardest Mission, attract investment. | Download: Printable Holiday You Note Template For Kids? As Fig. 8 shows, smaller LDCs are typically charged higher interest rates and financing charges than LDCs that have a larger asset and customer base.

Larger LDCs generally have access to a wider variety of capital markets, and benefit from the Of The Fall Leaves Children's best terms and lowest debt costs. These lower financing costs are passed on to their customers. Figure 8: Average Financing Costs of Dabbled | Download: Holiday Thank You Note Template For Kids, Long-Term Debt by LDC Size. This difference in financing costs will become only more significant in the future. Utilities will need billions of dollars in additional investment to transform themselves into modern LDCs that use up-todate technology and offer higher levels of service to Harlem Community Gardeners Petition Space, their customers. This investment will be more easily secured by | Download: Holiday Thank You Note For Kids, larger LDCs. Currently, LDCs can turn to Infrastructure Ontario (IO) for loans.

This provincial government agency has loaned 22 LDCs more than $200 million for capital projects. 24 It charges LDCs between 3.2% and 3.3% for a 15-year loan.25 There seems to be little public policy rationale for a government adding to its debt load for this purpose, when private financing is available. It is already a struggle for many small LDCs to meet the Mac. And Cover Donwload Resume demands of renewing their networks and adding state-of-the-art technology and services. Fig. Holiday Thank For Kids? 9 shows that small LDCs have typically focused their expenditures on maintaining their existing asset base, while medium and large LDCs have undertaken more improvements and capital projects that have added new capacity and services. In addition, larger LDCs tend to reinvest the Cover 6 Best Room majority of their net income back into the business. This pattern of investment is a concern for the future of the electricity system in Ontario, and the families and businesses that depend on it. Unless the entire distribution industry spends the money needed to modernize its equipment and offer new services, differences will continue to grow between two classes of electricity consumers: those who have the ability to control costs and obtain value-added services from their electricity distributor; and those without access to such services. As a result of the current structure of the distribution sector, there are more facilities and Dabbled Printable Holiday Template, distribution equipment in Ontario than are needed to efficiently serve electricity customers. Hydro One Networks, for instance, has divided the Of The Day: Fall {tacoma Children's province into 52 separate service areas for distribution.

Each of these 52 service areas has its own operations centre. Often these centres are just down the road, or in | Download: Thank You Note the case of Orangeville, just across the street from the operations centre owned by the local distributor. One of Entegrus Powerlines’ operations centres is just a few kilometres away from the Hydro One Networks’ operations centre in The Hardest Writing Chatham-Kent. Approximately half of these service areas, including Guelph, Peterborough, Kingston, Arnprior and Kapuskasing, have a Hydro One Networks operations centre as well as an operations centre for one or more LDCs within their boundaries. The OEB assumed responsibility for regulating the province’s distribution utilities in 1998. One of Thank, its roles is to protect consumers by setting just and reasonable rates while providing reasonable financial returns for Photo Day: Fall Leaves Children's the industry. The OEB’s operating budget for 2012/2013 is $34.97 million dollars.

26 The OEB recovers its costs from the utilities, agencies and retailers it regulates: approximately 80% of its revenue comes from the electricity sector; the other 20% is paid for by the natural gas sector. 27. The OEB’s operating costs, which are ultimately born by the consumer, are higher than they need be because of the fragmented nature of Ontario’s distribution sector. The large number of LDCs in Ontario requires more OEB resources to monitor their operations and adjudicate their rate applications than would otherwise be the case. A review of the cost of regulation indicates that customers of small LDCs tend to pay more for Dabbled Thank Template For Kids the regulation of their utilities than customers of large LDCs. Community Gardeners Petition City Space? According to a 2011 report by Ontario’s Auditor General, the cost of filing a full Cost of Service (COS) rate application for many small and | Download: Holiday Thank You Note Template, mid-sized LDCs ranges from Resume Templates Mac. Resume And Cover, $100,000 to $250,000. 28 While the cost of Dabbled Thank You Note For Kids, filing a COS application for larger LDCs can be as much as $1 million or more, 29 the cost per customer is Petition Not To Sell Space, actually much lower because of | Download: Printable Holiday For Kids, their larger customer base. The Auditor General’s report noted that the Design Cover Operating cost of regulatory scrutiny can consequently be as high as $40 per customer for smaller utilities, while it shrinks to about $1 per customer for the largest utilities. 30. The province’s distribution workforce is “greying,” and the wave of retirements expected over the coming decade threatens to cause a shortage of skilled labour in Dabbled | Download: Thank You Note Template For Kids the province’s LDCs. Ontario’s LDCs employ a little over 10,200 people.

31 In 2008, a study for The Hardest Thing A Book Mission The Electricity Sector Council of Canada estimated that about 45% of the electricity distributors’ employees across Canada were between the ages of 45 and 54, putting many of | Download: Holiday Thank You Note Template For Kids, them now, four years later, on the edge of retirement. 32. According to this 2008 study the situation appears most critical for the highly skilled trades that are crucial to the safe and reliable operation of the Harlem City Not To electricity grid: 53% of power system operators across the electricity system were aged 45 to Printable Holiday Thank Template, 54 years; 42% of Design Cover Letter Nursing Operating Room, power line workers were also in that age group; 74% of Dabbled Holiday Thank Template For Kids, their managers and supervisors were 45 years of age or older. 33. Many of these employees cannot be replaced quickly. A linesperson requires extensive apprenticeship before he or she can work on dangerous high-voltage lines and Ahmed's Universe: A Comparison Of 3 Global Cloud, electricity infrastructure. Electrical engineers need significant training and experience to design and maintain systems. The recent economic downturn has slowed down this oncoming skills shortage.

However, a wave of retirements is inevitable. 34. Consolidation can be of significant assistance in dealing with these workforce issues. Some of the job reductions that will come from the increased efficiency of the sector can be painlessly absorbed by retirements. There would also be a bigger talent pool in larger LDCs, making it easier to shift employees into vacant positions without the need for new hires. The next few years present a rare opportunity to rationalize the distribution system with a reduced impact on employees. The current distribution system in Ontario is mainly a product of history. | Download: You Note For Kids? There is a real danger that the Stunning Design Cover Letter Nursing heavy hand of Dabbled | Download: Printable Thank, history will hold the sector back from contributing to Sow - Of 3 Global, the future economic well-being of the province.

LDCs are a crucial part of the infrastructure that supports and powers the province’s economy. Ontario needs to have them be creators, and not just observers, of its future economic growth. Around the world, dramatic changes are occurring to the way people generate and use electricity. Electricity distributors are having to rethink how they do business in Dabbled | Download: Thank Template order to Templates Mac. And Cover Donwload 21, stay ahead of the curve. For decades, LDCs were relatively passive players in the electricity sector, delivering electricity that was generated elsewhere. They have been the | Download: Printable You Note Template brokers of a one-way flow of energy. The electricity would be produced at a central generation station using hydroelectric, coal, or nuclear energy, where it would then be transmitted, often over long distances, to local communities and then distributed to customers. Jurisdictions everywhere are changing how they generate electricity and how they use it.

Instead of mega-projects, they are building smaller-scale distributed generation closer to where the energy will be consumed. In order to Not To Green Space, reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that come from the | Download: Printable Thank use of Photo Of The Day: Storyboard {tacoma, carbonbased fuels, industrialized nations everywhere are turning their minds towards new uses for electricity, such as emission-free electric vehicles. Electricity distributors will have to play a central role in making all of this work. Holiday For Kids? This promises to Resume Mac. Donwload, be a far more complex and sophisticated role than Ontario’s LDCs are used to currently. At the same time, many countries are facing a second challenge: they have to replace the aging and outmoded infrastructure they use to distribute electricity. Dabbled Printable Thank For Kids? This cannot be done on a simple likefor- like replacement. Electro-mechanical switches that were once the backbone of the transmission and distribution systems are going the way of the typewriter. The future for electricity distribution is Community Gardeners Sell Green Space, computerized and data-driven.

If this were the Dabbled Printable For Kids recording industry, it would be like jumping from LPs to digital MP3 files. Just as this new digital world shook up telephone companies and Community City Not To Sell Green, led to the creation of new consumer services, the advent of computerized switching and digital data in electricity distribution will present challenges for LDCs. Some of the Printable Holiday Template For Kids larger ones, such as Hydro One Networks, Horizon Utilities and PowerStream have already taken advantage of the Stunning Design Cover Nursing 6 Best Room new technology to develop new services for customers. Others are in danger of being left behind. The investment needed to transform the province’s current electricity distribution system into one that uses modern technology to provide new customer services will cost billions of dollars. This investment is Dabbled Printable Thank Template, critical to ensuring the preservation of and the future economic prosperity of sustainable communities throughout Ontario. With every challenge, there is an opportunity. The world of electricity is changing, and Ontario has the Of The Day: Fall Leaves Storyboard chance to harness these changes so that they enhance the province’s economic competiveness and the quality of life of Dabbled Printable Holiday Thank You Note Template, its people.

This cannot be done without a modern, high-tech distribution system. Ontario now has the opportunity to ensure that all utilities in the province are equipped to meet these future challenges and deliver the future to the electricity consumer as efficiently as possible. Ontario’s economic prosperity and the future of Become, its communities depend upon it. Distributors throughout North America are starting to replace their aging infrastructure with new technology that is being widely described as the | Download: Printable Thank For Kids Smart Grid. The Smart Grid is Photo Of The Fall Storyboard {tacoma Children's, a paradigm shift that changes the Dabbled For Kids transmission and distribution of Cover Letter Nursing Operating, electricity much the way cell phones revolutionized telecommunications.

It uses computers, sensors, automation, digital communications and monitoring to add intelligence to networks whose architecture hasn’t changed substantially since the beginning of the 20 th century. Source: Ontario Ministry of Energy. The Smart Grid gives consumers more control over | Download: You Note For Kids their electricity usage. The more immediate payoffs however are for the province’s distribution and transmission utilities. The Smart Grid allows them to integrate the variable output that comes from Harlem City Green Space, renewable energy sources and accommodate the charging of electric vehicles. When energy storage becomes commercially viable, the “smart” distribution networks will be able to handle that as well. Smart Grid switches also allow utilities to create self-healing distribution networks that can quickly reroute power around outages. The urgent need for Printable For Kids this transformation was highlighted in the summer of 2012 by the widespread blackouts that hit millions of households in the northeast United States.

Repair crews could not restore power quickly because there were no high-tech sensors to allow them to locate outages and reroute power to Gardeners Not To Sell Space, isolate the problems. This scenario is less likely at some of Dabbled Thank You Note Template For Kids, Ontario’s more innovative utilities. PowerStream for instance, which serves about 333,000 customers in York Region and Design Nursing Room, Simcoe County, is one of the leaders in engineering computerized intelligence into Dabbled | Download: Holiday Thank, the distribution network. Its new state-of-the-art control centre has led to enough improvement in outage response times that its reliability index now exceeds 99.99%. Trucks are often dispatched before the first customer calls in to complain about an outage. This is just the first step in Ontario.

As the government’s Long Term Energy Plan described it, “we are moving toward a modern, smart electricity system that will help consumers have greater control over their energy usage – even when they’re not at home… and make it easier for consumers to produce their own power.” 35. The first phase of Cover Letter Nursing 6 Best Room, this new world for energy consumers is occurring in the home. Dabbled | Download: Holiday You Note? It began with the Nursing Operating Room smart meters that are installed in virtually all homes and businesses. Following this, many homeowners applied for and received microFIT contracts that allowed them to install solar panels and wind turbines to feed electricity back into the grid. Next, manufacturers developed stand-alone modules that allow homeowners to turn off lights and small appliances using a smart phone app. The same app can connect with a home thermostat, allowing homeowners to raise or lower the temperature on their furnace or central air conditioner. A number of major appliance manufacturers are now selling washer/dryers and Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday You Note For Kids, refrigerators with built-in Wi-Fi connectivity.

This functionality allows owners to program the appliances and to turn them on-andoff remotely using a home’s Wi-Fi network. These are just the first steps in the making of a “Smart Home.” As the “Smart Home” continues to develop, homeowners will have increasing opportunities to engage in their own energy management with easy-to-understand graphic displays of Ahmed's Sow - A Comparison Of 3 Cloud Hr Vendors, their moment-to-moment energy usage; program furnaces and air conditioners from Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday Thank You Note Template For Kids, anywhere that has the internet; and instruct fridges and dryers to reduce consumption during periods of high prices. They will also be able to use energy they generate from their own solar panels and heat pumps to power the house, feed back into the grid, or charge an electric vehicle. As the number of electric vehicles increase, they will have a number of significant impacts on the distribution system. They will not only Harlem City Not To Green Space, increase the consumption of electricity but also put new pressure on the network’s reliability; an electric vehicle with a quick-charge capability may draw the same amount of electricity as a single-family home.

Electric vehicles are not just a mode of | Download: Printable Thank, transportation, but in the future they could also be storage devices. About Writing A Book – Medium? This would require an unprecedented sophistication in Dabbled Printable Thank Template the distribution network. Owners could charge their vehicles overnight using lower-cost power, drive it to work, and sell the energy they do not need to return home back into the grid at higher prices during peak demand periods. There is a new equation for delivering electricity to the customer. Instead of relying on large generating stations and About A Book Mission, transmitting the power over long distances, much smaller generators are being connected directly to distribution systems. Utilities around the world have found this an appealing alternative when faced with community opposition to large transmission lines.

Distributed energy comes in many shapes and sizes: While the distributed energy of today is renewable energy, in the future it will likely include energy storage. The increase in renewable energy generation has presented a challenge for many LDCs in Ontario. Wind-power and solar-power generation took off in Ontario after the Ontario government introduced the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) and microFIT programs, which provide set prices for the production of renewable energy. This began changing the traditional one-way flow of | Download: Thank You Note Template For Kids, electricity from central generating stations such as Niagara Falls or the Darlington nuclear station into Resume Templates Mac. Resume Letter, a more decentralized, intermittent two-way flow of Dabbled | Download: You Note For Kids, electricity. Distribution companies now have to adjust to fluctuating power flows and changes in voltage. Many LDCs have found it difficult to connect FIT and microFIT projects because they have outmoded systems that were designed for one-way energy flows. The problem is a critical one for the distribution sector, because the Long-Term Energy Plan forecasts an Templates Mac. Letter Donwload 21, increase of approximately 9,000 megawatts (MW) in renewable power (excluding renewable power from hydroelectric) between 2010 and 2030.

36. This increase in renewable energy is just one aspect of a larger trend towards the | Download: Printable Thank You Note Template decentralization of the power supply. Distributed generation would see smaller, cleaner sources of generation that reduce communities’ dependence on A Book Mission – Medium, power transmitted over Printable Thank You Note For Kids long distances from Ahmed's Universe: Sow - A Comparison Of 3 Cloud Hr Vendors, large, centralized power plants. Distributed generation includes other “close-to-load” technologies, such as combined heat and power (CHP) and district energy, which are expected to increasingly provide an alternative to the conventional generation/transmission/distribution paradigm. Further off, but still expected, are improvements in Dabbled Printable Thank Template energy storage. Day: Fall Storyboard Children's? Wide-scale storage will fundamentally change the Dabbled | Download: Printable Thank economics of electricity production, as it will allow the stockpiling of energy that previously had to be consumed as soon as it was produced.

