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blues homework poems This lesson examines both the content and form of lyrics in blues songs. Free? In addition to Write Lesson For Math Step Guide highlighting the basic musical form of Template Free Termination Letter a blues song, it also addresses the use of floating verses in blues music, both within the Consignment Consignment context of the Template Termination Letter original era in which the 20+ Business Organizational Structure songs were sung and also in relation to how this practice is Template Free Letter perceived today. Write Preschool Plans By Step? By completing this lesson, the student will: Understand and practice mapping out a blues song Comprehend the Free Termination difference between the use of Sample Agreement floating verse and the violation of copyright law Investigate the origins of the blues Standards. For Termination Free Termination Letter? Addresses the following themes in the National Curriculum Standards for A Competitive Music Education: Secondary: 7, 8, 9. For Termination Letter? The Road to Memphis (segment toward the end of School High Student Job Black Spot on Template For Termination Termination Letter, the Dial in Funeral Template - Bi-Fold ~ Brochure Templates, which B.B. Of Employment Free Termination Letter? King's performance shows the Consignment Sample Consignment Agreement AAB form) Borrowing from the Template For Termination Termination Blues. Origins of the How To Small Blues. This exercise explores song elements and Template For Termination looks closely at the blues song format. Ask students to bring the lyrics of a favorite song to Template. Sample Consignment Agreement class (reminding them beforehand what appropriate and Template For Termination Free Letter inappropriate choices would be). Thank – Client Thank In? Start by discussing the lyrical parts of For Termination Free a song: Verses#151;In a song, a verse is a group of lines that constitutes a unit (similar to Job Resume Template High High School Student Job verses in poetry). Typically, a song consists of several verses, and the rhyme scheme and rhythm are usually the same from Template Of Employment Termination verse to Program - Bi-Fold ~ Brochure Templates verse.

Chorus#151;A song's refrain (verse that repeats itself at given intervals throughout the Template Of Employment Free Letter song). Bridge#151;Transitional passage connecting two sections of the song. As you discuss, demonstrate the Job Resume School Student. School Student parts on an overhead projector using a song with which students are familiar. Once students comprehend the parts, ask them to identify the parts of the Free song lyrics they brought to class, pointing out that not all songs contain all parts. Mention that blues songs, like many other songs, conform to standard song structure in some ways while varying in others. Have students listen to How To Write A Competitive Small (with Lost Your Head Blues by Bessie Smith, recording the words as they listen. Once the class has heard the Of Employment Letter entire song, transcribe the Write A Competitive For Your Small Business (with lyrics on the board in For Termination Of Employment Termination Letter, prose rather than verse form, filling in where student gaps exist. Ask students to label each sentence with a letter, starting with A. Non Profit – Client Thank You Letter In? Sentences that are the same should have the Template Of Employment Free Letter same letter. This should look like:

Now, ask students to write the lyrics out in Consignment Contract Template. Sample Agreement, song form. Termination Letter? Where would the line breaks be? Where would the verse breaks be? The first verse of the final product should look like: Inform students that this format, known as the AAB blues format, is Consignment Template. Sample Consignment typical of many blues songs. Template Of Employment? The first line often presents an idea or issue, the Plans For Math - A By Step second line repeats it (perhaps with a slight variation), and the third line develops or resolves the Free Termination Letter idea presented in Donation You Letter Thank, the first and second lines. To further illustrate this blues form, show the Of Employment Termination Letter segment Black Spot on Review Template, the Dial from The Road to Memphis in which B.B.

King performs a song in For Termination Of Employment Free Letter, the AAB format. [See Film Tie-Ins for details on the film segment.] Finally, demonstrate how blues music frequently veers away from the 7+ Sc Form Notice Letter AAB format. Playing a variety of songs, including Stack O' Lee by Mississippi John Hurt, When Will I Get to Template For Termination Of Employment Free Termination Be Called a Man by How To A Competitive For Your, Big Bill Broonzy, and Mannish Boy by For Termination Termination Letter, Muddy Waters, can illustrate how the AAB form is by Consignment Contract Sample, no means the exclusive song format of the blues. Floating verses#151;the same lyrics or phrases used in more than one blues song#151;are very common in blues music. For Termination Of Employment Letter? To illustrate the notion of floating verses, ask students to read the How To Write Plans For Math - A lyrics of two blues songs: I Believe I'll Dust My Broom (1936) by Template Of Employment Free Letter, Robert Johnson and Dust My Broom (1951) by Elmore James. Students should identify phrases and Review Template lines borrowed from Johnson by James. Of Employment Free Termination? Inform them that Johnson borrowed lyrically from others as well. Specifically, phrases from three early blues songs#151;Kokomo Arnold's Sagefield Woman Blues and Non Profit Donation Thank You Letter – Client Thank Sissy Man Blues and Carl Rafferty's Mr. Carl Blues#151;appear in Template Of Employment Free, I Believe I'll Dust My Broom.

Ask students what they think about this kind of borrowing. Why would blues singers borrow from 7+ Sc General Power Of Attorney | Week Letter one another in this fashion? How might the original writer feel about Letter his/her phrases appearing in the lyrics of another blues musician's songs? How might the 7+ Sc Power Of Attorney Notice fact that the blues is based largely on For Termination Free Letter, African American oral tradition, in which stories were passed down from Job Resume High generation to Free Termination Letter generation, have shaped the Thank You Letter – Client Thank In phrase-borrowing that is so common to For Termination Of Employment Free Letter the blues? [Robert Johnson's song lyrics are at Consignment Contract Consignment http://www.bluesroots.de/songbook1/10.htm and Template Of Employment Free Elmore James' can be found at http://www.fleetwoodmac.net/penguin/lyrics/d/.] While borrowing lines or phrases from Review Template other blues songs was accepted practice, especially in early blues (up to the 1950s), blues musicians weren't necessarily happy when white artists borrowed their music, remaking it for white audiences. Illustrate this idea by watching the segment Sam Phillips in the film The Road to For Termination Free Memphis . After viewing, discuss: How do Sam Phillips and Template. Sample Consignment Agreement Ike Turner view the borrowing of Of Employment Free Termination blues music by Write A Competitive Analysis For Your Small Business (with, white artists differently? Why might Turner have been less approving of such borrowing than Phillips? How is For Termination Of Employment Termination this borrowing different from floating verses as previously discussed? Why might black blues artists in How To Write - A By Step, the 1950s not have seen white artists' borrowing as a compliment? Do cultural differences come into play when assessing appropriate and Template For Termination inappropriate borrowing?

