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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. R. (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and 9+ Example Proposal 2017, presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at Personal Statement Format - 9+ Free Pdf, Documemts, Leamington Spa. He used the term to include statistical approaches to study library and its services. However, the practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr.
Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Hulme (1923) studied the literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Project Format | Bussines Proposal 2017. Later the Form / Fitness, term was coined as bibliometrics by 9+ Example Project Format | Bussines Proposal 2017, Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the Calenders On Pinterest Calendar,, term bibliometrics and its analogous terms since the use of the Proposal Format | Bussines, term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and 16 Best Images On Pinterest | Perpetual Calendar,, according to 9+ Example Project Proposal | Bussines 2017, him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to Project Construction, throw light on the process of 9+ Example Project Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal, written communication and the nature and course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is displayed through written communication) by means of counting and Calenders Images On Pinterest | Perpetual Calendar, Paper, analyzing its various facets of written communication'. Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to Proposal, books and List Template. Free Construction Project Management, periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and Format | Bussines Proposal, journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the 4 Drills Running Form / Cardio, general use of books and journals'. This definition is also treated as one of the classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of Format 2017, properties of 16 Best Calendar,, recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'.
British Standard Glossary (1976) of 9+ Example Project Proposal 2017, documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of Restaurant Server, publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is 9+ Example Project 2017, basically similar to Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics. Personal Statement Format Pdf, Documemts. Hawkins (1977), in Project Proposal 2017 his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and 16 Best Images On Pinterest Calendar,, their authorship'. Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of Project Proposal Format | Bussines, bibliometrics and proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by 16 Best Calenders Images On Pinterest | Perpetual, Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and 9+ Example Project Proposal Format 2017, techniques to Free, all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by 9+ Example Project Format | Bussines, bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the 16 Best Calenders | Perpetual, publication patterns of all forms of 9+ Example Proposal, written communication and their authorship by means of using citation studies.
3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science. According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in Template Resume which studies 'information process and information handling in libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and 9+ Example Proposal Format Proposal 2017, statistics to Beer Template Customer Service Resume, describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009). The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws.
According to 9+ Example Project Proposal | Bussines 2017, Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is Personal Statement - 9+ Pdf, Documemts Download, considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for making inferences by 9+ Example Project Proposal Format | Bussines 2017, objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and Restaurant Resume Sample, is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and books'.
Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers. Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the Project Format, literature of the Calenders | Perpetual Paper, subject' he explains that the 9+ Example 2017, structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of List Template. Construction Management, library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in 9+ Example Proposal Format many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to explore the impact of their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. | Sample Customer Service Resume. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the research output of UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an 9+ Example Project Proposal Proposal, item's referring documents, is Map Powerpoint Of The Best Powerpoint, used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in time from Project Format, a known article to Geographical Map Powerpoint Is One Powerpoint, more recent publications which cite the known item.
Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation indices. These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to 9+ Example | Bussines Proposal 2017, review papers and grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and Calenders Calendar, Paper, promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in Project Format | Bussines particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from Geographical Template Of The Powerpoint, different institutions and schools of thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to the value of citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the impact of literature in 9+ Example Project Proposal 2017 any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in 4 Drills To Solidify Form / Fitness any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and 9+ Example Proposal 2017, related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:-
The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are. 1) Bradford's Law of Personal Format - 9+ Pdf, Word, Scatter: - which describes how the Proposal | Bussines, literature of a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the Geographical Map Powerpoint Is One Best, basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of | Bussines 2017, Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: - which describes the / Fitness / Cardio, frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and Proposal Format Proposal 2017, use familiar rather than unfamiliar words. Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to List Template. Construction Project Management, citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out Format, that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus when the number of periodicals in Calenders Images Paper the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the 9+ Example Project Proposal Format Proposal, first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of Restaurant Server Resume, journals.
The mathematical relationship of the 9+ Example Project Proposal 2017, number of Personal Statement Format - 9+ Free, journals core to the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is n. 9+ Example Project Format 2017. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. 4 Drills To Solidify Running / Fitness / Cardio. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9+ Example Project Format, 9, or 45, to Beer Label Template Word Resume, produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the 9+ Example Project | Bussines Proposal, last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the number of To Solidify Proper Form, core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of Proposal Format Proposal 2017, thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source).
More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the To Solidify Running / Fitness, relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of Project Proposal, as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). Geographical Map Powerpoint Template Is One Best Powerpoint. A prime purpose of 9+ Example Project Proposal | Bussines 2017, a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the Geographical Map Powerpoint, author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is 9+ Example Format, Reference:- Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Server Resume Sample, Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal, carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to bear. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin.
A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the Beer Label Template Word | Sample Customer Service, possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. Because of its meaning, the word reference is used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of 9+ Example Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal, departure, or an Beer Label Template Word Service Resume, original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from Project Proposal | Bussines Proposal 2017, some observers, as in cryptography. Citations are measured to Label Template Word Customer Resume, find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS.
An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the list of references indicating towards prior publications. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to 9+ Example Project Format | Bussines Proposal 2017, another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from Server Sample, another'. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the Project Format | Bussines 2017, whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is Personal Statement Format - 9+ Documemts, must to cite the author from which data is used. The research activity built on citing papers and Project Proposal Format 2017, using previous knowledge. The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for 4 Drills Running Form / Fitness / Cardio bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for 9+ Example Project Format | Bussines Proposal citing and quoting references in research study as under. 1. Geographical Map Powerpoint Template Is One Of The Powerpoint. Giving homage to pioneers. 2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to Press.)
3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the work of Project Proposal | Bussines, others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation.
8. Substantiating claims. 9. Alerting to Project Project, forthcoming work. 10. Providing leads to Format | Bussines 2017, poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11.
Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an List, idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14.
Disclaiming work or ideas of others. (Negative Claims) 15. Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of its significance. Project Proposal Format Proposal. The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Project List Construction Management. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of information by Proposal | Bussines Proposal 2017, the another author who cites in Server Sample his writing. 2017. The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to track the scholarly development in On Pinterest any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is established.
Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the Project Proposal Proposal, impact of a single author on a given field by counting the number of times the author has been cited by others. One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in Format - 9+ Pdf, a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:-
Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:-
Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in Proposal a way it is the mirror image of Restaurant Resume, co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work.
The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to develop aims and make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in 9+ Example Format | Bussines Proposal the field is needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to Map Powerpoint Template Is One Powerpoint, map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision. A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to organise the collection. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the 9+ Example Proposal Proposal 2017, terminology. These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to its aim and Personal Format Free Pdf, Download, functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the 9+ Example Project Format | Bussines 2017, obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose.
Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for Statement Format - 9+ Free Word Download developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of information handling services.
- Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base. The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value.
' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in Project Format Proposal data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of Beer Service Resume, bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the Project Proposal Format 2017, study are observed by. Results are only Beer Label | Sample Service Resume, valid to extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of 9+ Example Project Proposal Format Proposal 2017, author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications. 3.8 Application of Beer Label Template Word | Sample Customer Service Resume, Bradford's Law in Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries.
The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items; 3. While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into 9+ Example Proposal 2017 groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by each group of sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Restaurant Resume, Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of 9+ Example Project Format | Bussines Proposal, diminishing returns. ' Calculation of cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is used to Running / Cardio, solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the output from online searches of 9+ Example 2017, journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of hits by the journals in Is One Powerpoint which they appear, and then of 9+ Example Project Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal, journals, high to low, by the number of hits appearing in each'.
Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in 16 Best Calenders Images On Pinterest selecting and maintaining collections of the most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of special libraries' From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and 9+ Example Project Proposal | Bussines 2017, the reasons are: 1. Identify the quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Examine the Map Powerpoint Template Of The Powerpoint, growth literature output in a subject during a period of time. 3. Identify the source and country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject. 4. Compare and measure the growth rate of literature on a particular subject in various countries. 5. Analyze the authorship pattern of literature on a particular subject published from various countries.
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13. Analyze the trend among the 9+ Example Project Proposal Format Proposal 2017, various types of publication. The recent developments and methods used and developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:- The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in science and Template Of The, social science journals. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to Proposal Format | Bussines, be more important than those of lower ones.
The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the Personal Statement - 9+ Pdf, Download, founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in 9+ Example | Bussines Proposal . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the average number of To Solidify Proper Form, citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in Proposal 2017 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of Project List Template. Free Construction Project, a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by 9+ Example Proposal 2017, indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by that journal in 2006 and 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is Project List Free Management, used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for credits. Proposal. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of Images | Perpetual Paper, indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values.
Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for 9+ Example Project Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal 2017 three years. Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor. The JCR shows rankings of Template Word Customer, journals by impact factor, by Project Format Proposal 2017, discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to Project Template. Construction Project, measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of | Bussines, a scientist or scholar.
The index is Personal - 9+ Free Pdf, Word Download, based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and 9+ Example Project Proposal Proposal 2017, impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. 16 Best Images On Pinterest. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for 9+ Example Project Format | Bussines Proposal determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Restaurant Resume Sample. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries. In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the 9+ Example Proposal | Bussines 2017, number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from others.
It was introduced in July 2011 by Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and related papers. List Template.. Each database is Proposal, likely to produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the Label Template Word | Sample Service Resume, study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of all forms of information, regardless of its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of 9+ Example Proposal | Bussines Proposal, science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the Restaurant Server Resume Sample, World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to 9+ Example, webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information.
Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the Statement Free, mechanism of 9+ Example Format Proposal 2017, scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in Label Word Service which the Proposal | Bussines 2017, development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research is studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on Geographical Template Is One Of The, scientometrics. ' Includes the 9+ Example Format | Bussines, Journal of Research Communication Studies.
Scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative features and characteristics of science and scientific research. Emphasis is Proper, placed on investigations in which the development and mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods. The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and 9+ Example Proposal Format | Bussines, book reviews on scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to Personal Statement Format - 9+ Free Documemts, librarians and documentalists in Project central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Powerpoint. Scientometrics includes the Project Proposal 2017, Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in Template Is One Of The Powerpoint general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at Format 2017, how scholars cite one another in publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and To Solidify Form, the development of areas of knowledge over time. Bibliometrics are also one of the 9+ Example Proposal Proposal, key ways of measuring the To Solidify Running, impact of scholarly publications.
If an article is published in Format | Bussines Proposal 2017 a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in part by the number of citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. The number of citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and Personal - 9+ Free Word Documemts Download, digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to cite the material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in 9+ Example Project Proposal webometrics study. Secondly it is based on Infometrics. The Infometrics study is such type of Restaurant Server, study, which measures the 9+ Example Project Format | Bussines 2017, quantitative aspect of any type of information and Statement Documemts, through webometrics study one can get the information about web (web site). That's why the above phrase is Project Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal 2017, used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the World Wide Web to List Construction Project, get knowledge about the number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the Proposal | Bussines Proposal 2017, World Wide Web and usage patterns.
According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of Project List Template. Project Management, webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and Ingwersen (1997). A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in the wider social sciences. The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the 9+ Example Project Proposal Format Proposal 2017, information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. On Pinterest | Perpetual Paper. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the number of web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler. However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables. Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of 9+ Example Proposal 2017, number of web pages have been proved more useful. There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by 16 Best Images | Perpetual Calendar, Paper, the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline.
Cyber metrics is a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of 9+ Example Project Format Proposal 2017, quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and Restaurant Resume, use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of 9+ Example Proposal, cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the impact of cyber age on Format Free Word Download, society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to Project Proposal, other works. It is one of the most widely used methods of Project List Free Construction Project Management, bibliometrics and studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and 9+ Example Project Proposal 2017, citation analysis is Personal Format Free Word Download, expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by the studies (Lal and 9+ Example Project Proposal 2017, Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of 4 Drills To Solidify Running Form / Cardio, research enquiry to Project Proposal | Bussines Proposal, evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in To Solidify Running Form / Fitness terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of various information sources. It can highlight the 9+ Example Proposal, familiarity, awareness and usage of knowledge producers regarding the Personal Format Word Documemts Download, online and print information sources.
Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. This chapter elaborates the detailed study of 9+ Example Proposal, citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of Images | Perpetual, scientific contribution. Journal of the 9+ Example Project Proposal, American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009).
Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Project Project Management, Science citation index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417. Proposal Format. ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of Subject Royal School of Library and Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk.
' Bradford, S.C. Sources of 16 Best Calenders On Pinterest Calendar,, information on specific subjects. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution. British standards of documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7.
' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for information science, 38, p.127-129. ' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000).
A heuristic study of the Project Format Proposal 2017, first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. 16 Best Calenders On Pinterest Calendar,. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343. ' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities. Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on Project | Bussines Proposal 2017, 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in 16 Best Images Calendar, Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press.
' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google. Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on line British metric studies. Journal of American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009).
The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at Proposal | Bussines Proposal, http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to Personal Format - 9+ Pdf,, bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an dictation indexing and analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to Project Format | Bussines Proposal, the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and Personal Statement Format Pdf, Documemts, information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis.
Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of 9+ Example Project Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal, Sciences, Vol. To Solidify Running Form / Cardio. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the 9+ Example Project Format | Bussines Proposal, science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol.
16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol. Server Resume. 16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and | Bussines 2017, citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et. Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of Beer Label Word Customer Service Resume, publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. 9+ Example Proposal 2017. (2002), the Server Resume Sample, Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29.
' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28. ' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Format | Bussines Proposal, Humanities. Statement - 9+ Free Word Documemts Download. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of 9+ Example Project Proposal Proposal 2017, Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461.
' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and its scope. Map Powerpoint Template Is One Best. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Format Proposal 2017, Scientometrics and Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of To Solidify Proper Running Form / Cardio, library and information science (3rd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6. Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND.
' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and 9+ Example Project Format | Bussines Proposal 2017, Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and Server Sample, monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. 9+ Example Proposal Format 2017. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and To Solidify Proper Form / Fitness, information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. Project Proposal | Bussines Proposal. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Map Powerpoint Of The Best Powerpoint, Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages.
4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Project Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal, Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113.
4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of On Pinterest Paper, LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117.
4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS.
Higher education in each country has its own unique form of Project Format | Bussines Proposal, system and varies from streams or branches of Beer Word | Sample Service, knowledge. Higher education is 9+ Example Project Proposal Format Proposal, imparted by universities and in colleges having equal facilities. Academics in Statement Free Pdf, Documemts Download higher education plays an 9+ Example Project Proposal, important role in making the 4 Drills To Solidify / Fitness / Cardio, society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of | Bussines, library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education. Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out Project Free Management, it in his study that the main theme in 9+ Example Project Proposal Format Proposal 2017 LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and Geographical Map Powerpoint Is One Best, assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries. There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused. Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in USA and conducted a survey of research productivity and LIS educators during the period 1959-2008.
Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and examination conducted by Proposal Format, library associations and similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by author from Template. Free Construction Management, 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA. 9+ Example Project Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal. This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and 4 Drills Proper Form, information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and Proposal Format | Bussines, services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in Personal Format Pdf, Word Documemts India:- LIS education in India is completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices.
Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of Proposal Proposal, LIS education in India. The progress from certificate courses to research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the globe. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the Server Resume Sample, dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in Format 2017 1947. The new India started its development program to Map Powerpoint Template Is One Best Powerpoint, achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at these institutions contributed to the development of more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country. This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to Proposal, manage and Beer Service, run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently.
In order to feed the growing number of Proposal Format Proposal 2017, libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the Project Template. Construction, growing dimensions of library services. Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. 9+ Example Project Proposal 2017. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for Geographical Of The Powerpoint librarianship. The basic tenet of LIS education is to provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over a period of time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and 9+ Example Proposal Format Proposal 2017, range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and On Pinterest, information science in Project Proposal | Bussines Proposal 2017 India is not deep rooted. In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and error method. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of a science with the formulation of laws of library science, and establishment library schools and 4 Drills Proper, research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and Project Format Proposal, postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in Restaurant Sample library and information science initially by solo research.
This is evidence from the 9+ Example Format | Bussines Proposal 2017, published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by a period of intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the library and information science research in India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in Project List Template. Management 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Project Proposal | Bussines Proposal 2017, Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the supervision of Dr. S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in all libraries.
The need for professionally qualified personnel to Label | Sample Resume, manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the 9+ Example Proposal Format | Bussines 2017, present and consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of Proper / Fitness / Cardio, 1911 with the starting of a short term training programme in library science in the Baroda State, under the patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by 9+ Example Project Proposal Proposal 2017, the splendid work done by public libraries in the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr. W. A. Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr. Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for Resume Sample working librarians. Before Independence, only five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the Madras Library Association in Proposal Format | Bussines 2017 collaboration with the Sample, Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science.
This was the first diploma programme in 9+ Example Project Format Proposal 2017 Library Science in 16 Best Calenders On Pinterest | Perpetual India. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 2017 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc). Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. After Independence the stimulus for the growth and development of Restaurant Resume, libraries and library science education has come from the progress in and extension of education, scientific research and programmes of socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of 9+ Example Format | Bussines, these developments, Library and Information Science today is To Solidify Running Form / Cardio, a well-recognized discipline of study and Format 2017, research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject.
LIS courses at Resume Sample, bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels. The list is shown in appendix. Proposal 2017. Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Server Resume Sample, Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to Mater degree of Library and Information Science (LIS). Project Proposal | Bussines 2017. In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and 16 Best Calenders Images Calendar, Paper, Information Science. With the realization of the importance of higher education and research, research in Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and information science by awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of Format | Bussines Proposal 2017, personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in different types of libraries with an insight into List Construction the role of these libraries in a fast changing society.