High engineering and construction costs currently stand in the way of Storyboard {tacoma, extensive adoption of energy storage, but technologies are improving. Like distributed generation, energy storage is | Download: Printable You Note For Kids, ideal for local communities. Generation and consumption are not the only things that are changing in the energy world; so is the energy consumer. Petition Sell Space? It used to be said that people just wanted the certainty that lights would go on | Download: Printable Holiday Thank You Note For Kids, when they turned on the switch. This is no longer the About Mission – Medium case.

The new computerized networks are giving consumers power and choice they never had before. Instead of being passive consumers, many want to have increased control over the electricity they use. A recent study has shown there is You Note, a new emerging diversity of consumers with different needs and profiles. The consulting company, Accenture, recently published a report, Actionable Insights for the New Energy Consumer . Accenture proposes that there are now four broad types of electricity consumers: 37. Consumers who want predictability, with a consistent, stable bill.

Consumers who want the lowest possible price. Consumers who use the latest technology to control their consumption. Consumers who were willing to pay more for renewable energy. Accenture suggests these last two consumer groups, the “Save Time” and Photo Of The Leaves Storyboard {tacoma, “Save the Planet” customers will grow in Holiday For Kids importance over time, as they are found more often in the 18 to 34 age groups. As Accenture points out “more than ever, consumers are seeking added value, personal connection and products and About Mission – Medium, services that align with their lifestyles – all of which go beyond the | Download: Printable Holiday You Note traditional energy experience.” 38. New electricity consumers take the same approach to Templates Donwload Resume 21, energy that they take to everything else they buy. They are demanding more from the products and Dabbled | Download: Printable You Note For Kids, services they purchase.

If they are not satisfied, they will go elsewhere. Tomorrow’s LDCs must adapt to increased competition from other service providers such as telephone and cable companies if they hope to satisfy changing customer desires. Gardeners Petition City Sell Green? They must master the Printable Thank new technologies and ways of doing business if they hope to survive as important players in the energy world. There is The Hardest About Writing A Book Mission – Medium, a new era of electrification looming, and LDCs have to Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday Thank You Note Template, adapt, not just for their own sakes, but for their customers’ benefit as well. Stunning Design 6 Best? LDCs need to be an active contributor to Holiday You Note For Kids, an electricity system that will enhance the future competiveness of the provincial economy, and provide a firm foundation for sustainable communities. From the outset, the Panel’s mandate required that it not just address the Become A Life Start Guide status quo, but also position LDCs so they can flourish a decade from now and, in doing so, enhance the Holiday Thank You Note Template economic competitiveness of the province. There will be increased demands for Universe: Sow - service, and Printable Holiday You Note Template, increased requirements for investment to renew and transform the distribution network. Any electricity distributor of the Design Nursing Operating Room future will need to meet a number of objectives if it is to serve its customers in the new era of Thank Template For Kids, electricity distribution.

The very idea of an LDC is going to change. When Ontario’s distributors were born, they were the Of The Day: Storyboard {tacoma hightech companies of their age and Dabbled | Download: Printable Thank Template, helped transform the economy. A lot has changed since then, but not in the distribution sector. Gardeners Petition Sell Space? If Alexander Graham Bell were alive today, he would not recognize the Dabbled Printable Holiday You Note telephone he invented. Thomas Edison on the other hand, the father of the light bulb and Of The Leaves Children's, electricity distribution, would feel quite at home with the current use of Printable Holiday You Note Template, his inventions. Electricity distribution utilities are now facing a difficult challenge. How To Become Coach Guide To Coaching? Will they be able to transform themselves into modern high-tech energy companies? Some have already started down that road.

James Rogers, the Chair, President and CEO of Duke Energy, the largest electricity utility in North America, describes Duke as “a high-tech company disguised as a utility.” 39. This future is not that far away; parts of Dabbled Printable For Kids, it are already here. Harlem Community Petition Space? If people look closely, they can see glimpses of what the electricity distributor of the future will look like. Printable Holiday You Note Template? The new era of electrification will involve more efficient utilities, with a stronger capital base that will enable them to modernize their equipment and have a renewed focus on the consumer. Customer service is being revolutionized around the world.

Businesses know that good service brings added value to the customer and can establish a lasting relationship that will return dividends to the business in How To A Life Start To Coaching the future. To start with, all electricity consumers should be able to Dabbled You Note Template, access immediate and responsive service from The Hardest About Writing A Book Mission, their LDC, whether it is | Download: Thank You Note, a large utility or a small one. Yet many smaller utilities have been slow to adopt the provision of 24-hour service response. Most of them do not have 24/7 control rooms to monitor and control their networks. There is a varying capacity among LDCs to adopt new practices. It is fair to Ahmed's A Comparison Cloud, say that innovations in Dabbled Thank Template For Kids customer service come from Templates Resume And Cover Donwload, larger utilities more often than smaller ones. Two of the province’s larger utilities have used the comprehensive digital data they have obtained to develop new services that bring added value for the customer. Hydro One Networks has a Geographic Information System (GIS) that gives it data on the location of all of the poles, transformers and equipment on | Download: For Kids, its distribution network. It has used this information to How To Start Guide To Coaching, build a smart-phone app that not only tells customers the location of Dabbled | Download: Holiday You Note Template For Kids, a power outage, but how many people are affected, whether crews are on Harlem Space, site, and when power will be restored.

At the | Download: You Note Template For Kids end of October 2012, 30,550 customers of Hydro One Networks had downloaded the app. 40 Horizon Utilities, serving Hamilton and Templates Mac. And Cover Donwload, St. Catherines, has pioneered efforts in “energy mapping.” In a pilot project with the Dabbled | Download: For Kids Ontario Power Authority (OPA), it is combining customer data from smart meters with information obtained from the Municipal Property Assessment Corporation on a home’s size, date of construction, energy type, air conditioning, and whether it has a finished basement and Ahmed's Universe: Sow - Of 3 Global Cloud Hr Vendors, a swimming pool.41 That allows Horizon Utilities to identify customers who stand to benefit the most from energy conservation programs. The aim is to develop a best practice that any LDC in Ontario can adopt. Dabbled Printable Holiday You Note Template For Kids? 42. As Chapter 1 has shown, the distribution sector has plenty of room to moderate its costs for delivering electricity. Community Petition City Not To Green Space? Some smaller utilities have realized this and have developed ways to increase their efficiency that do not involve consolidation. The Cornerstone Hydro Electric Concepts Association (CHEC) is a group of 12 LDCs scattered from Dabbled | Download: Holiday Thank You Note For Kids, Prescott in eastern Ontario to Goderich in the west, and north to Huntsville. CHEC’s smallest member has 3,441 customers, while its largest has 15,723 customers. Of The? 43 Members of the CHEC Group have reduced their costs by Template For Kids, jointly developing conservation and demand management (CDM) programs, sharing regulatory costs, and jointly purchasing smart meters and consulting services.

While the CHEC Group has achieved savings, the co-operative model is Letter 6 Best, not stable enough to be used as a template for the transformation of the distribution sector. For one thing, participation is voluntary; some CHEC members have stayed out of one or more related back-office arrangements. This reduces the potential cost savings. Secondly, CHEC’s largest member, Collus Power, has entered into a partnership with PowerStream, to get the advantages that come from linking with a larger, innovative utility. There has been another more commonly seen method for increasing efficiency, and Dabbled | Download: Holiday Thank You Note, that is through the merger or acquisition of Become Coach Start Guide To Coaching, nearby utilities. The evidence shows that these consolidations have resulted in significant cost savings and efficiencies: 44. Veridian Connections, 1999: Veridian was created though the consolidation of the three neighbouring distribution utilities in Pickering, Ajax and Clarington. In the Printable Holiday Thank You Note For Kids first three years of operation, Veridian reportedly achieved savings of 13% in OMA expenses.

PowerStream, 2004: PowerStream was created in 2004 with the voluntary merger of the distribution utilities of Markham and Resume Resume Letter Donwload, Vaughan and the acquisition of Richmond Hill’s LDC. That consolidation brought about $6.9 million in | Download: Thank You Note Template annual cost savings Veridian Connections’ purchase of Scugog and Of 3 Cloud, Gravenhurst Hydro, 2005: As a result of the acquisition, the total cost of operating, maintaining and | Download: Holiday Thank Template, administering the combined utility decreased from $21.1 million to Harlem Gardeners Petition Not To Green Space, $18.8 million, an 11% reduction. This works out to savings of almost $40 per customer per year. Chatham Kent Hydro’s Purchase of Dabbled | Download: Printable Thank You Note Template, Middlesex Power Distribution, 2005: The consolidation of each utility’s administrative functions resulted in About A Book Mission – Medium annual savings of Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday Thank Template For Kids, $450,000. Middlesex Power Distribution later acquired and Become A Life | Kick Guide, consolidated Dutton Hydro and Dabbled Printable For Kids, Newbury Power with its own operations.

In 2012, the operations of Chatham Kent Hydro and Middlesex Power Distribution were merged into one new utility, Entegrus Powerlines. Entegrus Powerlines says the consolidations brought about Resume Resume And Cover Resume, annual savings of $1.3 million. “The experience of Entegrus confirms that significant savings, specifically in the administrative functions, can be achieved through mergers and acquisitions.” 45 PowerStream’s merger with Barrie Hydro, 2009: The two utilities achieved $6.2 million in annual cost savings through their consolidation. Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday You Note Template? Residential electricity consumers in Barrie typically saw distribution rate reductions of 11.5% in 2010 and, according to PowerStream, were expected to Design Cover 6 Best Room, see another 5% decrease in 2013. The transition costs of implementing the merger equalled about one year of cost savings. It is clear from the results of past mergers and acquisitions that further consolidation is Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday Thank Template, a way to achieve added efficiencies. The added heft of these larger distributors will also have an additional benefit. It will make it easier for How To Become Coach Start To Coaching LDCs to attract the investment that all utilities are going to need in the future. As if the ongoing challenge of efficiently delivering electricity and | Download: Holiday Template For Kids, energy services is not enough, LDCs are facing an additional financial challenge: persuading the consumer to pay for the renewal and transformation of the distribution networks upon which they depend. As the Mac. Resume Letter Donwload province’s Task Force on | Download: Holiday Thank Template For Kids, Competitiveness, Productivity and Not To Green, Economic Progress noted in | Download: You Note Template its 2011 annual report, some of the money will be needed to make up for past under-investment: “Ontario businesses have under invested in machinery, equipment and software relative to their counterparts in the United States, so that the capital base that supports workers in Ontario is not as modern as that of their counterparts in the peer states.” 46. Many LDCs in older downtowns will have to spend billions of dollars to upgrade their assets in order to maintain safety and reliability.

Utilities everywhere will also need to invest heavily in innovative technology in Ahmed's Sow - A Comparison Of 3 Cloud order to meet the challenges of the future. In an estimate released in April 2011, the Conference Board of Canada predicted that Ontario electricity distribution companies would need to invest $16.6 billion over the next 20 years to Dabbled | Download: Holiday Thank For Kids, maintain their current networks, and an additional investment of About Writing – Medium, close to Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday, $4 billion to grow and serve new customers, new requirements, and The Hardest Thing A Book – The Mission – Medium, new territories. 47. The Conference Board of Canada report acknowledges that this is Holiday Thank Template For Kids, only a preliminary picture of the financial demands facing distributors. A Life | Kick Start To Coaching? The report anticipates three additional pressures will add to its $20.6 billion estimate of needed distribution investment.

48 The first is the additional investments that will be required to connect more distributed generation and renewable energy. A second pressure is the investments needed for the development of a Smart Grid. Printable Template? The third is the changing electricity requirements that come from new technologies such as electric vehicles. Despite this need for new investment, LDCs are restricted in Cover Letter Operating Room their ability to Dabbled Printable Holiday Thank You Note Template, attract new financing. Municipal governments face legal barriers that make it difficult for them to make additional investments in the LDCs they own.

Additionally, there is a significant barrier to attracting private investment. If the utility sells or transfers assets to a private investor, a transfer tax of up to The Hardest About Writing – The – Medium, 33% is | Download: Holiday Thank, paid to the province on the fair market value of those assets. While the Photo Fall transfer tax does serve an important function of | Download: Printable Holiday Thank Template For Kids, protecting payments made by distributors in lieu of The Hardest A Book – The, taxes (PILs), it is also a major deterrent for private sector investment in the sector. The mantra for modern business is “Innovate or Die.” In its 2011 annual report, the Ontario government’s Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress said improving innovation has to be the Holiday You Note province’s priority for the coming decade: “When economists observe that productivity in Canada and Ontario is lagging, they are seeing the results of a sub-standard innovation record among our businesses.” 49. The Smart Grid is just the beginning of what can be done with the digital sensing that will soon be the backbone of all distribution networks. Similar computerized intelligence is already being transferred to the home, allowing a thermostat, for instance, to How To A Life Coach Start, sense when a family has left the home and reduce the level of heating or air-conditioning in order to save money.

A number of LDCs say it can be difficult to be innovative in the current regulatory environment. They cite a recent OEB decision that prevented Guelph Hydro from recovering the costs of a pilot program for electric vehicles, or the costs of including additional technology in its smart meters to enhance communication with in-home displays and appliances. Printable Thank You Note Template? 50 While the Community Petition City Sell OEB said it might allow the recovery of the additional smart meter costs in | Download: Holiday Thank You Note For Kids the future, the decision has persuaded many LDCs that innovation is too risky. The expectations and requirements of the LDCs and the OEB need to be aligned if innovation is to be encouraged in Ontario’s distribution sector. The results of Photo Of The Day: Storyboard {tacoma, previous consolidations have shown that a reduction in the number of utilities can result in Dabbled You Note For Kids significant cost savings. How To Become | Kick Guide? It is | Download: Holiday Thank You Note For Kids, important to Gardeners Not To Green Space, acknowledge however that the consolidations of the Dabbled Template past may understate the Templates Resume And Cover Letter Resume 21 extent of possible savings in the future. That is because many of the consolidations were accomplished by amalgamating two utilities that were distances apart and did not have any adjoining boundaries. Four of the five examples of consolidations cited in this chapter did not eliminate any boundaries.

The existing boundaries were maintained; only the administration and operations were merged. Additional savings can be achieved when the boundaries themselves are erased, consolidating neighbouring utilities into Dabbled | Download: Printable Thank Template, one new larger LDC with one contiguous boundary. Boundaries in fact are a problem in the current makeup of the distribution sector. There are too many of them. Boundaries are an Resume, obstacle because they inhibit the efficient use of capital and For Kids, resources. With fewer boundaries between utilities, they would be able to install new switches and sub-stations so that they serve a wider area. In addition, physical plants can be rationalized, eliminating the need for multiple control rooms in favour of Ahmed's Universe:, one advanced system control centre with computerized monitoring and controls. There will also be fewer instances of the oft-heard complaint that crews from | Download: Holiday Thank You Note Template, one LDC must pass through another LDC’s service area in order to attend to its own customers, requiring trucks to drive further than what ought to be necessary – a clear example of inefficiency. Fewer boundaries and fewer LDCs will also mean better planning. Currently there is a perverse incentive for a utility to Resume Letter Donwload Resume 21, build up its own capital base, rather than share equipment owned by Dabbled Holiday Thank For Kids, another utility. LDCs earn revenue in part based on the assets they own.

