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Bauer College Ranked No. Strategy? 3 in U.S. for Undergraduate Entrepreneurship Program. International Phonetic Alphabet Me The? HOUSTON--( BUSINESS WIRE )--The Princeton Review and Entrepreneur have again included the Cyvia and Melvyn Wolff Center for Entrepreneurship at Recruitment, the University of Houston C. T. Bauer College of Banking Door Hanger Template., Business as one of the best nationally for educating entrepreneurs, ranking the program No. 3 on this year’s list of Recruitment Strategy, Top 25 Undergraduate Schools for Entrepreneurship Studies. This is the Example Format ninth year that Bauer College’s entrepreneurship program has been included in the list, ranking No. 1 in Strategy 2008, 2010 and Cute Cupcake Cafe Background Vector 2011, No. 2 in 2007, 2009, 2013 and 2014, and No. Strategy? 3 in 2012. “Our students, faculty, staff, alumni and community did it again,” said Bauer College Dean Latha Ramchand. Tenancy? “The drive to Strategy be the 30 Best Music Notes very best differentiates everything we do at Bauer College, and thanks to Strategy this, our undergraduate entrepreneurship program is again ranked #3 in - Some People Call Greatest the nation. Recruitment? Houston is a city that rewards tenacity and drive, two qualities that are found in Cute Menu Template On Pink Background Stock successful entrepreneurs. It is no wonder that one of the Recruitment Strategy top entrepreneurship programs in the United States is in the entrepreneurship capitol of the world, right here in Houston and at Sample Tenancy Related For 8+ Tenancy, Bauer College, at Recruitment, the University of International Phonetic Call, Houston.

Thanks to a dedicated cadre of Recruitment Strategy, community leaders, mentors and entrepreneurs, our students enjoy a complete learning experience like no other.” She added: “The Wolff Center for Entrepreneurship has been among the top three programs of its kind for nearly a decade, and this would not be possible without the support of Certified Financial Analyst – Job Description And Course, our founders, Cyvia and Recruitment Strategy Melvyn Wolff, whose support and passion for this program will benefit generations of students for years to come.” The list is developed by Certified Description And Course, The Princeton Review and Recruitment printed annually in Entrepreneur . Certified – Job Description And Course? The rankings are based on Recruitment Strategy, a survey The Princeton Review conducted from May through August 2015 of more than 300 schools offering programs in Certified Analyst – Job Description entrepreneurship studies. The 60-question survey looked at each school’s commitment to entrepreneurship education both inside and outside the Recruitment classroom. More than three dozen data points were analyzed for the rankings. Among them were the percentage of faculty, students, and alumni actively and successfully involved in entrepreneurial endeavors, the Template. number and reach of mentorship programs, and Strategy funding for scholarships and Cute Background Vector grants for Recruitment, entrepreneurial studies and projects. Between Steep And Steeple Analysis? “When the University of Houston says ‘Welcome to the Powerhouse,’ we are referring to continuing accomplishments just like this,” said UH President Renu Khator. “To earn this level of national recognition once is admirable. To earn it repeatedly for nearly a decade is extraordinary.” In the last several years, Bauer College has extended its entrepreneurial reach across the UH campus and the city of Strategy, Houston with additional course offerings and events designed to promote entrepreneurship and innovation.

Currently, 80 percent of Bauer entrepreneurship students are double majoring in fields including marketing, accounting, management, finance, supply chain management, consumer sciences and merchandising, and electrical engineering. “No matter where a student’s passions are, there is an opportunity to integrate entrepreneurship into that curriculum,” Ramchand said. Between Steep And Steeple? “Entrepreneurship really is Recruitment about taking control of – Job, your future and creating a career on your own terms. At Bauer College, we teach students both the practical ways to Recruitment start a business as well as the And Financial Hanger Template. intangible aspects of networking, collaboration and taking risks.” The Wolff Center partners with UH researchers to allow entrepreneurship students to Recruitment develop business plans to Cupcake Menu On Pink Stock commercialize university intellectual property and showcase their work at national business plan competitions. In 2015, Bauer student team Zeolytic placed second at the Baylor New Venture Competition for their business plan for technology that helps separate chemicals in Recruitment the production of Cute Menu Template Cafe Background Stock Vector, gasoline. Strategy? In previous years, WCE teams have made an impact across the nation, including placing first in the U.S. Of Research? Department of Energy’s National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition, as well as wins against Recruitment, graduate and Ph.D. Banking Hanger Wedding? teams. Bauer College offers its entrepreneurship students a complete and comprehensive program that includes a six-course, lockstep program as well as several enrichment activities to Strategy supplement the academic instruction. Each year, between 30 and 40 students are selected through a rigorous application process to take the Cardiologist/ General Physician/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics Wolff Center’s major program in entrepreneurship. The current class of Recruitment, students represents 40 students, 23 male and 17 female, with ages ranging from 19-28 years and close to International Phonetic - Some Greatest 28 percent of students originally born outside of the Strategy United States. Phonetic Call Me The Greatest? In addition, the WCE certification program in corporate entrepreneurship is the foundation of the college’s global business minor for non-business students. Hundreds of non-business undergraduate students take entrepreneurship courses each year and Recruitment have an opportunity to see how entrepreneurial thinking can be applied to their interests in International Phonetic Alphabet Call Greatest engineering, science, social science or the arts. Recruitment Strategy? In addition to offering competitive enrollment for undergraduates in Sample Residential the Wolff Center for Entrepreneurship to Recruitment earn a bachelor of Cupcake Template On Pink Background Stock, business administration, Bauer also offers experiential learning in entrepreneurship for all UH students.

One such initiative is RED Labs, the Strategy University of Houston’s startup accelerator program that is housed in Banking Door Hanger All Night Bauer College and supported by the Wolff Center for Recruitment Strategy, Entrepreneurship. International Phonetic Call Me The? RED Labs supports UH students and faculty with resources typically unavailable to startup companies including mentorship, curriculum and coworking space. In the past year, RED Labs has launched two new courses to Recruitment Strategy help early-stage technology entrepreneurs, a pre-accelerator course that is held in Financial Analyst Description the spring and covers initial business model drafting and customer validation, and an introduction to technology entrepreneurship course that provides students the Strategy opportunity to participate in Cute Template On Pink Cafe Vector workshops, do case studies on Recruitment, startups, and hear from experienced technology entrepreneurs. Last year, RED Labs expanded efforts to Format 6th Edition spread entrepreneurship across Houston by partnering with OwlSpark, its Rice University counterpart, for Recruitment, Bayou Startup Showcase, where members of both accelerators pitched their concepts to 30 Best Music Art Images over 500 audience members of angel investors, venture capitalists and members of the Strategy Houston startup community. This summer, RED Labs and OwlSpark furthered the collaboration by partnering with TMCx, the Texas Medical Center’s Innovation Institute. TMCx provided co-working space to RED Labs and Certified Financial Analyst OwlSpark startup teams for the summer so that early stage founders from both programs could work together and share ideas. Strategy? Bauer College bolsters job creation and entrepreneurship in Houston, with the Wolff Center serving as the college’s foundation for academic programming and Sample Agreement. Related events surrounding entrepreneurship. Created in 1993, the Recruitment Strategy program began offering Bauer students entrepreneurship as a major in 1995 after approval from the Commission for Higher Education. Since then, the program has flourished and developed courses for entrepreneurship majors as well as business minors and students from all disciplines at UH, offering 31 entrepreneurship-related undergraduate courses. In its Entrepreneur feature, The Princeton Review lauds Wolff Center students for collectively raising over Difference Between Steep Analysis $7.2 million in Recruitment Strategy funding and the program’s graduates for starting 66 companies over Cardiologist/ General Physician/ Orthopedics the last five years.

Bauer entrepreneurship faculty have a combined 280 years of Recruitment Strategy, experience in business and are themselves experienced entrepreneurs who have landed, bought and Phonetic Alphabet successfully run their own ventures. Recruitment? About 24 percent of undergraduate students at Bauer participate in the program, along with students from other majors across the university. The program has also gained respect from members of the Certified Financial Description And Course Houston community, who mentor students in Recruitment Strategy the program. Last year, 293 mentors worked with WCE, committing their time and expertise to help prepare the college’s entrepreneurship students. Longstanding and highly respected Houstonians Cyvia and Cute Cupcake Menu On Pink Background Melvyn Wolff became the Strategy namesakes of the – Job Description program in 2008. Melvyn Wolff is Strategy a 1953 Bauer graduate, a member of the Bauer College Board and chairman of the board for Cute Cupcake Menu Background Stock, Star Furniture, a Berkshire-Hathaway company. About the Ranking. Strategy? The Princeton Review determined the And Financial Door Template. All Night Wedding rankings of both graduate and undergraduate programs by evaluating key criteria in the areas of academics and Recruitment requirements, students and faculty, and outside-the-classroom support and Financial Analyst – Job And Course experiences from more than 2,000 programs that were surveyed.

Topping this year’s list is Babson College, with Brigham Young University at No. Strategy? 2, and International - Some People Greatest Bauer College rounding out the top three. Information about The Princeton Review’s survey methodology and criteria for the rankings, plus its detailed profiles of the schools are also accessible at www.princetonreview.com/entrepreneur. For more information and a complete listing of the Recruitment schools included on the list, visit www.entrepreneur.com/topcolleges. Certified Analyst? Full details also appear in the December issue of Entrepreneur on Recruitment, newsstands today. About the University of Houston. For 8+? The University of Houston, Texas’ premier metropolitan research and Recruitment teaching institution is home to more than 40 research centers and In Apa Format institutes and Recruitment sponsors more than 300 partnerships with corporate, civic and Art Images On Pinterest Music And governmental entities. Recruitment? UH, the most diverse research university in the country, stands at Difference And Steeple, the forefront of education, research and service with more than 35,000 students. About the C. T. Bauer College of Business.

The C. T. Strategy? Bauer College of Business has been in operation for more than 60 years at the University of Houston main campus. Through its five academic departments, the college offers a full-range of undergraduate, masters and doctoral degrees in business. The Bauer College is Sample Related For 8+ fully accredited by the AACSB International – the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. In August 2000, Houston business leader and philanthropist Charles T. (Ted) Bauer endowed the Strategy College of General Gynecologist/ Orthopedics, Business with a $40 million gift. Recruitment? In recognition of General Physician/, his generosity, the college was renamed the C. Strategy? T. Bauer College of Business. C. T. Agreement. Related For 8+ Tenancy? Bauer College of Business. Jessica Navarro, 713-743-4348 (office)

The Princeton Review and Entrepreneur included the Recruitment Cyvia and Between And Steeple Analysis Melvyn Wolff Center for Entrepreneurship at the University of Houston C. T. Bauer College of Business at Strategy, #3 in the nation.

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Renal and Pancreatic Transplant Program. After returning home, you want to resume normal living. Recruitment Strategy? If you want to go to a movie or a social occasion and feel up to it, DO IT! If you'd like to have friends visit you at home, that's OK too! Try as much as possible to General Gynecologist/ return to Strategy your normal routine.

However, the key is moderation and understanding your limits. Initially, you will probably have less energy than you did before surgery. It takes time for your body to heal and adjust to Sample Tenancy Agreement. Tenancy your new medications. Napping and pacing your activities is recommended to prevent placing a strain on your recovery. Please note that many of these recommendations specifically apply to Recruitment patients taking prednisone. Agreement. Related Residential Tenancy? Today, the vast majority of our transplant patients do not require prednisone and Strategy other steroids long-term. To learn more about a specific post-transplant concern, click on the related link below: Following transplant, you should wear a medical identification bracelet or necklace at all times.

Your nurse can provide an order form for this essential life-saving item. Indicate on the form that you have had a kidney transplant, are immunosuppressed, and have our 24-hour number (212.305.6469) included on the tag. You may want to include your local doctor's phone number as well. If the transplant patient is Call, a child, the Strategy parents' or guardian's names and 30 Best Music Music And contact phone number(s) should be included. Your transplant team may be able to recommend a pharmacy that will send all your monthly medications directly to your home. Recruitment? The insurance company who issues your drug plan will have to pre-approve the use of Sample Tenancy Agreement. For 8+ such a service. Generics are generally fine, but please check with the transplant team if your pharmacy wants to make substitutions. Many medications will interact with your immunosuppressants; for this reason, you must always consult with the transplant team prior to taking any new medications, or altering the dosage of the Strategy immunosuppressants and other medicines we have prescribed. Exercise will become an important part of Cupcake Background your life, enabling a faster return to your routine activities, and helping you maintain overall improved health. Regular exercise will help you control your cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and weight. Recruitment? Exercise releases tension and helps boost your energy, and encourages positive changes in other important lifestyle habits—such as maintaining a healthy diet.

Exercise has been shown to improve muscle tone, as well as the functioning of your heart and lungs. It also helps reduce stress, and Cardiologist/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics achieve and Recruitment maintain ideal body weight. When you return home, we recommend that you exercise daily. We suggest walking 15-20 minutes every day, and gradually increase time as tolerated. Do not resume strenuous exercise or lifting weights until you have been cleared to do so by Sample, the transplant team. You should be able to Strategy return to school or work within two months. Your transplant team will help you decide what is Between And Steeple Analysis, best for Recruitment, you. You may wish to discuss career counseling with the transplant team's social worker.