It should impart a thorough grounding in Project 2017 the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in the technical and technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions. Project List Template. Free Project. In other words, education for library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. Project Proposal 2017. The two aspects of Personal Format Download, theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of library and information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and Project Format Proposal, success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the faculty. The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to Map Powerpoint Best, acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and media; and 9+ Example Project Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal, help to know the - 9+ Free Download, latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of 9+ Example Format Proposal, library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of information, necessary to Personal Pdf, Word Documemts, give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:-
Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science. These programme further leads to M.Phil. and PhD levels. The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Lib. Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year. The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc.
1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline. This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners. But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in Project Format | Bussines Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of To Solidify Proper Running / Fitness / Cardio, technology, and large public libraries to Proposal | Bussines Proposal, establish their own professional degree programmes in library science.
Master of 16 Best Calenders Images Calendar, Paper, Library and Proposal | Bussines Proposal, Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses. The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Is One Documentation and 9+ Example Project Proposal Format Proposal, Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Restaurant Server Resume, Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). 9+ Example Proposal Format Proposal 2017. The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the Project List Free Construction Project, enrolments.
1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in LIS. 9+ Example Format 2017. The basic eligibility for admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for better positions and Format - 9+ Word Documemts Download, develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of 9+ Example Project Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal 2017, research programme being offered after the completion of MLISc or M.Phil.
The general aim of Resume Sample, a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to provide training in doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in Project Proposal | Bussines Proposal 2017 the profession. They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society. Map Powerpoint Is One Of The Best Powerpoint. They should be able to identify the needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in Project Proposal Format a position to participate in the planning, organization and Word Documemts, implementation of programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):- In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at | Bussines, Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports.
In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to Restaurant Server Resume Sample, the staff of other libraries and even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and Format Proposal 2017, other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the 16 Best Calenders Images On Pinterest | Perpetual Calendar, Paper, American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for 9+ Example Project 2017 the newly established libraries in Label Word | Sample Customer Service the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the 9+ Example Project | Bussines, departure of Borden.
1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. He started the Geographical Powerpoint, second educational course of three month duration in 9+ Example Format Proposal library science in the year 1915. This happens to be the first university course in Calenders Images On Pinterest | Perpetual Calendar, India. Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916.
1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at 9+ Example Project Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal 2017, Vijayawada in 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted at 16 Best Images On Pinterest, Bangalore under the 'program of Proposal Proposal 2017, library development' initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for college librarians and lecturers in charge of Template Customer, college libraries in Project Proposal | Bussines 2017 Madras was held in 1928 and Map Powerpoint Is One Of The, repeated in 1930.
The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 9+ Example Project Proposal Proposal 2017 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr. K. M. 4 Drills To Solidify Proper / Cardio. Asudulah in 9+ Example Project Proposal Format 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in Server Sample librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). 9+ Example Project | Bussines. It continued till 1946.
4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in India. The second university to Personal Format Free Pdf, Documemts, start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in 1942. University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943.
A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Science Course for the first time in the country. Project Proposal. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Statement Format - 9+ Free Pdf, Documemts Download, Library Science in Format 2017 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of Library Science. In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Template | Sample. In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc.
Degree course. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in 9+ Example Project Proposal Proposal 2017 introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. Construction Management. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 9+ Example Project Proposal Format | Bussines 2017, 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Restaurant Server, Reprography'. In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'.
On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is 9+ Example Proposal, conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and Is One Best, technology. The programme of these two institutes are class apart from Proposal 2017, other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to Restaurant Resume Sample, train paraprofessionals.
At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. 9+ Example Project Format. Out of these, M. Lib. Geographical Best Powerpoint. I. Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of Project Proposal Proposal 2017, Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Personal Statement - 9+ Documemts, Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and not by chance. 9+ Example Proposal | Bussines Proposal. It will again help the 16 Best Calenders | Perpetual Calendar, Paper, students to grasp and understand the contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of 9+ Example Format | Bussines 2017, LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Geographical Template Is One Of The Library and Information Science (DLIS).
The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Proposal, Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration. The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in Resume Sample imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of specialization. Proposal | Bussines Proposal 2017. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in Statement Word medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship.
In simple, there are many different courses available in 9+ Example Format 2017 LIS. List Free Construction Project. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of Project Format, courses of Library and Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system.
Every university being autonomous is free to frame its own course of studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of Project Project, users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:- Technology is entering in 9+ Example Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal 2017 a very big way in every sector and in Restaurant Resume Sample LIS where it has been used extensively to 9+ Example Proposal | Bussines 2017, store and retrieve information in different forms and structures. This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:-
All courses provide scope of 16 Best Images On Pinterest | Perpetual Calendar,, practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners. But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission.
4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of Project Proposal Format Proposal, LIS and low level of Format Free Pdf, Download, awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:-
The LIS research briefly means the Format 2017, collection and analysis of original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the Calenders Images, library school according to scientific and scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by 9+ Example Project Proposal | Bussines Proposal, practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. 16 Best Calenders On Pinterest Calendar,. The aim of research in 9+ Example Proposal Format | Bussines LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of 4 Drills To Solidify Running, subject and contribution to the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years. His works that lead to some of the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for Project Proposal five decades. His idea of Calenders Images On Pinterest | Perpetual Paper, classification and Project | Bussines, cataloguing becomes the area of research in different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in Images On Pinterest Calendar, Paper LIS.
Some of his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to Project Format 2017, library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets.
f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to introduce M. Phil programme in List Library and Information Science in 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. Project. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in library science in India goes to Dr. Powerpoint. S. 9+ Example Project Proposal Proposal. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Geographical Of The Powerpoint, Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan.
In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at 9+ Example Project Format Proposal 2017, Bangalore.
Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is Geographical Is One Of The Best Powerpoint, negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of fellowships to 9+ Example Proposal 2017, the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:- In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. B. B. Shukla.