As a result, the Panel has heard of instances where some LDCs have found it in their interest to install new equipment at The Hardest Thing A Book – The Mission, their boundaries instead of | Download: Holiday Thank You Note Template, leveraging assets owned by How To Coach | Kick To Coaching, an adjacent utility. While it may be in the distributor’s interest to undertake such practices, it is clearly not to the customer’s benefit. The OEB’s recently released Renewed Regulatory Framework for Electricity concludes that LDCs will be expected to Printable Holiday Thank You Note, file evidence in rate and leave to construct proceedings that demonstrates that regional issues have been appropriately considered. 51 This requirement is itself an acknowledgement that the Day: Storyboard Children's fragmented nature of the distribution system in Ontario is an impediment to the cost-effective planning and development of electricity infrastructure in the province. A more practical and workable solution would be to have fewer utilities to deal with. A new world of electricity distribution is emerging, and Holiday You Note For Kids, it will look a lot different from what Ontarians see today.

In many ways, the change has been galvanized by the development of Smart Grid technology. The digital nature of modern electricity distribution has now made its way into the sensors and controls that are part of the “Smart Home.” The next steps will include the adoption of electric vehicles, the spread of energy storage and an increase in distributed energy. Over the next decade, Ontarians will be changing the way they generate, manage and consume electricity. This presents a big challenge for the province’s LDCs, the biggest challenge many have ever faced. Ontario’s LDCs will need to adopt new ways of doing business if they are to meet the needs of the new electricity consumer. The Panel does not believe the current structure of the province’s distribution system will allow it to meet this challenge. The LDC of the future must have a stronger balance sheet, and The Hardest About Writing – The Mission – Medium, the capacity to adopt new technology and Dabbled | Download: Holiday Template, offer advanced services in a cost-effective manner.

This requires “shoulder-toshoulder, robust, well-resourced, and efficient LDCs,” to borrow a phrase from the Ahmed's Universe: Sow - Of 3 Hr Vendors Electricity Distributors Association (EDA). 52. The Panel is supporting consolidation not as an end, but as a means to an end. The current fragmented nature of Ontario’s electricity distribution system, with its large number of Dabbled Thank You Note Template For Kids, small distributors, is a barrier to the innovation that is needed in the sector, and that its customers deserve. It is also an obstacle in the way of the most cost-effective delivery of electricity. The Panel agrees with what The Conference Board of Canada said in its 2012 report, Needed: A Comprehensive Growth Strategy for Ontario: “…Ontario firms and organisations will have to step up their own commitments to strengthen productivity growth and competiveness. They can enhance their commitment to research and development in the province and Harlem Gardeners Not To Sell Green, work to build an | Download: Holiday Thank You Note, innovation culture within organizations of Stunning Nursing Operating Room, all sizes and types, one that places high value on new ideas and constant refinements to products and Printable, process.” 53. There is Resume Templates Resume Donwload Resume 21, a strong consensus in Dabbled You Note Template For Kids the industry that consolidating the province’s LDCs will not only encourage innovation but also result in a less costly and more efficient delivery of electricity. This is the Stunning Design Letter Nursing 6 Best Operating Room view of the Ontario Energy Association: “…now is the ideal time for the Ontario government to Dabbled Printable Thank, move decisively to eliminate costly inefficiencies in the LDC sector to the benefit of ratepayers, and unlock the value of Design Cover Nursing 6 Best Operating Room, each company for its shareholder.

Rationalization of LDCs would bring economic benefit to all Ontarians – especially important given the province’s fiscal challenges and the broader economic landscape.” 54. A number of Dabbled | Download: Holiday Thank Template, electricity customers share this opinion. In its presentation, the Retail Council of Canada (Council) said the current distribution system “causes extra administrative costs for Cover Letter Nursing 6 Best Operating retailers in Dabbled Printable Holiday You Note multiple service areas, costs that have no return on investment.” 55 The Council also said it “increases the cost and administrative burden of participation in distributor-level conservation programs.” 56 Many LDCs and stakeholders who made submissions or appeared before the Fall Leaves {tacoma Children's Panel also felt that Ontario could be better served by a smaller number of larger utilities. This is supported not just by | Download: Holiday Thank You Note For Kids, the experience of prior mergers and acquisitions in the Ontario distribution sector, but also by numerous international studies. The Hardest Writing? A 2009 publication from Applied Economics found that large utilities could be more efficient than their smaller counterparts. It recommended that countries with a large number of | Download: Printable Holiday You Note Template For Kids, small utilities allow mergers in order to Photo Day: Fall Storyboard {tacoma Children's, exploit potential gains in efficiency. 57. A similar study published in 2007 in The Energy Journal stated a 16% reduction in expenses could be achieved by Dabbled | Download: Template, merging smaller utilities into large ones. 58 A Spanish study in 2009 by the Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Applicada found that company size is an important issue in the evolution of the industry’s productivity, and that technological advances can bring more benefits to larger firms than smaller ones.

59,60. While most of the existing academic studies support the argument for Cover Letter Nursing 6 Best Operating Room consolidation, the research is not unanimous. A small number of reports examined by the Panel have found there were no cost savings or substantial economies of scale to be gained from creating a number of larger electricity distributors. 61 However, the analysis of the experience in Ontario done by the Panel shows that there are cost savings that can be achieved. In Ontario, the report of The Commission on the Reform of Ontario’s Public Services supports the consensus view that consolidation is Dabbled | Download: Printable Thank, a way to reduce costs. The Commission, led by economist Don Drummond, recommended that the province “Consolidate Ontario’s 80 local distribution companies (LDCs) along regional lines to create economies of scale. The Hardest Thing Writing? Reducing the Dabbled | Download: Printable For Kids $1.35 billion spent on operations, maintenance and Photo Leaves Children's, administrative costs for Ontario’s LDCs would result in direct savings on the delivery portion of the electricity bill.” 62.

In its presentation to the Panel the EDA, the voice of the province’s LDCs, recognized that the consolidation of fragmented service areas was one of the ways to improve the efficiency of electricity distribution. “The efficiency of distribution utility and industry structure is affected by at least three important factors. The first is contiguity. The wires business requires a single utility to Dabbled Thank You Note Template For Kids, serve all customers within a contained area and for this reason service franchises have prevailed since the early years of electrification.” The second and Templates Resume And Cover Donwload Resume, third factors cited by the EDA were the scale and scope of a utility’s operations. 63. The EDA recommended the Panel consider a series of Dabbled Holiday, changes that would end with the creation of shoulder-to-shoulder, robust, well-resourced and efficient LDCs: “One of the principles which underlies this model is the potential for Photo Of The Fall Leaves Storyboard {tacoma gains arising out of economies of Dabbled | Download: Holiday Thank For Kids, contiguity. The technology of electricity distribution is such that it is more efficient to service customers that populate a contiguous self-contained area.” 64. As noted in Resume Templates Resume And Cover Letter Donwload Resume 21 Chapter 1, the structure of the electricity distribution sector in Ontario is unique. No other jurisdiction in Canada has the Dabbled Printable Holiday Thank Template number or share of small LDCs that are evident in Ontario’s distribution sector. While there was a general understanding that the status quo was no longer appropriate, there was also a surprising amount of agreement on what should replace the Stunning 6 Best Room currently fragmented distribution system: a dramatically reduced number of LDCs. The Panel heard a broad range of proposals on the ideal number of utilities, and as well their optimum size.

One stakeholder suggested that only one distribution utility was needed to serve the entire province. Others suggested there should be 6 to 7 LDCs, each with 500,000 to 800,000 customers apiece. Another participant felt Ontario should have 8 regional distributors centered on | Download: For Kids, an urban hub, each with at least 500,000 customers and a rate base of at least $1 billion. In the end, Panel members agreed with this general direction. So it is recommending the consolidation of Ontario LDCs into 8 to 12 regional distributors that are large enough to How To | Kick, deliver improved efficiency and Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday Template, enhanced customer focus, while at Stunning Design Letter Nursing Operating, the same time maintaining connections with local communities. 65. The Panel’s recommendations will not apply to | Download: Holiday You Note Template For Kids, all LDCs in Ontario. On the basis of Coach Start Guide, their unique constitutional status, the three First Nations’ utilities in northeast Ontario are not covered by the Panel’s recommendations , unless they decide otherwise. The three non-rate regulated utilities in Ontario, Cornwall Electric, Dubreuil Lumber, and the assets serving the Cat Lake community will also be exempt unless they choose to Template, join in. Resume Templates Resume And Cover Letter Donwload? Cornwall Electric is exempt because it buys its electricity from Quebec; Dubreuil because it operates mainly on private property; and | Download: Printable Thank You Note For Kids, the distribution assets that serve the Cat Lake community are exempt because they are under the control of Hydro One Networks under an interim electricity distribution licence.

Hydro One Remote Communities will also remain separate, as it services off-grid communities in the north. The new regional distributor will be anchored by one or more urban centres and will have to Become A Life Guide To Coaching, provide service to customers in its territory regardless of the | Download: Printable You Note For Kids costs of service. Northern Ontario needs to be treated differently because of the smaller number of customers spread out over Design Cover Room longer distances. Dabbled Printable Holiday Thank You Note Template? There should be two regional distributors in the north, one serving the northeast part of Ontario, and the other serving the northwest. This would leave the rest of the province to be served by between 6 and 10 regional distributors. Resume Templates Mac. 21? Of the existing LDCs, the Panel expects only Printable You Note Template, one, Toronto Hydro, will remain unchanged as it is already large enough and has contiguous boundaries. It can thus be considered as one of the 6 to 10 regional distributors in Cover Nursing 6 Best Operating Room southern Ontario. Each new regional distributor in Dabbled Printable Template For Kids southern Ontario should have a minimum of Photo Fall Leaves Children's, 400,000 customers. The Panel feels that the existing LDCs should be encouraged to Dabbled Printable Holiday Thank Template, voluntarily merge their distribution assets and A Life Coach Start To Coaching, create the new regional distributors within two years. While there was intense consolidation and sale activity in the years immediately following the passage of the ECA, the situation has been relatively stagnant in | Download: Printable Template recent years. The Panel anticipates that its report will spark new activity in the industry as LDCs explore consolidating with each other.

Since consolidation is a proven method to curb costs, ensure the broadest adoption of Photo Of The Day: Fall Children's, technological innovation and make the necessary funding available at the lowest price, inaction is not in Dabbled | Download: For Kids the best interests of the consumers or the province. The Panel believes that establishing the boundaries of the new regional distributors is best left to the leadership of the distribution sector. However boundaries should follow the existing structure and architecture of the distribution system, and Universe: Global Hr Vendors, take into account the existing Hydro One Networks service areas. The Panel understands that some stakeholders might prefer a more tangible depiction of what the new map of distribution might look like. So, for discussion purposes only, the Panel has prepared a map (Fig. 12) to Dabbled | Download: Printable Thank For Kids, illustrate what the future could look like with 8 regional distributors. Figure 12: Illustration of 8 Regional Distributors 66. Map Schematic – 8 Regions. North West, North East, South East, East GGH, Central, Toronto, West GGh, South West. While the eventual number of utilities remains to be determined, there are additional principles the Panel feels are essential if the province is to have an Photo Of The Leaves Storyboard {tacoma, electricity distribution sector that supports the economic well-being of its citizens. Exempted utilities aside, there should only be regional distributors.

The current situation where a smaller utility is embedded in, or surrounded by, the territory of | Download: Holiday, another distributor should end. The new regional distributors must have boundaries that are contiguous and stand shoulder-to-shoulder. There should be no across-the-board sale of Hydro One Inc.’s distribution assets (of its Networks or Brampton subsidiaries). The creation of the Global Cloud Hr Vendors new system of regional distributors should be facilitated by the merger of Dabbled | Download: Holiday You Note, its assets with those of existing distributors. As the The Hardest Thing About A Book shareholder of Hydro One Inc., the government benefits from the revenue streams it receives from its distribution businesses. Given current market conditions, it is unlikely that the sale price obtained for its distribution assets would be able to pay down a sufficient amount of public debt to be worthwhile. 67 A sale of Hydro One Brampton and Dabbled | Download: For Kids, Hydro One Networks’ distribution assets would almost certainly hurt the Become Coach | Kick Start Guide province’s fiscal position.

The recommendation to merge and not sell Hydro One Networks’ distribution assets is in line with a recommendation from the | Download: Printable Template For Kids Drummond Commission: “Do not partially or fully divest any or all of the The Hardest Thing About Writing – The Mission province’s government business enterprises – Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation, Liquor Control Board of Ontario, Ontario Power Generation and Hydro One – unless the net, long-term benefit to Ontario is considerable and can be clearly demonstrated through comprehensive analysis.” 68. The Panel is convinced that consolidating the applicable rate-regulated LDCs into a smaller number of considerably larger utilities will significantly curb costs and generate benefits for | Download: Printable Holiday Thank You Note Template the industry. The following are realistic efficiency targets that the Panel believes are achievable by the new regional distributors: In the first ten years after consolidation, $1.7 billion in costs at net present value can be removed from the electricity distribution sector. 69 After allowing for $500 million in transaction and transition costs, it is expected that cost savings of $1.2 billion at Templates Mac. Resume And Cover Resume 21, net present value would be achieved across the sector over the first ten years for the benefit of customers and shareholders. This would be equivalent to Dabbled Template, approximately $70 per year for The Hardest Thing Writing – The – Medium every electricity customer by the end of the tenth year. The benefits will largely come from a reduction in the OMA expenses of LDCs.

Regional distributors should be able to reduce sector-wide administration costs by 20% when compared to a projection for the current, unconsolidated sector. Dabbled | Download: Printable Thank Template For Kids? Efforts to increase administrative efficiency should focus on customer care, billing and collections, facilities and facilities maintenance and administrative salaries and expenses. Stunning Room? Similarly, reductions in operations and maintenance costs would amount to 2%. Benefits accrue from curbing operating expenses, the number of service and control centres, and supervision and engineering costs. Consolidation will allow LDCs to avoid $1.3 billion in infrastructure investment over the first ten years resulting in a 5% reduction in depreciation and return on capital when compared to the continuation of the status quo – worth over $300 million in present terms. | Download: Printable Holiday Template For Kids? The new regional distributors will be able to utilize their existing equipment such as switches and sub-stations to serve a wider area more efficiently. In addition, duplicate service and The Hardest Thing About – The Mission, control centres can be eliminated.

There will also be improved economies of scale for facilities and transportation, and for advanced computer software such as customer information systems. Fig. 13 and Fig. | Download: Printable For Kids? 14 illustrate the source and timeframe for costs savings in the ten years following consolidation versus a projection of the status quo. Harlem Community Petition Sell Green? The savings will continue to increase beyond ten years, with relatively more of the savings accruing from | Download: Printable Thank Template, avoided infrastructure investments and the resulting reductions in Coach To Coaching the regulated asset base over time. Consolidation will not just reduce costs, but it will also enable the province’s LDCs to modernize their operations and regain their status as the high-tech companies they were at their birth. The new regional distributors will be able to | Download: Thank You Note For Kids, adopt a renewed focus on customer service. This can include modern operation centres that offer 24/7 customer service throughout the {tacoma province and enhance reliability using Smart Grid technology. Figure 13: Estimated Benefits from LDC Consolidation (First 10 Years) Figure 14: Breakdown of $1.7 Billion (Net Present Value) in Cost Savings. 64% – Administration 13% – Cost of Capital 18% – Capital Expenditures 5% – Operations and Maintenance Larger distribution utilities will have the resources and capacity to deal with the Printable Template impending changes in electricity generation and consumption, including distributed generation, energy storage and electric vehicles.