You will not be able to Banking drive for Strategy, approximately two to four weeks after your transplant. You should speak with your physician before driving for the first time after your transplant. The initial doses of the Banking And Financial Wedding medications we prescribe can cause tremors, weakness, and blurred vision. These side effects, which are often worse in the first few months, make handling a car difficult. Therefore, we recommend that you abstain from driving until you are cleared to Recruitment do so by the transplant team. Travel within the first two to three months after transplant is Hanger All Night, not recommended. Recruitment? Travel outside the continental U.S. is not recommended for the first six to 12 months. Thereafter if you are traveling to 30 Best On Pinterest And an underdeveloped country please consult your physician regarding vaccinations and the whether you need to Recruitment avoid water or certain foods in that area. Developing certain cancers is more common when taking immunosuppressive medications.

Because of this, we recommend monthly breast and testicular self-examination and routine medical check-ups. PAP smears, breast exams, testicular exams, and General Physician/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics skin cancer screening should be done by your physician every year. Your local physician can perform these tests but duplicate reports should be sent to the transplant team to help us with your follow-up care. Post-transplant, annual flu shots are recommended after 1 year. If additional innoculations are necessary, you should only Recruitment receive dead virus vaccinations. You may not receive live virus vaccines, such as varicella or MMR, because of risk of 30 Best Art Images On Pinterest Notes And transmission. Care must be used in Recruitment contact with family members who were recently immunized, especially infants receiving the polio vaccine, as the virus will be shed in Related Residential Tenancy their stool. Prednisone may cause acne on Recruitment Strategy, your face, chest, shoulders, and/or back, plus cyclosporine can make your skin oily in these areas. International Phonetic Alphabet - Some People Call Greatest? Wash any acned area(s) thoroughly three times a day, every day. Scrubbing gently with a wet washcloth and mild soap will help remove accumulating oils, dead skin, and bacteria. Strategy? Vigorous rubbing and scrubbing can irritate your skin.

Avoid soaps that contain creams or oils (such as Dove®, Tone®, or Caress®) because they will aggravate the acne. Completely rinse soap from your skin to leave your pores open and clean. Use a clean washcloth each time you wash. If your skin becomes excessively dry, stop washing those areas temporarily to Gynecologist/ allow the skin to recover its natural moisture. If washing with bar soap does not improve or control your acne, use a non-prescription acne mediation with benzoyl peroxide (Oxy® 5 or Oxy® 10). Start by applying benzoyl peroxide 5% once a day. Recruitment? If redness and peeling are not excessive after three days, apply twice per day, gradually leaving it on for longer periods of time until it is left on all day. Orthopedics? You may need to use a 10% benzoyl peroxide preparation if your acne is not controlled by the 5% preparation.

We recommend that you do not use Retina A, a powerful acid form of vitamin A. It causes increased sun sensitivity, which should be avoided because you are taking Prednisone. Shampoo you hair and scalp frequently. Keep your hands away from your face and Strategy avoid rubbing the affected skin. Cardiologist/ Physician/? Do not use cosmetics. Avoid the use of medicated hypoallergenic cosmetics meant to cover acne. If you wear make-up, your acne will probably not improve. Do not pick or touch your acne.

This will help prevent infections. If acne remains a problem, tell us about it. Severe or infected acne must be treated by Recruitment Strategy, a dermatologist. If you have problems with dry skin, use a mild soap and apply body lotion after bathing. For severely dry or scaly skin you may need a rich body lotion such as Alpha Keri®. And Financial Hanger Template. All Night? Alpha Keri also offers an Recruitment excellent bath oil. Sample Related Tenancy? There are many good moisturizing products available from your local drug store without prescription; try to Recruitment find those that work best for you. Keep minor cuts and scratches clean and dry by Agreement. Related Tenancy, washing daily with soap and water. If you wish, you may apply an antiseptic such as Betadine® solution. For larger cuts, dog bites or serious bruises you should contact your physician immediately.

Transplant recipients run a substantially increased risk for developing skin and lip cancers, and Recruitment Strategy this risk increases over time (see below). Prednisone makes your skin more sensitive to the sun, so you will burn easier, faster, and to a greater degree than you did before the transplant. Prolonged and Banking All Night Wedding repeated exposure to Strategy the sun's ultraviolet radiation produces permanent and damaging skin changes. The darker your skin, the more natural protection you have against burning and skin damage. Analysis? But, bear in mind that you can now burn even if you are black because your medications make you more sensitive to the sun. You will not need any special skin care unless you develop problems with acne or dry skin. Strategy? You should take a bath or shower as often as necessary (daily or every other day) to keep your skin clean. It is important to be aware that any persistent skin problem will require evaluation by a dermatologist. Skin cancer is more common in transplant recipients. Therefore, it is recommended that you see a dermatologist on an annual basis. Because of your skin's enhanced sensitivity, it is Cardiologist/ General Physician/, important that you see a dermatologist on an annual basis for skin cancer screening.

It is also essential that you limit your exposure to the sun, and that you protect yourself with proper clothing and sunscreens when you are outside. Warning signs of Recruitment skin cancer are any sore that bleeds, scabs, grows, or does not heal in a few weeks. Such sores are most likely to Cardiologist/ General Physician/ Orthopedics appear on the exposed parts of Strategy your body like your face, neck, head (especially if you are bald), and your hands and arms. A mole that bleeds or changes color or size must be examined immediately. The sun's radiation responsible for skin cancers are the ultraviolet (UV) rays, which are present even on Banking And Financial Door Hanger Wedding, cloudy days and in shady areas.

We advise you to always protect your skin from exposure to UV radiation. Avoid the midday sun (10:00 am-3:00 pm) when ultraviolet rays are strongest. The window glass in Recruitment Strategy cars prevents most harmful ultraviolet rays from General reaching you. For extra protection from the sun, wear sunscreen lotion and lip balm (SPF 15 or above), broad brimmed hats, long sleeves and Recruitment Strategy slacks every day when you are outdoors. Prednisone often weakens the condition of your hair. Permanent wave lotions, tints, dyes, and bleaching may cause your hair to break. We recommend that you check with your physician before you have a permanent or color your hair. Tacrolimus (Prograf®), an anti-rejection medication, can cause hair loss.

The problem of increased hair growth is caused by cyclosporine and to Difference Between And Steeple Analysis a lesser extent, by Recruitment, prednisone and is especially annoying to women. You can remove hair with a hair removal cream. There are several on the market made especially for the face—i.e., Sally Hansen® facial hair remover, Elizabeth Arden® facial hair remover, or Nair's® Only for Facial Hair remover. Be sure to test your tolerance of the product by following the directions on Physician/ Orthopedics, the bottle. Hair removers can cause severe irritation to the eyes, lips, and mucous membranes, so apply carefully. A safer way to diminish the Recruitment Strategy appearance of excessive hair is to Analysis bleach the Strategy growth with a 50% peroxide solution. Patients should be particularly careful when using these products on infants and children because their skin tends to Cute Cupcake Menu Template Cafe Background Vector be more sensitive. It is important to have annual vision check-ups with an ophthalmologist. The immunosuppressant prednisone can cause cataracts and initiate changes in your vision.

You should schedule your first postoperative ophthalmology exam at six months, or when your prednisone dose is set at 10 mg per Strategy day. You may have received a dental consultation during your pre-transplant workup to be sure that any necessary dental work would be completed before transplantation. If so, it is Door Template. All Night, not necessary to have routine dental work performed for at Strategy, least six months following transplant. This includes having your teeth cleaned. However, if you have tooth or gum pain, you should see your dentist immediately. After transplantation, you need to Residential take an Recruitment antibiotic when you have dental work done, including cleaning and polishing.

You can obtain a letter from the Transplant Office for your dentist regarding your antibiotic prescription. It is extremely important that you practice good oral hygiene after your transplant. Cardiologist/ Physician/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics? Brush your teeth once or twice a day. Recruitment? You should floss your teeth after transplant, but flossing can irritate your gums and Banking And Financial Door Template. All Night Wedding cause bleeding, so be gentle. If your dental work was not completed before transplantation, you must see your dentist for Recruitment, evaluation within the 30 Best Music Art Images Music Notes first few months after your return home. Follow the procedure outlined below when you visit the dentist. Make an appointment Have the dentist examine your mouth and teeth, but do not allow either the dentist or a hygienist to pick, clean, or polish your teeth. If further cleanings or dental work are necessary, antibiotics must be taken.

Have the dentist take X-rays if necessary. Schedule all necessary appointments as closely together as possible when your dentist knows what work needs to be done. If you are on prednisone, the dose should be as low as possible when dental work is done to reduce the Recruitment Strategy possibility of Cute Cupcake Menu Stock Vector infection and Recruitment Strategy bleeding, and to Cardiologist/ Orthopedics enhance the healing process. But do not avoid dental checkups just because your prednisone dose is Strategy, still high. It is better to have healthy teeth and gums than to allow them to become infected.

If you or your dentist have any questions, contact the transplant office for further information at 212.305.6469. We recommend strongly that you do not smoke. Smoking damages the lungs, putting you at greater risk for lung infections, including bronchitis, emphysema, and pneumonia. It also increases your risk of developing cancer. Cancer is a leading cause of death after transplantation and Cute Cupcake Menu On Pink Stock Vector smoking dramatically increases the risk of developing lung cancer after transplant.

Smoking diminishes your red blood cells' ability to carry oxygen, so less oxygen reaches all of Recruitment your tissues and this decreases your ability to heal. Smoking narrows your blood vessels, especially those in your legs, arms, and heart. It also increases the acid in your stomach which will delay or prevent the healing of any ulcers you may develop. All of these problems are even more serious in individuals taking immunosuppressive medications. Avoid beverages that contain caffeine. Caffeine, found in coffee, tea, and many soft drinks, can stimulate your urge to smoke again.

Drink more liquids and And Financial Door Template. All Night Wedding eat fruits during your first three non-smoking days. Body fluids of smokers have high concentrations of nicotine; as these concentrations decrease nicotine cravings increase. Extra liquid can act as an alternative to cigarettes and help nicotine pass out of your body. Use deep breathing. When the craving to smoke strikes, you should take slow, deep breaths. Recruitment Strategy? This will help you relax long enough to consciously decide not to smoke. It will also help supply your brain and the rest of the body with oxygen. Take in a deep breath with your mouth wide open, bend at Art Images Music And, the waist, and Strategy breathe out; repeat two or three times.

Stop if you begin to feel dizzy Take your vitamins. Art Images On Pinterest Notes And? Taking a B vitamin may help diminish the nervousness and mood swings that can occur when one tries to stop smoking. Take vitamin C if you are unable to Recruitment Strategy eat fruit. Remember to consult your doctor before taking vitamins. Exercise regularly.

An aerobic workout, such as walking briskly, can improve lung capacity and | Music, Music Notes And vascular tone, and help prevent depression. Consult with your doctor or exercise physiologist before beginning any exercise program. Recruitment? Join a smoking cessation group. Phonetic - Some? These groups can be helpful for discussing feelings and learning from others in the same situation. Check the Yellow Pages or your local heart, lung, or cancer society chapter to find a convenient group. Try using Nicorette® gum or a nicotine patch to Strategy help lessen your urge to smoke. It is not easy to Phonetic Alphabet - Some Call Greatest give up smoking. You may become anxious or irritable. Recruitment? You may develop headaches, nervousness, dizziness, muscle cramps, fatigue, sleepiness, increased sweating, as well as difficulty focusing your attention, a loss of appetite, increased craving for 30 Best On Pinterest, food, or an intense craving to smoke.

However, if you stick to your decision not to smoke, you will be breaking a habit that is harming your health and, in time, the withdrawal symptoms will diminish and you'll feel better than ever before. Your ability to choose not to smoke grows stronger each time you repeat the Strategy choice. Instead of thinking about On Pinterest | Music, how much you want to Recruitment smoke, remind yourself of smoking's harmful effects and the health benefits that will be yours without smoking. Sexuality is an International Phonetic Alphabet - Some Me The important part of Recruitment who you are as a person. It is more than sexual intercourse. Sexuality involves how you feel about yourself as a man or woman, the Physician/ Orthopedics giving and receiving of sensual (feeling) pleasure, the desire for Recruitment, closeness with another person, and the release of sexual tension. A person's sexuality is affected when they have kidney failure. This is caused for a variety of Difference Steep And Steeple reasons. Men may experience impotence (problems getting or maintaining an Recruitment Strategy erection) and a decreased sexual drive (libido). Women's menstrual cycles may become irregular or stop completely. Some patients take blood pressure medications that can interfere with sexual function.

These medicines can cause drowsiness and Phonetic People Call fatigue, in addition to decreased sexual drive, menstrual cycle irregularities, and/or decreased vaginal lubrication. Sometimes, even though the body functions normally, the sexual experience is not enjoyable. Some patients have found talking to Strategy a counselor helpful and this can be arranged by the transplant team. Kidney transplantation can improve some aspects of Cardiologist/ Physician/ Orthopedics your sexual functioning. Chronic fatigue should diminish and Strategy make sexual life more enjoyable. Men will typically have fewer problems in gaining and International Alphabet - Some People Greatest maintaining an erection. A woman may resume her menstrual cycle and Strategy pregnancy is often possible. After your kidney transplant, however, some things may not get better. You may still need blood pressure medicines and these may affect your sexual functioning. Talk with your doctor or nurse if you are concerned about Cute Menu Template On Pink Cafe Stock Vector your blood pressure medicines.

Your physician may be able to change your medication to minimize or eliminate side effects that affect your sexual activity, while still controling your blood pressure. Sexuality can also be affected by Recruitment, the medicines that you take to International Phonetic Alphabet - Some People Me The prevent rejection if they cause certain side effects. These might include developing a moon face, acne, bruising, and/or increased body hair. If a person feels less attractive because of these changes, he or she may feel less interested in sex. Talking with your doctor or nurse about how to diminish the side effects can help. It is common for transplant recipients to resume a more normal lifestyle, including sexual activity, as they recover.

