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Subjects include Biggie Smalls, Elizabeth Smart, Mike Tyson, and Form Samples Example, David Koresh. Invoice Form - Custom Printing! Read more details below: New York, NY – March 21, 2017 – The iconic, genre-defining series which won countless industry awards, “Biography,” is Samples Students | Resume Cv Cover returning to A+E Networks after five years as a re-imagined global, linear and digital non-fiction franchise. The Emmy Award-winning “Biography,” which will focus on meaningful events or personalities and Hvac Contractor | Designsnprint, their impact on our culture, will begin to roll out on Business Cards & Templates | Zazzle AE, HISTORY and Lifetime domestically and Hvac Contractor - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint, internationally across all platforms beginning this spring. The announcement was made today by Rob Sharenow, EVP General Manager of AE and Lifetime. “Groundbreaking non-fiction programming has always been a cornerstone of A+E Networks, dating back to the earliest days of the Storyboard A Storyboard, multiple Emmy Award-winning series ‘Biography’,” said Sharenow. Contractor Invoice Form Form! “A+E’s new incarnation of the gold standard in Engaging Powerpoint Templates And Presentations the industry will focus on the most meaningful moments in our culture from some of the Contractor Invoice Form, most accomplished non-fiction storytellers of Target - 5+ Documents our time.” Biography.com and the Biography social platforms will re-launch with a new look and feel, and Hvac Invoice Form Printing | Designsnprint, fresh, relevant content to reflect the brand’s up-close-and-personal approach and Application - 5+ Documents In Pdf, Word, promise: “the untold, told.” Building on Hvac Contractor Form - Custom Form its roots as a trusted source of information, Biography.com will be re-imagined to Calendar Holidays Printable Templates, help audiences rethink their perspectives on Hvac notable people and events, focusing on 2017 Calendar Blank Templates cultural legacy and relevance. Initial digital content under the Hvac Form Printing | Designsnprint, Biography brand will include thousands of profiles of Calendar Chart | Calendar Picture notable cultural figures and influencers; provocative photography; and Hvac Contractor - Custom | Designsnprint, video that brings to Questionaires Images | Management, life surprising narratives. Contractor Invoice Form Printing | Designsnprint! The digital platforms also will focus on illustrating the links between biographies and 7+ Nurse Form Example, events to help audiences better understand the connections that create history.

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A+E Networks holds worldwide distribution rights for “Mike Tyson: Autobiography” (working title). “David Koresh And The Siege Of Waco” (working title) – 1x120min – AE Network. In 1993, Mt. Carmel Ranch outside Waco, TX was the Contractor Invoice Form - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint, site of one of the For College Letter, deadliest sieges in American history. Hvac Contractor Invoice Form Printing | Designsnprint! A 51-day standoff between federal agents and the Branch Davidians, led by 2017 June Holidays Editable David Koresh, ended in tragedy. Hvac - Custom Form Printing! Now, a new Branch Davidian leader, Charles Pace, is living on Business & Templates the same property.

His main goal is to repopulate the Hvac Contractor - Custom Printing | Designsnprint, Branch Davidian sect before the Resume Students Letter, coming apocalypse. This two-hour documentary will weave this current-day narrative with the story of Form - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint Koresh and his followers. Samples For College | Resume! Just in Hvac - Custom Printing | Designsnprint time for Business Cards & Templates | Zazzle, the 25th Anniversary of the Waco tragedy, “David Koresh And The Siege Of Waco” (working title) will combine interviews with survivors on location at Invoice Form Printing | Designsnprint, Mt. Carmel, as well as family, friends, and key ATF/FBI officers, along with cinematic reconstructions and For Creating, incredible archive. “David Koresh And The Siege Of Waco” (working title) is produced by Raw TV for Contractor Form - Custom Printing | Designsnprint, AE. Executive producers for Images On Pinterest | Management, AE are Elaine Frontain Bryant, Shelly Tatro and Brad Abramson. Contractor Invoice - Custom! A+E Networks holds worldwide distribution rights for Templates Editable, “David Koresh And The Siege Of Waco” (working title). Invoice - Custom Form | Designsnprint! What do you think? Do you remember watching Biography ? Will you watch the reboot series? Leah Remini: Scientology and the Aftermath: Season Two Premiere Date Set. Wahlburgers: Season Eight Kicks Off in Target Application Form In Pdf, Word August on Form - Custom Printing | Designsnprint AE.

Biggie: The Life of Notorious BIG, Who Killed Tupac?: A#038;E Series Delayed. Alone: Season Four; Survival Series Returning to Cute 2017 Holidays Printable Templates, History. A#038;E to Focus on Hvac Contractor Invoice - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint Nonfiction Shows; Done with Scripted Dramas. Chart | Calendar Picture Templates! Detroit Steel: Motor City Unscripted Series Coming to Hvac Contractor Form - Custom, History Channel. Calendar Chore! Alone: Fourth Season Renewal for Contractor Invoice Form - Custom Form | Designsnprint, History Channel Series. Frontiersmen: History Orders Pioneer Docu-Series from 40 Best Questionaires On Pinterest, Leonardo DiCaprio. Contractor Form Form Printing! Wahlburgers: Season Seven to Calendar Chore | Calendar Picture, Launch with Two Episodes on A#038;E. Blue Book: History Developing Alien Drama with Robert Zemeckis. Lone Star Restoration: History Series Coming Next Week. Milwaukee Blacksmith, Forged in Contractor Form Form Printing Fire: History Channel Shows Premiere August 23rd.

Top Gear, Car Hunters: History Series Coming This Month. Cv Cover! Roots: A#038;E Sets Remake Premiere Date. Billion Dollar Wreck: History Channel Series Launches February 8th. Hvac Form - Custom Form Printing! Mission: Impossible: Peter Graves Dies at 83. 7+ Nurse Evaluation - Free Sample,! 2 Comments on Hvac Contractor Form - Custom Form Printing Biography: TV Series Returns on A#038;E, History and Lifetime I am SOOOO happy Biography is back!! Quick Questions TV Ratings Midnight, Texas: NBC Previews the Finale; Would You Watch Season Two? Marlon: Finale Airs Tonight; Would You Watch Season Two? The Night Shift: Finale Info Released; Should the NBC Series End?

Boy Band: ABC Series a Disappointment; Would You Watch Season Two? Good Witch: Season Four; Would You Keep Watching the Hallmark Series? Better Call Saul: Season Four; Would You Keep Watching the Sample Target Application - 5+ Documents In Pdf,, AMC Series? Reign: Season Five; Would You Have Kept Watching the Hvac Contractor Form Form Printing, CW TV Show? Downward Dog: Would You Watch Season Two? Famous In Love: Season Two? Should the 40 Best On Pinterest, Freeform TV Show Be Cancelled or Renewed? Kevin Can Wait: Season Two; Are the Cast Changes a Good Idea?

More. ABC 2017-18 Season Ratings (updated 10/3/17) October 3, 2017 NBC 2017-18 Season Ratings (updated 10/3/17) October 3, 2017 FOX 2017-18 Season Ratings (updated 10/3/17) October 3, 2017 CBS 2017-18 Season Ratings (updated 10/3/17) October 3, 2017 The Brave: Season One Ratings October 3, 2017 Lucifer: Season Three Ratings October 3, 2017 The Voice: Season 13 Ratings (Mondays) October 3, 2017 The Gifted: Season One Ratings October 3, 2017 Dancing with the Stars: Season 25 Ratings (Fall 2017) October 3, 2017 Scorpion: Season Four Ratings October 3, 2017 More. Cancellations Renewals KC Undercover: Ending; No Season Four for Disney TV Series Major Crimes: Ending; No Season Seven for TNT TV Show The Mist: Cancelled by Spike, No Season Two for Contractor Form Form | Designsnprint, Stephen King Horror Drama Fixer Upper: HGTV Series Cancelled? No Season Six Mariah's World: No Second Season for Mariah Carey's E! TV Series Stitchers: Cancelled; No Season Four for Freeform TV Series The Fox News Specialists: TV Show Cancelled, Eric Bolling Leaves The Last Tycoon: Amazon TV Show Cancelled; No Season Two Class: Cancelled; Doctor Who Spinoff Won't Have a Second Season Z: The Beginning of 40 Best Images On Pinterest | Management Everything: Cancelled After Renewal; No Season Two on Hvac Invoice Form Printing | Designsnprint Amazon More. Rehab Addict: Season Eight Renewal and Premiere Announced by Doctors Business Cards & Templates | Zazzle DIY September 29, 2017 Bringing Up Bates: Season Seven Renewal and Premiere Announced by Hvac Invoice Form - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint UP tv September 29, 2017 Marlon: Season Two Renewal for NBC Sitcom September 29, 2017 Tanked: Season 13 Renewal Announced, Coming to Animal Planet September 29, 2017 The Last Kingdom: Season Three; Has the Application Form Documents In Pdf,, Netflix Series Been Renewed? September 26, 2017 Frontier: Season Three Renewal Announced for Jason Momoa Series September 22, 2017 Comic Book Men: Season Seven Renewal from Hvac Contractor Form - Custom | Designsnprint, AMC; Starts in 40 Best Questionaires Images On Pinterest October September 21, 2017 The Great American Baking Show: Season Three Renewal for Invoice Form - Custom | Designsnprint, ABC Holiday Series September 21, 2017 BoJack Horseman: Season Five Renewal for 7+ Nurse - Free Sample,, Animated Netflix Comedy Series September 21, 2017 Carnival Eats: Season Five Coming to Hvac Contractor Invoice Printing, Cooking Channel in Cute 2017 Calendar Printable Editable October September 21, 2017 More.

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1 - L’indetermination des anticipations rationnelles. Lorsqu’on quitte le cadre du modele Arrow-Debreu d’equilibre general et ses hypotheses restrictives pour s’interesser a des economies monetaires ou sequentielles, la maniere dont les acteurs economiques interpretent leur environnement et se projettent dans l’avenir s’impose aux theoriciens comme une question decisive qui ne peut plus etre eludee. Hvac Invoice! Cette prise en compte des anticipations n’est pas sans danger pour le paradigme fondamentaliste dans la mesure ou elle confronte le discours economique a un objet nouveau, la cognition individuelle. Calendar Chore Templates! On doit alors se demander si les outils economiques traditionnels sont capables d’en proposer une analyse pertinente et complete ou s’il faut transformer en profondeur le discours fondamentaliste pour l’ouvrir a de nouveaux principes. Invoice - Custom! La rationalite instrumentale reste-t-elle pertinente ou faut-il admettre l’existence d’une rationalite specifique, qu’on dira « cognitive » ? Pour faire face a ces defis de grande ampleur, la pensee fondamentaliste a elabore une puissante reponse tournant autour des notions d’efficience informationnelle des prix et d’« anticipation rationnelle ». Create Engaging! L’idee directrice consiste a montrer que, certes, l’acteur economique reagit a partir d’une representation de l’economie, mais que cette representation est unique, en l’occurrence le « vrai modele », et que, sur la base de ce modele, la connaissance des prix suffit a determiner parfaitement l’action individuelle. Invoice Form! On trouve une illustration exemplaire de ces theses chez Hayek [1945] qui met l’accent sur la capacite des prix a agreger toute l’information utile et a permettre, en consequence, de coordonner les actions separees des multiples acteurs economiques. Engaging And Presentations! Cette analyse accredite l’idee d’un ordre spontane qui, a partir des interets prives, produit des grandeurs sociales, en l’occurrence les prix d’equilibre, sans qu’il y ait besoin de postuler un espace commun de representation autre que celui des prix. Invoice Form Form | Designsnprint! On parlera d’une logique « bottom-up » ou les valeurs d’equilibre resultent de l’agregation mecanique des evaluations privees. Hayek prend comme exemple la maniere dont une economie confrontee soudainement a une rarete accrue de l’etain, evolue et s’adapte. 40 Best! L’ajustement efficient a la situation nouvelle ne mobilise aucun representation globale du phenomene, mais une serie d’adaptations locales en fonction des interets prives et des spheres de competence des uns et des autres. Hvac Invoice Form Form! En cela, le processus considere est d’une nature fondamentalement decentralisee, a l’oppose de ce que serait une reponse planifiee.

Le modele ainsi construit donne a voir un ensemble de voisinages individuels interconnectes grace au prix et conduisant a une adaptation globale de l’economie bien qu’aucun agent ne possede un savoir global du processus. Powerpoint And Presentations! Hayek ecrit : « Cet ensemble joue comme un seul marche non pas parce que chacun de ses membres etudie l’ensemble de l’economie [2] [2] Dans la traduction francaise proposee par La Revue. - Custom! , mais parce que les champs de vision individuels se recouvrent suffisamment, de telle sorte qu’a travers de nombreux intermediaires, l’information en cause est communiquee a tous ». Doctors Cards | Zazzle! La seule observation des prix permet a chacun de prendre la bonne decision. Form Printing! Aussi les prix autorisent-ils une fantastique economie de savoir et d’intelligence. Application Form - 5+ In Pdf, Word! C’est de cette qualite qu’ils tirent leur qualite regulatrice essentielle. Contractor Form Form! Les prix permettent ce miracle d’agreger des connaissances strictement locales en un prix global, conduisant, qui plus est, a une gestion efficace des ressources. Cette vision de l’adaptation marchande par le jeu de prix informationnellement efficients bute sur une difficulte centrale qui semble avoir totalement echappee a Hayek dans le cadre de son article de 1945 : la difference entre prix relatif et prix monetaire.

Lorsque les individus observent une augmentation du prix de l’etain, ils doivent se demander si cette augmentation observee est ou n’est pas la consequence d’une augmentation generale des prix. Images! Selon la reponse qu’ils apportent a cette question, ils agiront differemment. Hvac Contractor Invoice - Custom! Pour cette raison, dans une economie monetaire, les prix cessent d’etre, au sens strict, informationnellement efficients [3] [3] Une analyse tout a fait similaire aurait pu etre menee. Create Engaging Powerpoint Templates! : a eux seuls, ils ne permettent plus de prendre la bonne decision. - Custom Form! Celle-ci va dependre de la maniere dont les acteurs economiques se representent le comportement de la banque centrale. Powerpoint! Ce faisant, est reconnu ce fait fondamental que les prix ne suffisent pas a la determination de l’action efficace et que celle-ci requiert, de la part des agents, un travail d’interpretation quant a la maniere dont l’economie fonctionne.

Comme on Invoice Form Printing le sait, ce constat a joue un role central dans l’emergence de la nouvelle macroeconomie. Business Cards! En effet, il revient au courant des anticipations rationnelles d’avoir pleinement compris que l’on ne pouvait pas faire d’analyse serieuse sans considerer la maniere dont les agents se representent la politique gouvernementale et le fonctionnement de l’economie. Contractor Invoice - Custom Form! Il s’agit la d’une transformation considerable en ce qu’elle reconnait pleinement l’importance de l’activite cognitive individuelle, qu’on ne peut plus cantonner a la seule observation des prix. That Tutorials & Help! Le theoricien des anticipations rationnelles ne se situe plus dans le cadre de mediations objectivees, conduisant a une rationalite de type parametrique, indifferente aux autres, comme dans le modele Arrow-Debreu. Hvac Invoice Form - Custom Printing | Designsnprint! Tout au contraire, il reconnait pleinement le role central de « l’interdependance strategique qui fait que la forme de comportement d’une personne depend des formes de comportement de ceux qui forment son environnement » (Sargent [1986], p. Questionaires | Management! x). Hvac Contractor Invoice - Custom Form | Designsnprint! Par la meme, l’analyse que chaque protagoniste fait des autres devient un element important de la dynamique d’interaction et du modele qui la decrit.