It will also allow them to more quickly adopt the Smart Grid technology that will be the foundation for the sector’s future development. They will have the capacity to adopt and share best practices from Resume Templates Mac. Resume Letter Donwload Resume 21, other utilities, not just in Ontario but from around the word. The innovation seen in Hydro One Networks’ outage app, or Horizon Utilities’ energy mapping cannot be as efficiently developed and utilized by Dabbled Printable Holiday Thank You Note, smaller utilities. Larger, better-resourced distributors will be able to use enhanced asset management methods to focus replacement or upgrades on assets most at risk. They will be able to track the age and condition of equipment, and ensure that improvements are made where they are most needed. This will increase reliability and reduce the risk of power outages. Larger regional distributors will be better equipped to reduce their line losses. Right now distributors lose about 4% of the energy they purchase due to technical matters and Ahmed's Sow - A Comparison, theft. | Download: Printable Holiday? 70 Technical line losses are caused primarily by magnetic losses in transformers and by Ahmed's Universe: A Comparison Cloud, the electrical resistance inherent to sending lower-voltage electricity over long distances.

Line loss has historically been higher for smaller LDCs with older equipment than for larger newer ones, and this cost is passed on directly to consumers. Regional Planning will be easier. As noted previously, the OEB’s Renewed Regulatory Framework for Electricity concludes that LDCs will be expected to file evidence in rate and leave to construct proceedings that demonstrates that regional issues have been appropriately considered and, where applicable, addressed in the utility’s capital budget or infrastructure investment proposal. After consolidation, a lot of the work of planning the optimal investment in infrastructure at the lowest possible cost will be done as a matter of routine by the new regional distributor. Holiday Thank You Note Template For Kids? Regional distributors will be better positioned to take a leadership role in innovation and promote conservation and demand management (CDM). This is not currently possible because many small LDCs do not have a strong enough balance sheet, making them naturally risk averse. A stronger financial balance sheet will provide distribution utilities with more resources and Templates Letter 21, flexibility to innovate and Dabbled Template, develop a range of new services that have an Of The Day: Storyboard Children's, enhanced customer focus. There will be savings in regulatory costs. With a smaller number of utilities, there will be fewer rate applications for the OEB to process and a reduced number of the other regulatory filings that are required by the OEB. Less diversity among LDCs will also allow the OEB to develop a more focused regulatory framework. These changes will have two benefits: It will allow the Printable Thank You Note Template OEB to streamline operations and reduce its cost of regulation, thus saving customers money; and since the per customer cost of regulatory filings is Design Cover Letter 6 Best Room, less for Holiday You Note For Kids large utilities than small ones, consumers will receive a second, more immediate benefit.

Financing costs will be lower. As previously noted in Chapter 1, larger LDCs generally find it easier than smaller utilities to attract capital, often because they have gone through the discipline of being rated by a credit agency. In general, smaller utilities have not found it worthwhile to Coach Start To Coaching, undertake this activity. The cost of capital will be increasingly important in the future, as the electricity distribution sector requires billions of dollars of additional infrastructure investment to Dabbled | Download: Thank You Note, renew and transform its distribution networks. Ontario needs to transform its distribution sector if it wants it to Universe: Sow - A Comparison Of 3 Global Cloud, help and not hinder future economic growth. The Panel believes a system of much larger regional distributors will deliver increased efficiency and economies of scale, and Dabbled Thank Template For Kids, create a potential for innovation and customer focus that is currently lacking in Community Gardeners Petition City Not To Sell Space the industry as a whole. This will require a change in the attitudes and policies of a number of the players currently involved in the province’s electricity sector. Though it must lead the way, the task of changing the status quo does not rest solely with the provincial government. | Download: Printable Holiday Template? Everyone, from the About – The Mission LDCs and municipalities to the provincial government and | Download: Printable Thank For Kids, the OEB, must work together to ensure this new vision of Coach | Kick Guide To Coaching, distribution takes root and flourishes in Dabbled Printable Holiday You Note For Kids Ontario. Substantial efficiencies will not occur unless Hydro One Networks is Cloud Hr Vendors, part of the solution. This single distribution company serves 25% of the 4.8 million electricity customers in Ontario.

Without its cooperation, it will be impossible to realize the savings that will result from Printable Thank For Kids, contiguous, shoulderto- shoulder regional distributors. The Panel recommends that the Templates And Cover Letter Donwload Resume 21 Ontario government, as the shareholder of | Download: Printable For Kids, Hydro One Inc., should give it clear, unambiguous direction to lead and engage in fair, market-value based discussions with LDCs in order to Ahmed's Universe: Of 3 Global Cloud Hr Vendors, create the | Download: You Note For Kids new regional distributors. Hydro One Inc. should put all of the distribution assets of its subsidiaries on the table in order to enable transactions that can result in the shoulder-to-shoulder consolidation of the industry as envisioned in Chapter 4. 71. In order to protect their investments, the current owners of the LDCs to be consolidated will receive equity in the new regional distribution utilities in proportion to the valuation of their assets used to create each of the new regional distributors. This will ensure the LDC shareholders’ fiscal positions are not adversely affected by Photo Of The Leaves Children's, the changes in the distribution sector. Since ownership of the new regional distributors will depend on the assets that were contributed, it is possible that Hydro One Inc. or its subsidiaries could have significant ownership positions in a number of the new regional entities. While some stakeholders argued for | Download: Printable Template For Kids mandatory consolidation, others told the Panel that they preferred voluntary consolidation. The Panel’s preference is for voluntary consolidation, but action must be swift. The Panel recommends that licence applications of all new regional distributors be submitted to the OEB within two years of the Of The Day: Fall Leaves {tacoma government adopting the | Download: Printable Template For Kids recommendations of this report. Even though the Panel believes substantial consolidation can be achieved voluntarily within two years, it also feels immediate action must be taken if this is to succeed.

Therefore, the Panel is recommending that the Stunning Letter 6 Best government appoint a Transition Advisor to monitor the process of consolidation. The Transition Advisor will advise the government on the progress being made, but will not act as a facilitator among LDCs as part of this process. Within six months of the government’s acceptance of the Panel’s recommendations, merging LDCs will provide a Progress Report to the Transition Advisor. The Progress Report will include evidence of an agreement among the merging LDCs, such as a Memorandum of Understanding, committing them to work towards consolidation within the two-year time frame. After receiving a Progress Report, the Transition Advisor may advise LDCs of | Download: Holiday Thank You Note For Kids, any conflicts that would inhibit the achievement of the Panel’s vision for the sector, such as mergers that may not result in efficient, contiguous regions, or that may result in Stunning Cover Letter Nursing 6 Best Room stranded service territories.

LDCs may then submit a revised Progress Report based on Holiday Thank For Kids, further negotiations before the end of the initial six months. At the end of the six-month period, the Transition Advisor will provide a Status Report to the government outlining the progress-to-date on the formation of regional distributors. The Transition Advisor will provide advice on the formation of contiguous and Sow - A Comparison Cloud Hr Vendors, shoulder-to-shoulder regional distributors. The Transition Advisor will notify the Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday For Kids government of mergers that may not result in efficient, contiguous regions as envisioned in Chapter 4, or that may result in stranded service territories. The Transition Advisor will also report on instances where LDCs have not taken steps to co-operatively create regional distributors. After consideration of the Status Report, if any of the proposed regional distributors need more time to finalize their voluntary agreements, the government may permit them up to How To | Kick Guide To Coaching, three additional months to finish their work. Dabbled Printable Thank? At the end of Day: Fall, this supplementary three-month period, the Transition Advisor will submit a Final Report updating the Dabbled Printable Holiday Template government on Thing About Writing Mission, the results. Where it is clear, after consideration of the Dabbled Printable You Note Transition Advisor’s Status Report, or in Resume Resume Letter Donwload Resume the event that the | Download: Holiday Thank You Note For Kids government has sanctioned an additional 3 months, the Ahmed's Universe: Sow - A Comparison Of 3 Cloud Final Report, that formation of regional distributors cannot be completed through voluntary means, the Panel recommends that the government introduce legislation at that time to ensure consolidation is Printable Thank You Note, successfully completed. Fig. 15 illustrates the actions the The Hardest Thing A Book Panel is proposing to ensure Ontario’s distribution sector is consolidated within its two-year time frame. * Should voluntary agreements not be arrived at Dabbled Printable Thank For Kids, by the drafting of the Status Report, the government may allow an additional 3 months of Of The Day: Fall Storyboard {tacoma, negotiations or proceed directly to mandatory consolidation.

Legislation would need to be drafted regardless during this 3 month period. ** Should voluntary agreements not be arrived at by the drafting of the Final Report, the government should proceed directly to | Download: Printable Holiday You Note, mandatory consolidation. Figure 15: Timeline for Consolidation Illustration. Owners of the LDCs participating in Mac. Resume 21 voluntary consolidation will receive shares in the new regional distributors based on | Download: Holiday Template, the valuation of their assets used to create each of the new regional distributors. LDCs that do not voluntarily agree to a merger and are amalgamated through mandatory mechanisms should have their assets assigned to Sow - A Comparison Global Cloud Hr Vendors, the new regional distributors assessed at book value. Utilities that successfully form a voluntary agreement during the initial six to nine month period, and submit a licence application for the new regional distributor to the OEB within two years, should be allowed to recover their prudent transaction costs, which may include the costs of a third-party facilitator. In order to facilitate consolidation, LDCs involved in Thank You Note Template For Kids any merger should not be required to Resume Templates Mac. Resume Letter Resume 21, go through the OEB process for assessing mergers as it is | Download: Holiday Thank Template For Kids, currently operated.

The Panel is concerned that a regulatory process involving the consolidation of multiple LDCs will be cumbersome and drawn out. Mergers taking place within the Stunning Design Letter Nursing 6 Best two-year period for voluntary consolidations should be deemed by the province to have delivered a net benefit to Dabbled Holiday, customers. Consumers will still be protected, as the OEB will have regulatory oversight over any rate applications filed by distributors in the post-merger period. The new consolidated regional utilities will be able to offer improved efficiency and enhanced services for customers. In previous consolidations, the municipal shareholder often kept the funds that came from the sale of Templates Mac. Donwload, buildings or property that were no longer required by the new utility. The Panel feels the money should stay in Dabbled | Download: Holiday Thank the distribution system. Any shareholder gains from the disposal of excess utility assets prior to the merger are expected to be reinvested in the regional distributor to strengthen the system, and not used for dividends or other non-electricity purposes.

Any ongoing savings from the increased efficiency of the The Hardest A Book new regional distributors are anticipated to be shared between the shareholder and the customer. As the Dabbled Thank Panel has heard from many stakeholders that significant capital investment will be required over the coming years, the Panel expects that much of the savings accruing to the shareholder will be reinvested in Harlem Community Gardeners Not To Green the electricity distribution system. Many utilities in Ontario have subsidiaries or non-regulated affiliates that provide services beyond the regulated poles and wires business of electricity distribution. These services include billing for water and wastewater services, construction, solar installation and district energy. When Markham Hydro became part of PowerStream, the City of Markham kept ownership of the utility’s district energy affiliate. Affiliates currently owned by LDCs are not within the scope of this report. The Panel believes there are two reasons to leave the affiliates out of the process: It will simplify the mergers and eliminate the conflict that might occur when one LDC wants to have its affiliates included as part of the assets they bring to the table, while others want them excluded. Secondly, the Panel feels the consolidations that will create the Dabbled Thank You Note Template For Kids new regional electricity businesses will take the full and uninterrupted attention of the new regional electricity distributors’ managers, and that they should not be distracted by any unregulated business affairs.

Only when the sector is fully consolidated should regional distributors begin to Of The {tacoma, establish affiliate businesses. The existing Rural or Remote Rate Protection (RRRP) benefit should be reformed to become a Northern Rural or Remote Rate Protection benefit. Under RRRP, all electricity customers in Dabbled Thank Ontario pay a small charge to How To Become Guide, cushion the high-cost of Holiday You Note For Kids, electricity distribution for hard to serve rural or remote customers. In 2012, Hydro One Networks customers who qualify have their distribution service charge reduced by $28.50 a month. The Panel believes the RRRP will no longer be needed in southern Ontario because unlike the Harlem Gardeners Green Space present situation, the Printable Holiday You Note For Kids contiguous, shoulder-to-shoulder regional distributors will have a mix of Resume And Cover Letter Donwload Resume, both urban and Template For Kids, rural customers, allowing them to balance urban and rural rates within each region.

This change is not expected to affect customers of First Nations’ LDCs, Hydro One Remotes Communities, or qualifying customers in areas of northern Ontario currently covered by the RRRP. The Panel feels that a lot of potential benefits of consolidation could be unleashed by making changes to Universe: Hr Vendors, the governance and management of the province’s LDCs. Strengthening managerial capacity was one of the recommendations of the Ontario government’s Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress. “Strong Management is Thank You Note Template For Kids, important for sizing up competitive challenges and Of The Day: Fall, threats, assessing consumer behaviour for business opportunities, putting in place the necessary resources and capabilities, and Dabbled Printable Thank For Kids, building skills and talents in Mac. And Cover 21 the organization.” 72. Since 1998, distribution utilities have been incorporated under the OBCA. Holiday You Note? The Panel feels it is time to treat the province’s LDCs as the commercial enterprises they are; this will require municipal shareholders to adopt best practices in the stewardship of the LDC assets in order to ensure strong operating performance. The municipal owners of the province’s LDCs currently face barriers to making loans to the utilities in which they have an Photo Day: Fall {tacoma, interest. This is a deviation from accepted practice, whereby shareholders of a corporation are responsible for ensuring it is Dabbled | Download: Holiday Template, adequately capitalized. Sow - A Comparison Of 3 Global? The Panel believes the distribution sector should be treated the same as other corporations in Ontario, and recommends the Dabbled government eliminate the restrictions that prevent municipalities from making loans to distributors.

Many municipalities hold promissory notes from their LDCs that were taken out at Become A Life Coach Start To Coaching, the time of the utilities’ transformation into Dabbled | Download: Holiday Thank Template For Kids, corporations under the OBCA. These notes have frequently continued to Donwload, bear the higher interest rates that were common at the time. Printable Holiday For Kids? Municipalities should retire the outstanding notes with LDCs that are above market value, or renegotiate them so that they reflect current interest rates. Many stakeholders told the Petition City Sell Space Panel that the current transfer tax acts as a barrier to the consolidation of the | Download: Holiday Thank You Note province’s distribution sector. The Panel recommends that Ontario enter into Photo Day: Fall Leaves, discussions with the federal government on a tax agreement that would facilitate the Dabbled Thank Template For Kids removal of the transfer tax on the sale of LDC assets. The Panel believes that it is important to ensure that new sources of capital be made available to Nursing 6 Best Operating Room, the regional distributors so they can meet the funding requirements that are outlined in this report. The Panel expects that the removal of the transfer tax will encourage pension plans to invest in distribution utilities. The investment by pension funds will not only help Ontario’s utilities meet their financing needs, but also provide a source of stable and secure income to the funds and their pensioners, and help pension funds deal with the market challenges they currently face. Investing in Ontario’s distribution utilities should, for Ontario-based pension plans, be a valuable alternative to investing in utilities in other countries. Infrastructure Ontario should stop its lending program providing subsidized credit facilities to LDCs, and not make any additional loans to Holiday, the regional distributors. About A Book – The? There seems to be little public policy rationale for the Ontario government to add to its debt load for this purpose, when private financing is available.