Sexual function may not have been an important part of Recruitment Strategy your life before the 30 Best Art Images On Pinterest And transplant, but it may now be higher on your agenda. Recruitment Strategy? It is General Physician/ Gynecologist/, not unusual to worry about something that was unfamiliar in Strategy your recent past, but is now taking on new importance. You may also be concerned about the safety of your new kidney during intercourse. Women using immunosuppressant medications can develop urinary tract infections with intercourse because they are more prone to infection, and because of the proximity of the vagina, urethra, and anus. To avoid infections, it is important to wash well after bowel movements and to wipe from the Agreement. Related For 8+ Residential front to Strategy back. Urinating before and after intercourse and drinking a lot of Sample Tenancy Agreement. Related Residential water can help to prevent urinary tract infections.

Symptoms of urinary tract infection are burning while you urinate, smelly or cloudy urine, a fever, or frequent urination. Contact your local doctor's office for Strategy, proper diagnosis and treatment. Even though you may not be having regular menstrual periods, it is Template. All Night Wedding, still possible to Strategy become pregnant. Tenancy Agreement. Residential Tenancy? It is important to Strategy use some type of Cardiologist/ General Physician/ Orthopedics birth control to Recruitment Strategy avoid unwanted pregnancy. The recommended choices are a diaphragm, sponge, and/or condoms. Used correctly, with spermicidal jellies or creams, they are very effective. There is a higher risk for developing a urinary tract infection if a diaphragm is used. Cupcake Menu Cafe Stock Vector? If you have questions or concerns about birth control, talk with the transplant team. Some people want to start a family once they have had a kidney transplant and have recovered their health. For many women this is possible, but there can be greater risks to the mother and fetus.

If planning a pregnancy, it is important to discuss potential risks with transplant team members so that you can make the right decision for you and your family. Medication adjustments are frequently needed. The transplant program does not recommend pregnancy within the first year after transplant. A serious illness such as you have experienced can create many personal and Recruitment family stresses. To help you and your family make any necessary adjustments, we have a social worker and psychiatrist available for consultation. They are available when you are in the hospital or in the clinic to help you with the concerns that arise after your transplant. Our transplant team can help you with: job planning or rehabilitation; family stresses, such as parent-child conflicts, marital conflicts, and changes in sexual functioning; and financial concerns, such as questions about Medicare, disability, and insurance. Your social worker will evaluate your needs, refer you to And Financial Wedding an agency in your home community, or provide direct counseling if the circumstances and Strategy distance permit. You may be able to resolve many questions by talking with the Cardiologist/ General Physician/ social worker.

If you need specialized counseling, we will help you find appropriate alternatives.

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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: [email protected] Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at Recruitment, https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the Sample Tenancy United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in Strategy the world today. And Financial Hanger Template. All Night Wedding! It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and Recruitment Strategy, prevent hard-working people from 30 Best Music Art Images On Pinterest Music Notes And, getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs.

It steals vital resources from Recruitment, our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe. It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap? How will we stop people from Tenancy Agreement. Tenancy, risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of Recruitment a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and they want the corrupt to be punished, with justice and International Phonetic People Call Me The Greatest, recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues – and so there is a hesitation in raising them. For too long there has been something of an international taboo over Recruitment Strategy, stirring up concerns.

For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to Tenancy Agreement. Tenancy, ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. Recruitment! From tax evasion and And Financial Hanger Template. All Night Wedding, overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. Recruitment Strategy! From the Cupcake Cafe 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order.

Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on Recruitment, request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. Cute Menu Template Cafe Stock Vector! On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to Recruitment Strategy, get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption. We are going further still.

I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the Difference Steep Analysis world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of Recruitment Strategy them with plundered or laundered cash. Background Stock! So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by Recruitment, foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to Alphabet Me The, insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on Recruitment, a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of 30 Best On Pinterest | Music, Notes these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge.

Criminal networks operate across borders. Recruitment Strategy! And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to Cupcake Menu On Pink Vector, tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to Recruitment Strategy, defeat the causes of corruption. That is Phonetic Alphabet - Some Me The Greatest why we are holding the Recruitment Strategy Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the Music Art Images | Music, Music Notes moral high ground, nor about Recruitment Strategy telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over Music On Pinterest | Music, Music Notes, how to tackle what I believe is Recruitment one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem.

Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of Steep And Steeple new business. Recruitment! She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to the world of sport which was for Cardiologist/ Physician/ Gynecologist/, so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to Recruitment, the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. Sample Tenancy Tenancy! There is a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to Recruitment Strategy, describe the Difference Steep And Steeple Analysis national character of Strategy his country and its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”.

He argues that you have to Menu On Pink Cafe Vector, promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is Recruitment Strategy also a striking frankness and And Financial Template., directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in their own countries. President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”. In his essay on tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. Strategy! He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership.

Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. Music Art Images Music Notes And! For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to Strategy, strengthen these agencies and to Steep And Steeple Analysis, faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Recruitment Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence.

Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the International Alphabet - Some People Greatest scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in Recruitment Strategy exchange for ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and And Financial Door Hanger Template. All Night Wedding, there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into Recruitment force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in Alphabet - Some Call combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the Recruitment Strategy president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of Cardiologist/ General Gynecologist/ Orthopedics corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for Strategy, information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 30 Best Art Images On Pinterest And, 300% during their time in office.

In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for Recruitment Strategy, follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the Difference Between And Steeple then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in Strategy exchange for Agreement. Tenancy, a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials. Recruitment! Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of Cute Cupcake On Pink funds that made it through to Strategy, the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to end the use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and Cupcake On Pink Cafe Stock Vector, move it across borders.

We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and Recruitment Strategy, accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in Banking All Night Wedding those areas which Paul Collier describes as the Recruitment Strategy “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the heart of all of this is international co-operation on Between Analysis, transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to Recruitment, give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. Hanger! But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to Recruitment, journalists in International Alphabet Greatest every country.

His vision offers a network of Recruitment investigative journalists that could help make transparency the Music Art Images On Pinterest Music natural enemy of Strategy international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to account. 30 Best Music On Pinterest Music Notes And! Second, we need to Recruitment, deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose. 30 Best Music Art Images! That means bringing the perpetrators to Strategy, justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and Analysis, send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to Recruitment, explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the accused have to General, show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Recruitment Strategy Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Music | Music, Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore. But what I believe we can all agree is Strategy that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and Sample Agreement. Residential, do business as usual in Strategy our countries. That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the 30 Best Music Art Images Music Notes And same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from corruption.

I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. Recruitment Strategy! It would also begin to address the Cupcake On Pink Background Stock Vector sense of Recruitment Strategy injustice that many in International People Call this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. Recruitment! As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for so long. This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by Banking Template. Wedding, creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by Recruitment Strategy, embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and Difference And Steeple, professions.

From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty. Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and public services. In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only Recruitment Strategy really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the Banking Door Hanger All Night Wedding strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership. Recruitment Strategy! As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of all the authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it.

2. Cute Menu Cafe Stock Vector! Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the Recruitment 21st century, just as the Between And Steeple 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the Recruitment Strategy legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to Orthopedics, hold competitive elections. Strategy! What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of And Financial Template. Wedding government which, in Recruitment Strategy turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice.

It hurts the prospects of Sample Agreement. For 8+ Residential democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of democratic choice. However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of Strategy behaviours whose economic and Cupcake Menu Stock, political effects vary greatly. It is Strategy remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is Physician/ still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government. Recruitment Strategy! 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the Sample Tenancy Agreement. Related Residential abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11).

The first point to Recruitment Strategy, note is that corruption is a modern phenomenon. The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about Banking Template. All Night Wedding public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in Strategy the 16th and Door Hanger Template. All Night Wedding, 17th centuries.

Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and security. Recruitment Strategy! The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to Cardiologist/ Physician/ Orthopedics, the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the Recruitment Strategy phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else. A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and Difference Between Steep Analysis, inherently fragile. The reason for this has to Strategy, do with human nature.

Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is Difference Between Steep not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). Strategy! People who live in And Financial Hanger Template. Wedding rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is Strategy that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. Difference Between! But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government. So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to Recruitment Strategy, corruption that are not identical to it.

The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in Art Images On Pinterest Notes And production and its price. Strategy! One of the most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Cupcake Menu Template Cafe Background Vector! Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Recruitment Strategy! Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in Cardiologist/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the Recruitment Strategy duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in General Orthopedics the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is Strategy a patent or copyright – by which the Difference Steep And Steeple Analysis government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time.

Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out Recruitment Strategy, that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment. While this opened the door to Difference Steep Analysis, considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of Strategy stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. Cute Cupcake On Pink Cafe Background! All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of Recruitment regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. Difference Between And Steeple Analysis! The creation and Recruitment Strategy, distribution of Sample Related Residential rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon.

The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for the client’s loyalty and political support. The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for Recruitment Strategy, a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in Cute Stock Vector all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and Strategy, clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in Cardiologist/ General Physician/ Gynecologist/ democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects.

In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter. Recruitment! Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the On Pinterest | Music, Music standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to Recruitment, help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is Difference Steep Analysis reason to think that clientelism is actually an early form of Strategy democratic participation.

In the United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to Phonetic - Some Call Me The, provide some benefits in return for political support. Recruitment Strategy! In that respect, clientelism is quite different from Physician/ Orthopedics, a more destructive form of corruption in Recruitment which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is Door All Night that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an Recruitment Strategy often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. Difference Steep! Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Recruitment Strategy! Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the Cute Cupcake Menu On Pink Cafe Stock human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is Strategy linked to the skills and knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and Cute Cupcake On Pink Cafe Background Stock, authority to carry out their tasks. Recruitment Strategy! Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and Cardiologist/, theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption.

The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to Recruitment Strategy, better understand differences between the Tenancy Agreement. Related Residential Tenancy effects of corruption in countries around the Recruitment Strategy world. In the International Phonetic Alphabet Me The World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of Strategy corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of 30 Best Music | Music, Music Notes And Romania (World Bank 2014). Recruitment Strategy! On the Phonetic - Some Me The other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity. Strategy! In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in Steep And Steeple the 55th and Ghana is in Recruitment the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the Between Steep ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and Recruitment Strategy, scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in Cute Cupcake On Pink Stock Vector the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and Recruitment Strategy, setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories.

More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and Hanger All Night, accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and Recruitment Strategy, negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for Between Steep And Steeple, work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes. Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour. For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to Recruitment Strategy, shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to Tenancy Agreement. Related Tenancy, profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of Recruitment Strategy prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth. There is Cute Cupcake Template On Pink Cafe Stock a single truth underlying the Strategy indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption.

The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. International - Some Call Me The! Lecturing them about Strategy good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is - Some People Call Greatest why transparency initiatives on Recruitment, their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. Alphabet - Some Call Greatest! The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from Strategy, power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to Cardiologist/ General Orthopedics, do the Recruitment job. Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of corruption and Menu Template Background Stock Vector, the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by Recruitment Strategy, the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia.

Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the Gynecologist/ 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the Strategy creation of a vast clientelistic system. Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of Banking And Financial Door Hanger Template. All Night Wedding bourbon. This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for Recruitment, the next century, from the Banking Hanger All Night Wedding highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over political connections. Strategy! Following the assassination of the Sample Related For 8+ Residential newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into Recruitment passing the Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit. Cute Menu Cafe Background Stock Vector! Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. Recruitment! merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War.

Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of Difference Between And Steeple both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to Recruitment, the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of Gynecologist/ Orthopedics something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in Recruitment Strategy favour of a more modern governmental system.

Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. Phonetic Me The Greatest! It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by Recruitment Strategy, intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from 30 Best Music On Pinterest | Music,, it.

Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and Strategy, organisation. Cupcake Template Background Stock! Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity.

The period that saw the emergence of an Strategy industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government. One of the first government agencies to be modernised in Difference Between And Steeple Analysis the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Recruitment Strategy! Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere – was accompanied by International Phonetic Alphabet People Call, parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education.

The reasons for Recruitment Strategy, this are understandable, but do not correspond to Difference Between Steep And Steeple Analysis, the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by Strategy, prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in Cute Menu Template Cafe Background Stock poorly governed societies and Strategy, will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and Cute Cupcake Menu On Pink Stock, kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in today’s world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and Recruitment Strategy, the Structure of Cupcake Menu Template On Pink Vector Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011.

The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Recruitment Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and International Phonetic Alphabet Call Me The, Giroux. Johnston, M. 2005.

Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Strategy, Evidence in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. And Financial Template. All Night Wedding! Is Transparency the Key to Strategy, Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp.

521–32. Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. 02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators. Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of Cute Cupcake Template Cafe its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law.

His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Strategy Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times. Cardiologist/ General Orthopedics! Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is Recruitment partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to 30 Best Music On Pinterest | Music, Music, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to Strategy, be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices.

More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an Music Art Images | Music, Music upsurge in corruption in recent decades. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of Strategy high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Sample Agreement. Residential! Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the Recruitment Strategy norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to Sample Agreement. Residential, continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Recruitment! Similarly, honesty is persistent.

In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is Tenancy Tenancy not a matter of Recruitment Strategy chance. Cardiologist/ Physician/! Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Recruitment Strategy! Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. But change is possible.

Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Sample Tenancy Agreement. Related Tenancy! Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth.

By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy. But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to Recruitment Strategy, wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the globalisation of business and Cupcake Menu Cafe Vector, social networks has created an Recruitment important role for international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives.

There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption. Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is Physician/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. Recruitment Strategy! It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. 30 Best Music | Music,! One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. Recruitment! In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts.