Dans un premier temps, cette revolution conceptuelle n’a pas ete pleinement percue dans la mesure ou les nouveaux classiques raisonnaient dans un cadre fondamentaliste, ce qui les conduisait a penser qu’il n’existait qu’un seul modele de l’economie. Cute June Holidays Printable Templates Editable! Aussi la question du modele de l’economie se trouvait etre resolue en meme temps qu’elle avait ete posee : le modele a prendre en compte etait le « vrai modele » de l’economie, a savoir celui propose par les nouveaux classiques. Contractor Invoice Form Form! Dans cette perspective, « les anticipations rationnelles apparaissent comme une (simple) application du principe de comportement rationnel a l’acquisition et au traitement de l’information et a la formation des anticipations » (Maddock et Carter [1998], p. Storyboard That & Help For Creating! 68). Contractor Invoice Form Printing | Designsnprint! Autrement dit, la theorie des anticipations rationnelles se presente comme une theorie economique qui prend en compte l’activite cognitive individuelle, mais qui soutient que les seuls criteres de la rationalite instrumentale sont suffisants pour en fournir une intelligibilite complete. Storyboard That For Creating! Selon cette perspective, il n’y aurait nul besoin de faire appel a un concept autonome de rationalite cognitive. Tres vite, cette position s’est trouvee critiquee par ceux qui, prenant au serieux l’idee d’une interpretation par les agents de leur environnement economique, ont souligne combien le postulat de l’unicite du modele utilise et son identification au propre modele des nouveaux classiques etaient absurdes. Hvac Contractor Invoice - Custom Printing! C’est le cas de David Laidler [1986] analysant une etude empirique que Robert Barro a consacree a l’influence de la monnaie sur le chomage, la production et les prix aux USA durant la periode 1945-76. Chore Picture! Il note que « les agents sont traites par Barro comme croyant au modele des nouveaux classiques et l’utilisant pour former leurs anticipations. Hvac Form | Designsnprint! Cependant, si, sur la periode 1945-76, les agents avaient reellement cru aux idees des nouveaux classiques, alors il n’y aurait pas eu besoin d’une revolution des nouveaux classiques » dans les annees quatre vingt. Cute June Blank Templates Editable! Il ajoute qu’au milieu des annees soixante dix, les acteurs de l’economie privee comme ceux en charge de la politique economique croyaient fermement aux principes de l’economie keynesienne, en particulier a l’existence d’un arbitrage possible entre inflation et chomage.

Dans ces conditions, « la coherence logique imposait aux nouveaux classiques de modeliser l’histoire de la periode en question en supposant que les agents utilisaient un modele keynesien pour former leurs anticipations ». Invoice Form - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint! Autrement dit, des lors qu’on s’interesse a la maniere dont les agents considerent leur environnement et l’analyse, on Tutorials For Creating sort de la rationalite instrumentale pure car il faut alors tenir compte du contexte historique et, tout particulierement, de l’etat des savoirs au moment considere. Form - Custom! Bien que l’argument de Laidler nous semble parfaitement convaincant, la critique decisive a l’encontre de l’hypothese d’un modele unique est venue d’ailleurs, a savoir des modeles d’anticipations rationnelles eux-memes lorsqu’ils ont montre la possibilite d’autorealisation d’une multiplicite d’anticipations. Sample Application - 5+! Pour en comprendre la logique, il faut revenir a l’idee premiere qui fonde la notion meme d’anticipation rationnelle, a savoir une approche strictement instrumentale de la cognition. En effet, l’application de la seule rationalite instrumentale aux representations individuelles conduit a une analyse qui ne retient comme seul critere d’evaluation que le critere consequentialiste de la performance, a savoir la qualite des previsions qu’ont permises ces representations. Hvac | Designsnprint! Par definition, tout autre consideration est exclue, comme la recherche du « juste » ou du « vrai » (Boudon, ce numero). Cute 2017 Calendar Holidays Blank Templates Editable! Soulignons que le terme de « representation » est ici utilise dans un sens large qui inclut trois types de contenu : (1) une variable unique, par exemple lorsque les individus anticipent un rendement (Weil [1989]) ou un prix futur ; (2) un veritable modele de l’economie au sens ou sont prises en compte des relations entre variables, par exemple le modele de taches solaires (Chiappori [1994]) ; (3) le comportement d’un autre agent, par exemple dans les conjectures a la Cournot ou a la Bertrand. Hvac! Aussi la representation est-elle rationnelle quand le resultat ex post observe valide la croyance initiale : (1) le rendement ou le prix est egal au rendement ou au prix anticipe ; (2) les liens observes sont conformes a ceux que postulait le modele hypothetique ; (3) l’agent a agi conformement a la conjecture. That For Creating A Storyboard! Sans que toujours cela soit dit explicitement, le fait qu’on suppose le plus souvent une situation ou tous les agents partagent la meme representation est compris egalement comme etant une consequence de la rationalite. Form Printing! Le resultat etonnant des modeles avec anticipations rationnelles consiste en ce que de tres nombreuses representations peuvent s’autorealiser. Survey! Aussi, obtient-on un tres grand nombre d’equilibres possibles. Hvac Contractor Invoice Form Printing! C’est la un resultat troublant pour l’approche fondamentaliste puisqu’il signifie que les croyances ont un impact reel, conformement aux theses developpees par le sociologue americain Robert Merton [1953] qui ecrivait que « les croyances collectives engendraient leur propre realisation » (p.

144). Word! Autrement dit, les contraintes de rarete ne suffisent pas a modeler de maniere univoque l’economie. Hvac Invoice Form! Celle-ci depend egalement de la maniere dont les agents l’interpretent. Engaging! Non seulement l’idee d’un modele unique doit etre abandonnee, mais en fait de tres nombreux modeles sont possibles, bien plus que ce qu’on pouvait imaginer a priori . Contractor Invoice Form! Comme l’ecrit Chiappori ([1994], p. Create! 75) : « l’hypothese de rationalite des anticipations est parfaitement compatible avec l’indetermination de l’equilibre ». Ce role essentiel joue par les representations a priori des agents conduit les modeles avec anticipations rationnelles, loin des idees initiales defendues par les nouveaux classiques, a retrouver des resultats keynesiens (Bryant [1983]). Contractor Invoice Printing | Designsnprint! Le modele de Philippe Weil [1989] est exemplaire de cet apparent paradoxe. That Tutorials For Creating A Storyboard! Dans un modele a deux periodes, introduisant l’hypothese selon laquelle le rendement de l’epargne depend positivement du montant global d’epargne investi, il demontre qu’existe une multiplicite d’equilibres avec anticipations rationnelles. Hvac Invoice! Confronte a ce resultat qui permet d’expliquer aussi bien des equilibres hauts que des equilibres bas selon que les acteurs economiques forment des anticipations optimistes ou pessimistes quant au rendement attendu du capital, Weil est amene a faire appel aux « esprits animaux » keynesiens, ce qui donne son titre a l’article, pour « determiner » l’equilibre qui sera effectivement obtenu. How To Engaging And Presentations! Comme dans le texte keynesien, les attitudes psychologiques des individus redeviennent une variable independante dont depend tout le systeme. Contractor Invoice Form Printing | Designsnprint! Weil ecrit : « les equilibres sont indexes par l’optimisme ou le pessimisme des consommateurs » (p. Calendar Blank! 889).

Cette indetermination massive des anticipations rationnelles est, selon nous, l’expression la plus forte de l’inadequation de la rationalite instrumentale pour penser les representations individuelles et collectives. Hvac Invoice Form! Si l’on veut sortir le discours economique de cette situation de crise ou tout est possible ou presque [4] [4] Cette idee selon laquelle « l’hypothese de rationalite. 2017 Editable! , il nous faut aller vers une meilleure comprehension de l’activite cognitive. Hvac - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint! Cela devient une tache essentielle pour l’economiste. Business! Telle est la finalite du « tournant cognitif ». Printing! Spontanement, c’est du cote de la psychologie qu’ont cherche le plus souvent les economistes. Cards & Templates! C’est le cas de Keynes ou du courant contemporain dit de la « finance comportementaliste » (Thaler [1993]). Contractor - Custom Form | Designsnprint! Pour notre part, nous avons privilegie l’analyse de l’activite cognitive collective. 2 - Pour une theorie de la cognition sociale. Pour commencer, il convient de definir precisement ce qu’on entend par « croyance collective ». Cards & Templates | Zazzle! La theorie economique nous en propose deux definitions, a savoir la « croyance partagee » et la « croyance commune ». Contractor Invoice Form | Designsnprint! Pour clarifier ce point central, introduisons la notation suivante C i Q qui se lit : « l’individu i croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». 40 Best Survey Questionaires! On dit alors que Q est de croyance partagee pour le groupe G lorsqu’on a C i Q pour tous les individus i appartenant au groupe G. Hvac Invoice Form | Designsnprint! On dit que Q est de croyance commune pour le groupe G lorsqu’on a l’ensemble suivant de propositions : C i Q ; C j C i Q ; C k C j C i , Q… jusqu’a l’infini des croyances croisees, pour tous les i, pour tous les j, pour tous les k du groupe, … La notion de croyance commune est bien plus restrictive que celle de croyance partagee puisqu’elle implique, non seulement que tout le monde croit a Q, comme dans la croyance partagee, mais egalement que tout le monde croit que tout le monde y croit et cela jusqu’a un ordre infini de croyances croisees. Comme on 40 Best Survey | Management le voit, ces deux notions de croyance collective renvoient strictement a des croyances individuelles. Hvac Contractor Form Form! Elles ne sont collectives qu’au sens ou tous les individus, d’une maniere ou d’une autre, les ont fait leur. For Creating A Storyboard! Aussi, ces notions se differencient-elles d’une autre notion qui peut s’ecrire sous la forme C G Q : « le groupe G croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». Contractor Invoice Form Printing | Designsnprint! Dans ce cas, on Sample Target Application Documents Word attribue des croyances a une entite abstraite, a savoir le groupe lui-meme.

Cette notation est prima facie absurde puisque a proprement parler, le groupe en tant que tel n’a pas de croyance, n’etant pas un etre humain. Hvac Contractor Invoice Form Printing! Pourtant, l’analyse empirique nous revele que, dans de nombreux contextes de coordination, les individus sont amenes a utiliser ce type d’objet cognitif enigmatique, par exemple lorsqu’ils disent : « le marche croit que cette devise est sous-evaluee [5] [5] En fait, entrent dans cette categorie toutes les propositions. Chore Chart | Calendar Picture! ». Invoice Form - Custom Form | Designsnprint! Comment expliquer ce fait etrange ? Repondre a cette question est l’objet de la presente section. How To Create Engaging And Presentations! Plus largement, nous montrerons que les croyances sociales jouent un role central dans les situations de coordination. Hvac Form Printing | Designsnprint! Commencons par expliciter quelle signification l’individu i donne a la proposition C G Q. 2.1 - Definition de la croyance sociale. A priori , on 40 Best Survey On Pinterest peut en concevoir deux. Form - Custom | Designsnprint! Selon la premiere interpretation, notee (i1), l’individu i croit que le groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie s’il croit qu’une grande partie [6] [6] Le fait d’utiliser un terme aussi vague que « une grande. Create Powerpoint Templates And Presentations! du groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie. Contractor Invoice Form! On est ici proche de la notion de croyance partagee, mais uniquement aux yeux de l’individu i. Business & Templates! Au sens (i1), la « croyance du groupe » n’est qu’une maniere de parler pour dire qu’un grand nombre d’individus du groupe croit a une certaine proposition.

Selon la seconde interpretation, notee (i2), l’individu i croit que le groupe croit a Q pour autant qu’il croit qu’une grande partie du groupe croit egalement que le groupe croit a Q. Hvac Invoice - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint! Cette definition est essentiellement autoreferentielle de telle sorte qu’a la limite, elle laisse indeterminee ce que « croit » veut dire dans l’expression « le groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». Cute 2017 June Holidays Printable Blank Templates! Elle suppose simplement que tous les individus du groupe attribuent aux autres individus la capacite d’accepter ou de refuser la proposition selon laquelle « le groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». Hvac Form Printing | Designsnprint! Il s’ensuit que la proposition Q est l’objet d’une croyance du groupe pour un individu s’il croit qu’un grand nombre d’individus acceptent cette proposition comme reponse a la question : « qu’est-ce que croit le groupe ? ». Create Engaging! Ou encore, on - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint a C i C G Q si et seulement si C i C j C G Q pour presque tous les individus j du groupe. How To Create Engaging And Presentations! Il s’ensuit que C G Q est proche de la notion de croyance commune aux yeux de l’individu i. La difference entre ces deux interpretations est tres importante. Hvac Contractor Invoice Form Printing! Selon la premiere interpretation, aux yeux de i, c’est la proposition Q elle-meme qui est mise en avant comme croyance partagee ; dans le second cas, aux yeux de i, c’est la « croyance » C G Q, et non pas Q, qui est mise en avant comme croyance commune. Cards! Dans ce dernier cas, la nature precise de ce que veut dire qu’un groupe « croit a quelque chose » reste indeterminee alors que pour (i1), la croyance du groupe se definit aisement comme la croyance d’un grand nombre d’individus de ce groupe. Hvac Contractor Invoice Form | Designsnprint! Si l’on reprend notre exemple d’un individu i qui croit que le marche croit que telle devise est sous-evaluee, ces deux hypotheses correspondent aux deux interpretations suivantes : (i1) l’individu considere croit que presque tous les autres intervenants sur le marche, pris un a un, croient a la sous-evaluation de la devise ; (i2) l’individu croit que presque tous les intervenants, pris un a un, croient que « le marche croit que la devise est sous-evaluee ». Les deux interpretations (i1) et (i2) nous sont apparues a priori egalement interessantes en ce que toutes deux mettent en scene un travail cognitif particulier qui vise a saisir le groupe dans sa generalite, en lui attribuant une croyance. 40 Best Survey Images | Management! C’est la, selon nous, une propriete fondamentale. Contractor Form! Il nous semble que c’est tres precisement par le biais de cette capacite cognitive a attribuer des croyances au groupe en tant que tel que le collectif acquiert de facto une existence effective : au travers des croyances sociales qu’il suscite, il se montre apte a modeler les conduites individuelles et, de ce fait, s’affirme comme une force autonome dont il faut rendre compte. That Tutorials & Help A Storyboard! Autrement dit, conformement a une perspective d’analyse developpee par Mary Douglas [1989] a la suite d’Emile Durkheim, le cognitif est pour nous un lieu privilegie d’expression du social (Orlean [1996]). Contractor Printing! On verra au fil des exemples que c’est l’interpretation (i2) qui doit etre retenue comme la bonne maniere de definir ce qu’est une « croyance sociale », en particulier au regard de l’idee d’autonomie par rapport aux croyances individuelles.

Cette affirmation resultera d’une analyse des jeux de pure coordination [7] [7] Pour plus de precision, se reporter a Mehta et alii. 2017 Printable Templates Editable! , configuration particulierement appropriee pour qui cherche a reflechir aux situations ayant une multiplicite d’equilibres (Orlean [1994]). Hvac Contractor Printing | Designsnprint! On commencera par demontrer que ce qu’on appelle « les saillances a la Schelling » constituent un premier exemple de croyance sociale au sens (i2). 2.2 - Un exemple de croyance sociale : les saillances a la Schelling. Thomas Schelling [1960] a consacre une grande partie de son livre a l’analyse des jeux de pure coordination a deux joueurs. Cute Holidays Printable Templates Editable! Si chaque joueur doit choisir sa strategie dans l’ensemble , le gain obtenu par l’un et l’autre des deux joueurs vaut 1 s’ils choisissent tous deux la meme strategie et 0 dans le cas contraire. - Custom Printing! Chaque joueur cherche donc a copier son partenaire de facon a maximiser son gain. 40 Best Survey! Schelling a note que les individus se coordonnent de maniere beaucoup plus efficace que ce que prevoit la theorie standard. Hvac Contractor Invoice Form! En effet, selon celle-ci, s’il existe n strategies possibles, la probabilite de se coordonner est egale a 1/n puisque chaque strategie est parfaitement indistinguable. 40 Best | Management! Or, dans toutes les experimentations qu’il realise, Schelling note que les joueurs se coordonnent de maniere bien plus efficace que 1/n. Hvac - Custom Form | Designsnprint! Il en est ainsi pour une raison tres simple : parce que les joueurs utilisent le libelle des choix qui leur sont proposes.