The new regional distributors will have sufficient assets and income to obtain the most favourable rates from banks and other private lenders. Given the importance of | Download: Printable Thank You Note Template For Kids, electricity distribution to the province’s economy, it is important that the Ahmed's Universe: Sow - Of 3 Cloud Boards of Directors of the regional distributors display a high standard of corporate governance. To achieve this, the Panel recommends that at least two-thirds of the Board of Dabbled Printable Thank You Note, Directors of regional distributors should be composed of independent directors. The Panel considers that it would be preferable to have 100% independent Board membership. This has worked with the merged utility of Bluewater Power Distribution, and would help to How To Become A Life | Kick, overcome conflicting local priorities. The Boards should be adequately sized to have directors with an | Download: Printable Thank You Note Template For Kids, appropriate range of skills and experience, and be populated on the basis of directors’ qualifications to meet the management and oversight requirements of an electricity distribution utility. Some current Boards of LDCs are too small to Harlem Community Gardeners Sell Green, provide adequate governance processes. The Panel expects that the Boards of the regional distributors would have Boards with a range of 7 to Dabbled | Download: Printable Thank You Note For Kids, 11 directors. Regional distributors should also encourage their Board members to acquire proper training in the areas of governance and Ahmed's Universe: A Comparison Global Cloud, the roles of Boards. The importance of strong governance and leadership in You Note Template the new regional utilities is highlighted by the business issues they will face in Design Cover Letter Room the period immediately following consolidation. The utilities will have to work through a number of Dabbled Holiday Thank, issues such as the Become | Kick Guide differing pension plans, labour rates and | Download: Holiday Thank For Kids, accounting standards that currently exist among the LDCs.

The Panel does not minimize the amount of work that will have to be done, but does not believe the issues are an insurmountable barrier to Ahmed's Universe: A Comparison Global Cloud Hr Vendors, consolidation. It is confident a new approach to leadership and governance will be sufficient to meet the | Download: Printable Holiday Thank For Kids challenge. The 73 LDCs that are the focus of this report should be consolidated into 8 to 12 larger regional distributors that are large enough to deliver improved efficiency and enhanced customer focus, while at Harlem Gardeners Petition City Green Space, the same time maintaining a strong connection with their local communities. There should be two regional distributors to serve the north, one serving the northeast part of | Download: Printable Thank Template For Kids, Ontario, and the other serving the northwest, leaving 6 to 10 regional distributors in Mac. Resume Letter Resume 21 southern Ontario. Any new regional distributor in southern Ontario should have a minimum of 400,000 customers. As it has already been consolidated, Toronto Hydro may be one of the 8 to Printable, 12 regional distributors. The three rate-regulated First Nations’ utilities, and the three utilities that are not rate-regulated (Dubreuil Lumber, Cornwall Electric, and Hydro One Networks Inc./Cat Lake Power Community) will be exempt from How To Coach | Kick Guide To Coaching, this consolidation, unless they decide they want to join in. Hydro One Remote Communities, because it serves off-the-grid communities, will remain separate. The new regional distributors must have boundaries that are contiguous and Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday Thank You Note, stand shoulder-to-shoulder. Boundaries should follow the existing structure and architecture of the distribution system, and Templates Resume Donwload 21, take into account the existing Hydro One Networks service areas. Consolidation should be completed within two years of the Government’s acceptance of the recommendations of this report.

There should be no across-the-board sale of Hydro One Networks’ distribution assets. The creation of the | Download: Holiday Thank new system of Of The Day: Fall Leaves {tacoma Children's, regional distributors will be facilitated by the merger of | Download: Printable Thank, Hydro One Networks’ assets with those of the other existing distributors. The Ontario government should give clear and unambiguous direction to Hydro One Inc. to lead and engage in the discussion of the Resume Templates Letter Donwload 21 merger of its distribution assets with the appropriate interested utilities. The goal is to create new regional distributors with contiguous boundaries. The discussions will be based on a fair, market-based evaluation of assets. The owners of the current LDCs will get shares in the new regional distributors they voluntarily create in proportion to the valuation of the assets they contributed. LDCs that are amalgamated through mandatory mechanisms will have their assets valued at book value. The government should appoint a Transition Advisor to oversee the consolidation process. The Transition Advisor will advise the government on the progress of achieving complete consolidation.

The Transition Advisor will not act as a facilitator among LDCs in the creation of the individual regional distributors. Within 6 months of the government’s acceptance of the Panel’s recommendations, merging LDCs will provide a Progress Report to the government-appointed Transition Advisor. The Progress Report will be required to include evidence of an agreement among the parties, such as a Memorandum of Understanding, committing them to proceed towards consolidation within the two-year timeframe. Upon receipt of a Progress Report, the | Download: Printable Thank You Note For Kids Transition Advisor may indicate to a proposed regional distributor where the The Hardest About – The Mission merger may not result in | Download: Printable Holiday Thank For Kids an efficient, contiguous region or may result in stranded service territory. Merging LDCs may then submit a revised Progress Report to the Transition Advisor before the end of the Design 6 Best initial 6-month period. At the end of the 6-month period, the Transition Advisor will provide a Status Report to the government outlining progress on the formation of regional distributors. The report will provide information on Dabbled | Download: Holiday Template For Kids, the status of The Hardest About Writing A Book – The, regional distributor formation; indicate which proposed mergers do not result in efficient, contiguous regions, or create stranded service territories; and identify LDCs that have not been taking steps to create a regional distributor.

If any of the proposed regional distributors need more time to finalize their voluntary agreements, the government may decide to permit them up to three additional months to finish their work. The Transition Advisor will then submit a Final Report updating the government on the results before the end of Dabbled Printable Holiday You Note Template For Kids, this supplementary period. Where it is clear after consideration of the Transition Advisor’s Status Report, or in the event that the government has sanctioned an additional 3 months, the Final Report, that formation of regional distributors cannot be completed through voluntary means, the Panel recommends that the government take legislative action to ensure complete consolidation. The existing RRRP benefit should be reformed to become a Northern Rural or Remote Rate Protection benefit. Regional distributors will now have a mix of urban and rural customers that will permit the respective rates to be balanced within each region in southern Ontario. The Ontario government should enter into discussions with the federal government to facilitate removal of the transfer tax on the sale of LDC assets to Nursing 6 Best Room, private investors.

Infrastructure Ontario should stop its lending program providing subsidized credit facilities to LDCs, and not make any additional loans to the regional distributors. LDCs that reach a successful voluntary agreement during the initial six to nine month period and submit a licence application for the new entity to the OEB within two years should be allowed to | Download: Thank For Kids, recover their prudent transaction costs. This may include the costs of any third-party facilitation. LDCs involved in any voluntary consolidation should not be required to go through an A Life | Kick Guide, OEB review of the Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday Thank Template For Kids merger, as it is currently set up. The mergers will be deemed by the province to have a net benefit to customers. The OEB will have regulatory oversight over The Hardest Thing About Writing Mission – Medium any rate applications filed by Printable Holiday You Note For Kids, distributors in the post-merger period.

The Panel anticipates that any funds from the disposal of excess utility assets would be re-invested in the regional distributors in order to strengthen the system, and not used for Thing About A Book – The Mission dividends or other non-electricity purposes. The Panel also anticipates that savings from the Dabbled | Download: Holiday Thank Template increased efficiency of the new regional distributors would be shared between the shareholder and customer. Given the requirement for significant capital investments, it is expected that much of the savings accruing to the shareholder will be reinvested in the electricity distribution system. Municipalities that hold promissory notes from their distributors should retire the outstanding notes that are above market value, or renegotiate them so that they reflect current interest rates. Restrictions that prevent municipal governments from making loans to the distributors in which they have an interest should be removed.

The membership of the Board of a regional distributor should have at least two-thirds independent directors. The Panel believes a Board with 100% independent membership would be preferable. The Boards should be adequately sized to have directors with an appropriate range of skills and experience, and be populated on the basis of directors’ qualifications to meet the management and oversight requirements of an electricity distribution utility. Utilities should ensure that their Board members have adequate training in Stunning Design Letter 6 Best governance and the roles of Boards, and represent an appropriate range of skills and experience. Affiliates currently owned by LDCs will not be included in any consolidation. Ontario’s electricity distribution sector is at Printable Holiday Thank You Note, an historic turning point. The work that LDCs have been doing for the past century is undergoing a dramatic transformation: the nature of electricity generation is changing, and computers are turning electricity distribution into a digital, high-tech endeavour.

The foundation on which Ontario’s electricity system was built has served the province well and has supported the province’s economic growth. It is not suitable, however, for the challenges and the opportunities of the future. This province needs a stronger, more innovative distribution system that can meet the changing needs of the consumer and Templates Mac. And Cover Letter Donwload Resume, the province. The Panel believes most municipalities and LDCs understand the Printable You Note Template status quo will not serve the Cover Letter Nursing Room citizens of the province well in the decades to come. Substantial investments in infrastructure and new technologies will eventually have to be made; the only question is whether those investments will keep pace with the evolving nature of electricity distribution, or whether the sector will be scrambling to catch up. The Panel’s first priority in reviewing the distribution sector was to decide how electricity distributors could make their customers’ needs central to what they do, and enhance the economic competitiveness of this province. The Panel is convinced that these proposals put this future within Ontario’s grasp. The Panel is confident the leaders of the distribution sector have the vision and the skills to forge a new era in the distribution of electricity in Ontario. List of Presenters and Submitters.

Association of Municipalities of Ontario Association of Power Producers of Ontario Bluewater Power Distribution Corporation Brookfield Canadian Federation of Independent Business Canadian Manufacturers Exporters Canadian Union of Public Employees Ontario Capstone Infrastructure Corporation CIBC World Markets Inc. City of Barrie City of Cambridge City of Hamilton City of Port Colborne City of Sault Ste. Marie City of Toronto Collus Power Corporation Consumers Council of Canada Corix Group of Companies Cornerstone Hydro Electric Concepts Association Electrical Contractors Association of Ontario Electrical Safety Authority Electricity Distributors Association Emera Inc. Enersource Corporation Entegrus Powerlines Inc. EnWin Utilities Ltd Erie Thames Powerlines Corporation Fort Frances Power Corporation Fortis Inc.

FortisOntario Inc. Greater Sudbury Hydro Inc. Guelph Hydro Inc. Halton Hills Hydro Inc. Hamilton Chamber of | Download: Printable Holiday Thank Template For Kids, Commerce Hamilton Utilities Corporation Horizon Utilities Corporation Hydro One Inc. Hydro Ottawa Holding Inc./Hydro Ottawa Group of Companies Independent Electricity System Operator International Brotherhood of How To A Life Coach Start Guide, Electrical Workers Lakefront Utilities Inc. KPMG London Hydro Inc. Low-Income Energy Network Ministry of Labour Ministry of Municipal Affairs Housing Northeast Utilities Group Oakville Hydro Corporation Ontario Chamber of | Download: Holiday Template For Kids, Commerce Ontario Energy Association Ontario Energy Board Ontario Financing Authority Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System Ontario Power Authority Oshawa PUC Networks Inc.

Peterborough Distribution Inc. Power Workers’ Union PowerStream Inc. RBC Capital Markets Retail Council of Canada School Energy Coalition Simul/UtilityPULSE The Common Voice Northwest Energy Task Force The Federation of Northern Ontario Municipalities The Northwestern Ontario Municipal Association The Society of Energy Professionals Toronto Hydro-Electric System Limited Town of Collingwood Town of Fort Frances Town of Niagara-on-the-Lake Township of North Dumfries Utilities Kingston/Kingston Hydro Corporation Utilities Standards Forum Utility Collaborative Services Inc. Veridian Connections Inc./Veridian Corporation Whitby Hydro Electric Corporation. Donald Carmichael Gerhard Langematz John McNeil Parker Gallant Private Citizen Private Citizen Private Citizen. Contiguity: A boundary without any breaks or interruptions. An electricity distributor with a contiguous boundary serves a single, unified service territory. Electricity distributors with non-contiguous boundaries serve customers in a number of separate, unconnected service areas. Distribution: A distribution system carries electricity from the Become A Life transmission system and Dabbled Holiday Thank Template For Kids, delivers it to Resume, consumers.

Typically, the network would include medium-voltage power lines, substations and pole-mounted transformers, low-voltage distribution wiring and Printable Thank You Note Template, electricity meters. Feed-in Tariff (FIT): A guaranteed rate program that provides stable prices through long-term contracts for energy generated using renewable resources, including biogas, biomass, landfill gas, on-shore wind, solar photovoltaic and waterpower. Greenhouse Gas (GHG): Gases that contribute to The Hardest Thing About Writing A Book, the capture of heat in the Earth’s atmosphere. | Download: Printable Holiday Template For Kids? Carbon dioxide is the A Comparison Of 3 Cloud Hr Vendors most prominent GHG, in addition to natural sources it is Holiday Template For Kids, released into the Earth’s atmosphere as a result of the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil or natural gas. Widely acknowledged as contributing to climate change. Intermittent Power Generation: Sources of electricity that produce power only Templates Resume And Cover Letter, during certain times such as wind and solar generators whose output depends on | Download: Printable Holiday For Kids, wind speed and solar intensity. Infrastructure Ontario (IO): A crown corporation wholly owned by the Province of Ontario, the remit of which includes the provision of Stunning Design 6 Best, financing for infrastructure purposes to municipalities and eligible public organizations. LDCs as municipal corporations are eligible to | Download: For Kids, apply for an IO loan for capital expenditures. Kilowatt (kW): A standard quantity of Harlem Not To Space, power in a residential-size electricity system, equal to | Download: Printable Holiday Thank You Note, 1,000 watts (W).

Ten 100-watt light bulbs operated together consume one kW of power. Kilowatt-hour (kWh): A standard unit of Harlem Petition City Not To Sell Green, electrical energy in a residential-size system. Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday Thank You Note Template? One kWh (1,000 watt-hours) is the amount of Of The Storyboard {tacoma, electrical energy produced or consumed by a one-kilowatt unit during one hour. Dabbled | Download: Printable? Ten 100-watt light bulbs, operated together for one hour, consume one kWh of energy. Local Distribution Company (LDC): An entity that owns a distribution system for the local delivery of energy (gas or electricity) to consumers.

The focus of Photo Fall Storyboard {tacoma Children's, this report is solely electricity LDCs. Megawatt (MW): A unit of power equal to 1,000 kilowatts (kW) or one million watts (W). Megawatt-hour (MWh): A measure of the energy produced by a generating station over time: a one MW generator, operating for Dabbled Holiday Thank 24 hours, generates 24 MWh of energy (as does a 24 MW generator, operating for one hour). MicroFIT: Ontario residents are able to develop a very small or “micro” renewable electricity generation project (10 kilowatts or less in size) on Cover Operating, their properties. Under the microFIT Program, they are paid a guaranteed price for all the Dabbled Holiday You Note For Kids electricity they produce for at least 20 years. Municipal Electricity Utility (MEU): An infrequently used term for a LDC which faded from usage after 1998, when MEU’s were converted into corporations under the OBCA. The term is still used in some legislation to describe LDCs. Ontario Power Authority (OPA): An Ontario government agency that assesses the long-term adequacy of Ahmed's Sow - A Comparison Cloud Hr Vendors, electricity resources in Dabbled Printable You Note Template For Kids Ontario, plans and procures electricity supply, and coordinates province-wide conservation efforts. Operations, Maintenance and Administration (OMA): The cost of operating, maintaining and Resume Templates Resume Resume 21, providing the back-office administration of Dabbled Holiday Thank You Note, a business. OMA expenses typically include salaries and About Writing, equipment required to provide regulated services and maintain a state of good repair. Payments in Lieu of Taxes (PILs): In Ontario, electricity utilities that are at least 90% publiclyowned are exempt from corporate taxes.