Conclude this exercise by assigning students to 7+ Sc Of Attorney | Week compose an article in the voice of Robert Johnson in which he describes the difference between the For Termination Of Employment Free Termination practice of floating verse and plagiarism. High School Student Job? Research and Analysis. Assign students to For Termination Of Employment Free Termination Letter research the history of the Template ~ Brochure Templates ~ Creative blues, focusing on both the music from For Termination Free Letter which the blues emerged (field hollers, work songs, spirituals, and Write Preschool Lesson Plans For Math Step By Step Guide country string ballads) as well as early blues performers. Template Free Termination Letter? Research should consider the Consignment Sample Agreement following: How the blues represents an extension of the African American oral tradition How the Template For Termination AAB blues form connects to African music and early African American music The connection between slave music lyrics and blues lyrics The history of the floating verse Because these topics are very large (and the Funeral Program - Bi-Fold ~ Brochure Templates focus of many academic studies of the Template Of Employment Free Termination blues), students should be encouraged to view their findings as ideas rather than as definitive answers. How To Write By Step Guide? When students have been given adequate research time, the For Termination Of Employment Free Termination class can hold a forum in Job Resume Template High School Student. High Job, which these issues are discussed. Assign students an Of Employment Free Termination, essay where they either agree or disagree with the 7+ Sc General Of Attorney Form Notice Letter following assertion: Musicians who incorporate samples from other songs into Template Of Employment, their music today are no different from Write Lesson Plans For Math - A By Step Guide blues musicians who used floating verse. Template For Termination Free Termination Letter? Therefore, copyright law should not apply. The U.S.

Copyright office at http://www.copyright.gov/title17 will provide some background. 1. Review Template? Blues lyrics, in Template Free Letter, addition to Review Template often following the AAB blues format, frequently tell a story. For Termination Of Employment Free Termination Letter? This exercise encourages students to consider the storytelling feature of the blues while allowing them to write their own blues song in High School, AAB blues format. Start by Of Employment Free, playing B.B. Non Profit Donation You Letter – Client Thank In? King's Three O'Clock Blues. For Termination Of Employment Free? Discuss the story in the song. Review Template? Next, identify how the Template Of Employment Termination Letter song conforms to Review Template the AAB blues format, with the first two lines in the verse being the same and the third, different; the Template Of Employment Termination A line presents an issue, while the B line presents the School conclusion. Give students a few minutes to Template For Termination Termination brainstorm a short story about which to write their own blues song. Template High School School Job? Topics might include asking someone out on Template For Termination Termination, a date, completing a homework assignment, or performing in a school event#151;athletic or otherwise.

Once students have each identified a story, inform them that they will use B.B. King's song as the base from which to write their own blues song. Record the song's first verses on the board: Well now, it's three o'clock in the morning. And I can't even close my eyes. Best Structure On Pinterest? Three o'clock in For Termination Termination Letter, the morning.

And I can't even close my eyes. Funeral - Bi-Fold ~ Brochure? Can't find my baby. And I can't be satisfied. Of Employment Free? Assign students to change the Review Template last line of the verse to Template Free Letter a line corresponding with the Write Analysis For Your Small story they want to tell. A student creation might read: Well now, it's three o'clock in Of Employment Termination, the morning. Template School Student. Job? And I can't even close my eyes.

Three o'clock in the morning. And I can't even close my eyes. My computer lost my report. And I'm just fit to be tied. Next, encourage them to move further away from the Of Employment Termination Letter original in Template ~ Creative, another rewriting of the Template For Termination verse. This time, the verse might read: Well now, I woke up early this morning. High Student. High School Student Job? And my eyes were burning with pain. Template For Termination Of Employment Termination? I woke up early this morning.

And my eyes were burning with pain. I stayed up all night writing. Best 20+ Business Organizational Ideas On Pinterest? 'Cause my computer lost my report again. Once all students have composed a verse to their own blues song, provide them time to write at least two additional verses. For Termination Of Employment Letter? When class members all have their verses written, ask them to Consignment Contract Template. Consignment Agreement post their lyrics up in the classroom. Termination? Invite students to Consignment Contract Template. Agreement read the work of their classmates, borrowing lines that they particularly like from Template For Termination Of Employment Termination Letter one another's work and incorporating these lines into their own songs. Inform students that borrowing lines, a concept further explored in 7+ Sc General | Week Letter, the Focus Exercise , was common practice in Template For Termination Free Termination, early blues.

2. Much that became rock and How To Analysis Small roll was borrowed from the blues, both in terms of the music and the lyrics. For Termination Of Employment? To have students consider the lyrical legacy of the blues on popular music, ask them to Consignment Sample complete a side-by-side comparison of blues song lyrics and popular song lyrics from the same era, taking examples from the 1950s, 1970s, and Template For Termination Termination Letter today. General Power Of Attorney? The following checklist of Free Termination blues song elements can serve as a guide for assessing each song: ____geared toward a specific demographic. Contract Template. Sample Agreement? ____no specific audience intended. Blues songs to Template Free Termination consider can include: Some options for popular music comparisons: 1955 #10 hit: Fats Domino, Ain't That a Shame 1956 #5 hit: Chuck Berry, Maybellene 1957 #12 hit: Patsy Cline, Walkin' After Midnight 1958 #6 hit: Frank Sinatra, Witchcraft 1959 #7 hit: Bobby Darin, Mack the Knife 1970 #1 hit: The Jackson 5, ABC 1971 #1 hit: Isaac Hayes, Theme From Shaft 1974 #6 hit: ABBA, Waterloo 1976 #1 hit: The Manhattans, Kiss and Say Goodbye 1979 #1 hit: Michael Jackson, Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough As a class, analyze both the form and topical content of the Review Template lyrics, focusing on whether there is sufficient evidence to Of Employment Free Termination Letter suggest that blues song elements crossed over into Job Resume Student. Student Job, popular music of the Template For Termination Free Letter same time period. Readings: Burns, Loretta.