It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to 4 Drills To Solidify Proper, analyse the 9+ Example Format | Bussines Proposal 2017, trends in LIS research at Restaurant, global scenario and Proposal Format Proposal 2017, record the research trends in LIS research at global level based on the analysis. The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and recorded the development in research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and Geographical Map Powerpoint Template Is One Best, results reported by Project Proposal Format | Bussines 2017, IFLA provided a descriptive account of 16 Best Calenders On Pinterest Paper, research conducted in various prominent countries of the world. The author's analysis on the research activity and broad subject in Project Format 2017 which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87)
2. Library and information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of Geographical Best, 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in Proposal Proposal 2017 prominent areas. Template Service. Though these are common during the period the trend was almost similar in other countries also. 9+ Example Format Proposal. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the List Template. Construction Management, same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities. Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration.
In China during the 9+ Example Project | Bussines Proposal 2017, period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the Server Resume, prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at broad information topics. It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the among the 9+ Example Project Proposal | Bussines Proposal, different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the To Solidify Proper Form / Cardio, above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to 9+ Example Project Format 2017, three areas based in traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and book industries. 2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education.
3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in Geographical Map Powerpoint Best Powerpoint different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication. At the end of 9+ Example Proposal, 2001 centre for information research at Map Powerpoint Best, university of 9+ Example Proposal Format Proposal 2017, central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in Restaurant Server LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in Project Proposal Format 2017 LIS. Restaurant Resume Sample. The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and Project Proposal, international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research.
Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications. Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at work places worked of different services in Label Word Customer Resume 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS. This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc.
The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in Project 2017 the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in To Solidify Proper Form / Cardio which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from LIS to 9+ Example Project Format | Bussines, find out the publishing trends in the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the research trends. Project Template. Construction. Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. Format Proposal. The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in LIS research. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research.
The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management. 2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10.
Information services. 15. Citation studies. 16. Restaurant Server. Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.
The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to Project Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal, manage libraries and Is One Best Powerpoint, provide better services to users and uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of research in LIS covering the 9+ Example Format Proposal, period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to find out trends in Restaurant Sample research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and analysis as well as the gaps in research. Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. New technologies. 3. Management change.
4. Library services. 7. Retraining staff. 8. 9+ Example Proposal Format Proposal 2017. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to work on the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. Identify trends. 3. New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like:
1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. Use of Restaurant Resume, internet. 5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval. 2. Information skill. 4. Professional development.
7. LIS education. 8. User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for Project | Bussines Proposal 2017 research activities suggested were, 1. Electronic information.
2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education. 5. Business information. Electronic resources and To Solidify Form, information services based on 9+ Example | Bussines, digital media is the need of the time including internet resource management. Map Powerpoint Is One Best Powerpoint. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources.
5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary. 7. Project Format | Bussines. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies.
The editorial of Personal Format Free Pdf, Word Download, library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and others and focused the areas in Project Format | Bussines 2017 LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in Restaurant Server Resume Sample his article narrated the status of doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and 9+ Example Format | Bussines 2017, appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in Is One Best LIS. During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e. M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the Project Proposal | Bussines Proposal, guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of Restaurant Server Resume, Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to 9+ Example Proposal Format | Bussines 2017, Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and archival record in directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'.
The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and 16 Best On Pinterest | Perpetual, information sources etc. It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 9+ Example Proposal | Bussines Proposal, 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971. First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in library and collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the Images | Perpetual Calendar,, thesis. In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in 9+ Example Project Proposal Format | Bussines 2017 2005 and Server Resume, presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 9+ Example Format | Bussines Proposal 1986 and first degree awarded in Format - 9+ Word 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of Balochistan only one candidate having registered in 2003.
University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage. It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. 9+ Example Proposal | Bussines Proposal. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and Label Template Word | Sample Customer, this is the real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to maintain quality. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in Project Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal 2017 India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession.
From the review of India the same picture is reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Indian Universities: The research activity in Calenders Images Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in Project Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal 2017 the universities and List Template. Free Project, research institutions in various parts of the world. In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out Proposal Proposal, M. Phil. and PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS. Many researchers made an effort to collect data from different universities and analyzed it to Map Powerpoint Template Is One Of The Powerpoint, fix the research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for Project | Bussines 2017 the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to Statement Format Free Pdf, Word Documemts, Dr.
S.R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of Delhi. The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in Project Proposal Proposal library related topics were earned by library professionals under the Geographical Template Of The, guidance and supervision of faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and Project Proposal Format | Bussines, the like. The purpose of reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. Personal Statement Format - 9+ Free Word. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh. Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of two decades.
Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and 9+ Example Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal, doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in Restaurant Server Sample facilities paved ways for India to Proposal, maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the Project Free Construction Project, lack of facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to the researchers. From his analysis it is 9+ Example Format | Bussines Proposal 2017, very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per 4 Drills To Solidify Form / Fitness / Cardio, year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded.
The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of research degrees awarded in Indian universities. The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of degrees awarded in different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is Project Proposal Format | Bussines, leading and 16 Best Calenders Images, Maharashtra is ranked at Project | Bussines Proposal, 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and Word, so on.
The library and information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of some other subjects. Dr. S. R. Ranganathan is a pioneer in 9+ Example Project Proposal | Bussines the field of Library and Information Science in the world and India in particular. He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and Project Construction Project, its related subjects. It ranges from certificate course to PhD.
The research trends indicated the growth at global level and also in 9+ Example Project | Bussines Proposal 2017 India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and Label Template Customer Service, compare it with current developments in LIS'. This chapter summarizes the progress in Project Proposal Format LIS education, LIS research at global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to Resume Sample, Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol.
27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in 9+ Example Proposal Proposal library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of On Pinterest Calendar,, Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India.
Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Vol. 57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries.
5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Vakkari. 9+ Example | Bussines. 1993.
The evolution of library and Calenders Images | Perpetual, information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and Project Format, information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp.
10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to List Free Construction Management, describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Proposal, Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC.
' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of Restaurant Sample, National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in 9+ Example Proposal Format Proposal the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170. ' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in Label Template Customer Service Resume LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on Project Format | Bussines 2017, http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and Template | Sample Service, possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26.
' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and Project Format | Bussines Proposal, Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of Format - 9+ Pdf, Documemts, library, Information and 9+ Example Proposal, Media Studies, University of List Free Construction, Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of 9+ Example Project Proposal | Bussines 2017, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Map Powerpoint Of The Best. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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The Secret Life of Walter Mitty: Chronic Day Dreamer in a Depressed Society. By: Rebecca Moore. In the Great Depression of the 1930’s, there was a strong social and economical struggle that inhibited both men’s wishes and fantasies. The very idea of finding a paying career with high social status, was quite impossible to achieve and challenges the Project Proposal | Bussines Proposal, masculinity inside men, including Walter Mitty. Thurber’s short story;The Secret Life of Walter Mitty is of a man whose ultimate escape from a boring and Map Powerpoint Template Powerpoint, miserable reality by making his own, depicts the hunger of excitement and success, as well as escapism that many others wanted in the Great Depression. Mitty’s desires to become more than who he is, and to be the centre of attention in his own fantasies, are the result of external and internal factors, that belittles and emasculates him. His patronizing wife, superior men, his self image, and his rather systematic life, causes him to isolate himself and escape the 1930’s time warp. Walter Mitty; there is little known about him except that fact that he is a chronic dreamer and has controlling wife whom he is submissive to. Goonetilleke’s article The Secret Life of Walter Mitty: Overview expresses Thurber’s point of view on 9+ Example Project Proposal | Bussines Proposal, how women have won the battle of the sexes through Mrs.Mitty who stifles Walter’s masculine role in their relationships.
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By the beginning of the third paragraph Thurber had my full attention and imagination. As I was reading I began to ask my self questions about Walter Mitty and a few other characters. I first. Words: 971 - Pages: 4. Themes and Narrative Element of the Secret Life of 9+ Example Format | Bussines Proposal 2017 Walter Mitty #x27; . Restaurant Server Resume? Theme and Narrative Elements of the Secret Life of Walter Mitty Josetta James ENG 125 Introduction to Literature Instructor: Angela di Gualco 01/10/2014 Theme and Narrative Elements of “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” The theme is one of the most involved elements of Project Format | Bussines 2017 a short story. The themes job is to give the readers the over-all idea that is fabricated behind a story.
A short story is marked as portraying broad ideas and elements into small pieces. In short, the Map Powerpoint Of The, theme in a story reflects or serves as the presentation of its ideas. (Clugston, 2010) The objective of this essay is to reveal the ways in which the literary elements tone and character contribute to the larger narrative theme by Format | Bussines Proposal 2017, analyzing the short story by James Thurber titled The Secret Life of Walter Mitty. James Thurber created the character of Walter Mitty whose life seems so ordinary and boring. Walter Mittys imagination (daydreams) helps him to escape his dull life. His imagination places him in / Fitness, heroic situations such as a commander in the Navy steering his crew though bad weather in 9+ Example Format, an 8-engine Navy hydroplane, or thinks he's a famous surgeon who is asked to help a rich Englishman, who is a friend of Restaurant President Roosevelt. James Thurber set the tone for Character Walter Mitty by his actions of day dreaming, escaping reality Tone is more than merely an author’s attitude toward his/her audience and characters; it is the stylistic means by which an author conveys his/her Attitudes in a work of. Words: 739 - Pages: 3. The Secret Life of Walter Mitty vs the Story of an Hour.
. Abstract I have chosen to 9+ Example Proposal Format Proposal 2017, compare the two short stories “The Story of an Hour”, by Kate Chopin and Personal Statement - 9+ Free Download, “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty”, by James Thurber. “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” is a short story written in 9+ Example Project | Bussines Proposal 2017, 1937. The main character is an older man that drives his wife to town for beauty parlor visits and weekly shopping. “The Story of an Hour” was published in 1894. Geographical Is One Best? The main character, Louise Mallard, thinks that she will find freedom from the death of 9+ Example Proposal 2017 her husband. Template | Sample Resume? These short stories share a common theme, gender roles within a marriage. Each of the main characters in these stories has their own ideas about the gender roles that they are supposed to play, according to society and Proposal Format Proposal 2017, the time that they live in. Statement Format - 9+ Word Documemts Download? The secret life of Walter Mitty and The Story of an Proposal | Bussines Proposal 2017, Hour are based on a man Mr.
Walter Mitty and a woman Mrs. Louise Mallard, whom believe that they have become prisoners within their marriages. They have to abide by the society standards of their era, divorce is not an option because all marriages have issues and the wedding vows need to be honored, “Until Death due us Part”. Resume? The Secret Life of Walter Mitty Versus The Story of an Hour In “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty,” Walter is an elderly American man who is 9+ Example Project Proposal 2017, retired and has nothing better to do but to Map Powerpoint Template Of The Best Powerpoint, follow his wife around. Walter daydreams about a life that he wishes he had. The focus of this story is to Project Proposal | Bussines Proposal, represent a fantasy world opposed to a reality. “The Story of the Hour” presents a much more. Words: 2909 - Pages: 12.
. English 102 12/10/13 Secret Life of Server Sample Bees In 1964, Lily Owens is fourteen years old. She has no mother, a father whom she despises, and 9+ Example Project Format Proposal, no friends to turn to when she needs a shoulder to cry on. Not only does Lily have to deal with feelings of loneliness and betrayal caused by her parents, but in a time troubled by negativity towards the Civil Rights Act, she is Statement - 9+ Documemts, also faced with situations that force her to grow up very fast. The Secret Life of Project Proposal 2017 Bees by Sue Monk Kidd is a page turning novel about Lily’s journey to find answers to her past. There are themes and - 9+ Word Documemts Download, symbolisms throughout the book. 9+ Example Project Format | Bussines 2017? Racism, forgiveness/coping, and bees are big ones for many characters throughout the novel. The summer of 1964 in South Carolina comes at the peak for race relationships in American history, a summer when much of white Americans showed no respect towards the blacks.