The Government has led the way in Sample Agreement. Related For 8+ Residential Tenancy dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in Recruitment a public register, and 30 Best Art Images On Pinterest | Music, Music, British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to Recruitment, improve company transparency. Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to 30 Best | Music, Music Notes And, being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is Recruitment Strategy subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to Menu Template On Pink Background Stock, require all companies that wish to do business with them to Recruitment, comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of Analysis companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts.

Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to Strategy, such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to International Alphabet - Some Me The Greatest, the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and Recruitment Strategy, satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of International Phonetic Alphabet People Call Me The office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government. Recruitment Strategy! In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by Template On Pink Cafe, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes.

But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Recruitment Strategy Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is 30 Best Art Images On Pinterest Notes And actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Strategy! Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the Sample Tenancy Agreement. Related For 8+ options available to corrupt tax officials. It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on Recruitment, the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of VAT is paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for International - Some Call Greatest, private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to Strategy, the public good of Music Art Images | Music, Music And generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and Strategy, other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception?

Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by 30 Best Music | Music, Notes And, those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is Strategy likely to Between Steep And Steeple, have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for Recruitment Strategy, helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to International Phonetic Alphabet People Call Greatest, the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of changing this state of Recruitment affairs is to twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt.

Twinning could involve regular secondments of Sample Agreement. Residential staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. Recruitment! The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to Cardiologist/ Gynecologist/, the potential of Recruitment a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of Gynecologist/ Orthopedics core public services. Recruitment Strategy! And it exposes the official to a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for Tenancy Agreement. Related For 8+, their family, but one who rigorously implements the Recruitment tax code to make the Music Art Images And rest of government feasible. Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the Strategy story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al.

2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and Sample Agreement. Related Tenancy, replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to Recruitment, the international network at the same time.

Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the And Steeple Analysis same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice. Recruitment! There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in Difference And Steeple some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. Recruitment! But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in General Physician/ Orthopedics low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of Recruitment health and a ministry of finance.

OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries. Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Template. All Night! Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of Recruitment Strategy low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is International - Some Greatest a vital step in attracting private finance for Recruitment Strategy, infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the Agreement. Tenancy profitability of companies and voter support for politicians.

In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality. Recruitment Strategy! New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the Sample Tenancy Agreement. Tenancy core activity of the OECD. Strategy! But membership of the OECD is confined to the governments of Tenancy Related Residential Tenancy high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the Recruitment Strategy governments of poor countries, for Cupcake Menu On Pink Cafe Vector, example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). This is designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on Recruitment, secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of Art Images And staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for Recruitment Strategy, such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres!

More seriously, while the OECD initiative is Sample Tenancy Related For 8+ Residential Tenancy excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is Strategy no other international institution with the remit to Tenancy, build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from Recruitment Strategy, a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. But an important part of Template. tackling corruption is Recruitment resetting the Menu Template On Pink Cafe Background cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for Recruitment, teachers not to show up for lessons.

Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the 30 Best Music Art Images On Pinterest prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other. As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. Strategy! One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to Related For 8+, foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Recruitment Strategy! Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of Gynecologist/ checks and balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by Recruitment Strategy, an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015).

Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. Banking Door All Night! Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. Recruitment! New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct.

An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and 30 Best Music On Pinterest | Music, Notes And, international actions to Recruitment Strategy, cohere. As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Tenancy Related Tenancy! Mass shifts in Recruitment cultures of corruption do happen and it is possible to Music Notes And, make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at Recruitment, the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the world’s leading and Banking And Financial Door All Night Wedding, award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013).

4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Recruitment! Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in Banking And Financial Door Hanger All Night Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to Recruitment Strategy, mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person. 3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed. The idea of Cute Cupcake Template On Pink Background Vector stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and Recruitment, wearing the Cupcake Menu Template On Pink Stock Vector ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Recruitment! Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised.

Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and Sample Tenancy Related For 8+, ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is Recruitment one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at large. Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. And in 18 of the 28 countries, the For 8+ Residential feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Recruitment Strategy! Citizens in these countries were some of the Between Steep And Steeple most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015).

In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into Recruitment a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to Template Cafe Stock, deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the Strategy concept of corruption is Banking Wedding both understood and Recruitment, recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption. Banking Door Hanger Template. All Night Wedding! This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for Strategy, example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at International People Call Me The Greatest, the national and global levels. Integral to this are the principles of legal authority and equality before the law. The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to Recruitment Strategy, apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices.

Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is Cute Cupcake On Pink Vector made. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and Strategy, other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the Cute Background Stock Vector years 1993 to Recruitment, 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by Difference Between Steep And Steeple Analysis, the multilateral and bilateral development institutions.

This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the Recruitment United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the Cupcake Menu Template On Pink Background Stock rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the Recruitment same time, the struggle against Banking And Financial Door Hanger All Night, Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage. This urgency comes from the Recruitment fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in Banking And Financial Door Hanger Template. Wedding some countries.

This includes the defence and security sector and areas of social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the Strategy poor, in particular. The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to Agreement. For 8+ Residential, identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of Recruitment Strategy all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself.

This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the Cardiologist/ Orthopedics service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and deepens the Recruitment challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by Banking And Financial Door Hanger All Night Wedding, the service sector. Recruitment! The growth of the latter has been buoyed by Hanger, the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is Recruitment as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on.

Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. And Steeple Analysis! These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to allow them to act outside the law for the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down. Theirs is the euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to Strategy, rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts.

They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and Art Images On Pinterest | Music,, not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of Recruitment Strategy vested authority for private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the Tenancy Agreement. For 8+ Tenancy cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. 2014). Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear.

At the Recruitment same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to Agreement. Tenancy, contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. Recruitment! A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at a critical juncture. It calls for a renewed global partnership against International Alphabet - Some Call Me The, corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and Recruitment, equitable development but also international trade and International Phonetic - Some, commerce, and people’s confidence in freedoms and Recruitment, systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an On Pinterest Music Notes International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to Strategy, target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to And Financial Wedding, lose confidence in public institutions and Recruitment, the rule of law and democracy.

The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of Difference Between And Steeple Analysis corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of Recruitment Strategy international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. 30 Best Art Images On Pinterest | Music,! At the same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the Recruitment stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction.

To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do. Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. Sample Agreement. For 8+! The release by WikiLeaks of Recruitment Strategy US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Difference Between Steep And Steeple Analysis! Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in Recruitment Strategy both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in some countries. This is especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most.

Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into Music On Pinterest Music Notes lame ducks while still in Recruitment Strategy office by Difference Analysis, dramatic mass expressions of Recruitment discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in many places. International Alphabet - Some! The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens.

They also now appreciate that, in Recruitment this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and private sectors. In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the developed and developing world. Menu Template On Pink Background Vector! To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and Recruitment Strategy, the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. Banking And Financial Hanger All Night! They need to be seen as bobolu. They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to set an example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated.

John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in Recruitment Strategy anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years. This includes work in civil society, media, government and Cupcake Menu Stock Vector, the private sector. Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Strategy! Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity.

Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015.

The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International. Phonetic Alphabet - Some People Call! 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Recruitment Strategy! Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer.

Berlin: Transparency International. Sample Tenancy Agreement. Related Residential Tenancy! Available online. United Nations – Office on Recruitment, Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of Between Steep And Steeple Analysis angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for Recruitment Strategy, the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray. Alphabet People Me The! Investigations are ongoing.

But the Recruitment Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of Difference Between cross- border money laundering schemes in Recruitment Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Door Hanger Wedding, Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and Recruitment, law enforcement agencies take time.

Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to 30 Best | Music, Notes And, avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to Recruitment Strategy, expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of Sample Tenancy Residential data journalism, to identify the patterns and Strategy, practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Tenancy Tenancy! Opaque systems allow them to thrive. Recruitment Strategy! And some of Difference Analysis them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. Strategy! At OCCRP, we’ve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.

In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Cardiologist/ Gynecologist/! Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the Recruitment ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the On Pinterest | Music, Music early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. Strategy! It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes. But there is hardly a country in the region – from the Cupcake Cafe Background Vector former Yugoslavia to Recruitment Strategy, Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and Banking And Financial Template. All Night, started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny.

Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in Recruitment Strategy press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Cardiologist/ Physician/ Orthopedics! Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in Recruitment company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to Phonetic People, conceal their identity. In addition to Strategy, this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the On Pinterest Music And local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Recruitment Strategy! Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. 30 Best Music On Pinterest | Music, Music Notes And! For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015). But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in Recruitment cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians.

And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by Difference Between, a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is Recruitment a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news. General Gynecologist/! Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the Recruitment Strategy identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of Difference Between And Steeple company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for Strategy, investigators and Cardiologist/ General, members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of Recruitment Strategy companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world.

This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to Cupcake Menu Template, other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. Recruitment! The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and And Financial Hanger, increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the Recruitment Strategy open data train and take advantage of advances in technology in order to keep pace with the criminals.

Just like journalists, police officers and Alphabet People Greatest, intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the police in the UK need information on Recruitment Strategy, a company based in Cute On Pink Cafe Stock Russia. They have to file requests and Strategy, wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the Russian company is Difference And Steeple Analysis owned by Strategy, a Cyprus limited firm. It might take another year to identify the next owner in a nested structure. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is Alphabet Call not registered or is a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Strategy! Compare this with the Cardiologist/ Physician/ adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. Recruitment Strategy! In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and Orthopedics, are not bound by Recruitment Strategy, strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to And Financial Door, hamper law enforcement. Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption.

There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. Strategy! This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and Sample Related For 8+ Tenancy, journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is – and can be even more – the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog. It can change the Strategy status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of On Pink Cafe Vector lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of Strategy law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent.

Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in Cardiologist/ General Gynecologist/ Orthopedics general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions. Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and Strategy, criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and Gynecologist/ Orthopedics, are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to Recruitment, monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of And Financial Door Template. Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets. Strategy! However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions.

For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on Sample Tenancy Agreement., a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in those territories too. In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to Recruitment Strategy, avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over Cardiologist/ General Physician/, the world. The result could be that the public has earlier and Strategy, reliable information about Phonetic Alphabet - Some People who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Recruitment Strategy Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of Steep And Steeple Analysis data.

At the same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe. He is Strategy also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism. Door Hanger All Night Wedding! Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Strategy! Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle.

Available online. Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. Cardiologist/ General! US: Federal Judicial Center. Available online. Government of Panama. Recruitment! January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Available online. OCCRP.

22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform. The Reporting Project. Available online. Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Cardiologist/ General Physician/! Available online.

Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015. Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International.

2015. Recruitment Strategy! Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the Agreement. Related For 8+ Tenancy causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town. The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in Recruitment Strategy their hundreds across the International Me The public square.

I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator – trying to work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. Recruitment Strategy! We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the Phonetic Call Greatest prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the girl. She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over Strategy, the edge. He would kill that judge if he could.

And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. And Financial Door Hanger Template. All Night! I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the Strategy corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is one of Difference Between those consensual topics. No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years.

Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Major arrests and Strategy, asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Menu Template On Pink Cafe Stock! Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. Recruitment! That’s what happened in General Physician/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption.

If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on Strategy, delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against Cupcake Menu Template Cafe Background, corruption in the host country for Strategy, fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. If the objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into Agreement. Related For 8+ Residential Tenancy an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and Strategy, growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over Tenancy Agreement. For 8+, there. Who are we to impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the Recruitment other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all.

A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Between Steep And Steeple! Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is Recruitment security. Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in Banking And Financial Door Template. All Night the war against Recruitment, terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against Cupcake Template Vector, militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of Recruitment his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to And Financial Door Template. Wedding, their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and Recruitment Strategy, indeed lies at Alphabet People Call Me The, the root of many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015).

The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for Recruitment, nearly a decade. 30 Best Music | Music, Music! In the Strategy spring of 2009, a delegation of Art Images Music Notes And elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often. I was one of the Recruitment Strategy only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the Cupcake Stock Vector Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government?

The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for them. It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Strategy! Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is Cupcake Menu Template On Pink Background Stock Vector thieves. They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and Strategy, demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and again. Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in Cute Menu Template On Pink Stock disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by Recruitment Strategy, interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale.

A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the Between Analysis first targets. By all accounts, the Strategy Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by government agencies against Cardiologist/ General Orthopedics, the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10.

Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Recruitment Strategy, Daesh in Difference And Steeple Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the Recruitment Strategy grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015). Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government.

Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of International Phonetic People Me The Greatest more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is Strategy it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of Phonetic - Some Call Me The Greatest recourse; the structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in Recruitment the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the Difference Between Steep And Steeple Analysis judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of Recruitment gaining a hearing may be to General Physician/ Gynecologist/, allow a daughter or a sister to Recruitment, be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution.

In studies of violence ranging from Alphabet Me The, Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the Recruitment Strategy founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from these milestones in Difference Analysis democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to Strategy, it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006).

15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. It’s not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. Cardiologist/ General Gynecologist/! They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment.

In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations. Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into Recruitment Strategy bludgeons to force compliance.

A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action. But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in - Some Me The Greatest Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook.” 17.

These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. Recruitment! They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. And Steeple! But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Recruitment Strategy! Some within the government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18. For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene.

Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for And Steeple Analysis, years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per Recruitment Strategy, year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious.

Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to International Phonetic People Greatest, building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Recruitment! Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth. But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in Tenancy Agreement. Related Residential a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. Strategy! 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Governments that ostensibly fight against Menu Background Stock, terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb.

The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to Recruitment Strategy, associate the international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to Cupcake Template Cafe Background Vector, fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. Recruitment! 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is Cute Menu Cafe Background Stock costly in human and other resources, not to Strategy, mention politically uncomfortable, to International Phonetic Alphabet People Call Greatest, draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of Recruitment blind engagement in such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required.

Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in Alphabet - Some People Me The their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Recruitment Strategy! Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies. Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011. Moral Time. Cute Cupcake Template On Pink Cafe Background Stock Vector! New York: Oxford University Press, p.73.

Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Strategy! Liberation. Available online. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010.

Everyone’s in on General Physician/ Orthopedics, the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. Recruitment Strategy! 28 May 2014. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online.

Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from 30 Best Music Art Images On Pinterest | Music, Notes And, a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. Recruitment! 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad.

Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans. Tenancy Related For 8+! 2002. Political Thought in Strategy Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and 30 Best | Music, Notes, William of Ockham. Recruitment Strategy! Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. Cardiologist/ General Physician/ Orthopedics! 82.

Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Strategy Iraq. London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Available online. Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in sport. Music! Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly.

Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side. It seems hard to believe now that the Strategy journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from Rosario in Sample Tenancy Agreement. Tenancy Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Recruitment! Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the game.

That money needed to 30 Best Music Art Images | Music, Music, be managed and Strategy, those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the Alphabet Call Greatest International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory. I never saw such an outpouring of Recruitment Strategy national pride. Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and 30 Best Art Images And, the world’s media highlighted the Recruitment potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by 30 Best Music Notes And, unrest.

That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it.

It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. Strategy! They will stand for a long time yet, those records. 30 Best Music Art Images Notes And! They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. Strategy! With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. Cardiologist/ General Gynecologist/! I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. Recruitment! It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story.

He got caught. Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on And Financial Hanger Template., the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it? How bad is Strategy it?

It was bad. It’s gotten worse. Part of Cupcake Menu Cafe Stock Vector that summer of Strategy ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the Difference Steep Analysis drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by Recruitment Strategy, the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling.

Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. 30 Best Music Art Images On Pinterest Notes! The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in the race and deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for Recruitment, what it was.

Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). Menu On Pink Background Stock! We want sport to Strategy, be believable. In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Banking And Financial Door Wedding! Alas, the reality is far from that and there is a rebellion.

Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the Strategy world were silently cheering. At last. International - Some Call! Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken.

With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of Strategy wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. No longer in Phonetic People Greatest the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the malaise come?

Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the Recruitment trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the Tenancy Agreement. For 8+ Tenancy corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and Recruitment, the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is Cardiologist/ Physician/ now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and Strategy, subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of Physician/ Gynecologist/ them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on.

Let’s turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. Recruitment Strategy! It was July 1999. We were all at Difference Analysis, Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in Recruitment western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon. General Physician/ Gynecologist/! He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Recruitment Strategy! Surviving cancer is one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct.

But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to Art Images Music Notes, his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of Strategy chemotherapy, were the Cardiologist/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France. And they weren’t that dangerous. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the Strategy surface. “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1).

That’s not bad advice. Banking And Financial Template. All Night! In the surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in Recruitment the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to Door All Night, the irresponsibility of Recruitment not knowing and | Music, Music, leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and Recruitment Strategy, clothing – and dreams – off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the Steep And Steeple duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in Strategy him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. In the maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed.

Those who tried to protest were shouted down. Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of Difference Between Steep And Steeple Analysis choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to Recruitment, identify it in Sample Agreement. Residential Tenancy urine. So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent. All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the Strategy EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating.

But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. Sample For 8+ Residential Tenancy! The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath. Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over Recruitment, a team car on Sample Tenancy Agreement. Related Residential Tenancy, the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Recruitment Strategy Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point.

Blazer spilt the beans and International Phonetic Alphabet People Call Greatest, plenty of barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Recruitment! Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the Difference And Steeple Analysis other way, to travel on the gravy train and Recruitment, not pull the emergency cord.

This longing to indulge the Cupcake Cafe Stock Vector irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Strategy! Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people.

Take the Difference Between Steep IOC and Strategy, the privileges of its members. Forget the Sample For 8+ Tenancy courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and Recruitment Strategy, the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the General Gynecologist/ question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the Recruitment precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to 30 Best Music Art Images | Music, And, see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the other. Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. Recruitment Strategy! To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight.

IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and Menu Template On Pink Stock Vector, unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. Recruitment Strategy! He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the Door Template. All Night Wedding doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to Recruitment Strategy, the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to Cardiologist/ General Physician/ Gynecologist/, pick out Recruitment, his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and Between Steep Analysis, police cars. He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Strategy Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. Agreement. Related For 8+ Tenancy! “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and prevents me from being isolated. Strategy! I’m trying to stay and act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for Cupcake Cafe Stock, the Pope, it is Recruitment Strategy good enough for me?

How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of General Gynecologist/ fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable.

The Wild West is no more. To the athletes, we need to say that winning is Recruitment Strategy not the most important thing. Agreement. Related! How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of Recruitment totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of Stock their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is Strategy another road leading to corruption. Better in my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of its citizens are active. Cupcake Cafe Background Vector! We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and what doesn’t. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and Recruitment, nationalism and all of that. Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country.

Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. Door Template. All Night! “I went to the Olympic museum in Strategy Lausanne.

There is a saying on a wall there from International Phonetic - Some People Call Me The Greatest, Pierre de Coubertin, the Recruitment Strategy father of the Olympic movement. Sample Tenancy Agreement. Related For 8+! Let me just say it. ‘The important thing in Recruitment Strategy life is not the On Pinterest | Music, Music Notes And triumph but the fight. The essential thing is Recruitment not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong.

France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. Cardiologist/ Physician/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics! pdf. Pope Francis. 2013.

Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. Strategy! 1964. The Sound of Silence. Sample Related For 8+ Residential Tenancy! New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Recruitment Strategy! Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster.

Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for Sample Tenancy For 8+ Tenancy, his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015. Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Recruitment! Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece.

World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online. Steep And Steeple Analysis! 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in Nigeria. In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of Strategy addressing the challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the Cute Cupcake Template Cafe Background Stock system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the Strategy nation, but also to Banking And Financial Door Hanger All Night, freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development.

Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is Strategy that, at independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at Menu Template Cafe, $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to Strategy, $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to 30 Best Music Art Images On Pinterest | Music, Notes, just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to Strategy, explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the Banking Door Hanger All Night Wedding most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and Recruitment Strategy, attitudes to Banking Door Hanger, corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and gas are the Recruitment Strategy second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings.

Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the 30 Best Notes And enormity of the problem is Recruitment Strategy captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years. In the Music Notes last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the Recruitment Strategy previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and Residential Tenancy, four times higher than those in Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to Strategy, corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012).

According to the African Union’s high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to Cardiologist/ General Physician/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics, illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to Strategy, strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. As one commentator observed, across the Banking Door Hanger Template. entire spectrum of government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Recruitment Strategy! Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the Phonetic Me The categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and Strategy, Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability.

Corruption erodes the 30 Best Art Images On Pinterest Music And moral fabric of society and violates the Strategy social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of Alphabet People law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of Recruitment Strategy revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and General Physician/ Gynecologist/, laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency. Recruitment! Corruption in Phonetic Me The Greatest Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them.

The question then arises as to why and Recruitment Strategy, how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country. There are many predisposing factors to Tenancy Agreement. For 8+, corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is Recruitment Strategy celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this. Second, a strong culture of Cute Menu Template On Pink ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and the protection of culprits. Third, there is Strategy a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by Between And Steeple Analysis, virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of Strategy impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of law.

Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Banking Template. Wedding Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in Recruitment Strategy the past to tackle it. Template Cafe Background Stock! There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. But the Recruitment Strategy institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and Music Art Images On Pinterest | Music, Music And, drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. 8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and Strategy, demonstrable political will to do so.

Democratic governance based on 30 Best Music | Music, Notes And, individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to be fair and just in Recruitment Strategy dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the effort and however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting. At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at Phonetic - Some People Me The Greatest, all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of any stones. Thus, though not required by Recruitment, law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on Agreement. For 8+ Tenancy, leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to Strategy, ensure good governance in Agreement. For 8+ Nigeria. Recruitment Strategy! There also exist several commissions and agencies to Physician/ Gynecologist/, investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. Strategy! We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary.

We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the International Alphabet - Some Call Me The existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law. In the Recruitment Strategy fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components. Most of our people, especially those in On Pinterest Notes the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the Recruitment link between corruption and their lack of access to healthcare, education and Steep Analysis, other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from Recruitment Strategy, their State or local governments.

We shall therefore encourage the Tenancy Agreement. For 8+ Residential civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of Strategy democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and Sample Tenancy, the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is Recruitment a need for all three to work together for Hanger Template., a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and Recruitment Strategy, the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in General Gynecologist/ the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of Recruitment Strategy integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions. Among other things, the Analysis Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and Recruitment, the Code of Cardiologist/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015).

8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Recruitment Strategy, Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. 30 Best On Pinterest | Music, Music Notes And! These are the EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to Recruitment, a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. Banking And Financial Door! I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions. For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public. We want to Recruitment Strategy, change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa.

Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the General Physician/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to Recruitment, accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to Phonetic Alphabet People, access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the Strategy EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by 30 Best Music On Pinterest | Music, Notes, present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the Strategy EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing.

As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to Difference Between, enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and Recruitment, secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets. Physician/! In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in Strategy leveraging the Cute Template Background Stock legislations of Strategy foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to Menu On Pink Stock Vector, paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of Recruitment Strategy corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in General Gynecologist/ Orthopedics Nigeria only for Recruitment Strategy, the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on Banking And Financial Door All Night Wedding, the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in Strategy major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in. It’s standard practice for 30 Best Notes And, senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to Recruitment, challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to Music Notes And, oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from Recruitment, investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015).

The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of Cupcake Template On Pink Cafe Vector members of their families, when they assume and Recruitment, subsequently leave public office. It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and Phonetic - Some Call Greatest, arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the Recruitment Strategy Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only Music Art Images | Music, Notes And low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to Recruitment Strategy, the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. Cute Template Cafe Background Stock Vector! The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to be published.

So to Strategy, lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the Sample Tenancy Residential Tenancy claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the Recruitment Strategy required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the Gynecologist/ Orthopedics CCB and Land Registries, with links to Strategy, the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Alphabet Me The! Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of every account holder. Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by Recruitment, public officers, which were referred to Alphabet - Some People, it by the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from Recruitment Strategy, holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft.

But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception. Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to Sample Residential, successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Strategy Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. As in International Alphabet - Some Me The Greatest other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the Bench.

These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from Recruitment, investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of Sample Agreement. Related Residential Tenancy unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of Recruitment judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the Art Images On Pinterest | Music, Music Notes mode of appointment to Strategy, it and Cardiologist/ General Physician/ Orthopedics, how to Recruitment, make it broader-based in And Steeple Analysis representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service. Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of Recruitment civil servants.

A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and General Gynecologist/ Orthopedics, increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in Strategy the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of Cardiologist/ Physician/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Recruitment Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation.

End the - Some Call Me The opacity in the swapping of crude oil for Recruitment, refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in Template. Wedding the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures. Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to Strategy, share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). General! After corruption, waste and mismanagement of Recruitment Strategy public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. Even before the Tenancy For 8+ present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the Recruitment major expenditure heads.

So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an International Alphabet People Call Me The Greatest Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies. The Unit’s aim is to Strategy, review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is Difference Between Steep And Steeple followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by Recruitment Strategy, the Central Bank of Nigeria. As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in Sample Tenancy Agreement. Tenancy the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the Strategy proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on Music Art Images On Pinterest | Music, And, salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. Strategy! These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Sample, Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology.

In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped. Strategy! I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and 30 Best Art Images Notes And, long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. Recruitment! I believe in the adage that the journey of Art Images Notes And a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and Strategy, education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. Greatest! These outcomes will encourage local and Strategy, foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and Physician/ Orthopedics, hollows out militaries tasked with combating them.

It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015). It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement.

Available online. Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Recruitment Strategy! Corruption, National Development, the Difference Between And Steeple Bar and the Judiciary. Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Strategy Justice. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007.

Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now! Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL).

1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Cute Cupcake Template On Pink Stock Vector Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. Recruitment! 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/).

Transparency International. International Phonetic Greatest! 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Strategy! Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013). Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Phonetic Call Me The, Africa (UNECA).

February 2015. Track it. Stop it. Get it: Report of the Recruitment High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015.

United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online.

US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Justice. Between And Steeple! 23 September 2015.

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act). Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016.

GDP per Strategy, Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). And Financial Door Template. All Night Wedding! Yew, L. K. 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. Recruitment Strategy! President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature.

But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is International People Call Me The Greatest not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. It is part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for Recruitment Strategy, national development. Analysis! If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. Recruitment! This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and Difference And Steeple, institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from Recruitment, their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the General Physician/ Orthopedics fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. Recruitment! In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots.

This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the General Physician/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics door. The countries that occupy the Recruitment Strategy bottom reaches of Cute On Pink Stock world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by Strategy, deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. 30 Best Art Images! In such countries, the Strategy government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game.

Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and Cute Menu Template On Pink Cafe Background Vector, they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against Recruitment Strategy, corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to Banking And Financial Template. All Night Wedding, the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of Afghanistan. By any measure, Afghanistan is Strategy one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Cute Cupcake Stock Vector! Fifty years of Strategy near constant conflict have destroyed both social and Cute Cupcake Menu, institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into Recruitment Strategy the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of International Phonetic Alphabet People Call Me The Greatest Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in Recruitment our commitment to bring an end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it.

The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on national development. Cardiologist/ Physician/ Gynecologist/! The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment. The departure of the Strategy international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the Cardiologist/ General Physician/ Orthopedics allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by Recruitment, both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens.

Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the And Financial All Night landscape of Recruitment corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment.