A Stylistic Analysis of Blues Lyrics . Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1977. Write Preschool For Math By Step Guide? Kovacs, Edna. Writing Across Cultures: A Handbook on Writing Poetry and Lyrical Prose . For Termination Of Employment Free Termination Letter? Hillsboro, OR: Blue Heron Publishing, 1994. Tracy, Stephen C., ed. Write Me a Few of Best 20+ Business Organizational Structure Ideas Your Lines: A Blues Reader . Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1999. For Termination Free Letter? Web Sites:

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Potential nominee profile: Neil Gorsuch. Neil Gorsuch was appointed to Template For Termination Termination, the United States Court of Write A Competitive Analysis Small (with, Appeals for the 10th Circuit by President George W. Bush on Of Employment Termination May 10, 2006, and confirmed shortly thereafter. Both his pre-judicial resume and his body of Analysis Small Business, work as a judge make him a natural fit for an appointment to the Supreme Court by Template a Republican president. Organizational Structure On Pinterest? He is relatively young (turning 50 this year), and his background is filled with sterling legal and academic credentials. He was a Marshall Scholar at the University of Oxford, graduated from Harvard Law School, clerked for prominent conservative judges (Judge David Sentelle of the U.S.

Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, as well as Justices Byron White and Anthony Kennedy of the Supreme Court), and was a high- ranking official in Template For Termination Free the Bush Justice Department before his judicial appointment. Review Template? He is celebrated as a keen legal thinker and a particularly incisive legal writer, with a flair that matches. — or at least evokes — that of the justice whose seat he would be nominated to fill. In fact, one study has identified him as the most natural successor to Justice Antonin Scalia on the Trump shortlist, both in terms of his judicial style and his substantive approach. With perhaps one notable area of disagreement, Judge Gorsuch’s prominent decisions bear the comparison out. Template Free Letter? For one thing, the School Student. great compliment that Gorsuch’s legal writing is in a class with Scalia’s is deserved: Gorsuch’s opinions are exceptionally clear and routinely entertaining; he is an unusual pleasure to read, and it is Of Employment Termination, always plain exactly what he thinks and why.

Like Scalia, Gorsuch also seems to By Step, have a set of For Termination Of Employment Free Termination, judicial/ideological commitments apart from his personal policy preferences that drive his decision-making. He is an ardent textualist (like Scalia); he believes criminal laws should be clear and Funeral Program ~ Creative interpreted in favor of defendants even if that hurts government prosecutions (like Scalia); he is skeptical of efforts to purge religious expression from public spaces (like Scalia); he is highly dubious of legislative history (like Scalia); and he is less than enamored of the Free Termination Letter dormant commerce clause (like Scalia). In fact, some of the parallels can be downright eerie. For example, the reasoning in Gorsuch’s 2008 concurrence in United States v. How To Write Plans By Step Guide? Hinckley , in Template For Termination Termination which he argues that one possible reading of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act would probably violate the rarely invoked non-delegation principle, is exactly the same as that of Scalia’s 2012 dissent in Reynolds v. United States . The notable exception is one prominent concurrence last August, in Gutierrez-Brizuela v. Lynch , in which Gorsuch criticized a doctrine of administrative law (called Chevron deference) that Scalia had long defended. Even here, however, there may be more in Template High School Student. common than meets the eye. Some of the most high-profile cases in which Gorsuch has cast a vote have involved the religion clauses of the Constitution (those prohibiting the establishment of religion and creating a right to free exercise), as well as congressional statutes expanding protection for religious adherents (known as RFRA and RLUIPA).

Followers of the Supreme Court will recognize two recent cases in Template For Termination Of Employment Free Termination Letter which Gorsuch participated on the 10th Circuit, Hobby Lobby Stores v. Sebelius and Little Sisters of the Poor Home for the Aged v. Review Template? Burwell . In Hobby Lobby , Gorsuch wrote a concurrence in the en banc 10th Circuit that sided with the company and its owners. He stressed the need to accept these parties’ own conceptions regarding the requirements of their faith, and held (among other things) that they were likely to prevail on claims that the contraception mandate in the Affordable Care Act substantially burdened their religious exercise in violation of Free Termination Letter, RFRA. This position was largely vindicated in the subsequent decision by the Supreme Court. Thereafter, in Review Template Little Sisters of the Poor , Gorsuch joined a group of 10th Circuit judges who dissented from denial of rehearing en banc when a panel of the court of appeals ruled against the Little Sisters on their RFRA claims about the same ACA mandate. There, again, the point was that the 10th Circuit had shown insufficient deference to the Little Sisters’ own articulation of the tenets of their religious beliefs. That position, too, was at least partially vindicated by the Supreme Court when it decided that the Little Sisters’ religious beliefs probably could be accommodated while still affording full and equal contraceptive coverage to For Termination Of Employment Free, their employees, and - Bi-Fold Templates directed the parties and courts to consider such a solution on remand. Simply put, in cases that closely divided his court and the Supreme Court, Gorsuch has shown himself to Of Employment Letter, be an ardent defender of religious liberties and pluralistic accommodations for Program Template Templates ~ Creative, religious adherents. Gorsuch has also written or joined opinions – again, largely vindicated by the Supreme Court – that have criticized doctrines that limit religious expression in public spaces.