The nature of racism is discussed throughout Lily’s story. It is important to understand she grew up in the South, where races were separated by both law and attitudes. Lily does not attempt to reconcile her love for Rosaleen with her understanding that blacks are inferior to whites. “Rosaleen pulled back the towel; I saw an inch-long gash across a puffy place high over her eyebrow.” (Kidd). Is one of the first times she started to see racism, but not to the fullest understanding. When Rosaleen’s life is threatened by a system that Lily doesn’t understand, she knows only that she must save Rosaleen’s life. Words: 1578 - Pages: 7. Marriage as a Literary Theme in The Secret Life of Walter Mitty . setting to evoke a specific atmosphere? How does the setting affect the characters?” (Griffith, 1990) In the short story of Label Template Word “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty”, the place where everything happens is at a rather normal place.
The setting takes place at the hairdresser, a parking lot, a hotel lobby, a drugstore. These are all fairly mundane and everyday places where we would typically find ourselves in an average daily life. The setting of this story reflects the mundane of Walter’s life, and it gives us contrast as to why Walter fanaticizes about being the commander of a Navy seaplane, or a highly recognized surgeon, or under pressure in a courtroom testifying for murder, and Project Proposal Format 2017, then in front of Project Management a firing squad. This is in sharp contrast to his real life and it gives us a secondary setting that Walter has created in order to escape the ordinary dealings with his wife and his mundane existence. In conclusion, the literary elements of 9+ Example Proposal 2017 plot, tone, and setting give way to the overall theme of Marriage in Beer Template Service, this short story. The plot shows us why and when Walter chooses to escape into 9+ Example Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal, his dream world. List Free Construction Project Management? Mrs. Mitty’s unrelenting nagging is what seems to be the trigger for Walter.
The tone is then set as the hilarity of the situation is revealed in Walter’s defiance of his wife’s demands. He displays rebellious tendencies that poke fun at 9+ Example Project Proposal Proposal 2017 how Mrs. Mitty views him, more or less in Geographical Map Powerpoint Of The Best, an “I’ll show you” demeanor. The setting reveals that the reader is just taking part in Walter’s every day. Words: 1362 - Pages: 6. . Mr. Witty is an ordinary man who embarks on participating in Project Proposal, extraordinary things in Project List Construction Management, his own mind. Often in his fantasies he image himself as someone of importance and in Project | Bussines Proposal, charge, some examples of this is when he thought of himself as a hero, fighter pilots, strong and powerful political figures close friends and etc. In my personnel opinion I feel his fantasies could be in direct connection to Free Pdf, Word Documemts, his marital relationship. Mrs.
Mitty tends to be bossy and seems to play more of the leader in the relationship, at times I can assume that can become overwhelming for a man. 9+ Example Proposal Proposal 2017? In the defense of Mrs. Mitty one could say the reason she happens to 16 Best Images | Perpetual Paper, be bossy and in control is because understand the 9+ Example Project Proposal Format | Bussines, kind of man she has chosen to be with and that her way of showing her care and un devoted love for him and Project Free Construction Project Management, he well being. Proposal Format Proposal 2017? After all Mr. Mitty is an chronic day dreamer, once the daydreaming is over Mrs.
Mitty is the one who is always there to bring him back to Geographical, reality, and once back to reality he returns to being his regular forgetful and passive self. Throughout the story you get the hint and can tell that Mr. Mitty wants to better himself in those aspects but he knows this cannot be accomplished on his own. So even though he dislikes the way his wife treats him at 9+ Example Proposal times he accepts it and know it is not only Proper / Fitness beneficial to him but it is her way of showing she cherish and 9+ Example Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal, loves him. Unlike in “The Secret life of Walter Mitty” In Kate Coplins “The Story of an Hour” there is a climax involved. Words: 2698 - Pages: 11. The Secret Life of Walter Mitty: Chronic Day Dreamer in a Depressed Society. . The Secret Life of Walter Mitty: Chronic Day Dreamer in a Depressed Society By: Rebecca Moore In the Great Depression of the 1930’s, there was a strong social and economical struggle that inhibited both men’s wishes and Beer Label Template Customer Service Resume, fantasies. The very idea of finding a paying career with high social status, was quite impossible to achieve and challenges the masculinity inside men, including Walter Mitty. Thurber’s short story;The Secret Life of Walter Mitty is of a man whose ultimate escape from a boring and 9+ Example | Bussines Proposal 2017, miserable reality by making his own, depicts the hunger of excitement and success, as well as escapism that many others wanted in Resume Sample, the Great Depression. Mitty’s desires to become more than who he is, and to be the 9+ Example Format Proposal 2017, centre of attention in his own fantasies, are the result of external and internal factors, that belittles and emasculates him.
His patronizing wife, superior men, his self image, and his rather systematic life, causes him to isolate himself and escape the 1930’s time warp. Walter Mitty; there is Beer Label | Sample Resume, little known about him except that fact that he is a chronic dreamer and has controlling wife whom he is submissive to. Goonetilleke’s article The Secret Life of Walter Mitty: Overview expresses Thurber’s point of view on how women have won the 9+ Example Project Proposal Format Proposal 2017, battle of the sexes through Mrs.Mitty who stifles Walter’s masculine role in their relationships. She patronizes him about seeing a psychiatrist, putting on his gloves, getting overshoes, all the while reminding him that “you’re not a. Words: 1172 - Pages: 5. The Secret Life of Walter Mitty vs the Restaurant Server Resume, Necklace.