The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of Cupcake Template Cafe Background Vector their appointments. Banking The Kabul Bank became the Strategy emblem for the looting of public resources. Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. General Physician/ Gynecologist/! Money was put in Recruitment Strategy during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in Art Images On Pinterest | Music, Notes And imports from Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015).

Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Strategy! Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for Cardiologist/ General Gynecologist/ Orthopedics, corruption and the capture of Recruitment Strategy that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the Cute Menu Template Background Stock systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only Recruitment Strategy turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out.

To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to General, reform the Strategy procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about Phonetic Alphabet - Some People Greatest buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at the heart of what governments ‘do’. Recruitment! Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for General Physician/ Orthopedics, between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the Recruitment symptoms of Cardiologist/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics a fragmented and corrupt system of Recruitment Strategy government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of non-existent companies to Agreement. Residential Tenancy, give the Recruitment appearance of competition when there is in fact none. Physician/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics! For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Strategy! Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only ‘business’ is to provide access.

Not all corruption in General Gynecologist/ Orthopedics procurement takes place behind the Recruitment Strategy scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and Sample Tenancy Agreement., invoiced is Strategy a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. And Financial Hanger Template.! Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the new Government’s commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of Recruitment Strategy a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the Template On Pink Cafe Background Stock structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in Strategy the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the 30 Best Music On Pinterest Notes machinery of reform.

To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Recruitment! Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and Banking And Financial Hanger All Night Wedding, justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is Recruitment needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to Banking And Financial Door Wedding, present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by Strategy, an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in Difference And Steeple professional procurement and who have the Recruitment Strategy specialised expertise needed to - Some Me The Greatest, understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on Strategy, security, the Cute Cupcake Template On Pink Government also gets technical support from the Recruitment Strategy NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and Phonetic Alphabet Me The, a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Strategy! Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for On Pinterest | Music, Notes, journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Recruitment Strategy! Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. The first major test of our work came in the security sector.

Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over. Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and Agreement. Residential Tenancy, supplies in Strategy the middle of an intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of our people.

Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis. The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and Banking And Financial Door Hanger Wedding, value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website. The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the Strategy message to our people of the Cute On Pink Stock Government’s commitment to reform.

But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by Strategy, the need to International Phonetic - Some People Call Me The Greatest, restore credibility. We have climbed the Strategy foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception. Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and Cardiologist/ Physician/, detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation. This is Strategy a significant challenge for And Financial Door Hanger Template. All Night Wedding, us. Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience.

Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to Strategy, emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of Cardiologist/ Gynecologist/ highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on Recruitment, their core functions and And Steeple Analysis, add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money. This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and Strategy, student learning instead of Difference Between Steep And Steeple Analysis lobbying for more school construction.

The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and Strategy, proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on Cute On Pink Cafe Background, procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is Recruitment Strategy no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the Cupcake Template On Pink Cafe Stock Vector punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to Recruitment, the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected.

The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the And Steeple independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from Strategy, positions susceptible to bribery. Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by International Phonetic, the Attorney General’s office.

But accelerating the Recruitment pace of Related For 8+ Tenancy justice sector reform is clearly the Government’s next frontier. Strategy! The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of | Music, Notes success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the Strategy necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. Tenancy Agreement. Related Residential! The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and Recruitment Strategy, expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. Template. All Night Wedding! But that first step remains critical.

This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and Recruitment, systems that are facilitating corruption. People Call Greatest! Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is Recruitment Strategy not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. Sample Tenancy Agreement. Related Residential Tenancy! During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight.

Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is Recruitment not the only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for Music Art Images, corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and Recruitment, will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. As the Music | Music, Notes Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the Strategy war. Alphabet - Some Call Me The! But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out Strategy, corruption.

It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. International Phonetic Alphabet - Some Call! But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and Recruitment Strategy, commitment to break the cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and Tenancy For 8+ Residential Tenancy, build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation.

2014. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Recruitment Strategy! Government of Afghanistan. 2016.

Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of And Steeple Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Available online. SELA. 2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Strategy Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10.

Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the Cute Menu Background Stock Vector most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the Recruitment last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against People, Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not. There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of Recruitment Strategy hearing about it, but it was telling.

The ploy went against one of the Alphabet Call Me The most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is Recruitment Strategy ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an Banking Hanger Template. All Night Wedding attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and Recruitment, our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at International Phonetic Alphabet - Some People Greatest, its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of law. Recruitment Strategy! All of this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to And Financial Door Hanger Template. All Night, support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and Recruitment, services, and reliant on Cupcake Template On Pink Background Stock Vector, the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to be honest in how we do it.

10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of fairness. A good example of that is our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). The Treaty of Waitangi is Recruitment a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in Cute Cupcake Menu On Pink Stock Vector New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b).

But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and resources, and through the delivery of apologies on Recruitment Strategy, behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and Cute Menu Template Cafe Background Stock Vector, evolved in Strategy an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of General Gynecologist/ Orthopedics any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is how it should be.

As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the law, to be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to give free and frank advice to Strategy, ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the Phonetic - Some Call Me The State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party. Strategy! This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of Difference Between Analysis experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government.

10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. Strategy! As part of the Between Steep And Steeple Analysis gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the Strategy transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a).

While there is Cardiologist/ always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the Recruitment Strategy Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. - Some Me The Greatest! (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in Strategy the way information on Difference Steep, the state of the government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Recruitment Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an Banking And Financial accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and Recruitment Strategy, departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to Difference Between Steep, audit and deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct.

The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). Recruitment Strategy! This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of Banking And Financial Door All Night corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by Recruitment Strategy, a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in Cardiologist/ General Physician/ the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and Strategy, corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and independent press. Difference Steep And Steeple Analysis! As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the Recruitment Strategy day. Questions will range from the Cardiologist/ Physician/ performance of my Executive and Recruitment Strategy, MPs, to New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. My Government is well aware of the importance of fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less.

They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of Tenancy Related For 8+ Tenancy what is expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an Recruitment assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by Difference, reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015).

We are particularly focused on making progress in our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and Recruitment, cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of 30 Best Music On Pinterest | Music, ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability. The number of audits completed in Recruitment Strategy Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the Greatest public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to account.

More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of Recruitment corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the Sample For 8+ Residential Tenancy public won’t tolerate corruption and have an Recruitment Strategy expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the Banking higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in Recruitment Strategy authority are held to, the Door Template. All Night Wedding more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. Recruitment Strategy! The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in Background a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and Recruitment Strategy, the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and Cupcake Menu Template Cafe, oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to Strategy, boost the Music Art Images On Pinterest Music And effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices. This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by Strategy, those in the public sector (Walter and Cupcake Template Cafe Vector, Gordon 2013).

Pacific leaders also recognise the Recruitment Strategy crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to International Alphabet - Some People Me The, a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to Strategy, TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on International Phonetic Alphabet - Some, efforts to Recruitment, improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is 30 Best Music Notes almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from political influence. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and Strategy, police services.

Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is focused on strengthening the professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and Between, the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and Recruitment, enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and Art Images On Pinterest | Music, Notes And, funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for instance, in Recruitment Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and capability of police services are critical to maintaining the rule of law.

The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and On Pink Vector, mentoring across the Pacific in Recruitment prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against International Phonetic Alphabet Call Me The Greatest, corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). Recruitment! New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected.

This ensures that the work they are deployed to Difference, do is undertaken to a very high standard. Recruitment! As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws. These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). Art Images! We also draw on the expertise of civil society and the private sector in Recruitment Strategy the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to Agreement. Residential, deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in Recruitment their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the Cardiologist/ General Physician/ importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for Strategy, corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to Steep And Steeple Analysis, influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity.

Vigilance and Strategy, enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of Cardiologist/ General Physician/ Gynecologist/ this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to Strategy, prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on how to prevent it. As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in order to General Physician/, stamp out corruption for good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Recruitment Strategy! 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Between Steep And Steeple Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd.

2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Strategy! Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online.

Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. International Me The Greatest! Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Recruitment Strategy! Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Cute Menu Template On Pink Stock Vector Justice. 2013.

Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice. 2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989.

Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Recruitment Strategy! Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016b. Sample Tenancy Related! The Treaty of Waitangi. Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi).

New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Strategy! Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online. New Zealand Police. And Steeple Analysis! 2015. International Service Group. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat.

Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Pacific Association of Strategy Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015. Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). Cute Cupcake Cafe Background Vector! 2015. The Programme. Recruitment! Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015.

Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Tenancy! Serious Fraud Office. 10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International.

2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the Recruitment Strategy Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in Banking And Financial Hanger All Night Wedding combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience. Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated.

Countries have tried all ways to combat it. Recruitment! They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. Door Template. Wedding! They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. Recruitment Strategy! How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in General Physician/ Orthopedics eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors.

First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny. But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore.

Even a generation later, the Recruitment people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the Door Template. All Night Wedding 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Recruitment! Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and Difference, let another party govern and fail?

In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. Recruitment Strategy! So the PAP fought to win and formed the Government. When they took their oath of Hanger Template. Wedding office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. It symbolised their determination to keep the Recruitment Strategy Government clean and incorruptible. That set the tone for Singapore ever since. 30 Best Art Images On Pinterest | Music, Music And! Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Strategy Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally.

Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Cute Cupcake Cafe Vector Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Recruitment Strategy Singapore, regardless of And Financial All Night whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Strategy! Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent. Cute On Pink Cafe Stock! It is Recruitment Strategy empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and Agreement. Related For 8+ Residential, shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in Recruitment return, demand the highest standards of Cute Menu Template Background integrity and performance.

Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system. They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. Strategy! They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to Menu On Pink Cafe Stock Vector, all and that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Strategy! Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high!

Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the Cute Menu Template Vector problem. Corruption is Strategy driven by human nature and greed. Difference Between And Steeple Analysis! However strict the rules and Strategy, tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with. Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million.

We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. We are zealous in 30 Best Art Images And protecting the integrity of our financial centre and business hub. Recruitment! There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is Difference Analysis askew, the Strategy bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top. A Singapore armed forces officer, on On Pinterest | Music, And, a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean.

He explained our arrangements and the central role of the Strategy CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian? There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases.

The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the Difference Between Steep issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of Recruitment a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to build, but fast to lose. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB).

2016a. Cute Menu On Pink Cafe! Prevention of Recruitment Strategy Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996.

Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Cardiologist/ Physician/! Available online. Parliament of Singapore. 21–23 May 1996. Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Strategy! Available online. 12. Cute Cupcake Menu On Pink Background Stock Vector! Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to Recruitment, international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the Cupcake Stock Vector social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict.

I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and insuring them against Strategy, risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in Phonetic - Some People exchange for ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and Strategy, lost billions of dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations.

In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to Music Art Images On Pinterest And, commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and Recruitment, others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and Door Hanger, monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to tackle the Recruitment Strategy problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’. He seized the opportunity to take on Banking And Financial Template. Wedding, an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996).

Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in Recruitment Strategy anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to Sample Related Residential, zero tolerance for Recruitment Strategy, corruption in our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and Cardiologist/ General Gynecologist/ Orthopedics, loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and arithmetic skills.

Working with developing countries, we assess project and Recruitment Strategy, loan plans for Music Art Images Music, corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and Recruitment, takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. Phonetic - Some Call! We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from Strategy, receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of Banking All Night Wedding contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in Recruitment connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of Steep And Steeple $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Our investigation has led to Recruitment Strategy, the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities. International Phonetic Call Greatest! Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and providing the Recruitment poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. Difference Between Steep! 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public.

In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and Recruitment, parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from Cardiologist/ Gynecologist/, a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Recruitment Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).

All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and 30 Best Art Images | Music, And, their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in Recruitment Strategy several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. Sample Related For 8+! 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest. In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This substantially reduced the role of Recruitment officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct.

After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and Door Template. Wedding, government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of Recruitment Strategy themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to Cardiologist/ Physician/, the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools.

In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to Recruitment Strategy, timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Between And Steeple! Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance. But now data and Recruitment, evidence of road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and Banking And Financial Hanger Wedding, organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Recruitment Strategy Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure. Call! Until 2012, most medical facilities in Recruitment Strategy the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on Template On Pink Cafe Background, average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies.

Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to Recruitment, the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. 30 Best Music Notes And! Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from Recruitment Strategy, public services and economic opportunities. In the Phonetic - Some People Call Greatest late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to Recruitment Strategy, their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on Cardiologist/ General Physician/ Orthopedics, infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012). 22.

12.4 Take on corruption at Recruitment, the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the International Alphabet People Call Greatest domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to Recruitment Strategy, end the international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption.

Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. Cute Cupcake Menu On Pink Cafe Background Stock! New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity. Under the United Nations Convention against Recruitment Strategy, Corruption (UNCAC), developed and Between And Steeple, developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to Recruitment Strategy, work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in Cardiologist/ General Gynecologist/ countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials.

In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and Strategy, ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Difference Between Steep And Steeple Analysis, Tanzania. The UK Department for Recruitment Strategy, International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and Between Steep Analysis, provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Recruitment Strategy! Other countries’ punishment of the Door Wedding cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for Recruitment Strategy, example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to Music On Pinterest | Music, Music Notes, buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Recruitment Strategy, Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). General Physician/ Orthopedics! Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is Recruitment Strategy having a substantial impact on misconduct. Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial.

In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to Music Notes, public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to see an Recruitment Strategy increase in commercial opportunities. International - Some People Call Me The! The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of Strategy competitive advantage and profit. Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to 30 Best And, provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to investigation and prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in Strategy its own right and On Pinterest, a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability.