In Summum v. Template For Termination Termination? Pleasant Grove City , in 2007, Gorsuch joined a dissent from denial of rehearing en banc in a case in 20+ Business Organizational On Pinterest which the 10th Circuit had limited the ability of the government to display a donated Ten Commandments monument in a public park without accepting all other offers of donated monuments. The subsequent Supreme Court decision reversing the 10th Circuit largely adopted the Template Of Employment Termination reasoning of that dissent. Funeral ~ Brochure Templates ~ Creative? Gorsuch also has a pair of dissenting opinions in which he criticizes the “reasonable observer” test for Template For Termination Termination, establishment clause cases as far too likely to find impermissible endorsements of religion by How To Write A Competitive Small the government when none was intended, and thus to prevent religious adherents from reasonably participating in public life. These cases are American Atheists Inc. Template For Termination Of Employment Free Termination Letter? v. Davenport , in 2010, and Green v. Haskell County Boad. of Commissioners , in 2009. The common thread in these cases is one that matters very deeply to conservatives: a sense that the government can permit public displays of religion – and can accommodate deeply held religious views – without either violating the religion clauses of the Constitution or destroying the effectiveness of government programs that occasionally run into religious objections. Review Template? In his 2009 concurrence in For Termination Of Employment Free Letter Pleasant Grove City, Utah v. Summum , Scalia articulated very similar views.

Gorsuch’s opinions on these issues are quite thoughtful, and demonstrate that he would be a natural successor to Scalia in adopting a pro-religion conception of the establishment clause. Another area in which Gorsuch has written persuasively in a manner that closely echoes Scalia relates to how to Write Analysis Small Business, interpret criminal laws correctly, so as to avoid criminalizing potentially innocent conduct. One of Gorsuch’s most notable opinions in this area also happens to overlap with the hot-button issue of gun ownership — although the Template Of Employment Free Termination case is not about the Second Amendment, and doesn’t involve anything like the typical gun-rights groups. A federal criminal law prohibits the knowing possession of Best 20+ Business Organizational Structure On Pinterest, a gun by a felon. This law has given rise to a debate about For Termination Of Employment Termination Letter how best to read its limitation to “knowing” violations: Does it apply whenever a felon knowingly possesses a gun, or must violators also know that they have been convicted of a felony? This matters, because lots of minor crimes might technically be felonies, and lots of Form Notice Letter, dispositions that seem inconsequential (because they involve no jail time) might technically be felony convictions.

And the penalties for violating this law can be very high. In United States v. Games-Perez , in 2012, Gorsuch urged the Template 10th Circuit to review its rule holding that it is enough to support a conviction that the defendant knew he possessed the gun, whether or not he knew he was a felon. The opinion is an example of Gorsuch’s strong commitment to textualism, and a severe critique of using legislative history — particularly to make criminal what might otherwise be innocent. Accordingly, it is easy to hear clear echoes of Scalia’s views regarding the How To A Competitive For Your Small Business proper reading of statutes — especially criminal statutes — as well as the importance of Template Of Employment Letter, focusing on - Bi-Fold Templates ~ Creative ordinary usage and linguistic rules. A few examples make the resemblance even clearer. For Termination Termination? Take this sentence from Games-Perez : “For current purposes, just stating Capps ‘s holding makes the problem clear enough: its interpretation—reading Congress’s mens rea requirement as leapfrogging over the first statutorily specified element and touching down only at the second listed element—defies grammatical gravity and linguistic logic.” Or this passage, which contains both an endorsement of Second Amendment rights and a classic Scalia principle about attaching mens rea requirements to - Bi-Fold ~ Brochure Templates, the element that criminalizes innocent conduct: Besides, even if the government could somehow manage to Free, squeeze an ambiguity out of the plain statutory text before us, it faces another intractable problem. The Supreme Court has long recognized a “presumption” grounded in our common law tradition that a mens rea requirement attaches to “each of the statutory elements that criminalize otherwise innocent conduct.” … Together §§ 922(g) and 924(a)(2) operate to criminalize the possession of any kind of gun.

But gun possession is often lawful and sometimes even protected as a matter of constitutional right. The only statutory element separating innocent (even constitutionally protected) gun possession from criminal conduct in §§ 922(g) and 924(a) is a prior felony conviction. So the presumption that the government must prove mens rea here applies with full force. Either of these passages would be perfectly at home in a canonical Scalia opinion about how to Funeral Template ~ Creative, read the criminal law. And, it is worth noting, this means that Gorsuch, just like Scalia, is sometimes willing to read criminal laws more narrowly in a way that disfavors the prosecution – especially when the Second Amendment or another constitutional protection is Of Employment Letter, involved. Gorsuch, like Scalia, has not been a friendly vote for death penalty petitioners pursuing relief from their sentences through federal habeas.

But it is Write A Competitive Analysis For Your Small Business (with, important to Template For Termination Termination Letter, recognize that, as in the case of Scalia, this makes plenty of sense in light of On Pinterest, Gorsuch’s commitment to reading statutes according to their plain text. For Termination Of Employment Termination? During the 1990s, Congress passed a statute called the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act that – true to its name – was intended to limit federal habeas in Review Template order to Template For Termination Free Letter, make the death penalty easier to carry out. Write Plans For Math - A By Step Guide? Strict readers of Template For Termination Of Employment Free Termination, AEDPA are unlikely to find many cases in which a petitioner qualifies for relief. This is Write Plans For Math Guide, particularly true in the courts of appeals, where many of the Of Employment Termination Letter death penalty habeas cases are uncontroversial —or at least not nearly as close as the cases that make their way to the Supreme Court. Whatever the source of the Write Preschool Plans For Math - A By Step position, however, it is Template, clear that Gorsuch’s position in death penalty cases is Review Template, likely to be quite close to Scalia’s, and very unlikely to make the court any more solicitous of the Letter claims of capital defendants. Dormant Commerce Clause. Another area of the 20+ Business Organizational Ideas On Pinterest law in which Gorsuch has shown both his writing talent and For Termination Of Employment Letter his similarity to Write Preschool Lesson Plans Step By Step, Scalia is in the application (and critique) of doctrines surrounding the so-called “dormant commerce clause.” These doctrines treat the commerce clause not only as a grant of For Termination Of Employment Free Letter, power to Job Resume High School High Student Job, Congress to make laws regulating interstate commerce, but as a kind of Of Employment Free Termination Letter, presumptive limitation on the power of states to make laws that either unduly burden or unfairly discriminate against interstate commerce, without regard to Power | Week Notice, whether Congress has ever passed a law in the relevant area.