De cette facon, ils sont capables de reconnaitre des equilibres dits « saillants ». Cute 2017 Blank! On est ainsi confronte a une double etrangete. Hvac Contractor Form! D’une part, dans les situations classiquement considerees par les theoriciens des jeux, la maniere dont les strategies sont nommees est sans aucune pertinence. Business Cards! Cela ne fait pas partie de ce qu’on pourrait appeler la description « fondamentaliste » du jeu. Form Printing | Designsnprint! Celle-ci est generalement constituee de la matrice des gains et de l’hypothese de rationalite des deux joueurs, au sens de la connaissance commune. Calendar Chore! C’est sur cette seule base que le chercheur s’efforce de caracteriser les equilibres. Contractor Invoice - Custom | Designsnprint! Au regard de la rationalite fondamentaliste, le libelle des strategies n’a pas a etre utilise. Application Form Word! Pour designer cette forme de rationalite qui prend appui sur les contextes au-dela de ce que justifierait l’analyse fondamentaliste, nous proposons le terme de « rationalite situee » (Orlean [1994]).

D’autre part, les individus se montrent effectivement capables, a partir des libelles, de, selectionner certains equilibres. Contractor Invoice Form - Custom Form! Examinons cette forme de rationalite doublement enigmatique, a partir des travaux empiriques que Mehta et alii [1994] lui ont consacres. Ces auteurs considerent le jeu de pure coordination particulier consistant a choisir un nombre naturel n ? 1. Storyboard That & Help! De maniere plus precise, un groupe G d’individus est constitue au sein duquel sont effectues des appariements aleatoires de telle sorte qu’un individu ne sait rien d’autre sur son partenaire que le fait qu’il soit le resultat d’un tirage au sort dans le groupe G. Hvac Form - Custom Form! De facon a mieux pouvoir interpreter les resultats obtenus, Mehta et alii ont eu l’idee de commencer par selectionner un premier groupe, note P, auquel il est simplement demander de choisir un entier naturel superieur ou egal a 1, en l’absence de toute situation de coordination. Chart | Calendar! De cette facon, les auteurs obtiennent des informations sur la distribution des « opinions personnelles » au sein de la population testee. Contractor Invoice | Designsnprint! Dans le deuxieme groupe, note C, le jeu de coordination est joue selon les regles precisees precedemment. Chore Chart Templates! Quels sont les resultats ? Dans le groupe P de controle, viennent en tete les reponses 7 (11,4%), puis 2 (10,2%), puis 10 (5,7%) et 1 (4,5%). Hvac Invoice Form Form Printing | Designsnprint! Par contre, dans le groupe C, c’est le nombre 1 qui recoit le plus de suffrages, et cela tres nettement : 1 est choisi dans 40% des cas. That! Il est suivi par le nombre 7 dans 14,4%. Hvac Contractor Form - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint! Pour les auteurs consideres, le choix du nombre 1 constitue un exemple de ce qu’ils appellent une « saillance a la Schelling », a savoir la capacite a determiner un equilibre singulier, proeminent, susceptible de retenir un grand nombre de suffrages. Doctors Business Cards & Templates! Ils notent que le choix du nombre 1 par le groupe C resulte d’une elaboration cognitive tres specifique et enigmatique en ce qu’elle ne s’interesse pas aux preferences « personnelles » des joueurs en matiere de nombre, ce qui conduirait a selectionner des chiffres comme 7 ou 2, mais cherche a determiner directement ce qui est capable de faire l’unanimite du groupe lorsque chacun analyse le probleme sous le meme angle.

Cela apparait nettement dans le fait que « 1 », le choix final, n’arrive qu’en quatrieme position des choix primaires pour le groupe P de controle. Contractor Invoice Form Printing | Designsnprint! Ce n’est pas en tant que nombre apprecie des joueurs qu’il est retenu. Target Documents In Pdf, Word! Le raisonnement est tout autre. Hvac Invoice - Custom Form! Si les individus retiennent la regle « choisir le premier nombre », c’est en vertu de la propriete suivante : lorsque cette regle est suivie par tous les joueurs, elle permet de designer sans ambiguite une reponse unique et conduit a une coordination reussie. - 5+ In Pdf, Word! C’est tres precisement ce que Schelling avait mis en lumiere. - Custom Printing! Il parlait a ce propos d’un « principe focal », a savoir un principe qui, utilise par tous, permet de determiner une strategie unique. 40 Best Questionaires! C’est le cas du principe « retenir le premier nombre », et non du principe « choisir un chiffre qu’on aime ». | Designsnprint! Dans la situation de coordination que connait le groupe C, les individus reflechissent, non pas a partir de leurs croyances individuelles, ni en se demandant ce que sont les croyances personnelles des autres, ce qui aurait conduit au choix du nombre 7, mais, en se placant a un niveau plus general d’abstraction, de facon a determiner un principe capable de faire emerger, aux yeux de tous, un equilibre unique. Engaging Powerpoint! L’activite cognitive est tournee vers le groupe en tant qu’entite separee. Contractor Invoice Form Printing! Elle tente de produire un repere commun sur une base non-cooperative.

On trouve ici un premier exemple de « croyance sociale » au sens (i2). Engaging Powerpoint! Rappelons que, par definition, Q est une croyance sociale au sens (i2) pour un individu i s’il pense qu’elle est une croyance sociale pour (presque) tous les individus du groupe. Contractor - Custom Form | Designsnprint! Telle est la nature meme de l’activite cognitive qui conduit certains a retenir le nombre 1 : les joueurs du groupe C choisissent « 1 » parce qu’ils y voient le choix capable de retenir le choix des autres lorsque tous les autres pensent le probleme sous le meme angle. Business | Zazzle! L’activite cognitive qu’elle mobilise est integralement tournee vers le groupe en tant que tel , et non pas vers les preferences individuelles des joueurs. Hvac Contractor Invoice Printing | Designsnprint! Dans cette derniere hypothese, on Business & Templates | Zazzle obtiendrait ce qu’on a appele une croyance sociale au sens (i1), qui conduit au nombre 7 lorsque tous les joueurs sont bien informes des opinions personnelles des membres du groupe telles que nous les revele le groupe P de controle. Hvac Contractor - Custom! La force de la definition (i2) tient au fait qu’elle fait totalement abstraction de la variabilite des preferences intrinseques des individus pour s’attacher a definir une croyance propre au groupe C en tant que groupe . Doctors Business & Templates | Zazzle! C’est une force car, dans un grand nombre de situations, la croyance sociale au sens (i1) est tres incertaine du fait meme de la variabilite des gouts individuels, donc inoperante.

Lorsque l’individu i s’interroge sur la croyance partagee des autres, un grand nombre de reponses plausibles lui viennent a l’esprit. Form Printing! Dans l’interpretation (i2), ce fait ne joue en rien parce que, par definition, chacun cherche a determiner ce qui est capable d’etre une croyance sociale pour (presque) tous les autres. Chore Chart Templates! Cependant, dans ces cas particuliers ou un choix s’affirme comme evidemment majoritaire, la definition (i1) de la croyance sociale permet effectivement une bonne coordination. Hvac Invoice Form | Designsnprint! On dira qu’on a affaire a un « stereotype ». Doctors Business & Templates | Zazzle! Cependant, notons que la preference stereotypique est egalement une croyance sociale au sens (i2) de telle sorte que ce cas particulier n’infirme pas la generalite de l’hypothese selon laquelle il convient de retenir la definition (i2) pour penser les « saillances a la Schelling ». 2.3 - Rationalite situee et role des contextes. Dans sa reflexion, Schelling insiste sur le role que jouent les contextes dans l’elaboration des principes focaux. Hvac | Designsnprint! L’exemple precedent ne permet guere d’aller tres loin dans cette voie dans la mesure ou le contexte s’y limite alors strictement aux seuls libelles des choix puisque le groupe C n’est en rien specifie. | Calendar Templates! L’exemple suivant que l’on doit a David Kreps ([1990], p. Hvac Contractor - Custom Printing! 120) permet d’aller un peu plus loin en montrant que l’equilibre selectionne depend etroitement de la maniere dont les joueurs analysent l’identite des participants au jeu. Calendar Chore Templates! Selon la maniere dont varie la definition du groupe C, la croyance sociale se modifie. Kreps considere le jeu de coordination [8] [8] Le jeu effectivement propose par Kreps est un peu different. Hvac Contractor Form - Custom Printing! consistant a partager les 10 lettres A, B, C, D, H, L, M, N, P, S en deux sous-ensembles ne devant pas se recouper, ou le moins possible, etant donne que l’equipe [1] doit choisir necessairement la lettre B et l’equipe adverse, notee [2], la lettre S. Target Application Form - 5+ Documents Word! Parmi les 256 partitions des 8 lettres restantes qui forment autant d’equilibres possibles de ce jeu, l’equilibre de point focal est selon Kreps, lorsque rien n’est dit de specifique sur le groupe des joueurs [9] [9] En fait, dans la plupart des situations, chacun sait. Contractor Form Printing! , celui qui donne a l’equipe [1] les 5 premieres lettres, soit A, B, C, D et H et pour l’equipe [2], les cinq dernieres, soit L, M, N, P et S. Cute 2017 June Calendar Holidays Printable Blank Templates Editable! Il s’agit la d’une nouvelle illustration de la saillance a la Schelling. Hvac Contractor Invoice - Custom Printing | Designsnprint! Kreps ajoute cependant : « Notons que la regle appliquee ici est entierement dependante du contexte ». 40 Best Survey Images On Pinterest | Management! Pour le voir, il considere le meme jeu dans laquelle l’equipe [1] est constitue d’etudiants de Harvard et l’equipe [2] est constituee d’etudiants de Stanford et ou ce fait est porte a la connaissance des protagonistes.

10 villes leur sont proposees : Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphie et San Francisco. Hvac Contractor Form! L’equipe [1] doit necessairement choisir Boston et l’equipe [2] San Francisco. Storyboard Tutorials & Help For Creating A Storyboard! Du point de vue de la rationalite fondamentaliste, les deux situations de jeu sont strictement equivalentes. Hvac Contractor Form Printing! Pourtant, dans a peu pres 75 % des situations nous dit Kreps (p. Create Engaging Templates And Presentations! 121), les etudiants d’Harvard choisissent Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York et Philadelphie alors que ceux de Stanford retiennent le complement, soit Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles et San Francisco. Hvac Contractor - Custom Printing! Le point focal est ici un partage geographique des USA selon ce qui est a l’est ou a l’ouest du Mississipi. Sample Application Form Word! Il est different de l’equilibre focal precedent dans lequel les joueurs ne sont pas capables de partitionner le groupe G des joueurs en groupes d’appartenance geographique distincte. On voit ici pleinement l’effet du contexte dans la determination de la croyance sociale. Contractor Invoice - Custom | Designsnprint! Celle-ci depend etroitement du groupe considere, de ce qu’on sait de lui, et non pas seulement du contenu intrinseque de la question prise en elle-meme. Target! Ainsi, si cette liste de villes etait donnee a des joueurs non americains, ignorant tout de la geographie des USA, mais connaissant l’alphabet latin, ils reviendraient a la premiere solution car ils ne pourraient faire l’hypothese que chaque joueur connait la geographie americaine.

Dans ces conditions, la prise en compte de la premiere lettre peut emerger comme « principe focal ». Printing! Plus paradoxalement, il peut en etre egalement ainsi si, meme si les joueurs sont americains, lorsqu’ils ignorent qu’ils le sont. Storyboard That For Creating! Dans ce cas, chaque joueur ne peut plus faire l’hypothese que le partage geographique prenant pour base le Mississipi est une croyance sociale du groupe. Hvac Contractor Form - Custom Form | Designsnprint! On voit ici que la maniere dont les protagonistes concoivent « l’identite collective du groupe » apparait comme une donnee essentielle du probleme, determinant la formation des croyances sociales au sens (i2). | Zazzle! Tout ce qui appartient au passe commun du groupe, qu’il s’agisse de precedents historiques ou de valeurs culturelles, est utilise. Hvac Contractor Form Printing! L’exemple considere par Kreps nous donne a voir l’effet d’un contexte culturel, mais le meme resultat pourrait etre obtenu avec un « precedent » historique. Un bon exemple du role que jouent les precedents historiques dans la determination des croyances sociales nous est donne par les marches financiers. 2017 June Holidays Templates! Plus precisement, par les travaux que Shiller [1991] a consacres a la journee du 19 octobre 1987, journee ou la bourse de New York a connu sa plus grande baisse jamais enregistree, soit une chute vertigineuse de 508 points, representant une baisse de 22,6 %. Hvac Contractor Invoice - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint! Comment expliquer une baisse de telle ampleur ? Les analystes s’accordent pour penser qu’aucune information fondamentale ne permet de le faire. Business Cards & Templates | Zazzle! Il faut alors chercher ailleurs : dans la dynamique intersubjective et autoreferentielle dont les marches boursiers sont le siege. Form - Custom Form Printing! Shiller a eu l’idee d’envoyer un questionnaire aux investisseurs individuels et institutionnels pour connaitre leurs motivations.

Les resultats qu’il a obtenus mettent en avant le role qu’a joue la crise de 1929 dans ces evenements, en tant que modele de reference servant aux investisseurs a decrypter les evenements et a s’y adapter. In Pdf, Word! Il note, en effet, que la crise de 1929 etait fortement presente aux esprits des investisseurs au moment ou se declenche le krach d’octobre 1987. Hvac Contractor Form | Designsnprint! 35 % des investisseurs individuels et 53 % des institutionnels ont repondu oui a la question « Vous souvenez-vous d’avoir pense ou parle des evenements de 1929 durant les quelques jours qui ont precede le 19 octobre 1987 ? ». Doctors & Templates | Zazzle! Pour Shiller, la crise de 1929 s’est imposee a tous les esprits comme la saillance pertinente, autrement dit comme le modele permettant de comprendre comment se deroule une crise boursiere. Hvac Contractor Form - Custom Form | Designsnprint! Rappelons que les mercredi 14, jeudi 15 et vendredi 16 octobre de la semaine qui a precede le krach, le marche des actions a deja connu trois baisses importantes. Calendar Chore Templates! Aussi, durant le week-end et au matin du lundi, les investisseurs sont-ils nerveux. Contractor Form Form Printing! La tres forte baisse de 200 points qui survient le lundi 19 octobre des l’ouverture des bourses plonge les operateurs dans la perplexite devant ces evenements d’un caractere tout a fait inhabituel. Doctors Business Cards! Comment vont reagir le marche et les autres operateurs ? Dans de telles circonstances, que faut-il attendre du marche ? Les investisseurs ont interprete les evenements de 1987 a la lumiere de ceux survenus en 1929. Hvac Contractor Invoice Form - Custom Printing | Designsnprint! Bien evidemment, la comparaison n’avait pas de quoi les rassurer. Sample Target Application Form - 5+ In Pdf, Word! Elle a provoque des anticipations fortement baissieres et a alimente puissamment le climat de panique qu’a connu la bourse durant les journees du 19 et 20 octobre 1987. Invoice - Custom Printing | Designsnprint! Pour Shiller, on Cute 2017 Printable Blank Editable ne peut comprendre la surreaction du marche sans integrer a l’analyse le role qu’a joue la saillance « crise de 1929 » comme prototype de la crise boursiere. Hvac Contractor Invoice Form - Custom! C’est le recours a ce modele qui permet d’expliquer le caractere excessif des baisses et des ventes.

Cette analyse illustre avec force le role que jouent les precedents historiques dans la determination des anticipations collectives du marche. 2.4 - L’autonomie des croyances sociales. Cette analyse des contextes, historiques ou culturels, dans la production des croyances sociales, nous donne a voir une etrange deconnexion entre celles-ci et les croyances individuelles. Sample Target Form In Pdf, Word! Il semble que les individus soient comme impuissants parce que les interpretations legitimes qui modelent l’equilibre de coordination s’imposent a eux independamment de leurs propres opinions. Contractor - Custom! Ces croyances sociales ont pour origine les multiples reperes communs, historiques et culturels, qui definissent l’identite du groupe. Application Form - 5+ Documents In Pdf, Word! Parce que le passe nous livre des habitudes, des recits, des legitimites, les individus quels que soient par ailleurs leurs opinions ne sont pas libres dans leur capacite a proposer des representations collectives legitimes. Hvac Form Printing! Aussi, vont s’imposer aux acteurs economiques des equilibres qu’ils n’auraient pas necessairement souhaites, comme nous l’a montre l’exemple de la crise de 1987. Cette autonomie des croyances sociales se revele avec force dans le fait que peuvent exister des situations ou, simultanement, tous les individus croient a la proposition P et tous les individus croient que le groupe croit a la proposition Q, differente de la proposition P, alors meme qu’aucune de ces croyances n’est erronee. Calendar Chore Chart | Calendar Picture Templates! Ne reposant sur aucune erreur, ces situations peuvent donc perdurer sans qu’aucune necessite de changer de croyances, a un niveau ou a un autre, se fasse sentir. Contractor Invoice Form Printing | Designsnprint! Autrement dit, cela signifie que l’on peut avoir C i P pour tous les individus i du groupe et simultanement C i C G Q pour tous les individus i du groupe, ce que nous avons appele anterieurement « l’effet Reagan » (Orlean [1999], 79-81), sans qu’apparaissent des forces de rappel qui viendraient supprimer l’ecart entre croyances personnelles et croyance sociale.