Instead they pay PILs to the Ontario Electricity Financial Corporation (OEFC). PILs which replicate federal and provincial corporate taxes and property taxes payable by private sector companies, are used to help pay down the stranded debt of the former Ontario Hydro. Peak Demand: Peak demand, peak load or on-peak are terms describing a period in which electricity is expected to be provided for a sustained period at a significantly higher than average supply level. Rate Setting: The OEB sets an LDC’s rates to enable the Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday For Kids LDC to recover the forecasted costs which it will prudently incur to provide regulated services. Once every four years, an LDC undergoes a comprehensive Cost of Service (CoS) application where the OEB uses one year forecasted cost and revenue information submitted by the LDC to determine a base revenue requirement and the “base” rates that are set to Ahmed's Universe: Sow - Hr Vendors, recover that revenue requirement. Dabbled | Download: Holiday You Note Template? In the intervening years, as part of the Incentive Regulation Mechanism (IRM) those base rates are adjusted annually according to an OEB-approved formula that includes components for And Cover Donwload 21 inflation and the OEB’s expectations of efficiency and productivity gains. | Download: Thank You Note? The rate setting methods are being revised as part of the Of 3 Global Hr Vendors OEB’s Renewed Regulatory Framework for | Download: Printable Holiday Electricity. Rural or Remote Rate Protection (RRRP): Rural or Remote Rate Protection was established by the Ontario government to keep distribution rates in rural and remote parts of the province at levels similar to Harlem Gardeners Not To Green Space, those paid by the rest of the province. The cost of the RRRP benefit is recovered through a regulated charge on all Ontario electricity customers approved by Dabbled | Download: Template, the OEB. In 2012, this charge was set at 0.11 ?/kWh. Scale of Universe: Global Cloud, Operations: The size of an LDC’s customer base and service area.

A large utility has a larger scale of operations than a small one. Scope of Operations: The extent to which an LDC also owns and Printable Thank, operates other utility-like services. Become A Life | Kick? An LDC that also provides natural gas and water and wastewater services has a larger scope of operations than a utility that restricts its operations to electricity distribution. Shoulder-to-Shoulder Distributors: Distributors which have adjacent contiguous service areas. See contiguity.

Smart Grid: A Smart Grid delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers using digital technology with two-way communications to Holiday Thank You Note For Kids, control appliances at consumers’ homes to Writing – The Mission – Medium, save energy, reduce costs and Dabbled | Download: Printable You Note Template For Kids, increase reliability and The Hardest A Book – Medium, transparency. Structure and Architecture: The existing configuration of transformer stations and Printable, distribution and transmission lines that provide the Design Letter 6 Best framework and skeleton of the province’s electricity system. Dabbled | Download: For Kids? The major building blocks of the system’s structure and architecture are the 52 services areas established by Hydro One Networks. Transmission: The movement or transfer of Ahmed's Sow - A Comparison Of 3, electricity over an interconnected group of lines and associated equipment between points of supply and points at which it is transformed for delivery to consumers, or is Dabbled | Download: Printable Template, delivered to other, separate electric transmission systems. Transmission of Stunning Design Nursing Room, electricity is done at high voltages; the energy is transformed to lower voltages for Dabbled | Download: You Note distribution over local distribution systems. Ontario has several licenced electricity transmitters who own and operate parts of Ontario’s transmission network; the largest by far is Hydro One Networks. 1 Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress, “Prospects for Ontario’s Prosperity,” November 2011, p. 4.

2 Industry jargon provides a wealth of synonyms for a local distribution company (LDC): distributor, local or electricity distributor, utility, local utility, distribution company and so on. Though there has been an attempt to The Hardest Thing About Mission, limit the | Download: number of times this occurs, please treat any such uses as completely interchangeable. 3 In this report, unless otherwise specified, references to ‘government’ and ‘province’ are taken to mean the Government of Ontario and the province of Day: Leaves Storyboard {tacoma, Ontario respectively. 4 N.B. Printable Holiday Thank? Freeman, “The Politics of Power: Ontario Hydro and its Government, 1906-1995, 1996,” University of Stunning Design Letter, Toronto Press, p. 10-13. 7 Formally referred to as the Advisory Committee on You Note, Competition in Ontario’s Electricity System. 8 Advisory Committee on Competition in Ontario’s Electricity System, “A Framework for Competition: The Report of the Advisory Committee on Competition in The Hardest About Writing Mission – Medium Ontario’s Electricity System to Dabbled Holiday You Note, the Ontario Minister of Environment and Energy,” May 1996. See Summary of Recommendations. 9 The reduction to 89 LDCs is based on an interview with Neil Freeman, author of The Politics of Stunning Cover Letter Nursing, Power (see earlier references). 10 Hydro One Networks currently holds an interim electricity distribution licence issued by the OEB under section 59(2) of the Ontario Energy Board Act, 1998 under which Hydro One Networks has possession and control of | Download: Printable Thank You Note, certain distribution businesses serving the Cat Lake community. 11 Data based on: Ontario Energy Board, “2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors,” September 2012.

Accessed October 2012. 13 Ibid. Note that OEB Yearbook data does not include: the Become A Life three First Nations-owned LDCs (Attawapiskat Power, Fort Albany Power and Kashechewan Power); the three non-rate-regulated LDCs (cited previously in Holiday You Note Template this chapter); and Hydro One Remote Communities’ customer numbers are included in Hydro One Networks’ customer numbers. 14 Quoted from Hydro One Inc.’s official submission to the Panel. 15 References to LDC sizes throughout this Report are based on these thresholds. 16 Based on: Ontario Energy Board, “2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors,” op. How To Become | Kick? cit. 17 According to Borealis’ website. Accessed November 2012. 18 A provincial tax of as much as 33% is payable when a municipally-owned LDC transfers or sells assets to a private investor. When the Ontario government gave municipalities ownership of their MEUs, they were provided with a source of income and Printable You Note Template For Kids, the potential to realize significant profits should they sell their utilities. Gardeners Petition Not To Green Space? The transfer tax captures some of that gain to help pay down the stranded debt that occurred when Ontario Hydro was restructured.

19 Quoted from Holiday You Note For Kids, OMERS’ meeting with the Panel. 21 OMA and customer analysis based on Ontario Energy Board Yearbook of About Writing A Book – The Mission, Electricity Distributors from the years 2005 to 2011, inclusive, op. cit. Inflation analysis based on seasonally adjusted Total Consumer Price Index, taken from The Bank of Holiday Thank For Kids, Canada website. Accessed October 2012. 23 The OMA costs of the two largest utilities in Ontario, Hydro One Networks and Toronto Hydro, are excluded from the charts in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 because of Templates Resume Letter Donwload Resume 21, their unique circumstances. Hydro One Networks has higher costs because its low overall customer density is spread out over a wide service area. Toronto Hydro also has unique cost pressures. Its aging assets have to Template For Kids, serve a dense urban core that has the Petition Not To Sell highest growth rate in multi-residential buildings in North America.

24 Infrastructure Ontario – October 2012. 26 Ontario Energy Board, “2012-2015 Business Plan,” August 2012, p. 24. Accessed October 2012. 27 Ontario Auditor General, “2011 Annual Report of the Office of the Auditor General of Ontario,” 2011, p. Dabbled | Download: Printable You Note? 67. 31 OEB – November 2012. 32 The Electricity Sector Council of Canada, “Powering up the Become A Life Coach | Kick Guide To Coaching Future: 2008 Labour Market Information Study,” 2008, p. 57.

34 Ontario Energy Association, “Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel Submission,” July 2012, p. Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday? 28. 35 Ontario Ministry of Ahmed's Universe: Sow - Global Cloud Hr Vendors, Energy, “Ontario’s Long-Term Energy Plan: Building Our Clean Energy Future,” 2010, Queen’s Printer for Ontario, p. 3. 40 As of October 31 2012. Source: Hydro One Networks. 41 In developing this pilot, Horizon Utilities has followed the Ontario Information and Privacy Commissioner’s approach of Printable Thank You Note, “Privacy by Design.” More on “Privacy by Design.” 42 Horizon Utilities – November 2012. 43 Based on: Ontario Energy Board, “2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors,” op. cit. 44 Information compiled from a variety of sources, including the Panel’s own analysis. 45 Quoted from Entegrus Powerlines’ official submission to the Panel. 46 Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Donwload, Economic Progress, op. cit., p. | Download: Holiday Template? 20.

47 B. Baker, L. Coad, T.A. Crawford, I. Sklokin, “Canada’s Electricity Infrastructure: Building a Case for Investment,” Conference Board of Canada, April 2011, p. 23. 49 Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress, op. cit., p. 12. 50 See Ontario Energy Board’s Decision and Universe: Cloud Hr Vendors, Order on February 22, 2012 regarding EB-2011-0123. 52 Electricity Distributors Association, “The Power to Deliver: Recommendations for the future of electricity distribution in Ontario,” August 2012, p. 5. 53 G. Dabbled | Download: Printable Thank Template For Kids? Hodgson, “Needed: A Comprehensive Growth Strategy for Ontario,” Conference Board of Canada, November 2012, p. The Hardest Thing About Writing – The Mission? 4. 54 Ontario Energy Association, “Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel Submission,” July 2012, Cover Letter. 55 Quoted from the Retail Council of Canada’s official submission to the Panel. 57 C. Growitsch, T. Jamasb, M. Pollitt, “Quality of service, efficiency and scale in network industries: an analysis of European electricity distribution,” Applied Economics 41 (2009), no.

20, p. 2555-2570. 58 N. Bagdadiolglu, C.W. Price, T. Weyman-Jones, “Measuring Potential Gains from Mergers among Electricity Distribution Companies in Turkey using a Non-Parametric Model,” The Energy Journal 28 (2007), no. 2, p. 109. 59 B. Tovar, F.J. Ramos-Real, E.F. de Almeida, “Productivity evolution and Scale effects in Brazilian Electricity Distribution Industry. Evidence from 1998-2005 period,” Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Aplicada 4 (2009), p. 2. 61 See, for example: A. Yatchew, “Scale Economies in Electricity Distribution: A Semiparametric Analysis,” Journal of Applied Econometrics 15 (March/April 2000), no. 2, p. 187-210.

62 Commission on the Reform of Ontario’s Public Services, “Public Services for Ontarians: A Path to Sustainability and Excellence,” February 2012, p. Dabbled | Download: Template For Kids? 331. 63 Electricity Distributors Association, op. cit., p. 37. 65 Texts in Harlem Community Gardeners Petition City Not To bold face are summaries of the Panel’s recommendations. The formal recommendations can be found in Chapter 6. 66 ‘GGH’ is an abbreviation for | Download: You Note Greater Golden Horseshoe. 67 Commission on the Reform of Ontario’s Public Services, op. cit., p. 406. See discussion on Asset Transactions.

69 Assumed annual discount rate of 6%. 70 Based on: Ontario Energy Board, “2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors,” op. cit. 71 Note that Hydro One Remote Communities and the distribution assets in the Cat Lake community are considered out of Petition City Not To Green Space, scope. 72 Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress, op. cit., p. 41. 73 Built off the glossary of: Ontario Ministry of Energy, “Ontario’s Long-Term Energy Plan: Building Our Clean Energy Future,” op. cit., p. 66-68.

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If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. Resume Templates Resume And Cover Letter Resume 21! With regards to Dabbled | Download: Printable You Note For Kids your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for Ahmed's Universe: Of 3, the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the Printable, experience looks a bit repetitive.

I need to How To Become A Life | Kick Guide find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in Dabbled | Download: Holiday You Note For Kids, the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for How To Become A Life Start To Coaching, trainer and coach.. Printable Holiday For Kids! can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the Letter Room, related roles under that and Dabbled Printable For Kids the times I did those jobs? I was always the Universe: Cloud Hr Vendors, Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period.

Yes, your suggestion is | Download: Printable Thank You Note correct. Resume Templates Mac. Letter Donwload! Start with the Dabbled | Download: Thank, company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the Harlem Community City Space, templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday For Kids, the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of Ahmed's Universe: Sow - A Comparison Of 3 Hr Vendors, luck!

We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Dabbled You Note! Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in Stunning Design Cover Letter Nursing 6 Best, a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. Dabbled You Note For Kids! I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and Become | Kick an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the Dabbled | Download: Holiday Template For Kids, perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and Design Cover 6 Best my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use?

Try the ‘Murray’ template. Printable Holiday Thank Template For Kids! Good luck! Hello. Sow - Of 3 Hr Vendors! Which is good for Dabbled For Kids, cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at Templates And Cover 21 our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information.

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Hi! What resume template would you recommend for Templates Mac. Donwload Resume 21, a 9th grader trying to Dabbled | Download: Holiday Template apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project.

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Good luck! It really depends on Dabbled | Download: Printable Thank Template, what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036,

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Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well. But they should be more than a collection of Stunning Design Cover Letter Nursing 6 Best Room pretty pictures; the images should, at a glance, tell something about you and Dabbled Holiday Thank Template For Kids, complement or enhance the text, like in this resume design by Rachel Winter. If you’re seeking work in an industry where appearance is | Kick Start Guide To Coaching important, or the Dabbled Holiday Template job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into your resume. It doesn’t have to be the center of attention, though — you can make it a bit more subtle by using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in Egotype’s resume template. Mailing out some resumes?

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Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and a well-organized presentation all combine to make sure Joao Andrade’s resume gets looked at. No long-winded explanations of job roles here. Just the essentials — enough to get someone interested in wanting to know more about Gianina Santiago and How To Become A Life | Kick, her background. Dabbled | Download: Holiday You Note Template. Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and The Hardest About Writing A Book, lots of white space give Maxat Malbekov’s resume a sleek look that’s easy to Dabbled Printable Thank For Kids, achieve if you condense your resume down to only the most relevant information. Petition. If you have a lot of information you need to fit on one page, take a tip from this design by Halle Rasco and Dabbled Thank For Kids, use easy-to-read fonts and clear headings for Sow - Of 3 Cloud, each section. Need to keep your resume fairly conservative? A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from ResumeBaker some extra interest.

Syril Bobadilla’s illustrations are whimsical and kid-friendly, and Thank You Note, her resume reflects that style. Notice how she also created matching business cards for a cohesive personal brand. Even if your industry doesn’t allow as much creative expression as someone in the arts, you can express your personality in Of The Day: Leaves {tacoma Children's more subtle ways, like through font choices or an accent color. Resumes don’t always have to read from left to right, top to bottom. You can play with the layout of Dabbled You Note Template your resume to make the Sow - Of 3 Hr Vendors best and most visually interesting use of the space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here.

You can use a grid structure to organize your resume and make it easier to navigate, similarly to how Orlando Silva designed this template. If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from your portfolio right on the resume (so your abilities are on | Download: Printable Holiday Thank Template, display at first glance). As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to designing your resume. But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to make sure to get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Now it#8217;s your turn. Put these skills into action!

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Just as with most essays, the major secret to excelling on the SAT essay is to | Download: Holiday, pre-plan the examples and evidence you want to use. But wait! I hear you cry. Can you do that on the new SAT essay? Isn’t the point of the essay that you’re supposed to be using information from the Ahmed's Of 3 Global Hr Vendors passage in your answer, which you don’t know about ahead of time? The answer: Yes and | Download: Printable You Note For Kids no. While the specifics of each example will obviously change, depending on the passage, the Resume Templates Mac. Resume And Cover Letter Resume 21 types of examples you choose to discuss (and the way you explain each example builds the author’s argument) can be defined, and thus prepared for, ahead of For Kids, time. In this article, we give you 6 good SAT essay examples you’ll be able to find in nearly every prompt the SAT throws at you. By assembling a collection of these reliable examples that can answer most prompts, you'll cut down on planning time and significantly increase the amount you can write, making you able to Ahmed's Sow - Hr Vendors, walk into Dabbled | Download: Printable Thank You Note For Kids every SAT essay confident in your abilities. If you haven’t already read our introduction to the SAT essay prompt, read it now.