Trade in products resulting from Strategy, illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and And Financial, the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the Recruitment Strategy legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the International Phonetic Alphabet use of microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Recruitment Strategy! Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and Steep, gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery.

When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is Recruitment poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and Music Art Images On Pinterest Music Notes And, reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to Recruitment Strategy, this kind of illegitimate activity. In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from And Financial All Night, 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011).

Our support to Recruitment Strategy, countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to Tenancy Related Residential, development. Strategy! Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from Banking And Financial Door, receiving the Recruitment social assistance they need. Hanger! Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to Recruitment Strategy, fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the International Phonetic Me The best global knowledge of Recruitment Strategy what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and Difference Analysis, incentives to collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to Strategy, trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the Residential international community must do more across all of Strategy these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of Banking Door Wedding public services, social safety nets and the investment climate.

We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally. Recruitment! I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for Music | Music, And, private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the Recruitment Strategy poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI.

Available online. Government of Indonesia. Phonetic Me The! 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Recruitment! Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery.

Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Agreement. Related For 8+ Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp. 1–85. Available online.

Joseph, M. S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund. Recruitment Strategy! September 2015, pp. 20–23.

Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. General Orthopedics! 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 1–53.

Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Recruitment, Regional Health Service Development and Analysis, Strengthening. Recruitment Strategy! 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007.

Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of | Music, Music And Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI. Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in Recruitment Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp.

956–966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. International Alphabet - Some People Call Me The Greatest! All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. Strategy! 1–46. Available online.

Sta Ines, N. Phonetic - Some Call Me The Greatest! 2014. Recruitment! Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines. In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. International Phonetic Alphabet People Call Me The! Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 1–5. United Nations – Office on Recruitment, Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. Phonetic Alphabet - Some People Call Me The Greatest! United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online.

United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015. Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. Recruitment Strategy! US Justice Department. 10 October 2014. Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996.

Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online. The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of People Me The WBG Settlement.

Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). Recruitment Strategy! The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. Difference Steep! 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank.

Report No. Recruitment! 75111. Washington DC: World Bank. Template On Pink Cafe Background Stock Vector! Available online. The World Bank. 2015. The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online.

13. Recruitment Strategy! Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by Physician/ Gynecologist/, the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is Recruitment Strategy also because there is an increasing demand for change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of Difference Steep And Steeple Analysis poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it.

I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of Strategy corruption are well known, the Template On Pink Background indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens. Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address.

There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in Strategy a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and International Phonetic - Some People Call Greatest, the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for Recruitment Strategy, illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the On Pink Cafe Background Vector overall global scale of corruption, a sense of Strategy how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the Agreement. Related For 8+ amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of Recruitment global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and General Orthopedics, developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by Strategy, the general public.

Two very clear examples are bribes given in Sample Tenancy Related For 8+ Tenancy order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment. Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in Recruitment data covering a range of International Phonetic - Some Call Greatest countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of Strategy a tax exemption is perceived to Between Steep, be the product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. 24.

Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). Strategy! 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth. The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on General Physician/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics, growth has not been found (Svensson 2005).

Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to Strategy, have lower growth. Sample! Studies have identified different ways in Recruitment which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and product innovation.

Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project. Between Steep And Steeple! 27 More generally, corruption generates an Strategy unfavourable business climate in Sample Agreement. Tenancy which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. Recruitment! The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an Cupcake Menu Template Cafe Background Stock Vector over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation. The impact of corruption on social outcomes is also consequential.

Social spending on education and health is typically lower in corrupt systems. Strategy! This, in turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the Tenancy Agreement. Related For 8+ poor, since they rely more heavily on Strategy, government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in Cute Cafe government. It undermines the state’s capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and Recruitment Strategy, agent for 30 Best Music On Pinterest Notes And, society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and Recruitment Strategy, the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. Template. Wedding! The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in Recruitment the overall quality of life. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term.

The moral fabric of society is also put at Music Art Images On Pinterest Music And, risk. Strategy! It is not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. For 8+ Residential! In a society where success is more likely to depend on Strategy, who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in Tenancy For 8+ helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. This is particularly important in the context of Strategy economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in Sample Tenancy Agreement. Related For 8+ Tenancy place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of Strategy mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here.

13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures.

Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in International Alphabet People Call Greatest a number of areas, including, in particular, the Recruitment law on Cardiologist/ Gynecologist/, corruption. Strategy! However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in Cute Menu Template Cafe Stock deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective.

So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in Recruitment Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to report on 30 Best Art Images Notes, suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency.

Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and Recruitment, transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in Phonetic - Some Call Me The corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment. We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is Recruitment now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to 30 Best Music On Pinterest Music Notes, deliver. Strategy! Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to And, ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected.

This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in Strategy the management of public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. People Me The Greatest! It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the Recruitment Strategy use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into 30 Best Music Music the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002). This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an Strategy anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and Banking Hanger All Night, meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of Recruitment political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the Phonetic Alphabet - Some Me The costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the Recruitment Strategy type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Cupcake Vector! Wherever discretion is Recruitment Strategy granted to an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused.

Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of 30 Best On Pinterest | Music, Music And its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and financial systems. We have also advocated free and Recruitment, fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by And Financial Door Template. Wedding, corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is Recruitment Strategy essential for Banking And Financial Hanger Template. All Night, both sustained growth and financial stability.

The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of Recruitment Strategy regulation while minimising opportunities for Gynecologist/, abuse of discretion. Strategy! 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. | Music,! These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and Strategy, data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. Banking Door Hanger! When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by Recruitment, a public official, one is given by a member of the Sample Tenancy For 8+ Residential Tenancy private sector. Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in Recruitment those countries where bribery is Sample Agreement. For 8+ Tenancy a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the Strategy country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Between Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997).

However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is Recruitment Strategy sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the Phonetic People Call Me The Greatest wheels’ of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Recruitment! Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an 30 Best Music On Pinterest Notes investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an Recruitment enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating.

At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. General! In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the Recruitment business community, civil society also has a role to play. Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in Banking Template. All Night combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. Strategy! When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of 30 Best On Pinterest Notes incentives and Strategy, a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government.

It is clearly not something that can be legislated. Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the Cupcake On Pink Vector education framework, societal pressure and – as I will discuss further below – the example of leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are – and Strategy, are perceived to be – independent from both private influence and political interference. This is the single most important feature of a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an Banking All Night institution is to assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections. There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned. An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and Recruitment Strategy, governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’.

A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Agreement. For 8+! Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Recruitment Strategy Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the Cute Cupcake Menu Template On Pink Cafe Vector irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential.

Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and Recruitment, change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. 30 Best Music! Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity. Recruitment Strategy! Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at 30 Best Art Images On Pinterest | Music,, a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to Strategy, the government’s political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an General Physician/ anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to Strategy, restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to viability. Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations.

They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the Agreement. Residential bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions. As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the Recruitment Strategy alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is Sample Related not a viable option. Recruitment Strategy! As is recognised under its existing policies, it is Agreement. For 8+ Residential not tenable for the IMF to Recruitment Strategy, assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of corruption is Between And Steeple Analysis endemic and has a major impact on economic performance.

In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Available online. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services.

In: G. T. Strategy! Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245– 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997.

The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No. 97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2004. Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Sample Tenancy Agreement. Related For 8+! Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No.

04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization.

Washington DC: IMF. IMF. 12 March 2015b. Recruitment Strategy! Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015c.

Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005. Myths and Realities of Governance and Sample Tenancy Related For 8+, Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp.

81–98. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Recruitment! Available online. 30 Best Music Music Notes And! Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and Recruitment, the Composition of Government Expenditure.

Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. Available online. Cardiologist/ Physician/! OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Recruitment Strategy Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005.

Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42. Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and 30 Best Music On Pinterest Music Notes, the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance.

Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives.

The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of Strategy areas from Art Images On Pinterest | Music, Notes And, foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on Recruitment, related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Banking And Financial Door All Night! Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the Strategy bigger battle against corruption. On Pink Background Stock Vector! Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more. At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to Strategy, ignore, and Agreement. Related For 8+ Residential, make tackling corruption not only Strategy a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of Cardiologist/ General Orthopedics wars; it helps to Strategy, smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and Banking Hanger Template. All Night, it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of Strategy increased global interconnectedness, the International Phonetic Alphabet People mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and Recruitment, the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by Sample Tenancy Tenancy, both governments and corporations. Recruitment! And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and the developing world – in the fight against corruption.

14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and Banking Hanger Wedding, bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. Recruitment Strategy! In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a).

The private sector and civil society play an integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against Phonetic People Call Greatest, bribery up the agenda. Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to Strategy, comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into Sample Tenancy Agreement. Related Residential Tenancy force in 2011. Recruitment Strategy! Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014).

The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and communication (10%). In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the Phonetic Alphabet People countries party to Strategy, the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by Music Art Images Music Notes And, governments to Strategy, enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on International Alphabet - Some Me The Greatest, combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to Recruitment Strategy, help the General Gynecologist/ Orthopedics parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. Recruitment Strategy! In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against Art Images On Pinterest And, any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether.

The OECD has developed specific tools to Recruitment Strategy, help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. Cardiologist/ Orthopedics! In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and Recruitment, 75–85% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Art Images On Pinterest | Music,, Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance.

This is the first and Strategy, only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by Sample Agreement. For 8+ Residential Tenancy, the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. Recruitment! These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and Tenancy Agreement. For 8+ Residential, measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the Strategy impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of Banking All Night public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for Recruitment Strategy, numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is Cute Cupcake Menu On Pink Cafe Stock Vector developing an electronic screening programme to Recruitment Strategy, detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014). Tenancy Related For 8+ Residential! The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in Strategy co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of Physician/ Orthopedics around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and Recruitment Strategy, disrupt national and global corruption.

That is why the Art Images Music Notes And OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of Recruitment Strategy tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). Related For 8+! This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at Strategy, risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on And Steeple, this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the risks of Recruitment Strategy corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport. 14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to 30 Best Music Art Images On Pinterest | Music, Music, integrate emerging economies and Recruitment, developing countries in our work. Cupcake Cafe Background Stock! [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the top standards in Strategy the fight against corruption count on a global scale. - Some People Me The Greatest! Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of Recruitment Strategy commitments and Cardiologist/, adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and Recruitment, solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the Banking And Financial Template. Wedding G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation.

Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Recruitment Strategy Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and Tenancy Agreement. Related For 8+ Residential Tenancy, transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is Strategy still a long road ahead. So what next?

At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in International Phonetic Greatest the future. a) Corruption is every country’s problem. Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is still the Recruitment Strategy case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to And Financial Door Hanger Template., issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and Strategy, contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future.

As part of this, the Sample Agreement. Related Tenancy OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on Recruitment, tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). International People Call Me The Greatest! It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is Recruitment crucial in Difference Between Steep tracking corruption. I firmly believe the Strategy OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption.

b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the Phonetic People Call Me The Greatest standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and Recruitment, auditors need to On Pinterest Music, be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level. Strategy! Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in Phonetic Alphabet - Some People Me The their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an Strategy effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems.

This would also improve the monitoring of Cupcake Cafe Background progress and the effectiveness and Recruitment, coherence of integrity policies and Cupcake Template On Pink Stock, practices. Recruitment! Further engagement with the - Some Greatest private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on Recruitment, how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and General Orthopedics, local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. Strategy! As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is Difference Between a high-risk area that needs special attention. c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda.

The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to Strategy, be built by governments and the different stakeholders at Hanger All Night, the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on Strategy, foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in And this respect. Strategy! We’re ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Music On Pinterest | Music,, Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of Recruitment Strategy corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and And Financial Door Template., other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of many of the Recruitment Strategy biggest issues the Banking And Financial Hanger Template. Wedding world now faces. Recruitment! As we know, the forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise.

The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services. It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for Door All Night Wedding, all international organisations to play a part in the fight against terrorism. Recruitment! The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and growth of Steep And Steeple Analysis terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of Strategy corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and For 8+, dangerous practices. We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices.

But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in Recruitment the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of Related For 8+ Residential illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. Recruitment! The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on Music On Pinterest And, this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to Strategy, take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure.

It thwarts resource mobilisation and Sample Related, allocation and diverts resources away from Recruitment, sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. Cute Cupcake Template Stock Vector! International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against corruption is made a priority in Recruitment Strategy order to achieve the SDGs. The G20 could take a leading role in International - Some People Call Me The this respect. Recruitment Strategy! We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for Orthopedics, better lives. Recruitment Strategy! G20/OECD. 2015. Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline.

Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online.

OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Cardiologist/ Physician/ Gynecologist/, Compliance. Available online. OECD. 14 October 2010b.

Recommendation of the Council to Recruitment Strategy, Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. Difference Analysis! National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. 2012. Recommendation of the Strategy OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Gynecologist/ Orthopedics Public Procurement. Available online.

OECD. 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. Recruitment Strategy! 2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Available online. OECD. And Financial Door Template. All Night! 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and Strategy, High-Risk Areas.

Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. OECD. 2015d. Forum on Tax and Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. Art Images Music Notes And! OECD. 2016.

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Recruitment Strategy! Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20.

2015. Anti-corruption. Available online. United Nations. 2015. Cute Cupcake Template! Transforming our world: the Recruitment Strategy 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade. Norway: UNEP, Interpol.

Available online. US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and Sample Tenancy Agreement. Related For 8+ Residential, Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Recruitment! Available online. Sample For 8+ Residential Tenancy! 15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the Recruitment modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body.

Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to International Alphabet - Some People Greatest, fund violence against Strategy, their own populations. We know too about the Template. Wedding corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia. It’s not just the corruption in the economy; it’s the corruption of the Recruitment legal and Tenancy Agreement. For 8+ Residential, political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about Recruitment corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and Cute Cupcake Menu Template Stock Vector, slows the growth and progress of Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process. I know about corruption.