Notons qu’il en est tout autrement lorsqu’on considere des croyances sociales selon la definition (i1). How To Create Templates And Presentations! Dans ce cas, il n’y a pas d’autonomie de la croyance sociale au sens ou l’ecart entre les croyances individuelles et les croyances sociales ne peut pas exister, sauf a supposer des croyances erronees. Contractor Form - Custom Form! A nouveau, s’affirme le fait que c’est dans la definition (i2) que se trouve la conception la riche et la plus innovante. For Creating! Grace a la propriete d’autonomie qui la caracterise, se modifie en profondeur notre maniere de comprendre les interactions economiques. Invoice! Elle met au jour une logique d’un type nouveau, en rupture avec le modele individualiste classique qui voit la representation collective comme « somme » des opinions individuelles. Calendar Chore Chart Picture Templates! Desormais, deux niveaux et deux logiques coexistent dont on Contractor - Custom Form Printing doit analyser l’articulation. L’analyse des jeux de coordination permet de bien comprendre pourquoi il en est ainsi. Doctors | Zazzle! En effet, elle nous a montre qu’il fallait soigneusement distinguer entre ce que l’individu pense vraiment et son choix effectif.

Cela tient a la nature meme de l’interaction consideree qui recompense, non pas ceux qui auraient « raison » et repondraient « correctement » a la question posee, si tant est qu’on puisse donner un sens a cette notion, mais ceux qui reussissent a prevoir au mieux les mouvements de l’opinion majoritaire. Hvac - Custom! Cette distinction appliquee aux marches financiers permet d’eviter les jugements hatifs d’irrationalite qui sont frequemment proferes a rencontre des investisseurs financiers, par exemple lorsqu’on constate une deconnexion importante entre le prix cote et ce que la communaute des economistes considere comme etant l’evaluation fondamentale. Doctors Business Cards & Templates | Zazzle! Prenons le cas d’une monnaie deja sous-evaluee qui fait neanmoins l’objet d’un important mouvement de ventes sur le marche des changes, conduisant a une sous-evaluation encore plus grande. Invoice! On reproche alors aux cambistes d’etre irrationnels au sens ou ils evalueraient mal la valeur fondamentale de la devise en question. 40 Best Survey Images On Pinterest | Management! Une telle hypothese ne tient pas. Form Form Printing | Designsnprint! Elle n’est d’ailleurs pas necessaire.

Les cambistes, comme tout un chacun, peuvent parfaitement savoir que la monnaie est sous-evaluee et pourtant continuer a la vendre. Cute 2017 Holidays Templates! En effet, ce qui compte pour eux lorsqu’ils interviennent sur le marche n’est pas ce qu’ils pensent etre la vraie valeur de la monnaie, autant qu’ils en peuvent juger, mais ce qu’ils anticipent que le marche va faire. Hvac Invoice Form! Sur un marche, on Chart Picture fait du profit quand on Hvac Contractor Invoice Form - Custom reussit a prevoir correctement l’evolution de l’opinion du groupe. Sample Application Form - 5+ Documents In Pdf,! Telle est la regle du jeu. Contractor Invoice - Custom Form! On ne demande pas aux agents d’avoir raison et d’estimer au mieux la valeur fondamentale. Doctors Business & Templates! De ce point de vue, la declaration qui suit provenant d’un cambiste interroge au moment de la forte baisse de l’euro en septembre 2000 est tout a fait revelatrice de la dichotomie entre evaluation personnelle sur une base fondamentaliste et choix d’investissement. Hvac Form - Custom Form | Designsnprint! On y voit un individu intimement persuade du caractere sous-evalue de l’euro, mais expliquant qu’il est neanmoins tenu a vendre s’il ne veut pas perdre de l’argent : « L’operateur que je suis a beau croire a une appreciation de l’euro, il ne fait pas le poids lorsqu’il constate qu’un peu partout les positions des autres intervenants sur le marche des changes sont a la vente de l’euro. How To Create Engaging Powerpoint! Du meme coup, meme si j’estime que l’euro merite d’etre plus cher par rapport au dollar, j’hesite toujours a acheter la devise europeenne. Hvac Contractor - Custom! En effet, si je suis le seul acheteur d’euros face a cinquante intervenants vendeurs, je suis sur d’y laisser des plumes… Je ne fais pas forcement ce que je crois intimement, mais plutot ce que je crois que fera globalement le marche qui in Chore, fine l’emportera.

Le travail de l’operateur est de tenter d’evaluer au plus juste le sentiment du marche des devises [10] [10] Liberation, 8 septembre 2000, p. Contractor Form - Custom | Designsnprint! 24. Chart | Calendar Picture Templates! . Contractor Printing! » Malgre sa conviction personnelle d’une sous-evaluation, ce cambiste joue a la baisse et c’est la un comportement parfaitement rationnel : s’il avait achete de l’euro, il aurait fait des pertes ! Une premiere maniere de concevoir cette situation consiste a suivre l’interpretation que nous en propose le cambiste interroge. 2017 Calendar Templates! Il oppose deux evaluations, l’evaluation fondamentaliste et la croyance du marche pensee sous sa forme (i1), i.e . Hvac Contractor Invoice - Custom | Designsnprint! comme etant la croyance du plus grand nombre des cambistes. 40 Best Questionaires Images | Management! Dans un tel cadre, l’individu interroge justifie son suivisme par le fait qu’il existe un grand nombre d’investisseurs vendeurs, tres exactement « cinquante intervenants vendeurs » qui determinent la croyance du marche. Hvac Contractor - Custom Printing! Selon cette analyse, ces « cinquante intervenants » vendent parce qu’ils pensent que l’euro est surapprecie. Calendar | Calendar Picture! C’est donc une conception erronee du point de vue des fondamentaux qui les conduit a vendre. Contractor Invoice Form Form Printing | Designsnprint! Face a ce fait accompli, notre cambiste n’a plus aucun choix. Sample Target - 5+ Documents! Il ne peut que se plier au diktat inadequat de l’opinion majoritaire. Hvac Contractor Form Printing | Designsnprint! Si l’on retient cette interpretation, nous n’observons pas ce que nous avons appele « autonomie des croyances sociales », c’est-a-dire une situation ou, pour tous les acteurs, est observe un ecart entre leur opinion personnelle et leur croyance sociale. Picture Templates! En effet, dans le cadre de l’interpretation proposee par le cambiste interroge, pour les « cinquante vendeurs », croyance personnelle et croyance sociale convergent parfaitement pour prevoir une baisse future de l’euro. Invoice Form - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint! C’est seulement le cambiste interroge qui constate un ecart entre son evaluation fondamentaliste et la croyance du marche.

Cette absence d’autonomie n’a rien d’etonnant. Create Templates! Elle est une consequence du fait que nous avons considere l’interpretation du cambiste et que cette interpretation s’appuie sur une interpretation (i1) de la croyance du marche. Cette interpretation n’est pas necessairement fausse. Hvac Form - Custom | Designsnprint! Il se peut, dans telle ou telle conjoncture financiere donnee, qu’il existe, en effet, sur le marche des investisseurs naifs, mal informes ou irrationnels. Create Engaging Templates And Presentations! C’est la une question de fait. Hvac Contractor! S’il en est ainsi, la bulle baissiere sur l’euro s’interprete aisement par le fait qu’il existe un grand nombre d’investisseurs ignorants. Create Engaging Powerpoint Templates! Cependant, il faut bien voir que cette interpretation laisse un point central dans l’ombre : pourquoi les cinquante intervenants se trompent-ils ? Quel mecanisme permet-il d’expliquer qu’une meme erreur se soit propagee au sein du marche ? Aussi, est-il interessant de faire valoir une analyse alternative qui abandonne la dissymetrie suspecte entre notre cambiste parfaitement rationnel et un marche constitue d’operateurs obtus.

Selon cette nouvelle interpretation, les cinquante autres intervenants agissent de maniere identique a notre cambiste : comme lui, ils se conduisent de maniere autoreferentielle, a partir de leur propre croyance sociale quant au fonctionnement du marche. Invoice - Custom Form Printing! Mais, conformement a l’analyse precedente, la croyance sociale qu’il faut considerer repond a la definition (i2) et non (i1) : « chacun croit que le marche croit a la baisse de l’euro ». Doctors Cards | Zazzle! Dans une telle perspective, chacun est identiquement rationnel, agissant en fonction d’une meme croyance quant aux comportements des autres. Hvac Contractor Invoice Form - Custom! Il n’y a pas cinquante intervenants « farouchement » vendeurs, mais cinquante cambistes qui, reflechissant a ce que vont faire les autres intervenants, parmi lesquels se trouve le trader interroge par Liberation , anticipent qu’ils vont vendre. Doctors Cards | Zazzle! Si on Hvac Contractor - Custom Printing les interrogeait, ils feraient remarquer a leur tour qu’il ne sert a rien d’aller a contre courant d’un marche aussi determine dans son aveuglement. Cute 2017 June Calendar Holidays Printable Editable! Et ils auraient raison. Hvac Invoice Form - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint! La vraie croyance ici ne porte pas sur la valeur de l’euro, mais sur le fait que « chacun croit dans le caractere baissier du marche. 2017 June Holidays Printable Templates! » On reconnait alors notre situation de deconnexion entre les croyances privees, toutes convaincues du caractere sous-apprecie de l’euro, et la croyance sociale au sens (i2) selon laquelle le marche croit a la baisse. Hvac - Custom! On a C i P pour tous les individus i du groupe, ou P est la proposition « l’euro est sous-apprecie » et simultanement C i C G Q pour tous les individus i du groupe, ou Q est la proposition « l’euro est surapprecie ». Doctors Cards & Templates! Si chacun croit que « chacun croit a la baisse », alors chacun sera vendeur et le marche baissera effectivement en validant ex post la croyance initiale. Form! On retrouve le phenomene de prophetie autorealisatrice. 2017 June Printable Blank Editable! Dans une telle situation, une bulle emerge sans qu’il ait ete necessaire de supposer la presence d’acteurs irrationnels. Hvac Invoice Form Form | Designsnprint! Chacun est parfaitement rationnel, dans ses evaluations privees et dans son evaluation du marche.

Il n’est pas besoin de supposer des evaluations erronees. Cute 2017 June Holidays Templates Editable! Il suffit que tous les acteurs se referent dans leurs choix a un certain modele de marche, pense comme exprimant une logique separee. Les investisseurs qui n’ont l’impression que de reagir a ce modele de marche, se voient alors tout a fait confirmes dans leur idee d’une autonomie du marche, puisque malgre leur croyance generalisee dans le caractere surapprecie de l’euro, celui-ci continue a baisser. Contractor Invoice - Custom Printing | Designsnprint! Cette autonomie leur parait d’autant plus indeniable que l’evolution observee ne trouve pas dans l’analyse fondamentaliste une explication coherente. Calendar Chore Picture! Aussi, loin de produire un ajustement de la croyance sociale aux opinions privees, cette situation conduit a renforcer encore la croyance sociale qui s’impose comme seule explication plausible. Hvac Invoice Printing | Designsnprint! L’experience du marche valide l’hypothese d’une autonomie de l’evaluation collective [11] [11] Cette configuration enigmatique dans laquelle les informations. Storyboard For Creating A Storyboard! . Contractor Invoice Form Form | Designsnprint! A tous les niveaux, les croyances se voient confirmees : en effet, l’evaluation fondamentale de l’euro est sous-appreciee ; en effet, le marche croit a la baisse ; en effet, l’euro baisse ; en effet, le marche se comporte de maniere autonome, c’est-a-dire deconnecte des appreciations fondamentalistes. La notion de rationalite cognitive donne lieu a de nombreuses elaborations, comme le demontre pleinement le present numero de la Revue d’Economie Politique . Cute 2017 June Calendar Printable Blank Templates! Il faut s’en rejouir. Hvac Contractor - Custom Printing! Le champ est vaste et a trop longtemps ete laisse en friche par la theorie economique traditionnelle. Business Cards! Pour notre part, nous avons voulu montrer en quoi la notion de croyance sociale s’imposait a l’analyse economique pour penser nombre de situations importantes.

Cette perspective de recherche peut servir deux finalites convergentes : d’une part, reequilibrer des approches cognitivistes traditionnellement centrees sur la cognition individuelle au detriment de la cognition sociale ; d’autre part, permettre un dialogue entre l’economie et les autres sciences sociales, telles la sociologie, l’anthropologie et l’histoire, qui ont beaucoup a nous apprendre sur ces sujets. Au moins deux auteurs participant au present numero se referent explicitement a la notion de « rationalite cognitive » et en proposent des definitions precises : Raymond Boudon et Bernard Walliser. Dans la traduction francaise proposee par La Revue Francaise d’Economie , on | Designsnprint trouve ecrit : « etudie son propre environnement » la ou, dans la version anglaise, on Doctors Business | Zazzle trouve « survey the Hvac Contractor Invoice Form Printing | Designsnprint whole field ». Doctors Business | Zazzle! L’ambiguite est totale et nous avons prefere modifier la traduction en consequence. Une analyse tout a fait similaire aurait pu etre menee en partant de la notion d’efficience financiere. Invoice Printing! On aurait montre (1) que celle-ci est « impossible » pour reprendre le titre d’un article celebre (Grossman et Stiglitz [1980]) et (2) que, dans le cadre de prix informationnellement inefficients, seule modelisation desormais acceptable, les agents pour ne pas commettre d’erreurs d’interpretation doivent pouvoir connaitre l’action d’autres operateurs (Gennotte et Leland [1990]) ; (3) ce qui a conduit a l’etrange notion de « sunshine trading », a savoir l’annonce publique de certains ordres (Admati et Pfleiderer [1991]). 40 Best Survey Questionaires! Autrement dit, se trouve reconnue la necessite d’en savoir plus que les prix.

CQFD. Cette idee selon laquelle « l’hypothese de rationalite est en elle-meme faible » est defendue par Kenneth Arrow ([1987], p. Hvac Form - Custom Form! 206). Calendar! Le theoreme de Sonnenschein lui fournit une illustration exemplaire de ce point. Hvac Contractor Printing! Mais les exemples ne manquent pas. Cute Templates Editable! On pense a l’article de Boldrin et Montrucchio [1986] ou il est montre que l’optimisation dynamique intertemporelle est compatible avec toute forme de sentier dynamique pour l’economie, sans exception, y compris des chaos. Hvac Contractor Invoice Form - Custom Form! Autrement dit, supposer que les individus sont rationnels ne limitent en rien l’ensemble des cheminements economiques possibles ! En fait, entrent dans cette categorie toutes les propositions dans lesquelles on Create Engaging Templates attribue des qualites a des objets collectifs, par exemple « les voitures allemandes sont meilleures que les voitures francaises » ou « le mark est une monnaie forte ». Le fait d’utiliser un terme aussi vague que « une grande partie du groupe », ou encore « presque tout le groupe » ou « presque tous les membres du groupe », demandera a etre precise dans des travaux ulterieurs. Hvac Contractor Form Printing | Designsnprint! Dans le cadre de cet article, nous resterons volontairement flou et imprecis sur ce point. Chore Chart | Calendar! On peut lire toute la suite de l’article en remplacant « une grande partie du groupe » par « tous les membres du groupe ». Pour plus de precision, se reporter a Mehta et alii [1994].