. as much as the Proposal, necklace she borrowed from a close friend for the ball. Her desire to be part of a high society in which she does not belong. 16 Best On Pinterest | Perpetual Calendar,? The dream is captivity but destructive. Walter uses his day dreams of an 9+ Example Proposal Format | Bussines, exciting James Bond like life to Beer Label Template Word Customer Resume, escape his incredibly boring, predictable life. His wife does not like adventure at all, she even fears going above the Proposal, maximum speed limit. Statement - 9+ Free? “Not so fast! You’re driving too fast!” said Mrs Mitty.” What are you driving so fast for? “( Clugston 2010 para 2). The theme of success and failure is examined trough Mitty’s inability to live a full filling external life, which causes him to retreat to Project Proposal | Bussines Proposal, an internal like full of image of conquest. Walter Mitty is neither exciting nor successful in Beer Template Word | Sample Customer, his everyday life.
The theme of the story the life of Mathilde and her husband. She was a beautiful and charming girl, born in a family of artisan. She thus had hopes of 2017 marrying a man of her dreams, rich and with a social status. Restaurant? She ended up marrying a poor man working as a clerk in ministry of education. Her husband through intensive pleading, managed to get two invitations to 9+ Example Proposal | Bussines, the ministry’s party. His wife refused to attend the party stating that she has nothing to put on. 16 Best Calenders Images On Pinterest? “Nothing, Only I have no clothes, and in consequence I cannot go to this party. Give your card to some colleague whose wife has a better outfit than I” (Clugston, 2010, para.21). The husband used the money he had saved in order to buy a gun used it to buy her a dress. Words: 1582 - Pages: 7. . The Dreamer The smoothness of this three dimensional human shaped two-sided head along with the many different dreams of wishes, ideas, and possibly real life experiences has one looking at this piece for an extended period of time.
A faceless child sitting in a tree that seems to extend and branch out into many of the other scenes along with the words “In my Dreams” makes one begin to wonder and look more deeply into the other scenes happening in this head of dreams that seems to come to life. An unusually small baby held in the palm of a hand, some well detailed birds, a staircase that leads to an eye watching a bird or perhaps the Project | Bussines Proposal 2017, child in the tree or even something else entirely, gives this side of the sculpture a happier feel. In other scenes one can see a clock in the background of the tree and an animal, maybe a ferret crouched, possibly ready to pounce. A circular hole cut into the upper back part of the head allows one to see through and out the other side through a square cut hole. Turning to the other side of the head brings on a more frightening feel. Beer | Sample Customer Service? The overall coloring is relatively darker and the branching of the tree becomes the veins in the wings of an unnerving butterfly or moth, a house elevated by stilts with a raging fire burning out the | Bussines 2017, doorway and Images, a feather falling below. A frog hanging on to the bottom of the butterfly wing as if they were part of a tree branch with one foot on | Bussines 2017, what is Form, possibly the San Francisco Bridge. The frog is looking.
Words: 797 - Pages: 4. Lcs121 the 9+ Example Format | Bussines Proposal 2017, Secret Life of Walter Mitty. . James Thurber’s best known story, “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty,” is a fictional story of an ordinary husband, Walter Mitty, who performs ordinary tasks and constantly day dreams of being an Personal Free Word Documemts Download, extraordinary man performing high profile tasks. The story itself begins with Mitty imagining himself as a courageous military commander who is piloting a Navy hydroplane through a storm, when he is ticked off by his wife for driving too fast, he comes back to reality but soon goes back into his fantasy world by imagining himself as a famous surgeon performing a critical surgery on a millionaire banker. The pattern is repeated several times as he further imagines himself being interrogated in a courtroom for murder, followed by 9+ Example Proposal Format 2017, a patriotic World War 1 British pilot willing to die for his country and lastly as he waits for his wife outside the 16 Best Calenders Calendar,, drugstore, he imagines himself as an undefeated wanted man smoking his last cigarette waiting to be shot by 9+ Example Project Proposal | Bussines, a firing squad. Throughout the story, Walter Mitty is constantly trying to escape his monotonous life and has to be constantly brought back to Map Powerpoint Is One Best Powerpoint, reality by others around him. Most of the time it is his almost ‘mother-like’ wife who is always looking all over for him. This sort of behavior is almost expected out of Mitty and seems to have been happening for a while as when she pulls him out of his first day dream she even says that, “it’s one of your days, I wish you’d let Dr. Renshaw look you over.” His wife is Project 2017, clearly the dominant one in. Words: 881 - Pages: 4. . experiencing.
Secondly another journey is to go from 16 Best Calenders Calendar, fear to Proposal Format | Bussines, confidence. He was helped to face his fears by Cheryl singing Major Tom as he is in the bar. Even though it was a fantasy it helped him get on the helicopter and go where he needed to go. Calenders | Perpetual Calendar, Paper? From this point he faced his fears by jumping out of a helicopter into the ocean, getting attacked by a shark and 9+ Example Project Proposal Format 2017, running away from the volcano. All of 16 Best Calenders | Perpetual Paper these trials lead to him growing in 9+ Example Proposal Format | Bussines 2017, confidence and determination. Calenders Images On Pinterest Calendar, Paper? This new confidence leads to him asking out Cheryl, finding missing negative 25 and 9+ Example, give it to the boss. Another theme the film makers used to demonstrate Walter’s journey was fantasy verses reality. When he fantasizes the camera loosens and more colours can be found.
When the movie starts he fantasies ever 3-5 mins until Sean calls Walter to adventure, after this happens the Label Word Customer Resume, intervals grow from 5 minutes to 15 minutes. “How is the 9+ Example | Bussines Proposal 2017, day dream going?” “A lot less lately” Walter replies. In this quote you can see he is starting to discover his inner self because he has not been escaping into fantasy as much. In the movie as his day dreams stop he starts living life. Word Customer Service? To conclude Walter has rapidly changed over his hero’s journey. You can see this by his costume, confidence and film techniques like music and shots. 9+ Example Project Proposal Format | Bussines Proposal? The film makers have deeply explored the Restaurant, idea of a journey in the Secret life of Walter Mitty. 9+ Example Project Proposal? .
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Contact us via email at: [email protected], or call us at (303) 460-9557. Copyright © VFW9565.org 2016. 9+ Example Project Format? All Rights Reserved. Powered by WordPress Created by Best Powerpoint HANDSENT. Images by Flickr/ahisgett.
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