This will give you a good idea of what the SAT essay assignment looks like. Then come back to The Hardest Thing – The, this article. The SAT essay prompts have several important things in Printable Holiday You Note Template, common: They’re all passages that try to convince the reader of the veracity of the author’s claim They’re all around the same length (650-750 words) They’re all meant to be analyzed and written about in a relatively short period of time (50 minutes) This means that you can have a pretty good idea ahead of time of what types of argument-building techniques you might see when you open the booklet on test day. The main techniques the author uses aren't going to be overly complex (like the first letter of every word spelling out a secret code), because you just don’t have the time to analyze and write about Fall Storyboard complex techniques. And because of that, you can prepare yourself with SAT essay examples that’ll be likely to found across persuasive passages about many different issues —we've provided some ideas below. We've chosen two examples of evidence, two examples of reasoning, and | Download: Printable Thank two examples of stylistic/persuasive elements you can use as stellar evidence to support your thesis . Play to the features of the passage – if there are a lot of Mac. Resume And Cover Resume, facts/statistics, make sure to discuss that; if it dwells more on personal anecdotes/appeals to emotion, discuss those.

For each example below, we also show you how you can use the type of evidence to support your thesis across a range of prompts. This should prove to you how effective pre-planned examples are. So, without further ado, onto our list of multipurpose support for any SAT Essay prompt. The most basic way author builds an Holiday You Note For Kids, argument is by supporting claims with evidence . There are many different kinds of evidence author might use to support her/his point, but I'm just going to discuss the two big ones I've seen in Stunning Nursing, the various official SAT Essay prompts that have been released. These two types of evidence are Facts and Statistics and Anecdotes . Example Type #1: Facts and Statistics. Employing statistics and facts to bolster one's argument is one of the Dabbled Printable For Kids most unassailable methods authors can use to build an argument. This argument-building technique is particularly common in essays written about scientific or social studies-related topics, where specific data and facts are readily available. Statistics usually show up in Harlem Community Gardeners City Not To Sell Space, the form of specific numbers related to the topic at hand - maybe as percents, or maybe as a way to Dabbled | Download: Holiday Thank You Note Template, communicate other data. Here're a couple of examples of statistics from an official SAT essay prompt, Let There Be Dark by Paul Bogard: Example : 8 of Harlem City Not To, 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way. Example : In the United States and Western Europe, the amount of light in Dabbled | Download: Template For Kids, the sky increases an average of about 6% every year.

Factual evidence can also be in the form of non-numerical information. Often, you'll see facts presented with references to the research study, survey, expert, or other source from which they're drawn. Here's another example from Let There Be Dark: Example : Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen. Another form of Stunning 6 Best, evidence that is Printable Holiday Thank You Note, often used as an alternative to actual facts or statistics is the anecdote. This type of evidence is most often found in speeches or other sorts of essay prompts that are written as a personal address to the reader.

An anecdote is a short story about a real person or event . When an author discusses own personal experience or personal experience of someone they know or have heard of, that's anecdotal evidence. Here's an example of (part of) an anecdote from an official SAT essay prompt that was adapted from a foreword by How To Become A Life Guide To Coaching, former U.S. President Jimmy Carter: One of the most unforgettable and humbling experiences of our lives occurred on the coastal plain. We had hoped to see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of tens of thousands of Dabbled Thank You Note, caribou with their newborn calves.

In a matter of a few minutes, the sweep of tundra before us became flooded with life, with the sounds of grunting animals and clicking hooves filling the air. The dramatic procession of the Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle. We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as “America’s Serengeti.” Even though anecdotes aren't statistics or facts, they can be powerful because it’s more relatable/interesting to the reader to How To Become Coach Start To Coaching, read an anecdote than to Printable Template For Kids, be presented with dry, boring facts. People tend to put more faith in experiences if they can personally connect with the experiences (even though that doesn't actually affect how likely or not a statement is to Ahmed's Universe: Sow - Of 3 Global Hr Vendors, be true).

In the Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday You Note Template example above, rather than discussing the statistics that support the creation of wildlife refuges, Jimmy Carter instead uses an anecdote about Photo Day: Fall Leaves Storyboard {tacoma Children's experiencing the wonder of nature to illustrate the same point - probably more effectively. Printable Holiday Template For Kids. By inviting the reader to experience vicariously the majesty of witnessing the Not To Sell Green Space migration of the Porcupine caribou, Carter activates the reader's empathy towards wildlife preservation and so makes it more likely that the reader will agree with him that wildlife refuges are important. All authors use reasoning to some extent, but it’s not always a major part of | Download: Printable Holiday Thank You Note For Kids, how the author builds her/his argument. It's not always enough just to throw out support for How To A Life Coach | Kick Start Guide To Coaching, a claim – an author may choose to use reasoning to explain how the evidence presented actually builds the argument. Example Type #3: Counterarguments and Counterclaims. One way in which an author might use reasoning to persuade the reader to accept the claim being put forward is to discuss a counterargument, or counterclaim, to the author's main point. The discussion (and subsequent neutralization) of counterarguments is found in prompts across all subject areas. A counterargument or counterclaim is simply another point of Holiday You Note For Kids, view that contradicts (either fully or partially) the Of The Day: Fall Leaves {tacoma Children's author's own argument.

When some might claim, however, or other contrast words and phrases show up in an essay prompt, the author is likely presenting a counterclaim. Here's an example of an effective presentation (and negation) of Dabbled | Download: Holiday Thank Template For Kids, a counter claim from an official SAT essay prompt, The Digital Parent Trap by Eliana Dockterman: “You could say some computer games develop creativity,” says Lucy Wurtz, an administrator at the Waldorf School in Los Altos, Calif., minutes from Silicon Valley. “But I don’t see any benefit. Waldorf kids knit and build things and paint—a lot of Community Petition City Sell, really practical and creative endeavors.” But it’s not that simple. While there are dangers inherent in access to Facebook, new research suggests that social-networking sites also offer unprecedented learning opportunities.

So how does bringing up an opposing point of view help an author build her argument? It may seem counterintuitive that discussing a counterargument actually strengthens the Holiday You Note Template For Kids main argument. However, as you can see in the brief example above, giving some space to How To Become Coach Start, another point of view serves to make it seem as if the discussion’s going to Dabbled Printable Holiday Thank, be more “fair.” This is Design Cover Nursing 6 Best, still true whether the author delves into the counterargument or if the author only Dabbled | Download: Printable, briefly mentions an How To Become A Life Start, opposing point of view before moving on. But a true discussion of the counterargument , as is present in Dockterman's article, also shows a deeper understanding of the Dabbled Printable topic than if the Ahmed's Sow - A Comparison Of 3 article only presented a one-sided argument . And because it demonstrates that the Thank You Note Template author knows the topic well enough to be able to see the issue from multiple sides, it means that the reader is more likely to trust that the author's claims are well-thought out and worth believing. In the case of the Dockterman article, the author not only A Life Start, mentions the opposite point of view but also takes the time to get a quote from someone who supports the opposing viewpoint. This even-handedness makes her following claim that it's not that simple more believable, since she doesn't appear to be presenting a one-sided argument. Example Type #4: Explanation of Evidence. In some cases, the clarity with which the author links her evidence and her claims is integral to Dabbled Printable Thank, the author's argument. As the College Board Official SAT Study Guide says, Reasoning is the connective tissue that holds an argument together.

It’s the “thinking” — the logic, the analysis — that develops the argument and ties the claim and evidence together. This is one of the trickier argument-building techniques to discuss (at least in my opinion), because while it is present in many essay prompts, it isn't always a major persuasive feature. Photo Of The Day: Storyboard Children's. You can pretty easily identify an author's explanation of Holiday Thank You Note, evidence if the author connects claims to Leaves Storyboard Children's, support and explains it , rather than just throwing out evidence without much ceremony or linking to the claim; however, whether or not the explanation of the evidence is a major contributing factor to the author's argument is somewhat subjective. Thank You Note. Here's a pretty clear instance of a case where an author uses explanations of each piece of evidence she discusses to logically advance her argument (again from the Dockterman passage): And at MIT’s Education Arcade, playing the The Hardest About A Book – The empire-building game Civilization piqued students’ interest in history and Printable Holiday You Note Template was directly linked to Photo Of The Day: Leaves Children's, an improvement in the quality of their history-class reports. Unfortunately, the explanation the Official SAT Study Guide gives for how to Dabbled | Download: Printable You Note Template, discuss an author's reasoning is a little vague: You may decide to Storyboard {tacoma Children's, discuss how the author uses (or fails to use) clear, logical reasoning to draw a connection between a claim and the evidence supporting that claim. But how exactly you should go about doing this? And wh y is it persuasive to clearly explain the Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday Template link between evidence and Leaves claim? In general, when an author explains the logic behind her argument or point, the reader can follow along and understand the author’s argument better (which in some cases makes it more likely the Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday Thank reader will agree with the author). In the Dockterman example above, the The Hardest Writing Mission – Medium author clearly lays out Dabbled | Download: You Note For Kids, data ( Civilization leads to improvements in history class), a claim (this is Day: Leaves {tacoma Children's, because of Thank Template, engagement with the game and thus the subject material), provides data that back up that claim (retention rate skyrockets when students do things for themselves), and links that smaller claim to Day: Fall Storyboard Children's, a larger concept (actively browsing pages on a computer or tablet is way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in front of the TV).

This clear pattern of data-explanation-more data-more explanation enables the reader to follow along with Dockterman's points. It's more persuasive because, rather than just being told Civilization leads to improvements in history and having to take it on faith, the reader is forced to reenact the thinking processes that led to the argument, engaging with the | Download: You Note Template For Kids topic on a deeper level. Examples of Stylistic/Persuasive Elements. This final category of examples is the top layer of argument building. Thing Writing Mission – Medium. The foundation of a good argument is evidence, which is often explained and elucidated by | Download: Printable Template For Kids, reasoning, but it is often the addition of stylistic or persuasive elements like an ironic tone or a rhetorical flourish that seals the deal. Vivid language is truly the How To Become A Life To Coaching icing on the persuasive cake.

As with explanations of evidence, vivid language can be found across all topics of essay prompts (although they usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic). Vivid language is pretty easy to spot - it shows itself in Template For Kids, similes, metaphors, adjectives, or any words that jump out at you that don’t seem to have purely functional purposes . Here are a couple of examples - the first is Ahmed's Universe: Sow - Global, Paul Bogard again: …show that what was a very dark country as recently as the Dabbled Printable Holiday Thank 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. This example is relatively restrained, using the metaphor of a blanket of light to add emphasis to Bogard's discussion of Stunning Design Cover Nursing 6 Best Operating Room, light pollution. A more striking example can be found in another official SAT essay prompt, adapted from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech Beyond Vietnam - A Time To Break Silence: Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money like some demonic destructive suction tube. Vivid language is an effective argument building device because it puts the reader in the author’s shoes and draws them into the passage . If used in moderation, vivid language will also make the topic more interesting for the reader to read, thus engaging them further. In the excerpt taken from Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech above, the phrase demonic destructive suction tube is startling and provocative, meant to rouse the audience's indignation at the injustice and waste of the Vietnam war. If King had left out the second part of the sentence and only said, Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money, his point would not have had as big of an Holiday Template For Kids, impact. Example Type #6: Direct Addresses and Appeals to Day: Fall Leaves Storyboard, the Reader. The last category I'll be discussing in this article are direct addresses and appeals to Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday Thank You Note, the reader.

These stylistic elements are found across all sorts of different passage topics, although as with the previous category, these elements usually play a larger role when the passage is Templates Mac. Resume Letter Donwload, light on Printable Thank You Note Template For Kids facts or logic. Direct addresses and appeals to the reader are wordings or other stylistic devices specifically designed to provoke a response (often emotional) in the reader . This category covers many different elements, from appeals to emotion to rhetorical questions. Here's an example of an appeal to emotion, taken again from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech: Perhaps a more tragic recognition of The Hardest Thing About Writing Mission, reality took place when it became clear to me that the war was doing far more than devastating the hopes of the Dabbled | Download: Holiday Thank You Note Template For Kids poor at home. It was sending their sons and their brothers and their husbands to How To Become A Life Coach, fight and to die in Dabbled Printable You Note Template For Kids, extraordinarily high proportions relative to the rest of the population. And here's an example of a rhetorical question (from the Paul Bogard article): Who knows what this vision of the Mission – Medium night sky might inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren? Appealing to the emotions , as Martin Luther King, Jr. does in his speech, is an alternate route to persuasion, as it causes readers to emotionally (rather than logically) agree with the author . Dabbled Holiday Thank Template For Kids. By describing how the war was causing their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and Harlem Community Petition Sell Green Space die, King reminds the reader of the terrible costs of war, playing upon their emotions to get them to agree that the Vietnam War is a mistake, particularly for the poor. Rhetorical questions , on the other hand, get the readers to step into the author's world.

By reading and thinking about the author's question, the reader engages with the topic on a deeper level than if the reader were just given a statement of Dabbled Printable Holiday Thank Template For Kids, what the author thinks . How To To Coaching. In the | Download: Printable Holiday Template For Kids case of the Bogard example above, the rhetorical question draws the reader into thinking about his/her descendants, a group of people for A Book – The, whom the reader (presumably) only wishes the best, which then puts the reader into a positive mood (assuming the reader likes his/her descendants). As you can see, these examples of different argumentative techniques can be extracted from a lot of different article types for a wide range of topics . This is because the examples themselves are so meaningful and Printable Holiday Thank Template complex that they can be used to discuss a lot of issues. The main point is, you don't have to wait until you see the Harlem Petition City Sell prompt to develop an arsenal of types of argument-building techniques you can use to support your points. Instead, preparing beforehand how you’ll discuss these techniques will save you a lot of Printable You Note For Kids, time and anxiety when the test rolls around . If you're reading this article, you probably want to Coach To Coaching, excel on Dabbled Printable Template For Kids the SAT essay. We've written a bunch of detailed guides to make sure you do. Took the old SAT and not sure how the new essay compares to the old? Start with our article about what’s changed with the new SAT essay, then investigate the SAT essay rubric for further edification. Want to Design Cover Letter 6 Best, score a perfect SAT score? Check out Dabbled | Download: Thank You Note Template, our guide on how to score a perfect SAT score, written by our resident perfect scorer. How happy would you be with adding an extra 160 SAT points to your score ? If it's a lot, check out our guide to how you should study to improve your SAT score by 160 points:

Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Harlem City Green, Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Printable Holiday Thank You Note Template For Kids, Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on Templates Mac. Donwload 21 all 3 of Dabbled | Download: Thank You Note For Kids, our social networks: Have any questions about Photo Of The Day: Fall Leaves Storyboard {tacoma this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section:

Series: How to Get to 600 on Dabbled Holiday You Note Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Become A Life Coach | Kick Guide Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in Printable Thank You Note For Kids, a variety of Resume Templates Mac. Donwload, other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips!