Le jeu effectivement propose par Kreps est un peu different et notablement plus complique. Hvac Contractor Invoice - Custom Form | Designsnprint! J’en presente une version simplifiee qui conduit aux memes conclusions mais evite une presentation inutilement longue. En fait, dans la plupart des situations, chacun sait ou suppose un certain nombre de qualites communes, comme parler la meme langue, celle dans laquelle l’experimentation est faite. Liberation , 8 septembre 2000, p. Target Documents In Pdf, Word! 24. Cette configuration enigmatique dans laquelle les informations privees ne reussissent pas a modifier le choix collectif n’est pas sans equivalent dans la litterature theorique. Hvac - Custom Form | Designsnprint! Dans les situations de type « electronic mail game » (Rubinstein [1989]), on Target Documents Word observe des blocages similaires au sens ou l’echange de messages entre deux individus, aussi nombreux soientils, ne reussit pas a engendrer la connaissance commune necessaire a une certaine action des deux joueurs. | Designsnprint! Les cascades informationnelles ont egalement cette propriete.

Cet article plaide pour la necessaire ouverture de la theorie economique aux representations individuelles et collectives, ce qui est appele « tournant cognitif ». How To Create Powerpoint Templates! Dans une premiere partie, on Invoice Form Printing montre que la rationalite instrumentale ne fournit pas un cadre adequat pour penser cette activite cognitive. Chore! Il faut alors introduire l’idee d’une rationalite cognitive distincte de la rationalite instrumentale. Form Printing! Cette necessite s’impose des lors qu’on remarque que les modeles a anticipations rationnelles conduisent structurellement a des equilibres multiples. Powerpoint! Autrement dit, les criteres de la rationalite instrumentale sont trop faibles des lors qu’il s’agit de determiner precisement la maniere dont les agents forment leurs representations. Contractor - Custom | Designsnprint! Dans une seconde partie, on Chore Chart | Calendar Picture Templates avance la notion de « croyance sociale » pour penser ces representations collectives.

D’une part, on Form Form Printing | Designsnprint montre que leur formation depend etroitement des contextes culturels et historiques. Chore Chart | Calendar Picture Templates! D’autre part, on Hvac Invoice Form Form Printing | Designsnprint etablit que ces croyances sociales ne peuvent pas etre pensees comme la « somme » des croyances privees : celles-la sont dotees d’une forte autonomie par rapport a celles-ci. rationalite cognitive croyance commune jeu de coordination point focal saillance a la Schelling anticipation rationnelle croyance sociale reperes communs. Summary This article argues for June Calendar Blank Editable, the need to Hvac Contractor Invoice - Custom integrate beliefs the Target Form individual and Contractor Invoice Form - Custom Printing collective levels in Cute June Printable Editable, economic theory, something which is Contractor - Custom | Designsnprint, referred to Storyboard For Creating as a cognitive turning point. Invoice Form Printing | Designsnprint! In the How To Create Engaging Templates first section of the Hvac Contractor Form article, we show that instrumental rationality does not offer an That For Creating, adequate framework for Hvac Contractor Form | Designsnprint, analysing this sort of | Calendar Templates, cognitive activity.

Rather, what is Hvac Form - Custom Form, needed is That, a notion of Contractor Printing | Designsnprint, cognitive rationality which is Cute 2017 June Printable Templates Editable, distinct from Hvac Contractor Invoice Form Printing, instrumental rationality. How To Powerpoint Templates! This necessity appears clearly when we look at Hvac Contractor Invoice Form Form Printing | Designsnprint, rational expectations models. 40 Best Questionaires Images! As a rule, these models have multiple equilibria. Form - Custom Form! This implies that the Create Engaging Powerpoint criteria of Contractor Invoice - Custom Form | Designsnprint, instrumental rationality is Target Application - 5+ In Pdf, Word, too weak to Contractor Invoice Form specify the That For Creating way people forms their representations of the Hvac Contractor - Custom Printing world. Picture Templates! In the Invoice Form - Custom second section, we introduce the 40 Best Survey Images On Pinterest concept of Contractor Invoice Form - Custom Printing, social belief. June Holidays Printable Blank Editable! We show that the Contractor - Custom Form Printing formation of Sample Form Documents Word, social beliefs is Contractor Invoice Printing, closely related to Sample - 5+ In Pdf, Word the cultural and Contractor - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint historic context. 40 Best On Pinterest | Management! We conclude by Hvac Contractor Form - Custom Form | Designsnprint, demonstrating that social beliefs cannot be thought of Storyboard Tutorials & Help For Creating, as the Hvac Invoice Form Printing direct result of 40 Best On Pinterest | Management, individual beliefs : there are in Hvac Invoice Form Form | Designsnprint, part autonomous from Sample Target - 5+ Documents, individual beliefs. Classification JEL : A1, B5, C7. cognitive rationality common belief coordination game focal point Schelling salience rational expectation social belief common reference.

Cairn.info utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques. Contractor Invoice Form - Custom | Designsnprint! Ces donnees anonymes nous permettent ainsi de vous offrir une experience de navigation optimale. & Help A Storyboard! En continuant votre visite vous acceptez de recevoir ces cookies. Hvac Contractor Form Form Printing! Vous pouvez toutefois les desactiver dans les parametres de votre navigateur web. 40 Best Survey Images | Management! En savoir plus.

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This sample demonstrates how to use the Downloadable Fonts feature introduced in Android O. Downloadable Fonts is a feature that allows apps to request a certain font from a provider instead of bundling it or downloading it themselves. This means, there is | Designsnprint, no need to bundle the font as an Chore | Calendar Picture asset. This sample demonstrates how to use the Hvac Contractor Form Printing Downloadable Fonts feature introduced in Android O. Downloadable Fonts is a feature that allows apps to Calendar | Calendar Picture Templates, request a certain font from a provider instead of bundling it or downloading it themselves. This means, there is Contractor Invoice Form | Designsnprint, no need to bundle the font as an asset. Images. This sample demonstrates usage of EmojiCompat support library. Hvac Contractor - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint. You can use this library to prevent your app from showing missing emoji characters in the form of tofu (?). You can use either bundled or downloadable emoji fonts. This sample shows both usages. This sample demonstrates usage of EmojiCompat support library. You can use this library to prevent your app from showing missing emoji characters in the form of tofu (?).

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The same Remote Input object also allows Android Auto users to respond by How To Engaging Powerpoint Templates And Presentations, voice when the notification is presented there. Note: Each unread conversation from a user is sent as a distinct notification. This phone application uses the enhanced notifications API to display recipe instructions using paged notifications. After starting the application on Invoice | Designsnprint, your phone, you can browse from Business Cards & Templates, a short list of recipes and select one to view. Each recipe is broken down into a number of steps; when ready, you can click on the START action in Contractor Invoice Form - Custom | Designsnprint the action bar to Create Engaging, send the steps to Hvac Contractor | Designsnprint, the wearable.

On the wearable device, the Engaging Templates steps are displayed as a multi-page notification, with one page for each step in the recipe. A simple sample that demonstrates watch faces and complications for Wear 2.0. A simple sample that demonstrates Navigation and Action Drawers, part of Contractor Form - Custom Printing, Material Design for Wear. Sample demonstrates how to Target Application Documents Word, determine if a high-bandwidth network is available for use cases that require a minimum network bandwidth, such as streaming media or downloading large files. In addition, the sample demonstrates best practices for asking a user to add a new Wi-Fi network for Hvac Contractor Invoice Form Form | Designsnprint high-bandwidth network operations if the bandwidth of currently available networks is inadequate. This sample shows you how to Cute 2017 June Holidays, use ActionBarCompat to create a basic Activity which displays action items.

It covers inflating items from a menu resource, as well as adding an item in code. This sample shows you how to use ActionBarCompat with a customized theme. It utilizes a split action bar when running on a device with a narrow display, and Hvac Contractor Invoice Form Form | Designsnprint, shows three tabs. Notification Groups and the Notification Manager can be used together to Calendar Picture, simplify how users experience notifications. This sample demonstrates how the Hvac Contractor - Custom NotificationManager can tell you how many notifications your application is currently showing. It also shows how to Target Form - 5+ In Pdf, Word, manage the notifications as a group and introduce a summary for the group, when supported by the platform. This sample demonstrates how to Hvac Contractor Invoice Form - Custom Form | Designsnprint, check network connectivity with Android APIs.

This sample demonstrates how to transfer large files via Android Beam. After the initial handshake over NFC, file transfer will take place over a secondary high-speed communication channel such as Bluetooth or WiFi Direct. This feature requires Android 4.1 (Jelly Bean) or above. Unlike traditional Beam, your application will not receive an 2017 June Calendar Printable Blank Templates Intent on the receiving device. Instead, the Hvac Invoice Form system will save the file to Calendar Chart, disk and Contractor Form Printing, display a notification that the user can select to 40 Best Survey Images On Pinterest | Management, open the file using a standard ACTION_VIEW Intent. Sample demonstrating how to advertise small amounts of data using the Bluetooth Low Energy API.

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Sample demonstrating how to use an accelerometer sensor as input for a physics-based view. This sample shows how to display a pop up menu using PopupMenu from the v7 appcompat library. This sample shows you how a provide a context-sensitive ShareActionProvider with ActionBarCompat, backwards compatible to API v7. This sample provides a basic example of Contractor Invoice Form - Custom Form, using an InstrumentationTest to probe the internal state of an Activity. This sample shows how to use scene transitions from one Activity to another in Chore Templates Lollipop. Hvac | Designsnprint. Uses a combination of changeImageTransform and That & Help For Creating, changeBounds to transition a grid of images to an Activity with a large image and detail text. This sample demonstrates how to request and Hvac Form - Custom Form, display an AdMob banner ad in Sample - 5+ In Pdf, Word an Android application. The app contains a single, Hello World activity with a banner at the bottom of its layout. This sample demonstrates how to request and display an AdMob interstitial ad in an Android application. The code illustrates how to instantiate an InterstitialAd object, preload an interstitial, and then display it.

The app's UI contains a single activity with a countdown timer. When the timer reaches zero, the user can tap a retry button to display an interstitial and begin the countdown over again. This sample demonstrates how to request and display an ad from AdMob Native Ads Express in an Android application. The app loads and displays a single ad at the bottom of its activity. This sample demonstrates how to request and display an ad from AdMob Native Ads Advanced in an Android application. The app displays an ad at the top of its activity, and offers a few checkboxes and a button you can use to request different native ad formats. Contractor Invoice Form. This is an advanced example application that covers a number of features in Powerpoint And Presentations the AdMob and DoubleClick For Publishers APIs. It uses methods provided by the Mobile Ads SDK for Invoice Form - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint targeting, sizing, exclusions, custom events, and more. Immersive Mode, added in Android 4.4, improves the How To Create Engaging hide full screen and hide nav bar modes by letting users swipe the bars in and out.

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On most android devices, there is a optimized audio path that is tuned up for low latency purpose. The sample creates player/recorder to work in this highly optimized audio path(sometimes called native audio path, low latency path, or fast audio path). The application is validated against the following configurations: * Android L AndroidOne * Android M Nexus 5, Nexus 9 This sample uses the new Android Studio with CMake support, and shows how to Storyboard That For Creating, use shared stl lib with android studio version 2.2.0, see CMakeLists.txt for details. This sample demonstrates how to create an accessible application, using a mix of Form Printing, different widgets demonstrating different ways of adding accessibility markup to a UI. An advanced sample displaying the creation and Chore, usage of data integrity mechanisms. This sample shows how to search for contacts, displaying a SearchView in the Action Bar for user input and implementing a query Cursor with CommonDataKinds.Contactables. This sample detects gestures on a view and logs them.

In order to try this sample out, try dragging or tapping the text. Sample demonstrating the use of immersive mode to hide the Invoice Form - Custom Printing system and navigation bars for full screen applications. This sample demonstrates basic functionalities of Managed Profile API introduced in Android 5.0 Lollipop. You can set up this app as a profile owner, and use this app to enable/disable apps in the newly created managed profile. A Storyboard. You can also set restrictions to some apps, enable/disable Intent forwarding between profiles, and wipe out all the data associated with the profile. This sample shows how to use the MediaCoder to decode a video, use a TimeAnimator to sync the rendering commands with the Hvac Form - Custom Printing | Designsnprint system display frame rendering and finally render it to Chore Templates, a TextureView. This sample demonstrates the use of the MediaRouter API to display content on a secondary display. Hvac Contractor Invoice Form - Custom Printing | Designsnprint. Use the Media Route Action Item in the ActionBar to Printable, select an output device. If your device supports Miracast wireless displays, you may need to enable Wireless Display functionality in the system settings. Secondary screen simulation can also be enabled from the Developer Options.

Once connected, use the Change Color button to change the background color of the secondary screen. Sample demonstrates the use of MotionEvent properties to keep track of individual touches across multiple touch events. A basic app showing how to display events in the system's notification bar using the NotificationCompat API. Hvac Invoice Form - Custom Form Printing. NotificationCompat API is used for compatibility with older devices, running Android 1.6 (Donut) (API level 4) or newer. This sample demonstrates using RenderScript to perform basic image manipulation. Specifically, it allows users to dynamically adjust the Chore Chart | Calendar saturation for Contractor Invoice Form Printing an image using a slider. A custom RenderScript kernel performs the saturation adjustment, running the Target - 5+ Documents Word computation on the device's GPU or other compute hardware as deemed appropriate by the system. This sample demonstrates using SyncAdapter to fetch background data for an app. It covers the creation of the required Service that the OS uses to initiate the background data sync as well as scheduling syncs with background data. A basic app showing how to use the Transition framework introduced in KitKat. The app shows radioboxes to select between different Scenes, and uses various ways to transition between them.

Sample demonstrating how to Contractor Invoice Form - Custom Printing | Designsnprint, set up SensorEventListeners for step detectors and step counters. Bitmap Plasma is an Android sample that uses JNI to render a plasma effect in an Android Bitmap from C code. This sample uses the new Android Studio CMake plugin with C++ support. This sample shows how to implement two-way text chat over Bluetooth between two Android devices, using all the fundamental Bluetooth API capabilities. This sample demonstrates the borderless button styling from the Holo visual language. Styling is applied in 40 Best the XML resource layout definitions, referecing the styling attributes from the Holo theme.

This sample demonstrates how to use basic functionalities of Camera2 API. You can learn how to iterate through characteristics of all the cameras attached to the device, display a camera preview, and take pictures. This sample demonstrates using the Camera2 API to - Custom Form, capture a JPEG and RAW sensor frame. Check the source code to see a typical example of Images, how to display the camera preview; run auto-focus, auto-exposure metering, and auto-white-balance; capture a JPEG and RAW image for the same sensor frame; and save these into MediaStore for Hvac Form use in other applications. This sample shows how to record video using the new Camera2 API in Android Lollipop. This sample demonstrates how to emulate an NFC card, using the host card emulation feature added in Android 4.4.

This sample makes the device appear as a loyalty card whenever the screen is on and the user taps their device on an appropriately configured NFC reader. Cute Printable. The CardReader sample can be used to read the Contractor Invoice - Custom Form Printing loyalty card implemented in this sample. Questionaires Images On Pinterest | Management. This sample demonstrates how to implement a low-level NFC card reader, for reading cards that do not contain NDEF or Android Beam data. This sample is designed to read the virtual loyalty card implemented in the CardEmulation sample. Hvac Form - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint. In particular, this sample demonstrates how to disable Android Beam, select which AIDs the Target Application Form - 5+ In Pdf, reader is interested, and establish communication with the card. A basic app showing how to Hvac Invoice Form - Custom Printing | Designsnprint, clip on a View using ViewOutlineProvider interface, by Storyboard Tutorials & Help For Creating A Storyboard, which a View builds its outline, used for shadowing and clipping. A sample that demonstrates how to use device credentials (PIN, Pattern, Password) in your app.

This sample demonstrates how to create custom checkable layouts, for use with ListView's choiceMode attribute. This sample demonstrates notifications with custom content views. Hvac Invoice Form Form. The use of collapsed and expanded notification views are shown. This sample shows how to implement a custom Transition extending the standard Transition class. This sample demonstrates how to work with a WearableListenerService, to produce and Storyboard Tutorials & Help For Creating, consume DataEvents and Hvac Contractor Invoice Form Printing, effectively work with the DataLayer. Demonstrates how to create a DelayedConfirmationView in your wearable app. In this sample, pressing a button on the phone app sends a message to the wearable to start a simple activity. This activity displays a DelayedConfirmationView that starts when the user presses Start Timer.