Because — as its name suggests — the dormant commerce clause cannot actually be found in For Termination Of Employment Free Letter the text of the Constitution, Scalia eventually came around to the view that it should not be a thing, and Review Template refused to For Termination Letter, endorse any future expansions of the doctrine. For example, in 2015, in a dissenting opinion in Comptroller v. Wynne , Scalia stated: “The fundamental problem with our negative Commerce Clause cases is Review Template, that the Constitution does not contain a negative Commerce Clause.” Although a court of appeals judge lacks the same freedom to Template Of Employment Free, disparage and/or depart from Program ~ Brochure existing Supreme Court precedent, Gorsuch’s opinions also reveal a measure of Template Termination, distrust towards unwritten constitutional provisions like the dormant commerce clause. For example, a 2015 10th Circuit decision written by Funeral Program - Bi-Fold ~ Brochure Templates ~ Creative Gorsuch, Energy and Environment Legal Institute v. Epel, declined to apply the dormant commerce clause to strike down a clean-energy program created by Colorado on the grounds that it might negatively affect traditional energy producers outside the state. The opinion explains that this result is consistent with the limited reach of the dormant commerce clause’s “judicial free trade policy” even under existing precedent. But while acknowledging that lower courts must take the Supreme Court’s doctrine as they find it, Gorsuch’s opinion shows respect for the doctrine’s “[d]etractors,” like Scalia, who “find dormant commerce doctrine absent from the Constitution’s text and incompatible with its structure.” Though Gorsuch’s personal constitution seems to require him to write clearly about the many unclear aspects of the doctrine, his opinion plainly takes some joy in the act of demonstrating that not only does the dormant commerce clause not apply — the doctrine also doesn’t make much sense. For Termination Of Employment Free Letter? That same instinct is present in a prominent concurrence last year in Direct Marketing Association v. Brohl , in which Gorsuch singled out one aspect of dormant commerce clause doctrine—the Quill rule that exempts out-of-state mail order sales from state sales tax—as an Review Template “analytical oddity” that “seems deliberately designed” to be overruled eventually.

This opinion aligned him with Justice Anthony Kennedy (who has called for Template Of Employment Termination, overruling Quill ), and again with Scalia, who identified Quill as part of the “bestiary of ad hoc tests and ad hoc exceptions that we apply nowadays” under the Funeral Program ~ Brochure dormant commerce clause. The dormant commerce clause isn’t a particularly hot-button issue, nor does it have obvious liberal/conservative fault lines. But it’s noteworthy that criticism of the dormant commerce clause is of a piece with criticism of the Free Termination Letter “right to privacy” that undergirds the Supreme Court ‘s abortion jurisprudence, as well as other judge-made doctrines that do not have a strong connection to the constitutional text. Again, Gorsuch’s opinions seem to follow the Program Template ~ Brochure lead of Template Free Termination Letter, textualists and 20+ Business Structure Ideas On Pinterest federalists like Scalia in expressing great skepticism towards such doctrines, which allow judges to strike down duly enacted local laws on the basis of vague principles that cannot be found in the concrete text of the Template Of Employment Free Termination national charter. Finally, there is administrative law—the one area that seems to demonstrate some real distance between Scalia and Gorsuch. Last August, Gorsuch made real waves in General Form Notice Letter the normally sleepy world of administrative law by advocating the end of a doctrine that has been tied closely to Of Employment Free Termination Letter, the functioning of the administrative state and the executive branch since the mid-1980s — a doctrine called Chevron deference. The basic idea behind Chevron is that, when Congress enacts a broadly worded statute whose precise contours are ambiguous, the courts should permit the federal agencies that are charged with administering the statute to enforce it in any manner that is not clearly forbidden. Scalia was a judge on the D.C. Circuit (which does more agency review than any other court), and he was a strong advocate for Chevron ’s basic take on agency review and the flexibility that it preserved in the administrative state: He often warned that the consequences of efforts to 7+ Sc General Form Letter, limit or tinker with its model could be severe.

Gorsuch’s recent opinions in Gutierrez-Brizuela — he wrote both the majority opinion and a concurrence to his own opinion to express his personal views on the doctrine — expressly urge: “We managed to live with the For Termination Of Employment Free Letter administrative state before Chevron . We could do it again.” Ironically, Gorsuch’s chief complaint about Chevron doctrine was something that would have been close to Scalia’s heart — namely, that it empowers agencies to take the power of statutory interpretation away from courts, and Write A Competitive Analysis Small Business subjects judicial decision-making to administrative review, rather than the other way around. Gorsuch’s opinion — in Template For Termination Of Employment Termination Letter which he stakes out ground that few have sought to defend — is a very compelling read, and it is unfair to try to summarize it in 7+ Sc Power Notice Letter a few sentences. But it seems quite clear that: (1) Gorsuch’s views on administrative law are meaningfully different from Scalia’s in a way that could be described as even more conservative; and yet (2) the difference is not as profound as one might think. Unlike Scalia, Gorsuch really does want to apply the basic Gorsuch/Scalia take on ordinary statutes to administrative statutes as well. He believes even these broadly worded enforcement statutes have objective meanings that can be understood from Template For Termination Of Employment Termination their texts; that it is the job of the courts to say what those laws mean and to tell agencies when they do not have the best reading; and that if the agency disagrees, the only proper recourse is for Congress to change the law or the Supreme Court to correct the error. Scalia, on the other hand, wanted to limit courts to the role of reviewing agency implementations of these kinds of statutes for Power Of Attorney | Week, clear error in order to Template For Termination Letter, prevent “ossification,” recognizing that the understanding of these kinds of Review Template, laws might need to change from time to time to accommodate changing priorities among presidents and Termination changing conditions on the ground. The reason that difference is less pronounced than you might think is that Scalia’s take on Chevron was always a little different from others’, in part to Write For Your Small Business, address the Template Of Employment Free Letter very concerns that Gorsuch so clearly articulates. First, Scalia was much more willing than others to say that a particular agency position was beyond the High School Student. High School Job statutory bounds, even when the words at issue in the statute were ambiguous (at least in isolation).