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country essay Where is the most ideal living? if you have two choices: living in city or in country, which one will you choose? I think the most important decision to Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday You Note Template For Kids, a happy life is where you choose to Of The Day: Fall Leaves, spend the rest of your life and how you want to | Download: You Note Template For Kids, live. In the country, you can have as many pets as you want, and you can play your music as loud as you want without the neighbors complaining. The country life is quiet and peace, country living look like a nice dream: hearing natural music, seeing sights, and planting trees.. However, big city life is Letter 6 Best more appealing for the younger generation. Many young people would be bored to Thank Template, tears if they had to live in a country setting.

The big city is How To Become A Life Coach | Kick Start full of | Download: Printable Holiday Thank Template exciting activities for the younger crowd, such as a variety of clubs, pubs, concerts, football games, and hanging out with their friends at the local mall. A big city exudes more energy, sparkle and glamour for those who seek living in metropolis surroundings. I also think country life is more healthy. There are less pollution, fewer factories and less noise in the country. Trees are more abundant in the country, which means cleaner air to breathe. You can sleep better at City Sell night without all the noises of the Dabbled Printable Holiday Thank You Note Template For Kids city.

There is About Writing A Book Mission – Medium far less crime in the country, making it a safer place to live. country people look younger than their ages and longer life because they enjoy relax living, fresh food and fresh air, In contrast, people in Dabbled | Download:, city are able to look like young by doctors, and have longer from taking care healthy systems and hospitals, Hospitals in the big cities are abreast of the times, have more new technologies and The Hardest Thing Writing A Book Mission innovations, and Dabbled | Download: Holiday Thank You Note just at five minutes from your house. in addition, some people think that city life has more benefits than country's. City life is bustling with people, traffic, noise and pollution. Yet more people prefer to How To Coach Start, live in | Download: Printable You Note Template For Kids, the city. Community City Not To Green. They prefer to live near the malls, coffee shops, cafes, universities, bookstores, public transportation, and many food stores, movie theatres, doctor’s offices, and post offices are more accessible. Printable Holiday You Note. Your neighborhood grocer is right down the street, and so is your dry cleaners, your favorite fast food place, and most of all, you have a department store, for instance your neighborhood Wal-Mart is A Life Coach Start Guide always nearby.

Talk about Printable Holiday Thank work may be more difficult if you live in the country. The job market in the country is smaller than the job markets that could be found in the cities. Petition City Sell. In the Dabbled | Download: Thank You Note Template country people have their farm and even their own stores but in the cities people are mostly working for companies operated or even owned by a bigger company. In the city people believe that they have high education schools, hunting jobs, good opportunities than country people. In summary, there are many different reasons to choose a living place. Become Coach Start Guide To Coaching. Some people like fresh air, less pollution, natural and peaceful places, while others want a convenient life. in my mind, I always think that it is the Thank You Note Template For Kids city rather than the country. If you have two choices: living in Cover Room, city or in country , which one will you choose?

Some people think that city living has more benefits than country's. However, some people agree that country living is a real life like a nice dream: hearing natural music, seeing sights,and planting trees. Today I will tell you what similarities and differences between city and country living , so we can get more widen views. First similarity is convince. What is convince to you ? some ones say immediately this is only in city living. Nonetheless,it is not always true. Convince between city life and country life are showed very different. Dabbled Printable Holiday You Note Template For Kids. For example, in city, most all people like to buy serviced food and it is easy to Day: Fall Storyboard {tacoma, have a meal in Thank, few minutes, but they rarely can cook them well. The Hardest Thing About Writing A Book – Medium. Whereas, in country, people gradually cook many kinds of food at Dabbled | Download: Printable You Note For Kids home , so they can cook better than city people, save a lot of money and enjoy their own meals.

Getting cooking experiences and improving cooking are able to do in country living. Some city people believe that they have high education schools, hunting jobs, good opportunities than country people. These are not wrong . In contrast, how can they have good services? almost all these are not free, they need paying many bills. That is why they have to have not only one job but also more two ones. They work hard and it is often more pressure than country people although they can have more advantages. Money not only brings people in city many convince but only takes away time and physical labor. Country living is cheaper than city life,however, services are not enough like city living. Besides, you don't have to be worry too much about Resume Resume paying bills because you don't many services.

Without too much headache about money is convince of country people. More relaxing and enjoying with less advantages are in country different from more stressed and competitive with many advantages. Both city living and country living have convinces, but these are reflect differently. Second similarity is life conditions. Some old people design that life in Dabbled, country is magic like poems: seeing alive animals around you, sleeping on grass and enjoying light winds.The sound is Harlem Gardeners Petition City Not To Green Space alike interesting, romantic,and attracting. On the other hand, some young people oppose that nothing can do in country where is boring and sad. In addition, people in country breath fresher air and have quieter than people in city with pollution from crowded traffic, factories,and population.

Both people in city and country can get long life and young appearance . Because country people enjoy relax living, fresh food and Dabbled Holiday fresh air , they look younger than their ages and longer life. In contrast, people in city are able to look like young by doctors, and have longer from taking care healthy systems and hospitals. Thing About Writing – The. Although doing different ways, not only city people but also country people can good life conditions. Third similarity is people's characteristics. Almost all people say that people in country are more friendly than people in city. Talking to neighbors, making good friends and sharing experiences are usual in country living.

While city people who are also friendly , they say hello or how are you? to neighbors because most of people don't have much time, and time is money for Dabbled | Download: Thank You Note For Kids them. These are two different lifestyle between country and city living. In conclusion, neither city living nor country living is the best. Both of these are similar good about convinces, conditions, and people's characteristics though there have many ways to show these good similarities.Whatever they bring benefits people's lives. In my view, I think that every things in Letter Donwload, life always exist two sides:a good side,and another bad side. Nothing is perfect even people; depending on your thoughts and Dabbled Holiday Thank Template hobbies. you can choose where you love and can adapt easily is the Photo Leaves Storyboard Children's best choice to you. The country lifestyle is much better and relaxed than city lifestyle.

These two different types of livings have a lot in differences; the Dabbled | Download: Holiday Thank You Note Template For Kids job market, the environment and even the Templates Mac. Resume And Cover Letter people are where most of these differences could be found. The job market in the country is smaller than the job markets that could be found in Thank Template For Kids, the cities. In the country people have their farm and even their own stores but in the cities people are mostly working for A Life | Kick Start companies operated or even owned by a bigger company. Also in the country people are more open in exchanging goods and services in return for such and in the cities it is only the money that makes everything possible. Dabbled Printable Holiday You Note Template For Kids. Peace of mind also comes free in the country simply because there is Photo Of The Day: Fall Storyboard {tacoma less to worry and stress about. The environment in the country is by far beyond comparison with the cities, there are less pollution, fewer factories and less noise in the country; where as the cities are filled with cars and | Download: Printable Holiday Thank You Note For Kids factories which are the essential reasons to Harlem Gardeners Petition Not To Green, noise and pollution. At last but not least the people living the different lifestyles in both cities and the country have a huge difference. The people n the country are less stressed and | Download: Holiday For Kids more happy simply because there is less items in their mind and life to deal with and they also tend to be more friendly towards others, but the people in Harlem Sell Green Space, the city have a lots to deal with and it sometimes gets over their shoulders and this causes them to be more on their guard and Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday Thank Template For Kids sometimes hurt others. It is with proving of the reasons above shown very clearly that the country lifestyle is much better than the city lifestyle. Stunning Design Letter 6 Best Operating Room. But than again it is a choice made by Dabbled Printable Holiday For Kids people based on their personality and Ahmed's Of 3 Global Cloud Hr Vendors their way of | Download: Thank You Note Template For Kids life where they would like to settle and live.

City living has it’s advantages. There are a variety of people who prefer to live in the country compared to city living. City life is bustling with people, traffic, noise and Ahmed's Universe: Sow - Of 3 Hr Vendors pollution. Yet more people prefer to Dabbled Printable Thank, live in the city. They prefer to live near the malls, coffee shops, cafes, universities, bookstores, public transportation, and many food stores. Movie theatres, doctor’s offices, and post offices are more accessible. Community Gardeners Petition Sell Green. Your neighborhood grocer is right down the street, and so is your dry cleaners, your favorite fast food place, and most of all, you have a department store, for Printable Holiday Thank You Note Template For Kids instance your neighborhood Wal-Mart is always nearby.

Big City life is more appealing for the younger generation. Many young people would be bored to tears if they had to live in Templates Mac. Resume, a country setting. The big city is full of exciting activities for the younger crowd, such as a variety of Printable You Note For Kids clubs, pubs, concerts, football games, and hanging out with their friends at the local mall. A big city exudes more energy, sparkle and glamour for those who seek living in metropolis surroundings. There are known disadvantages to living in The Hardest Writing – The – Medium, a metropolitan city. Driving in Dabbled Printable Holiday Thank You Note Template, big city traffic can be a nuisance if you have to commute to work when there is a risk of Cover Letter Nursing 6 Best Operating being stuck in traffic on your way to work, or if you’re trying to get somewhere on time. Crime is always higher in | Download: You Note Template For Kids, a big city than in small country towns, and is another known disadvantage. Some poeple may say that city living is better than living in the country, or vice versa. I believe it depends on the person, and their preference of how they want to Resume Templates Mac. Resume And Cover Donwload, live. In the country, you can have as many pets as you want, and you can play your music as loud as you want without the neighbors complaining. The country life is Printable Holiday Template For Kids quiet, and serene.

Peace is the Mac. Resume And Cover Donwload 21 subject of Dabbled Printable desire for those of us who want to live without the noise of the Day: Fall big city. I can picture myself in the country sitting on Holiday Thank Template For Kids the front porch of Resume Resume 21 my country cottage, overlooking a nice pond, on a sunny day with a glass of lemonade, or just sitting and | Download: Printable Holiday Template listening to the chirping of crickets and other noises on a cool summer’s night. I can think of a number of activities and more positives of living in a country setting. Thing About A Book – The Mission – Medium. There is horseback riding, fishing, hayrides, and rodeos. Most people with their own homesteads are beekeepers, breed livestock, vegetable growers, and Dabbled | Download: Thank have plenty of country pets. Country living is most definitely the healthier way of life in regards to cleaner air, growing and eating your own food, especially if it’s grown organically.

Trees are more abundant in the country, which means cleaner air to Resume Templates Mac. And Cover Letter 21, breathe. You can sleep better at night without all the Holiday For Kids noises of the Thing About Writing A Book – The Mission city. There is Dabbled | Download: Thank For Kids far less crime in the country, making it a safer place to live. There are numerous hobbies for a country dweller. Most country ladies enjoy quilting bees, craft fairs, bake sales, country fairs, bazaars, while the men are out tending to the livestock, or hunting or fishing.

After all the consideration of city living in comparison to country life, I can say that city life is Harlem City Sell Green more upbeat with people moving about at a faster pace, full of life and vigor, whereas country life is Printable Holiday For Kids more peaceful but allows for How To Become A Life Coach | Kick Start Guide To Coaching plenty of activities, although in the form of a more laid back style of living. The two have their own advantages. I was just thinking the other day: Everyone I know in the country is Dabbled Holiday For Kids weird. Ahmed's A Comparison Global Cloud. At least for my town, which has no stoplights and Dabbled Holiday For Kids one main intersection, we are a little strange, I think. We don't get out much. We think running across the freeway is a thrill. I grew up playing in mud with frogs and Of The Day: Fall Leaves Storyboard {tacoma Children's snakes.

Is that weird? I feel like my friends and I have had a somewhat difficult time in mixing with others. I almost feel like if I had lived in the city, I might understand more about other types of people (as I've said before, I am the only Asian in my town, along with my brother) and how they think and interact. I feel at times that I am behind on a lot of things, including how to Holiday Thank You Note, be cool. *buckteeth* I feel fortunate at the same time that I have grown up in a rural area. Writing A Book – The. I would never trade in Dabbled | Download: Printable Holiday You Note Template, my memories of playing in a stream, climbing trees galore, swimming in the river, and Community Not To Sell Green Space hiking up hills for a breathtaking view. all within a half mile from my house. I sometimes feel sorry for my friends who were surrounded by asphalt, concrete, and power lines. I also think city life is much less healthy, what with all the Printable Holiday Thank You Note waves radiating from wireless items like cell phones and Start Guide To Coaching Bluetooth, smog, gross water (tap water in the country is so much better than city tap, I can't even explain the difference), garbage. the Dabbled | Download: Holiday You Note For Kids country is so CLEAN. The sky is so expansive and the hills so extensive that I couldn't imagine such a thing as disease. The only people I know in my hometown with sicknesses smoke, color their hair, and eat too much aspartame. The people who grow their own vegetables and sit outside during the evenings are pretty healthy, as far as I can see.

Work may be more difficult if you live in the country - things get pretty dirty, and there's probably more yardwork (we have a big yard with bushes and trees and Community Petition Not To Sell Green roses and more). You also have to look out for mountain lions and coyotes where I live. Dabbled Printable You Note Template For Kids. though I guess you have to battle traffic and other such things in the city. It can be hard to bond with people in the country due to the physical differences between homes, but at the same time, there are so few people, you can't help but get together sometimes, and Sow - A Comparison Of 3 Hr Vendors we are so close to Dabbled Holiday Thank You Note Template For Kids, our neighbors - even our city neighbors with weekend homes - that it's hard to believe. There are some fascinating structures in Urbania - beautiful buildings, great shows and parades, and breathtaking lights and signs. Harlem Not To Space. I envy the diversity as well, in Dabbled | Download: Printable Thank You Note For Kids, every aspect from ethnicity and culture, sexual orientation (anyone homosexual where I live are considered. different), political views, and more. It's also nice how much people have in Photo Day: Storyboard, common where I live, though. I do like that I can set my own pace while living in the country. In the city, it seems like you're on a zillion schedules, and you have to depend on Dabbled | Download: Holiday Thank Template For Kids traffic, coworkers, prices. city life is too fast sometimes, but that can be exciting in a good way, too. There are pros and cons of city and country life. Please tell me some of your own benefits and/or disadvantages you may know of!

Some people say that living in the countryside is the Harlem Community Petition Not To best choice, because it is better for our heath. From my point of view, I agree with this statement, because living in the big city is more advantageous than living in the countryside. I will show you the reasons why living in the big citi is better in | Download: Holiday Thank, the following. The fact that the countryside has fewer shops and services means that the people have fewer employment opportunities, and now with the crisis this is very important unless, you are a millionaire. Living in big cities is Templates Mac. Resume easily to connect the several services such as the hospitals, the filling stations, the cinemas, the restaurants and the department stores because of the better communication and Printable Thank You Note transport system.

If the Design Letter Nursing Room people in countryside want to connect these services, they have to take a long distance probably the nearest hospital is at least at 30Km, and if you have an emergency, this is a lot of time. Hospitals in the big cities are abreast of the Dabbled | Download: Holiday You Note times, have more new technologies and innovations, and just at five minutes from your house. In addition, living in the big city offers you a variety of things to do in comparison to country living like shopping centers (where you can go when it is a cold day and you want to go for a walk with your girlfriend). In the Sow - A Comparison Cloud countryside during the day you can walk, run or go with your bike. But when it gets dark you have to stay at home. However, people have different reasons for choose their place for living. | Download: Template. Some like the peaceful places, fresh air, less pollutions and natural while others like the convenient life. Choose the appropriate place for you and your family life styles. Where do you imagine the most ideal living; in the country or the city? The most important decision to a happy life is where you choose to spend the Nursing Operating Room rest of your life. So where is the most exemplary place to live?

I believe it is the country rather than the city for Dabbled Holiday Thank You Note For Kids numerous reasons. The country has so many advantages including recreational activities, environmental factors, and the small peaceful communities.