Then, callbacks are implemented on How To Create Engaging Templates And Presentations, both the wearable and Hvac Contractor Form, phone to show when the timer is selected or finishes. The activity on Cards, the wearable uses BoxInsetLayout to automatically apply appropriate margins based on whether the - Custom Printing | Designsnprint display is Cute Holidays Printable Blank Editable, square or circular. This sample demonstrates how to use some device owner features. As a device owner, you can configure global settings such as automatic time and timezone. You can mandate a specific launcher by Hvac - Custom, preferred intent handler. A basic app showing how to use Directory Selection API to let users select an entire directory subtree, which extends the Storage Access Framework introduced in Android 4.4 (API level 19). Sample demonstrating how to load large bitmaps efficiently off the main UI thread, caching bitmaps (both in memory and on disk), managing bitmap memory and displaying bitmaps in UI elements such as ViewPager and ListView/GridView. This sample shows how to relinquish identity to activities above it in the task stack. This sample shows how to create a custom view in & Help For Creating A Storyboard the ActionBar to Hvac - Custom Printing, show a done button, using 2 alternative layouts. This is well suited for simple data entry activities, where the only options for the user are to cancel or confirm the data changes. Sample Target Application Form Documents In Pdf, Word. This sample demonstrates how to request and Contractor - Custom Printing | Designsnprint, display a DoubleClick For Publishers banner ad in an Android application.

The app contains a single, Hello World activity with a banner at June Holidays the bottom of its layout. This sample demonstrates how to request and display an Hvac Invoice Form | Designsnprint ad from DoubleClick for Publishers Custom Rendering in an Android application. The app displays an ad at Sample Target Form - 5+ Documents Word the top of its activity, and offers a few checkboxes and a button you can use to - Custom Printing, request different native ad formats. This project is an Survey Images On Pinterest advanced native ads example intended to show how publishers might construct a list-based user experience (such as a news feed might have) that incorporates multiple native ad formats. The project uses a single activity that maintains a ListView and an array of items. Most of these items are mocked listings for real estate, which stand in example application data.

Placed among the sample listings are AdPlacement objects. These objects us AdFetchers to request ads from DFP Custom Rendering, construct NativeAdView instances to display them, and Contractor Invoice Form Printing | Designsnprint, cache references to individual asset views in AdViewHolders. Most of the AdPlacement classes handle a single type of ad. Chart | Calendar Picture Templates. The MultiFormatAdPlacement, however, can request and display App Install, Content, and either of two custom template formats. This sample demonstrates how to request and display a DoubleClick For Publishers interstitial ad in Invoice Form - Custom Form | Designsnprint an Android application. The code illustrates how to 40 Best Questionaires Images On Pinterest, instantiate a PublisherInterstitialAd object, preload an interstitial, and then display it. The app's UI contains a single activity with a countdown timer. Contractor Form | Designsnprint. When the timer reaches zero, the user can tap a retry button to display an interstitial and begin the countdown over For Creating again. Sample that shows applying tinting and color filters to Contractor - Custom Printing, Drawables both programmatically and Sample Documents In Pdf, Word, as Drawable resources in XML. Hvac - Custom Form. Tinting is set on a nine-patch drawable through the tint and | Management, tintMode parameters. A color state list is referenced as the Hvac Contractor Form - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint tint color, which defines colors for Calendar Chore Chart | Calendar Picture Templates different states of a View (for example disabled/enabled, focused, pressed or selected).

Programmatically, tinting is applied to a Drawable through its setColorFilter method, with a reference to a color and a PorterDuff blend mode. The color and blend mode can be changed from the UI to see the effect of different options. This sample demonstrates ways to move a view in Form - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint the z-axis using setTranslationZ() . This method was introduced in API Level 21 ('Lollipop'). This sample demonstrates a drag and drop action on different shapes. Elevation and z-translation are used to render the shadows and the views are clipped using different Outlines. A basic sample showing how to add extensions to Business, notifications on Form Form | Designsnprint, wearable using NotificationCompat.WearableExtender API by providing a chat experience. Endless Tunnel is a sample game that shows how to: - use the Android Studio C++ support - implement a game using Android native glue - implement joystick support, including robust DPAD navigation for non-touch screens It is NOT the goal of this sample to show the best way to write the Chore game logic, load resources, etc. The game itself was intentionally kept rudimentary in order to keep the focus on Hvac Contractor Invoice Form - Custom Form | Designsnprint, the Android Studio C++ integration. For example, this game contains textures and geometry hard-coded in Calendar Editable code, which works for small demo games like this one, but doesn't scale well to real games. This sample uses the new Android Studio CMake plugin with C++ support.

This sample application notifies you when you may have left your phone behind (specifically, when your companion and wearable disconnect). If you have misplaced your phone, but it is still connected to your wearable, you can also start an Invoice Form - Custom activity on the wearable to sound an alarm on your phone. Sample demonstrating the 40 Best Survey Questionaires Images use of an Activity in Invoice Form Form | Designsnprint a wearable application. Storyboard That Tutorials & Help A Storyboard. The sample uses the screen as a flashlight. This sample shows the two sizes of Floating Action Buttons and how to interact with them. When the user enters the Contractor - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint vicinity of the Application - 5+ In Pdf, Word Android building (B44) or the Yerba Buena Gardens near the Moscone center in Invoice Form | Designsnprint San Francisco, a notification silently appears on their wearable with an option to Calendar Printable Editable, check in. Contractor Invoice Form - Custom | Designsnprint. This notification automatically disappears when they leave the area, and reappears the Cute 2017 June Holidays Blank Templates next time they are at one of these locations.

Demonstrates how to implement a GridViewPager in your wearable app. Hello GL2 is an Android C++ sample that draws a triangle using GLES 2.0 API. Invoice - Custom Form. It uses JNI to do the That A Storyboard rendering in C++ over a GLSurfaceView created from a regular Android Java Activity. This sample uses the Hvac Form Form Printing new Android Studio CMake plugin with C++ support. Hello JNI is an Android sample that uses JNI to call C code from a Android Java Activity. Doctors Business Cards | Zazzle. This sample uses the new Android Studio CMake plugin with C++ support. This sample is an Aadd-on to Hello JNI sample to demonstrate calling back to Java from C code - create a java class instance from Form | Designsnprint, C code - call java class static and non-static member functions This sample uses the new Android Studio CMake plugin with C++ support.

Hello-Libs is an Android sample that demos 3rd party native lib management with Android Studio. This sample shows how to implement tabs, using Fragments and a ViewPager. One of the features introduced in Target - 5+ Word KitKat is immersive mode. Immersive mode gives the user the Hvac Contractor Invoice Form ability to show/hide the status bar and navigation bar with a swipe.To try, click the Toggle immersive mode button, then try swiping the bar in and out! This sample demonstrates the use of animation interpolators and path animations for Material Design . A basic sample showing how to use the Gravity sensor on the wearable device by Form Documents, counting how many jumping jacks you have performed. This sample demonstrates new features for notifications introduced in Android L. These features include heads-up notifications, visibility, people, category and priority metadata. This sample shows how to implement an audio media app that provides media library metadata and playback controls through a standard service.

It exposes a simple music library through the new MediaBrowserService and provides MediaSession callbacks. This allows it to be used in Hvac Contractor Form - Custom | Designsnprint Android Auto, for example. Business & Templates | Zazzle. When not connected to a car, the app has a very simple UI that browses the media library and provides simple playback controls. When connected to Android Auto, the same service provides data and Hvac Form, callback to the Android Auto UI in the same manner as it provides them to the local UI. This sample shows how to Survey Questionaires On Pinterest | Management, use the Media Effects APIs that were introduced in Android 4.0. This sample uses the camera/camcorder as the A/V source for Invoice - Custom Form Printing the MediaRecorder API. A TextureView is Calendar | Calendar Picture, used as the camera preview which limits the code to API 14+. This can be easily replaced with a SurfaceView to run on older devices. Hvac Contractor Form Printing. Demonstrates how to create a custom media route provider. Sample demonstrating how to use the MIDI API to receive and process MIDI signals coming from an attached device.

Sample demonstrating how to Doctors Business Cards & Templates, use the MIDI API to receive and - Custom Printing, play MIDI messages coming from an attached input device (MIDI keyboard). This sample demonstrates the use of the multi-window API available in Application Documents In Pdf, Android N. It shows the use of new Intent flags and AndroidManifest properties to define the multi-window behavior. Switch the sample app into multi-window mode to see how it affects the lifecycle and behavior of the app. Native Activity is an Android sample that initializes a GLES 2.0 context and reads accelerometer data from C code using Native Activity. This sample uses the new Android Studio CMake plugin with C++ support. This sample demonstrates how to request and display ads from AdMob Native Ads Express in an Android application using the RecyclerView widget. The RecyclerView widget is a more advanced and flexible version of ListView. This widget helps simplify the display and handling of large data sets by Hvac Contractor Invoice - Custom Printing | Designsnprint, allowing the layout manager to determine when to reuse (recycle) item views that are no longer visible to the user. Recycling views improves performance by Sample Target Form Documents Word, avoiding the creation of unnecessary views or performing expensive findViewByID() lookups. Native Audio is an Android sample that plays and records sounds with the C++ OpenSLES API using JNI.

The recorder / players created are not in fast audio path. This sample uses the new Android Studio CMake plugin with C++ support. Invoice | Designsnprint. Native Plasma is an Android sample that renders a plasma effect in a Bitmap from C code using Native Activity. Storyboard That Tutorials For Creating A Storyboard. This sample uses the Contractor Invoice Form Printing | Designsnprint new Android Studio CMake plugin with C++ support. This example illustrates a common usage of the DrawerLayout widget in the Android support library. This sample demonstrates how to connect to Business Cards & Templates | Zazzle, the network and fetch raw HTML using HttpsURLConnection. AsyncTask is used to perform the fetch on a background thread. This sample demonstrates how to use NFC to provision a new device with a device owner. Device owner is a specialized type of device administrator that can control device security and configuration.

This sample itself is Hvac Contractor, not a device owner, but it is a programming app that sends NFC message to an unprovisioned peer device and tells it to set up the specified device owner app. This sample demonstrates how to display PDF document on & Help For Creating A Storyboard, screen using the PdfRenderer introduced in Android 5.0 Lollipop. This sample demonstrates how to use the PermissionRequest API to securely provide access to Hvac Form - Custom Form, restricted system features (such as a camera or microphone) from within a WebView. In this example, a dialog is created to allow users to Sample Form Documents In Pdf,, explicitly approve or reject each request. This sample uses Google Play Services Wearable Data APIs to Hvac Invoice Form - Custom | Designsnprint, communicate between applications on a phone and a paired wearable device. Users can create quiz questions on the phone, each of which has an associated DataItem. These DataItems are then received on the wearable, which displays them as notifications. Each notification contains the question as the Business & Templates | Zazzle first page, followed by answers as actions. When an answer is selected, the corresponding question's DataItem is updated, which allows the phone application to update the status of the question (i.e. did the user answer it correctly or not) and prompt the next question. RenderScriptIntrinsic sample that demonstrates how to use RenderScript intrinsics.

Creates several RenderScript intrinsics and shows a filtering result with various parameters. Also shows how to extends RedioButton with StateListDrawable. Introductory text that explains what the sample is intended to demonstrate. Edit in template-params.xml. Sample demonstrating circular reveal effect. It covers creating an ViewAnimationUtils as well as defining the parameters of the circular reveal including starting position and radius. This basic sample shows runtime permissions available in the Android M and above. It shows how to use the new runtime permissions API to check and request permissions through the support library. A sample that shows how you can handle remote data that requires permissions both on a wearable device and Hvac Contractor Invoice Form Printing, a mobile device. This app is designed to show how to build live TV channel apps for Android TV using the Storyboard That For Creating A Storyboard TV Input Framework (TIF). The sample is a service that once installed, is Hvac Contractor - Custom Form Printing, recognized and run by Calendar Holidays Blank Templates Editable, the default TV app (e.g.

Live Channels app). San Angeles is an Android port of a demo that uses GLES C/API to render a procedural scene. See the original README for more details about the original GLES port. The sample demos: - ABI APK split. Hvac Contractor Form Printing | Designsnprint. This sample demonstrates how to Cute June Holidays Blank Editable, use the Scoped Directory Access API introduced in Android N to easily access to specific directories such as Pictures, Downloads instead of Contractor Invoice Form - Custom | Designsnprint, requesting READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE or WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE in How To Create your manifest. This sample demonstrates how to use Media Projection API to capture device screen in Hvac Contractor Form - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint real time and show it on a SurfaceView.

Sensor graph is a C++ Android sample that read current accelerometer values and draw them using OpenGL. Sample Documents In Pdf,. It demonstrate usage of the following Native C++ API: - Assets This sample uses the new Android Studio CMake plugin with C++ support. This sample is a basic skeleton app which can be used as a starting point for wear development. A basic sample which shows how to use SlidingTabLayout to display a custom ViewPager title strip which gives continuous feedback to the user when scrolling. A more advanced sample which shows how to use SlidingTabLayout to display a custom ViewPager title strip, with custom coloring for each tab. Sample demonstrates recording location and speed with a Wear device in mind. Location is retrieved via FusedLocatinProvider which retrieves coordinates from the phone or Wear depending on whether the phone is disconnected or not and whether the Wear device has a GPS chip. Using the OPEN_DOCUMENT intent, a client app can access a list of Document Providers on the device, and choose a file from any of them. This sample shows how to implement a simple documents provider using the storage access framework available in Contractor Invoice Form - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint Android 4.4. Storyboard That Tutorials For Creating A Storyboard. A basic sample which shows how to use SwipeRefreshLayout to add the 'swipe-to-refresh' gesture to a View, enabling the ability to trigger a refresh from swiping down on the view. In this sample the View which can be refreshed is a ListView.

A sample which shows how to use SwipeRefreshLayout to add 'swipe-to-refresh' gesture to a ListView, enabling the Hvac Contractor - Custom Printing ability to trigger a refresh from swiping down on that view. A sample which shows how to use SwipeRefreshLayout to add the 'swipe-to-refresh' gesture to a layout with multiple children, enabling the ability to trigger a refresh from swiping down on the visible view. In this sample, SwipeRefreshLayout contains a scrollable GridView, along with a TextView empty view. A basic sample showing how to use simple or synchronized notifications. Sample Form In Pdf, Word. This allows users to dismiss events from either their phone or wearable device simultaneously.

This sample is a Videos By Google app, designed to run on an Android TV device (such as the Nexus Player), which demonstrates how to use the Leanback Support library which enables you to easily develop beautiful Android TV apps with a user-friendly UI that complies with the UX guidelines of Android TV. Teapots is an Form Printing | Designsnprint collection of Android C++ samples that uses a Teapot rendering to demostrate Android NDK platform features: - classic-teapot: Rendering classic teapot mesh using GLES 2.0 API and NativeActivity. - more-teapots: Rendering multiple instances of June Blank, Classic Teapot with GLES 3.0 Instance Rendering - Choreographer-30fps: demonstrates multiple frame rate throttoling techniques based on Hvac Contractor, API level using Chreographer API and Questionaires Images On Pinterest, EGL Android presentation time extension. This sample uses the new Android Studio CMake plugin with C++ support. This sample illustrates how links can be added to a TextView. Contractor Invoice Form Form Printing. This can be done either automatically by Doctors Business, setting the autoLink property or explicitly. This sample illustrates the Hvac Contractor Form Printing use of Chart Templates, a TextSwitcher to display animations for text changes. This simple wearable app allows the user to set a countdown timer. It runs independently on the wearable with no phone connection.

Sample for In-App Billing version 3. This sample shows how to implement an audio media app that works across multiple form factors and provide a consistent user experience on Android phones, tablets, Android Auto, Android Wear, Android TV and Google Cast devices. Webp is an Android sample including a small app to demo usage of webp in Native Activity. view: - rotate decoding 3 webp images and load them into Hvac Contractor Form | Designsnprint on-screen buffer. | Management. Decoding is in its own thread This sample uses the new Android Studio CMake plugin. This sample demonstrates how to specify different layouts for Contractor | Designsnprint round and rectangular screens. Complication Test Suite is a set of complication providers that provide dummy data and it can be used to test how different types of complications render on a watch face. Sample demonstrates best practices for using NotificationStyle Notifications (Inbox, BigPicture, BigText, and Messaging) for Templates both Mobile apps and native/local Android Wear apps.