For example, in MCI Telecommunications Group v. ATT , in Template Of Employment 1994, Scalia held that the term “modify” unambiguously excludes major changes. In fact, in a Duke Law Journal piece in 1989 Scalia once said strict textualists like him (and, say, Judge Gorsuch) would be less likely to find statutes ambiguous for purposes of Chevron because of their attention to the details of statutory text and their unwillingness to Job Resume High School Student. School Student, consider broad purposes and legislative history. Template Termination Letter? Such an approach makes a statute’s delegation to High Job, agencies much narrower, notwithstanding Chevron . And second, Scalia wanted Chevron to apply all the time precisely to avoid a situation in which a court would give the statute its best reading and Free Termination Letter the agency could later revise that understanding with the benefit of newfound deference — one of Review Template, Gorsuch’s chief complaints. Of Employment Free Termination Letter? In Gutierrez-Brizuela , Gorsuch criticized the Supreme Court’s 2005 decision in National Cable Telecommunications Ass’n v. Brand X , which permitted an agency to bypass a Supreme Court decision through Chevron deference, echoing Scalia’s own dissent in Brand X , in - A Guide which Scalia criticized the For Termination court for having adopted a version of Chevron that led to the spectacle of agencies bypassing Supreme Court readings of statutes. In short, Gorsuch definitely has a different take from Scalia on the administrative state — one that grants it less power, and so accords even more closely with the conservative conception of small government.

Indeed, this is an Write A Competitive For Your Small (with area in which Gorsuch is plainly a thought leader, expressing judicial sentiments many conservatives with similar concerns have rarely voiced, and which even Scalia might have bristled at. Free Termination? But given their parallel commitments to textualism and their parallel understandings of the relative roles of 7+ Sc General, agencies and courts, even this seems like a bridgeable divide between Gorsuch and the justice he might replace. Gorsuch is still a very natural choice for any Republican president to nominate as a replacement for Scalia — someone who would espouse similar principles, stand firm on similar doctrinal commitments, reach similar outcomes, and even fill a similar role as one of the court’s most articulate defenders of conservative judicial theory. Andrew Hamm contributed extensively to this post, identifying, reviewing and Of Employment Free Letter analyzing the How To Write Preschool Lesson For Math Guide cases summarized above. Recommended Citation: Eric Citron, Potential nominee profile: Neil Gorsuch , SCOTUSblog (Jan. For Termination Free Letter? 13, 2017, 12:53 PM), http://www.scotusblog.com/2017/01/potential-nominee-profile-neil-gorsuch/ Divided court opens door for Alabama execution Amy Howe.

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“What we detected is the tip of the For Termination Of Employment Free Termination Letter iceberg,” cautions Lancaster. No one even knows how many essay ghostwriting sites there are on the web, but five years ago Lancaster and Clarke listed 158. In addition to the online activity, there is an Review Template, unknown number of essay writers who advertise their work offline - even on campus. “You get flyers pinned up on university noticeboards that say: ‘We’ll do your work’,” Lancaster explains. Then there are those who arrange contract essays socially, for friends, family members or students one or two years below them, who leave no public trace at all. Prices vary dramatically.

An upper-second, five-page undergraduate history essay will set you back ?70 at the cheaper end of the market, but some sites charge in the region of For Termination Of Employment Free ?150-?160. One website, which sells itself as a “premier” service, charges ?50 an 7+ Sc | Week Notice, hour. This may sound expensive, but it is loose change compared with the cost (particularly for international students) of having to retake a year. At the top end of the scale, postgraduate dissertations of Template For Termination Free 25,000 words cost in General Power Of Attorney Form | Week Notice Letter, the region of ?2,800. Some essay writing companies are willing to provide more specific estimates of the scale of demand for their services, although the figures are self-reported and some academics say that the firms may exaggerate their popularity to attract publicity and Free Termination gain more custom. Jennifer Wiss, business development manager at Best 20+ Business Organizational All Answers (which trades under a number of Template Free Termination Letter names on A Competitive For Your (with the web, including UKessays.com), says that the company dispatched 11,470 custom essays in 2012, of Free Termination Letter which three-quarters were ordered from UK IP addresses. This figure is Organizational Structure On Pinterest, difficult to verify, but the firm’s accounts appear to be consistent with a company selling essays in Template For Termination Of Employment Letter, such quantities. Wiss estimates that a further 4,000 custom essays are written in the UK by rival agencies each year (although students at High Student. Student British universities can also order from Template Free Termination Letter abroad).

In 2005 Barclay Littlewood, who was then chief executive of Review Template All Answers (which promoted itself as UK Essays), estimated that the business was worth ?200 million a year and boasted that it had allowed him to buy a Ferrari and a Lamborghini. Robert Eaglestone, professor of contemporary literature and thought at Royal Holloway, University of London, believes that custom-written essays are a problem, but thinks that some essay mills choose to exaggerate their size through the press “because it’s good advertising. It’s a very media- friendly problem.” Whatever the Template For Termination Of Employment Free Letter number of essays being commissioned and the scale of the companies involved, information gathered by Times Higher Education under the A Competitive Analysis For Your (with Freedom of Information Act suggests that the number of Template Of Employment Letter custom-written essays being detected and officially reported is tiny. THE asked UK universities to provide details of the How To Preschool Plans For Math - A Step Guide number of students they had disciplined in the academic years 2011-12 and 2012-13 for handing in custom essays or assignments bought from Template essay mills. Among the universities that responded to the request within 20 days, just 29 students were disciplined in 2011-12; in 2012-13, 30 students from Job Resume High Job 15 institutions were penalised.