It also covers Notifications on Hvac Form Printing, Wear 1.+ and 2017 Calendar Holidays Printable Blank, Wear 2.0. Form | Designsnprint. A sample that shows how you can record voice using the microphone on a wearable and Chore Chart Picture, play the recorded voice or an mp3 file, if the wearable device has a built-in speaker. This sample doesn't have any companion phone app so you need to install this directly on your watch (using adb). Sample demonstrates best practices for checking if connected mobile device has your app installed from an Android Wear 2.+ standalone app and the other way around. This sample aims to be as close to a real world example of a mobile and Wear app combination as possible. It has a more refined design and Invoice Form - Custom, also provides a practical example of how a mobile app would interact and communicate with its wear counterpart. The app itself is modeled after a hypothetical tourist attractions app that notifies the user when they are in Form - 5+ In Pdf, Word close proximity to notable points of Hvac Contractor Invoice | Designsnprint, interest. The Wear component shows tourist attraction images and summary information, and 2017 June Calendar Blank, provides quick actions for Hvac Invoice Form Form nearby tourist attractions in a GridViewPager UI component. gles3jni is an Android C++ sample that demonstrates how to use OpenGL ES 3.0 from JNI/native code. Survey | Management. The OpenGL ES 3.0 rendering path uses a few new features compared to the OpenGL ES 2.0 path: - Instanced rendering and vertex attribute divisor to reduce the number of draw calls and uniform changes. - Vertex array objects to reduce the number of calls required to set up vertex attribute state on Hvac Invoice Printing, each frame. How To Create Powerpoint And Presentations. - Explicit assignment of attribute locations, eliminating the need to query assignments. This sample uses the new Android Studio CMake plugin with C++ support.

Except as noted, this content is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.5. For details and restrictions, see the Content License. Get the latest Android developer news and tips that will help you find success on Google Play. You have successfully signed up for the latest Android developer news and tips. You requested a page in Hvac - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint , but your language preference for this site is . Would you like to change your language preference and browse this site in ? If you want to change your language preference later, use the language menu at the bottom of each page.

This class requires API level or higher. This doc is hidden because your selected API level for the documentation is . You can change the documentation API level with the selector above the left navigation. For more information about specifying the API level your app requires, read Supporting Different Platform Versions.

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college paper editor While preparing to Hvac Invoice - Custom Printing, leave the public editor’s office and move to Washington, I’ve been getting together in recent weeks with some people I’ve met while living in New York. One was Ben Smith, the editor in chief of Storyboard Tutorials For Creating BuzzFeed, who asked me over lunch what columns I planned to do before I left. Invoice Form Printing | Designsnprint? I tossed it back to him, asking what he would like to read, and he suggested I take up “what I love and what I hate about The New York Times.” This guy’s definitely got a future as an That & Help For Creating editor! I decided to tweak his idea, with a nod to Nora Ephron’s list from her book, “I Remember Nothing: And Other Reflections.” (Of all the people I wish I had been able to Hvac Invoice Form - Custom Form Printing, meet in New York, she tops the list.) 1. The inherent tension of the 40 Best Questionaires On Pinterest | Management, job. The whole concept of coming to work every day to handle complaints, and maybe to criticize work done at Contractor Invoice Form - Custom Form | Designsnprint, the next desk over, well . . . The job is always a tightrope walk and certainly can be unpleasant at Create Engaging Templates, times. But that tension comes with the territory. I’ve had to remind myself (or others have reminded me) that if everybody around me were happy, I probably wouldn’t be doing the job right.

And, of course, I’m well aware that I’ve made some misjudgments along the way. Every job has its downside, but it will be a relief to lay down that particular burden. Perfectly Reasonable Question: Short Shrift for the Mets? With the baseball season underway, New York City’s longstanding and grudge-filled Subway Series rivalry rears its head again. A reader, Wayne Robins, who teaches journalism at St. John’s University in Queens, sees a definite Times bias toward pinstripes and against Hvac Invoice - Custom Form Printing, not only the Mets, but also all of Target - 5+ Documents In Pdf, Queens. He wrote to me last week: The New York Mets are the defending National League champions. They play in Form - Custom Printing, the NYC borough of Queens (which, despite the Sample Target Application - 5+ In Pdf,, effort of one reporter assigned to a complex county of 2 million, remains exotic, undercovered, and ignored). The Times has not put anything about the Mets on its web front page yet. Not opening day, not today; instead, the story referred to is about Hvac Contractor Invoice Form, Yankees fans having to walk a mile from Doctors | Zazzle, Stub Hub to the stadium.

This after a magnificent pitching performance yesterday and Invoice Form Printing, a 2-0 win, the Mets first of the Picture, season, over their World Series rivals the Kansas City Royals. I know the Contractor Invoice Form - Custom Printing | Designsnprint, Times is data obsessed, and that a graphic last year showed all but one zip code in the city preferred the Yankees over the Mets. Don’t believe it. 2017 June Calendar Blank? The Mets are New York’s big baseball story this year. Their game results should appear among the sports headlines on the front of the Contractor Invoice Form Printing, home page.

I asked the sports editor, Jason Stallman, to respond. He wrote in Doctors Business Cards & Templates | Zazzle, disagreement with Mr. Hvac Form | Designsnprint? Robins’s perception, suggesting that a broader view is needed. That Tutorials & Help A Storyboard? In fact, he said, the opposite is true of Mets/Yankees coverage. Mr. Stallman wrote: “Since the Contractor Form - Custom Form Printing, Mets’ resurgence took shape last summer, they’ve certainly commanded far more prominence than the Yankees in our print and digital reports. Of course, there might be individual days when that wasn’t the case.” A ‘Flawed Story’ on Gay Talese, and ‘Clumsy’ Handling of Race and Gender. The article concerned recent remarks by Mr.

Talese and the trouble he had coming up with the names of Cute 2017 June Printable Blank women whose writing had influenced his work. - Custom Form? Those remarks led to scorching criticism on Twitter. The Times article was told largely from Mr. Talese’s point of view, focusing on his reaction to suddenly having a Twitter target on his back. On Thursday, Dean Baquet, The Times’s executive editor, wrote a highly unusual statement, published on the paper’s corporate press site, which is open to the public. Create Engaging Powerpoint? Here’s the statement in full: “We published a story yesterday about controversial remarks made by the writer Gay Talese concerning female journalists at a conference at Boston University. The story also recounted an Contractor Printing | Designsnprint exchange between Talese and Doctors Business Cards | Zazzle, Nikole Hannah-Jones, a keynote speaker at the conference and a staff writer on Contractor Form - Custom, our magazine, in which he questioned how she got her job at The Times. In attempting to defend his remarks, Talese was quoted in - 5+ Documents In Pdf,, our story calling her “duplicitous.” Nikole was not given a chance to respond to that, nor was I. Here is what I would have said: I hired Nikole because she is one of the Hvac Form, most accomplished and prominent journalists of Questionaires Images On Pinterest her generation. She has made it her mission to write about some of the most pressing, intractable issues in Hvac Contractor Invoice Form - Custom, American life, particularly racial inequality in education and the re-segregation of American schools. She is a unique combination of a reporter with investigative zeal, unfailing integrity and a writer’s eye for 40 Best Questionaires | Management telling, human detail.

One of my proudest moments as editor was when Nikole said “yes” and agreed to come to The Times. Yesterday’s story was flawed and Nikole was treated unfairly. Invoice Form - Custom Form Printing? But this incident is larger than the exchange between her and Gay Talese. Too often, we are clumsy in Business Cards & Templates, handling issues of race and gender and this story was another unfortunate example. We have made strides in our coverage and culture, but the Printing, best solution is to June Calendar Holidays Templates, continue building a more diverse, inclusive newsroom.” Updated: The Talese story states that Ms. Hannah-Jones declined to Hvac Invoice - Custom Form | Designsnprint, comment, and quotes her email doing so, which seems to contradict Mr. Baquet’s assertion that she wasn’t given the chance to respond. But did she know, when she declined, that Mr. Talese had questioned her integrity by calling her duplicitous?

An email from the Doctors Business, writer of the Form Form Printing, article to Ms. Hannah-Jones clarifies this point. Cute 2017 Calendar Printable Templates Editable? (It was shared with me by one of Ms. Hannah-Jones’s editors with her agreement.) It said: “I thought I’d try to reach out to you again. As I said in my previous email, I’m writing a piece on Gay Talese and Hvac Invoice Form - Custom Printing | Designsnprint, the aftermath of the events in Boston and would really like to get your commentary for it. I have pretty specific things I’d like you to June Printable Editable, respond to.” But, notably, he did not say what those specific things were.

It’s good that Mr. Baquet addressed what happened, and acknowledged the larger issues behind it, which have come up many times. This story has characteristics of something driven (possibly too fast) by Contractor Form - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint, “wanting to be part of the conversation.” What seems obvious now is that a deeper kind of Holidays conversation is Hvac Invoice Form - Custom Form Printing, required. Panama Papers: Why No Big Splash or Times Participation? Updated , 2:19 p.m., Tuesday, to add comment from the consortium’s deputy director, Marina Walker, and The Times’s executive editor, Dean Baquet, at the bottom of the post. Updated, 4:22 p.m., Wednesday, to add mention of Univision News. The “Panama Papers” are being called the largest ever leak of Application - 5+ Documents In Pdf, Word secret data.

Articles based on those documents — developed by a global consortium of journalists — began appearing Sunday afternoon. Exposing the offshore bank accounts of bigwigs worldwide, the Contractor Invoice Form - Custom Form, articles burst into the Sunday afternoon news lull, getting huge play in media outlets around the world and in the United States. By Monday, I had heard from How To Create Templates And Presentations, many Times readers who wanted to know why The Times didn’t seem to be giving the news a big ride. The Times posted a wire-service article on Sunday afternoon. It wasn’t until 9:15 p.m. that a staff-produced piece of moderate length went onto Invoice Form - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint, the website. It was not given prominent display; in Monday’s paper, the story did not make the front page. It ran at the top of Page A3.

Despite that, readers clearly were extremely interested. (And for good reason. Esquire’s Charles Pierce wrote Monday that the revelations raise the distinct possibility “that every political system in the world — even the nakedly authoritarian ones — is hopelessly rigged, and that the marvelous new world of the miraculous global economy is an Doctors | Zazzle even bigger thieves’ paradise than you, me, or even Jamie Dimon thought it was.”) Quietly displayed and Hvac Contractor Invoice Form, delayed as it was, the story nevertheless was among The Times’s 10 most widely read articles on Monday morning. Were Changes to Sanders Article ‘Stealth Editing’? Updated, 10:54 a.m., to Engaging Powerpoint And Presentations, add new observations based on reader response. Bernie Sanders supporters have been unhappy with The Times in recent months, but it looked as if they were beginning to have their moment in the sun on - Custom Printing | Designsnprint, Monday morning.

An article by Jennifer Steinhauer, published online, carried the Sample Target Form In Pdf, Word, headline “Bernie Sanders Scored Victories for Years via Legislative Side Doors.” It described the way the Vermont senator had managed a significant number of legislative victories in Congress despite the Hvac Form - Custom, political independence that might have hindered him. The article stayed in essentially that form for several hours online – with some very minor tweaks — but in the late afternoon, Times editors made significant changes to its tone and content, turning it from almost glowing to somewhat disparaging. The later headline read: “Via Legislative Side Doors, Bernie Sanders Won Modest Victories.” And these two paragraphs were added: But in his presidential campaign Mr. Sanders is trying to scale up those kinds of proposals as a national agenda, and there is little to draw from his small-ball legislative approach to suggest that he could succeed. Mr. Sanders is suddenly promising not just a few stars here and there, but the moon and a good part of the sun, from Calendar Chore | Calendar Picture Templates, free college tuition paid for Hvac Contractor Invoice Form Printing with giant tax hikes to a huge increase in How To Powerpoint Templates And Presentations, government health care, which has made even liberal Democrats skeptical. Tightening the Screws on Form Printing, Anonymous Sources. After two major front-page errors in a six-month period, Times editors are cracking down on the use of anonymous sources.

An email to the newsroom Tuesday morning from Dean Baquet, the executive editor, Matt Purdy, a deputy executive editor, and Philip Corbett, the standards editor, said, in part: At best, granting anonymity allows us to reveal the atrocities of terror groups, government abuses or other situations where sources may risk their lives, freedom or careers by talking to us. In sensitive areas like national security reporting, it can be unavoidable. But in Doctors Business Cards, other cases, readers question whether anonymity allows unnamed people to skew a story in Form Form Printing, favor of their own agenda. Powerpoint Templates And Presentations? In rare cases, we have published information from anonymous sources without enough questions or skepticism – and it has turned out to be wrong. Although the policy does not ban anonymity, it is - Custom Printing, intended to significantly reduce what Mr. Purdy characterized as an overreliance on unnamed sources. Perfectly Reasonable Question: Must ‘Best Comments’ Be True? Anne Rettenberg of New York City took issue — vehemently — with what The Times recently called its “best comment of the Business & Templates, week.” Starting last month, a new Times feature began identifying the “top 10 comments of the Hvac Contractor Form | Designsnprint, week on our digital platforms, as selected by our readers and the journalists who moderate nearly every comment.” Last week’s No.

1 comment read as follows: I am so disappointed in Blank Templates, the Sanders supporters. All votes matter. Black votes, Latino votes, White votes, Southern votes. Older voters. Mrs.

Clinton is Contractor Invoice Form Printing, winning the popular votes. The delegates’ votes. And yet the Sanders supporters sneer at these votes, and almost in Cute 2017 June Printable Blank Templates, a racist and patronizing way suggest these voters do [not] know what is good for them. Hvac Contractor Form - Custom Form? Any article written is attacked as being anti-Sanders even though this article simply stated facts. Should we get rid of the Sample Target Form - 5+ In Pdf, Word, black votes, Southern votes and anyone who dares not to vote for Sanders? I am sorry but Sanders supporters seem to Hvac - Custom Printing, have more in common with Trump supporters as many keep pointing out. No grace in defeat. Ms. Rettenberg, a Sanders supporter, called this “a defamatory lie.” She wrote: “Neither I nor any Sanders supporter I know ‘sneers’ at votes by voters who are black, Latino, white Southern or anything else.” And she added, “This type of almost nonsensical, shrieking broadside is 40 Best Survey, apparently the best tactic Hillary supporters can muster, which is sad.”

Reader: Should Media Treat a Certain Candidate Like Voldemort? In this occasional feature, “Reader Spotlight,” I feature a Times reader’s letter. This one, from Gerald LeRoy, comes with a graphic element — a screen shot of the top of Thursday’s home page with a few instructive numerals added every time a certain candidate’s name is mentioned. (See the Invoice Form - Custom Printing | Designsnprint, image just below Mr. 2017 Calendar Holidays Editable? LeRoy’s quoted words.) How Trump’s ‘Off the Record’ Remarks Crept Out. Updated, Friday, March 4, 2016. A reader, Ken Fitzpatrick, read about what has been called a secret recording of Donald Trump’s meeting in January with the Times editorial board. On that recording, an article by Hvac Contractor Invoice - Custom Form, BuzzFeed’s editor in chief Ben Smith suggests, Mr. Trump says that his extreme position on How To Create Powerpoint, deporting immigrants is not anything he would necessarily carry out in real, postelection life, but rather might be a starting point for negotiation. Mr.

Fitzpatrick writes: Can you please elucidate why the NYT is conducting any part of an Hvac Contractor - Custom Printing | Designsnprint interview with a Presidential candidate off the record? Obviously if you have informed someone that part of the interview is off the record, going back on that would be unethical. But why, oh why, would you ever agree to that in the first place? You’re not interviewing someone whose cat was rescued from Calendar Chore | Calendar Picture, a tree.

These are candidates for PRESIDENT. Printing? You’ve created a situation where a candidate may have told NYT editors something that is Sample Form In Pdf, Word, illuminating and worth reporting on, but they are restrained from doing so. I asked the editorial page editor, Andrew Rosenthal, to address the Hvac Printing | Designsnprint, question. He told me that the editorial board’s meetings with presidential candidates are often done on an off-the-record basis, at the candidates’ request. These meetings with candidates are not for the purpose of writing news articles, he emphasized, but are intended as informational sessions for the board so that board members can make observations, challenge the candidate on his or her positions, and eventually consider an Business Cards & Templates | Zazzle endorsement. Hitting the Road — but Not Just Yet.

David Weinberger, who writes and thinks about technology’s effect on ideas, famously wrote in 2009 that “transparency is the new objectivity.” In the hypervigilant digital age, in other words, sometimes the best we can do is put our cards on Contractor Form Form | Designsnprint, the table. That Tutorials & Help? Toward that end, I want to tell Times readers about my plans for the next few months. As some of you may have read in The Times or elsewhere, I will be concluding my tenure as public editor a few months earlier than originally scheduled. I have just accepted a job offer at The Washington Post, where I will be the media columnist. I will move from New York City to Washington to Hvac Invoice Form Printing | Designsnprint, start work there in May, and will finish up at The Times in April. (My four-year contract with The Times was due to expire in How To Create Engaging Powerpoint And Presentations, August; and, although I am leaving early, I have been in the role longer than any of my predecessors, most of whom stayed for two years or less.) Is Global Expansion Good for Times Readers? If all goes well for Hvac Contractor Invoice Form - Custom Printing | Designsnprint The Times in its latest incarnation — a Spanish-language site, The New York Times en Espanol, that officially began this week with a base in Cards & Templates, Mexico City — readers may benefit twice.

The first benefit is obvious enough. Hvac Invoice - Custom Form | Designsnprint? The Times is Sample Target Application - 5+ Documents, trying to expand its digital readership around the world, which will help it stay afloat as a profitable business. Sustainable financial health, if it comes, means that the company can continue to pay for its large news-gathering and news-producing operation. (The background is well-known: With newspaper economics so damaged by the decline in print advertising revenue, The Times is now emphasizing increasing its readership.) Publishing in languages other than English – first Chinese, now Spanish, with others to come — vastly expands the pool of possible Times readers. These new readers will help attract new digital advertising, and Contractor - Custom Printing, may eventually pay for subscriptions. (At the moment, there is no pay wall for the Spanish-language site, which offers 10 to 40 Best Images On Pinterest | Management, 15 translated Times articles a day — culled from hundreds of possible articles — and also produces some original journalism, which may be reverse-translated for English-speaking readers.) Times Reporter: ‘I Would Never Cut a Deal Like That’ Here’s an ugly term: Transactional journalism — also known as a quid pro quo. Hardly an unfamiliar idea, it came up this week with the disclosure that a writer for The Atlantic made a deal to use a particular word — “muscular” — in describing a 2009 speech by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in order to get an advance copy of the speech. Her aide also required the writer, Marc Ambinder, to favorably mention a State Department delegation attending the speech.

In emails that were made public by Gawker, Mr. Hvac Form? Ambinder agreed (“got it,” he wrote of the instructions from Philippe Reines of Engaging Powerpoint And Presentations Mrs. Clinton’s staff) and received his advance copy. Hvac Invoice Form Form Printing? The practice rightly was termed “corrupt” by Erik Wemple of The Washington Post, though he gave Mr. Ambinder credit for “appropriate contrition.” (The Atlantic has appended an editor’s note to the article.) When Women Fire Back, Are They ‘Ferocious’? When Is a Critic a Scold? Last week, The Times prominently displayed an analysis piece which explored the Cute 2017 Printable Blank Templates, matter of sexist language and speech in the presidential campaign. Through interviews and other research, it showed how negative words such as “shrill” or “shouting” have been applied to Hillary Clinton, but not to her male rivals.

The piece was well reported and Contractor Invoice Form - Custom, an interesting read. Sample Application Form - 5+ In Pdf, Word? But some readers told me that they saw a conflict between that story and some straight campaign coverage that was published the same day. An article on Hvac Contractor Invoice Form Form | Designsnprint, the fifth Democratic debate depicted Mrs. Chart? Clinton “lobbing her harshest assault yet” in the campaign. She “appeared tense and Form Printing, even angry.” The article used the word “ferocity” to Survey Images On Pinterest, describe her behavior, and said she “derided” Bernie Sanders.

By contrast, Mr. Sanders “kept his cool.” His remarks were “well-honed.” Teresa Kopec, a reader, wrote to me, objecting to the choice of words in Contractor - Custom Printing, the debate news coverage. She saw the debate as “spirited but respectful” on both sides, and Calendar Chart | Calendar, found the language choice offensive. Ms. Kopec wrote: “Compare and contrast the words used to describe Mr. Sanders and Ms. Clinton. Sanders: cool, reiterated, well honed. Clinton: harshest, cutting, vitriol, deriding and tense. This is ridiculous.

The NYT ought to be ashamed.” Unanswered Questions Resurface in James Foley Film. Updated, February 4, 2016. Members of the buzzing crowd at the Time Warner Center ate canapes and drank cocktails, craned their necks to get a look at Sting doing a red-carpet interview, and then filed into the screening room. Once they did, the party atmosphere quickly turned somber. The film, an HBO documentary, is about the life and Contractor Invoice Form - Custom Form | Designsnprint, death of James Wright Foley, the American journalist who was kidnapped by ISIS in Syria, and later was executed, as shown in a horrific video seen around the Calendar Chore | Calendar Picture Templates, world. Hvac Form Form Printing | Designsnprint? “Jim: The James Foley Story” left the audience quiet and, in Cute 2017 Calendar Holidays Templates Editable, my case at least, in tears.

Then things got still more emotional, as the Hvac Contractor - Custom Form Printing, journalist’s parents, John and Diane Foley, stood at a lectern and spoke briefly — and Sample Target Form In Pdf, Word, with incredible grace — about Contractor Invoice Form - Custom Form | Designsnprint, their son. I met them afterward and introduced myself to another of How To Engaging Templates And Presentations their sons, Michael Foley, with whom I had significant phone and email contact last year after he vehemently complained about Hvac Form Form Printing, some of The Times’s coverage of his brother’s time in prison. Storyboard Tutorials For Creating A Storyboard? He objected, for example, to Invoice - Custom, the description of his brother as an enthusiastic convert to Islam. I considered his complaints, and 2017 Holidays Printable Editable, others I had heard about, in a Sunday column, and I tried to take on some of the broader, and very thorny, issues involved in covering Americans who have been kidnapped by terrorists. Times coverage broke important ground when Rukmini Callimachi reported that American hostages often suffered because of Hvac Contractor Form - Custom their government’s policy on opposing the payment of ransom. ‘A Very Heated Reaction’ to Survey Images On Pinterest, The Times’s Endorsement of Hillary Clinton. In what surely qualifies as understatement, The Times’s top opinion editor calls The Times’s recent endorsement of Invoice Form Form Printing Hillary Clinton in the Democratic primary the source of “plenty of 2017 June Holidays Printable Templates Editable reaction.” “There’s been a lot of Contractor Invoice Form | Designsnprint readership, a lot of reader comments,” the Chore Chart | Calendar Picture Templates, editorial page editor, Andrew Rosenthal, told me on Monday. That’s for Contractor - Custom Form Printing sure. Cute Calendar Holidays Printable Blank Editable? Over 5,600 comments have been posted on the editorial, which was published online Saturday and in Sunday’s paper. A vast majority of - Custom Printing those comments came from Bernie Sanders supporters, who vehemently disagreed with the Doctors, editorial board’s conclusion. (The Times also expressed a preference, within the Republican field of candidates, for Hvac Invoice - Custom John Kasich, the Ohio governor.

That, however, is not an endorsement; the Clinton editorial is one.) A typical comment, and one gathering one of the Blank, highest number of “recommends,” or reader agreement, came from Daniel Ricketti of New Jersey, who wrote: “Disappointed in this pick. NYT never even gave Bernie a shot. Straight from the beginning basically no attention.” Many readers have complained to me that Mr.

Sanders’s campaign and viability has been underplayed in the pages of The Times — and Form | Designsnprint, I’ve written about this numerous times. I should remind readers here that the editorial page and The Times’s news pages are operated separately. There is no involvement by the news editors or reporters in any editorial or endorsement, nor does the editorial board influence the news coverage. A Potent Endorsement Could Use More Transparency. An Op-Ed piece endorsing Hillary Clinton by Michael J. Morell, a former top C.I.A. official, does not disclose that Morell works at a Washington consulting firm with connections to Clinton.

Readmore… The Clinton Story You Didn’t Read Here. Hillary Clinton ignited criticism with claims she made about her email use in an interview with Fox News, but don’t look for it in The Times.Readmore… A Convention Speech, Not a Bodice Ripper. A Times story claiming that Bill Clinton’s convention speech sexualized Hillary Clinton has readers scratching their heads.Readmore… Feuds! Favors! Name-Calling!

But What About Those Russians? The salacious details of cyberattacks draw the biggest headlines, but are they the biggest part of the story?Readmore… Ms. or Mrs.? It’s Up to Word, You. Invoice Printing? As for Chart | Calendar Me, Just Call Me Spayd. If Melania Trump is a Ms. while Michelle Obama is a Mrs., does that mean The Times is up to something? Not really.Readmore… Liz Spayd is the sixth public editor appointed by The New York Times.

The public editor works outside of the reporting and editing structure of the newspaper and receives and answers questions or comments from readers and the public, principally about Form Printing, news and other coverage in The Times. Her opinions and conclusions are her own. Read more » In New Policy, The Times Forbids After-the-Fact ‘Quote Approval’ The Times is one of the first major news organizations to take a firm stand against a growing and disliked practice. For Times Environmental Reporting, Intentions May Be Good but the Signs Are Not.

The Times has dismantled its environmental pod and discontinued the Green blog. Problems With Precision and Judgment, but Not Integrity, in Tesla Test. The public editor looks into a test drive of an electric car that caused a storm. Under Attack, Nate Silver Picks the Wrong Defense. The statistical wizard's offer to wager on Business Cards & Templates | Zazzle, the outcome of the Hvac Contractor Invoice Form Form Printing, presidential race is a bad choice. Questions and Answers on How The Times Handles Online Comments From Readers. How does The Times decide which comments to post on Cute 2017 Holidays Printable Blank Editable, NYTimes.com? The public editor gets answers from The Times's online commenting managers. Was Photo of Dead Ambassador Acceptable? Readers complained to Invoice Form - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint, the public editor over The Times's decision to display a photograph of the unconscious ambassador in Libya.

Government Secrecy and Bradley Manning. The Danger of Suppressing the 40 Best Survey Images On Pinterest, Leaks. Those who reveal classified material are being punished like never before. When the government asks newspapers to Hvac Form | Designsnprint, keep quiet, the bar should be very high for Storyboard That saying yes. The Times Was Right to Report — at Contractor Invoice Form Form Printing, Last — on a Secret Drone Base. Editors were asked by the C.I.A. to Holidays Printable Editable, withhold information and did so for months before publishing it online Tuesday night. Was a Reporter’s Role in a Government Prosecution a Reason to Hvac Contractor Form - Custom Printing | Designsnprint, Recuse Him? Scott Shane, a Times national security reporter, was referred to in the government’s prosecution of a former C.I.A. Engaging Templates And Presentations? official. Bradley Manning and WikiLeaks are a major story for The Times, so why was the Contractor Form Printing | Designsnprint, paper so late to Storyboard For Creating, cover the soldier’s pretrial hearing? The Times Should Have a Reporter at the Bradley Manning Hearing.

The testimony is riveting and the surrounding issues are newsworthy. Questions on Drones, Unanswered Still. Just who is it that the United States is killing with strikes by unmanned aircraft in Yemen and Pakistan? Readers Have a Stake in Obama’s Free-Speech Disconnect. The First Amendment matters for many reasons, some of them not on the world stage. False Balance and Invoice Form - Custom | Designsnprint, Objectivity in Reporting. How Social Media Affects Journalistic Objectivity. The public editor travels to Application Form In Pdf,, Harvard’s Shorenstein Center. With audio.

The Raging Debate Over Objectivity and Transparency. Is the concept outdated or even more important in the new media era? The journalistic ideal of impartiality is coming under attack. My column for this week. In Real Time, and Hvac Contractor Invoice - Custom Form Printing, Beforehand, Checking Facts on the Presidential Debate. The public editor speaks with Times editors about how they plan to fact-check the first presidential debate.

When the View Is From Somewhere, Readers Ought to 40 Best Questionaires On Pinterest | Management, Know Where That Is. When opinion appears in Hvac Contractor Invoice Form Printing | Designsnprint, news pages, it needs to be labeled and displayed as just that. Facts, Truth … and May the Target Application - 5+ Documents, Best Man Win. Whatever the conclusions, whatever the effectiveness, of challenging facts, the idea that we have to debate the necessity of the media doing so strikes me as absurd. The Times, Too, Is Reconsidering the Term ‘Illegal Immigrant’ The Times is reconsidering the Contractor Invoice - Custom Form, use of the term illegal immigrant. Does The Times Have Its Act Together on Vulgar Language? An article coyly wrote around a business name that used an Cards & Templates | Zazzle unprintable word according to The Times's standards.

What’s an ‘Islamist’? An ‘Extremist’? Trying Not to Blur Language Lines. A crisis in North Africa and a reader’s query bring up crucial distinctions in usage. Adam Lanza, Asperger’s and - Custom Form | Designsnprint, a Misleading Connection With Violence. Families are rightfully upset by some of the early reporting done on the Newtown, Conn., shootings.

An Election Day Look at How Language Changes in The Times, and in the Culture. The research and development team’s Chronicle tool may distract you while you’re waiting for the returns to come in. Contradictions and Confusion on an Agreement With Iran. Unidentified sources make it difficult for Cute June Calendar Holidays Printable Templates readers to know what to believe regarding negotiations between the Invoice - Custom Form, United States and Iran. Readers Won’t Benefit if Times Bans the Powerpoint, Term ‘Illegal Immigrant’

The public editor's judgment is not about immigration reform; it's about clarity and accuracy. Is ‘Illegal Immigrant’ the Right Description? An activist wants The Times to stop using the term illegal immigrant in its reporting. Gender Questions Arise in Obituary of Rocket Scientist and Her Beef Stroganoff. After criticism on Twitter and elsewhere, the first sentence of an Hvac Form Printing | Designsnprint obituary for Yvonne Brill was changed. An Officer’s Secretly Recorded Words About ‘Stop and Frisk’ Cause a Firestorm. A front-page article involving the Application Documents In Pdf,, New York Police Department's internal communication could have provided greater context. Is There Really Room to Debate Whether Women Can Lead? A headline ignites a discussion about Contractor - Custom Form | Designsnprint, its undermining question. Anna Quindlen and 2017 June Blank, Andrew Solomon Join Discussion About Media and Transgender Children.

News organizations should evaluate the motivations of parents who want to take their child’s story public. The Tale of Hvac Contractor Form Printing a Transgender 6-Year-Old Child Raises Reader Concerns. Parental approval and the child’s own willingness should rule the day. T Magazine’s New Editor Pledges to Cute 2017 Holidays Printable, Make Future Issues More Diverse. Readers complained about the absence of people of Hvac Form - Custom Form Printing | Designsnprint color in T: The Times Style Magazine. A Twitter Outburst and Another Chance for & Templates | Zazzle Andrew Goldman. The Times Magazine interviewer offended some high-profile female writers with his questions. Women, Women, Everywhere — but Not Much About Their Paychecks. Where, after what seemed like women's night on Tuesday at Hvac Form, the Democratic National Convention, was the coverage of pay equity, along with gender-economic issues in general? In the Spirit of Ada Louise Huxtable, a Times Critic Reinvents His Role. Michael Kimmelman views architecture in terms of public policy as well as aesthetics.

Reviews by Business Cards & Templates, Times Critics With 'All Guns Blazing' The criticism of Hvac Form Printing | Designsnprint a new restaurant in Calendar Chart | Calendar Picture, Times Square was delicious, even if the Hvac Form - Custom Form | Designsnprint, food was not. On the Question of a (Brilliantly) Negative Restaurant Review. The critic Pete Wells gave his first “poor” restaurant rating in The Times -- and he did it memorably. Barred by Calendar Picture Templates, Saint Laurent, Attacked by Hvac Form - Custom, Gaga, a Fashion Critic Carries On.

Cathy Horyn's work can't please everyone -- but this is ridiculous.