More than half the offenders hailed from outside the UK. Some argue that the high fees paid by international students and the need to write in English (if this is not their first language) create greater incentives to cheat. Chasing plagiarists can be ‘too much effort’, Carroll says. In any case, she is unsure if her institution would back her up if she uncovered cheating. Wiss reports that for a significant number of All Answers’ customers, English is Template Of Employment Free, a second language. Student. High School. She claims that “many of these struggle to put their thoughts and ideas across, or to interpret their course material and lectures. I believe this is why they choose to use a service like ours.” In Lancaster’s experience, both domestic and international students use essay writing services, but he believes that a particularly serious and related issue is the Template Of Employment matter of students paying for the translation of an essay written in a foreign language before handing it in, a practice that can obscure plagiarism.

As THE reported in August, some universities still lack clear policies on Write Analysis Small Business whether international students may use proofreaders or translators to help them with their work. The damage contract cheating can inflict on society is Template Of Employment Termination, clear. Graduates emerge from university with huge (and in Template High School Student, some disciplines, potentially dangerous) gaps in their learning and knowledge. Lancaster even discovered one student who had attempted to For Termination Of Employment Termination Letter outsource an assignment on nuclear engineering. One of the Template High School School Student scholar’s presentations on the subject asks: “Do you want to live within five miles of For Termination Free Termination Letter this person?” But there is also a more specific form of damage to the university. You need only Best Structure, one student to go “to a job and not be able to do it” for an employer to Template For Termination Of Employment “write off” other graduates of How To Plans For Math By Step that university, Lancaster argues. He believes that employers have long memories and Template Of Employment will warn other companies that certain alumni are not to be trusted.

So contract cheating “has the effect of penalising honest students”, he adds. Given the ethical issues, who agrees to work for the sites? The companies advertise themselves as employing graduates with good qualifications: an anonymous essay writer who wrote for THE in August says he is a recent Oxbridge graduate who was asked to provide evidence of his qualifications and samples of his writing when applying for the job. Some companies claim to employ staff with at least 2:1 degrees, interview potential candidates and ask them to complete trial assignments. Many contract essay companies justify their trade by arguing that they are simply showing uncertain students how to write.

“Many students just want to see how it’s done,” says Wiss, who also claims that the “vast majority” of All Answers’ customers do not hand in their purchased essays. This might be more convincing if All Answers did not run its essays through plagiarism checkers before sending them on to clients - a common practice in the industry. Why do this unless customers want to hand them in? Wiss claims that this is to make sure that its writers are “spending the time they are paid for on the project and Preschool Lesson For Math - A Step By Step Guide not cutting corners”. In line with many in the business, All Answers tries to blame universities for Free Letter, the rise of the essay mill.

Institutions admit international students who can “barely string a sentence together”, Wiss claims, while others are “thrown in at the deep end” when they start university. However, claims that custom essays merely help students with their own original work are “disingenuous”, according to Funeral Program Template - Bi-Fold ~ Brochure ~ Creative a spokesman for Of Employment, Universities UK. “Such essays often cost several hundred pounds, will specify the grade they require [2:1, 2:2, etc] and are purchased invariably to meet clear deadlines,” he says. The anonymous essay writer offers a number of clues that he says may help to alert academics to custom-written essays. Essay writing agencies generally require writers to submit their work in a standard format, he explains, often including a contents page and 7+ Sc General Power Of Attorney Form Notice chapter headings, regardless of length. “If you didn’t ask your students to submit a 2,000-word essay in this format and you get a contents page, etc, then this might raise an alarm,” he says. Ghostwriters often lack access to full journal articles, and so rely heavily on first-page previews from journal sites or Google Books.

“Really probe the references, because this is the weak part,” he advises. Jude Carroll, an Template For Termination, education consultant at Review Template Oxford Brookes University and a plagiarism expert, thinks academics should not be afraid to be aggressively “investigative” if they smell a rat. If there are suspicions, she suggests, staff should call students in Template For Termination Termination, and ask them to explain unusually complex words or obscure references they have used. The “biggest worry” for academics who have such suspicions is that they lack proof, she says - but that is no excuse for inaction. “There’s no support for the argument about proof. Students can’t question academic judgements.

You don’t have to be [100 per cent] sure, you have to General Form Letter weigh the balance of probabilities - and be at For Termination Free Letter least 65 per A Competitive Analysis For Your Small, cent sure,” she thinks. But for another academic, who asks to remain anonymous, launching an investigation is Of Employment, not that simple. “I’m ashamed to admit it but you simply don’t have the time to launch a plagiarism case,” she says. One colleague, the same academic recalls, had to Plans Step By Step “almost google every line” of a suspect essay and make several trips to the library to For Termination Of Employment ascertain whether her fears about a piece of work were genuine. In a competitive research excellence framework environment, chasing plagiarists can be “too much effort”, she says. In any case, she is Review Template, also unsure if her institution would back her up if she uncovered cheating. Universities have a “real anxiety about the Termination litigation culture” and are “anxious” about academics exercising their judgement. When offenders do get caught, Carroll says, the punishments for handing in contracted essays are “highly variable”. She finds this worrying because penalties are a major determinant of How To Preschool Plans - A Step Guide how likely students are to Template Of Employment cheat. “I believe students should be thrown out” if caught, she says. “It’s fraud.” However, according to the results of THE ’s FoI request, most students who cheat in this manner can expect to Funeral ~ Brochure ~ Creative remain on For Termination Free Termination Letter their courses.

Of the Program Templates 59 students who were caught handing in bought essays in 2011-12 and For Termination Of Employment Termination 2012-13, just 13 were expelled. In one case at Newcastle University, for example, an international student suspected of handing in work purchased from the site Essays.uk.com was given a “final written warning” but no other punishment. Many believe that academics’ first line of defence against custom essays is to How To Preschool Step By Step set assignments that are difficult, if not impossible, to For Termination Of Employment Termination outsource. The anonymous ghostwriter advises scholars to ask their students to draw on lectures and class discussion when setting essays. “This is something that is Review Template, either less visible or invisible to the ghostwriter,” he explains, and therefore much more difficult to For Termination achieve. Questions that require close engagement with a particular text are also more difficult to 7+ Sc Of Attorney Form Notice Letter outsource, he says. “Chances are I won’t be able to For Termination Termination do this as well because I won’t have that book to hand.

If asked to, I have a problem.” He also cautions against sending out lecture notes in Best Organizational, electronic formats or putting them online, because this only makes it easier for ghostwriters to give the Template For Termination impression of having attended courses. However, the Review Template Equality Challenge Unit points out that students with disabilities might find taking notes during lectures difficult or even impossible, and some departments require academics to For Termination Of Employment Free provide lecture notes to all students for this reason. Some essay questions appear time and time again, making them easier for Review Template, contract writers to complete, so one obvious piece of advice from plagiarism experts is to Template Free Termination Letter avoid setting assignments on predictable topics such as “women in Dickens”. Scholars might also set students presentations or tests based on their written submissions, which can identify those who have not done the work themselves. In 2007, Google banned advertisements for essay writing services on How To Write Analysis For Your Small Business its website, a move welcomed by UUK. Couldn’t the government introduce a blanket ban on the companies? A spokeswoman for the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills suggests that this would be impossible under current law. “Whether a student and/or ‘writing service’ have committed an offence would be for a court to Template Of Employment Termination decide and depend on the individual circumstances of the case,” she says. “There is Organizational Structure On Pinterest, no action BIS could take to address this.”

Another drastic option is suggested by the tale of a US professor, recounted by Lancaster, who set himself up as a contract essay writer to test the waters, only to find one of his own assignments out to Free Letter tender. Organizational Ideas On Pinterest. He wrote it, and when one of his students handed it in, he revealed himself as the author. Wiss maintains that All Answers is “very keen to work with universities to provide a service that can’t be abused in the first place” - but only if universities agree that the Template Of Employment company is - Bi-Fold ~ Brochure, “a legitimate source of academic help”. The UUK spokesman declines to comment on this and says: “More should be done to clamp down on these essay companies.” He adds that the body does not have any specific proposals to tackle the problem (although suggestions are welcome). So there does not appear to be any systematic solution to essay mills on the horizon, and Of Employment Free Termination responsibility for detecting and dealing with the issue continues to rest with individual academics and their universities. “If academics really want to catch these essays, they are going to have to spend more time engaging with their students’ submitted work,” concludes the anonymous essay writer. Some may be left wishing that they had more time to do just that. Nothing to Ideas On Pinterest hide (except your details) “Although using our service is not cheating, and you have nothing to hide if you use the service responsibly, we still take your privacy very seriously … We never share details of your order with your university.” “First class in my chemistry coursework was unbelievable. thanks.” - Theo, Manchester. “Universities sometimes warn students against using companies like ours, which goes back to the days when the custom essay industry was underhand and For Termination Of Employment Free Letter untrustworthy. We’re actively involved in re-educating them and changing their perspective.” “Just wanted to send a note to say thanks.

Your paper helped me get a 2:1 for my degree!! I can now apply for my Masters! Thanks ever so much!! Do you write to Masters level?” - Lucy, Stratford-upon-Avon. Set students short tests or presentations based on their essays. Funeral Template ~ Brochure Templates ~ Creative. Ask students to write their essays with reference to lectures or class discussions. Set unusual questions or ask for Free Termination Letter, analysis of Organizational Structure Ideas set texts as this could put off potential ghostwriters. Of Employment. If you suspect an essay may not be a student’s work, ask them to explain the Program Template - Bi-Fold ~ Brochure ~ Creative key words, concepts and research. For Termination Of Employment Free Letter. Check references: ghostwriters often do not have access to Funeral - Bi-Fold ~ Brochure ~ Creative full journals or books, so may be able to reference only the Template Of Employment Letter preview pages of Best On Pinterest online articles. If an essay seems overly formatted, for For Termination Termination Letter, example, with a contents page and chapters, this could be because of Review Template a standard format used by essay companies. Google your assignment questions: you may find that they are out to tender.

Click here for more on preventing plagiarism. Registration is free and only takes a moment. Once registered you can read a total of 3 articles each month, plus: Sign up for the editor's highlights Receive World University Rankings news first Get job alerts, shortlist jobs and save job searches Participate in reader discussions and For Termination Of Employment Letter post comments Register. Or subscribe for unlimited access to: Unlimited access to How To Preschool Lesson Step news, views, insights reviews Digital editions Digital access to THE’s university and college rankings analysis Unrestricted access to the UK and global edition of the Of Employment Termination THE app on IOS, Android and How To Write Plans For Math - A By Step Kindle Fire Subscribe. Already registered or a current subscriber? Sign in For Termination Free Termination Letter, now. Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research)/Vice-President.

Research Assistant/Research Fellow in Modelling Root Traits to Job Resume High Student Job Bio-engineer Soil. Lecturer in Data Science - Data Sciences with Analytics. Digital Marketing and Recruitment Executive. Last week, the UK’s universities minister threatened to fine institutions that pay their v-cs more than the For Termination Of Employment Free prime minister without a strong justification. We present three perspectives on the debate. The bullying and subsequent suicide of a talented Ivy League scientist exposes ugly truths about the Best Organizational Structure cruelty and dysfunction at the heart of academic science. No tax inspector or police officer can claim rights over what they write for their jobs, so why should academics, asks Gabriel Egan.

We need to call off the witch-hunt and trust in the capacity of our students to learn, says Bruce Macfarlane. Lack of job security, limited support from management and weight of work-related demands on time among risk factors. If you like what you're reading online, why not take advantage of our subscription and Free Termination get unlimited access to all of 7+ Sc Power Letter Times Higher Education 's content? You'll get full access to our website, print and digital editions, and the Times Higher Education app for iOS, Android and Kindle Fire devices.