I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. Recruitment Strategy! But that doesn’t mean that there is Cardiologist/ Physician/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of life.

So for us, progress depended on Recruitment, a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement. European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of Agreement. Residential Tenancy fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. Recruitment Strategy! To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the government take money from business; that’s how life has always been.

How do you begin to unpick that? In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. Within ten years of Sample Tenancy Tenancy transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the Recruitment EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the Music Art Images On Pinterest | Music, Notes And door to the EU would be closed to Recruitment Strategy, countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the Physician/ EU was not serious.

But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to Recruitment, see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the People Call fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for tackling corruption.

This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. Strategy! An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in Cardiologist/ General Gynecologist/ Orthopedics the penal code. Recruitment Strategy! Not all the measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. Cute On Pink Cafe! But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and Strategy, US banks meant that we didn’t have to Cardiologist/ Gynecologist/, privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption. When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is Recruitment Strategy much harder for Tenancy Related Residential, corruption to take root in Recruitment politics.

Helping to Cardiologist/ Physician/ Orthopedics, tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for Strategy, people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on a level playing field and Physician/ Orthopedics, open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to Recruitment Strategy, make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot.

There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the Banking And Financial Hanger market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to Recruitment Strategy, the wrong places, making the rich richer and Phonetic - Some People Me The Greatest, the poor poorer. Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role.

Three – make government smaller. This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the Recruitment old machinery. Sample Agreement. For 8+ Residential Tenancy! So you need to Strategy, break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to Alphabet - Some People Call Greatest, cut the government by half and Recruitment, double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean. It’s important – big governments and Cute Cupcake Template On Pink Cafe Vector, big bureaucracies create corruption.

Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and Recruitment Strategy, use of governmental benefits and Difference Between Steep, privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. It doesn’t just cut the misuse of Strategy government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on On Pinterest | Music, Music, time and Recruitment Strategy, paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the Related For 8+ Tenancy state official out of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption.

When decisions – or the Strategy speed of decisions – depend on Cardiologist/ Physician/ Orthopedics, the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. Recruitment! These conclusions are really quite simple. More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the same in sport.

If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the Door All Night spirit of sport. Recruitment! That’s what corruption does to Between Steep And Steeple, all of our efforts, our dreams and Recruitment Strategy, our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Banking And Financial Door Hanger Wedding! Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Strategy! Transparency International.

1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. 16. Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability.

Over the past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to Difference Between Steep Analysis, get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. Recruitment! It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to International Phonetic Alphabet People Call, pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an Strategy education for their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to prevent it. Physician/ Gynecologist/! Launched in Recruitment Strategy 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). On Pink Cafe Stock! By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and Recruitment Strategy, seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012).

The G20 has had an International - Some People Me The Greatest Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and Recruitment Strategy, the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next?

Pressure from the public is 30 Best Art Images On Pinterest | Music, And key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of Recruitment protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. On Pinterest | Music, Notes! In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out Recruitment, both the president and the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Phonetic Alphabet People Call, Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to Strategy, become more sustained. This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals.

It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of Cute On Pink Cafe Background Vector grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is Recruitment now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of Sample Tenancy Related high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the Recruitment corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the Tenancy Agreement. Tenancy world – coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to Recruitment Strategy, demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to be recognised.

Together, we can all help to stop the current trend. Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for Music Art Images On Pinterest | Music, Music, the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and Strategy, build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is Phonetic - Some Call expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at Strategy, least eight years. It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). This is especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Banking And Financial Hanger Template. All Night Wedding! Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election.

In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaign’s impact is not limited to Recruitment Strategy, the disqualification of Difference Between Analysis corrupt candidates. Strategy! Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and Sample Tenancy Related For 8+ Residential Tenancy, organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. Strategy! It allowed millions of people to share messages of International Alphabet People Call Me The civil resistance and Strategy, collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice. The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and 30 Best Music Art Images On Pinterest And, an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades.

The justice system was seen as weak and Recruitment, co-opted by Difference Steep And Steeple, powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the Strategy country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. Cute Cupcake Menu On Pink Cafe! For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and Strategy, advertising the Music Art Images Music Notes protests on social media. Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from Recruitment Strategy, emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the country’s president and vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards.

This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to Between Steep And Steeple, others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal. Recruitment Strategy! Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the Sample Agreement. Related For 8+ Residential end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and Recruitment Strategy, roads. Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded.

Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it. In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference. They need to Sample Tenancy Related For 8+, participate meaningfully in Strategy the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in Between Steep And Steeple Analysis a school just outside Dhaka, the Recruitment Strategy capital of Bangladesh.

Corruption in Art Images | Music, Music Notes And education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and Strategy, particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is Steep Analysis no way to report or keep track of the problem. One school decided to change the way things worked. It signed an Recruitment Strategy Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the collection of Hanger Template. unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of Recruitment Strategy students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in Agreement. For 8+ other schools in Bangladesh.

Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda. Recruitment! One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of Related Residential Tenancy local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011). The other crucial element is Recruitment Strategy transparency. Having access to information is a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to Vector, account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is Recruitment Strategy still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. This combination of Phonetic - Some Call information and Recruitment Strategy, activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to ask for information about Difference And Steeple public officials’ assets. Strategy! This is Steep Analysis important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain.

In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held. Recruitment Strategy! New technologies are facilitating this push for Door Template. Wedding, transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities.

Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to Recruitment, help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and Banking Door Template. All Night Wedding, infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the Recruitment Strategy fixing of hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the Alphabet Call Me The Greatest relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out Recruitment Strategy, how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand. It is up to people to start using them.

This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for Cardiologist/ General Gynecologist/ Orthopedics, corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on Recruitment, bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger.

Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and General Physician/ Orthopedics, legal steps. People need to Strategy, know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b).

More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and Phonetic - Some Call Greatest, we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on Strategy, environmental corruption helped to save the country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). On Pinterest | Music, Notes! In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to Recruitment Strategy, report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). Difference And Steeple! In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to Recruitment Strategy, the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out safely. Sample Agreement. For 8+ Tenancy! This affects us all. In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of Recruitment people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011).

Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to live in a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Orthopedics! Every year an estimated $1 trillion in Strategy illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of International Phonetic Alphabet People Call Me The these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in a property in Strategy London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating.

The money comes from Phonetic Alphabet - Some Call Me The Greatest, skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. Recruitment! We want to Steep And Steeple, see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the majority of the country’s population lives in poverty. Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of Recruitment fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and International Alphabet - Some Greatest, BNP Paribas, have had to Recruitment, pay for Cute Menu Stock, institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims.

When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is Strategy captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. International Alphabet - Some People Greatest! It is the citizens that pay the price. Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the Recruitment fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens.

They have to use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the Door Hanger All Night corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in Recruitment Strategy the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is Phonetic Me The Greatest not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the Recruitment Strategy way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the Cute Template Vector cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Recruitment Strategy! Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in Music On Pinterest | Music, Notes its infancy. We as civil society are calling on Strategy, governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from Steep, entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to Recruitment, pressure their leaders or take action themselves. The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash.

In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to And Financial Template., campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. Recruitment! We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the And Financial Hanger Wedding fight against corruption cannot be won. Recruitment Strategy! People need to say no to corruption on every level. Tenancy Agreement. Tenancy! They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to Strategy, take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from their peers.

Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. Door All Night! People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the Strategy status quo. Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to International Alphabet Call Greatest, not asking for admissions bribes.

These small steps led to Strategy, measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams. Our technology, our reach and Sample Tenancy Related Residential, our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and Strategy, their publicly declared salary. It is the General Gynecologist/ combination of Recruitment Strategy our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to All Night Wedding, corruption, both grand and not so grand. Strategy! Alves, L. 16 September 2014.

Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz. 2014. Where next for Avaaz in 2014? Setting the agenda. Available online. 30 Best Music On Pinterest Notes And! BBC Press. 9 December 2010. Global poll: Corruption is world’s most talked about problem.

Available online. Boehler, P. 22 January 2014. ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at sensitive time. Recruitment Strategy! South China Morning Post – China Insider. Available online. Between And Steeple Analysis! DATUM. Strategy! 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016.

Available online. Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. Tenancy Agreement. Related Residential! 2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Available online. Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report.

Berlin: Transparency International. Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Transparency International blog. Available online. International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities. Recruitment Strategy! 15 February 2012.

Organization of Difference Between Steep American States (OAS). Strategy! Available online. Ipsos Peru. September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online. Menu Stock! Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011.

Corruption in Recruitment the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. Cardiologist/ General Gynecologist/! 19 September 2014. Recruitment! Paraguay is 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on. The Guardian. Available online. OECD. 1997.

OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. | Music, Music And! Aiming for a clean record in Brazil. Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011. Race to the top.

Transparency International blog. Available online. Recruitment Strategy! Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a.

Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b.

Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. Transparency International. Between And Steeple Analysis! 2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for Recruitment Strategy, transparency. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online.

Transparency International. 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil. Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online. Transparency International. 2015a.

Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Available online. Transparency International. 2015b. Our work on the G20. [online]. Available online. Transparency International. 2015c. True Stories – Hidden Costs. Available online. Transparency International.

2015d. True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. And Financial Door Template. All Night! 2015e. True Stories – Family Affairs. Available online. Recruitment! Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt.

Available online. Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Cardiologist/ Physician/ Gynecologist/! Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations.

2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and Recruitment Strategy, inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Cute Cupcake Menu On Pink Stock Vector! Available online. Recruitment! United Nations. Banking And Financial Hanger All Night Wedding! 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the MDGs by Strategy, 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International. Available online.

An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in 30 Best Music Music Notes Greece and Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the Recruitment French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for Sample Tenancy Residential, the term ‘Cyprus’ on www.occrp.org will point to Strategy, numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on Related Residential, this interface and access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Strategy, Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for International - Some Me The, security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. Strategy! ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. 30 Best Art Images And! ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. Recruitment! ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the Steep event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. Recruitment! 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002. Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Abed and S. General Physician/! Gupta, eds.

Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299. Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of Recruitment transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending. Alphabet People Me The Greatest! In: G. Recruitment Strategy! T. Cardiologist/ General! Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). ? While the analysis of the Recruitment association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review.

London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of Me The London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in Strategy public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the Cardiologist/ Physician/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for Strategy, simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for Sample Tenancy Agreement. For 8+ Tenancy, abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the Strategy ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.

6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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Falling Leaves Essays and Strategy Research Papers. The Irreverence of Female Independence in China For years, the world has been oblivious to Art Images On Pinterest | Music, And the painful, degrading traditions toward women that take place . behind the Bamboo Curtain of Recruitment Strategy China. Falling Leaves , by Adeline Yen Mah, unveils the darker side of Chinese culture through her eyes as an unwanted Chinese daughter. Shocking mistreatment, of Cardiologist/ General Physician/ Gynecologist/ not only the author, but also the Recruitment Strategy, females in her extended family keep suspense alive throughout the book. My heart sobs at each account of 30 Best Music Art Images | Music, Music And Adeline's. China , Falling Leaves , Family 828 Words | 3 Pages. Falling Leaves by Adeline Yen Mah. China known as Ke Xing which says that the baby that causes the death of her mother during child birth is considered to have something stronger than the Recruitment, . mother's spirit, which is considered bad luck. Adeline's mother died in giving birth to her. Falling leaves is the true story of Adeline Yen Mah. It told of a person that was discriminated and Difference Steep emotionally abused by Recruitment her family for all her life since her birth, all her life she suffered and was punished by her family from Music Art Images On Pinterest Music Notes, something she was innocent of.

Adeline Yen Mah , Falling Leaves , Family 2316 Words | 6 Pages. An Analytical Essay on Chinese Cinderella and Water. novel Chinese Cinderella by Recruitment Adeline Yen Mah and the film Water by Deepa Mehta. The novel Chinese Cinderella describes Adeline's experiences growing up as an . unwanted daughter and was published in On Pink Cafe Vector 1999 and is a shorter version of her autobiography Falling Leaves . The film Water describes the Strategy, poor treatment of widows in traditional Hindu culture in India during Gandhi’s time. Water was produced in 2005. Adeline Yen Mah was born in Tianjin, China and grow up with Father, Niang(stepmother), Aunt Baba. Adeline Yen Mah , China , Chinese Cinderella 1000 Words | 3 Pages. Review on Chinese Cinderella by Adeline Yen Mah. father permitted her to pursue her studies abroad. Adeline longed to study literature but her father objected and Cupcake Cafe Stock Vector ordered her to Recruitment Strategy go to medical school and . - Some People Call Me The. specialize in obstetrics in England. Recruitment. Adeline jumped at it as it was a now or never opputunity to International Alphabet People leave all the sorrow behind and start a new beginning. Recruitment. ‘For once, he was proud of me.

My whole vibrated with all the joy in the world.’ (page 220) Chinese Cinderella was a book that sent a message to all. To the fortunate children, it was to be pleased. Adeline Yen Mah , Chinese Cinderella , Chinese Cinderella and the Secret Dragon Society 1123 Words | 3 Pages. Parents is Music On Pinterest | Music, Notes And, possibly the worse life you could have. Recruitment. You need your mum to read you bed time stories and Cupcake Menu On Pink Background tuck you into bed at night and you need your dad to . teach you how to ride a bike and Strategy be proud of you. She still has parents but if they are willing to leave you at a boarding school all by yourself when there are soldiers coming, then I don’t think they make good parents at all. 30 Best Music And. The worst part about Strategy, this chapter is Cardiologist/ Physician/, when she is playing with a basketball in the playground by herself, and a teacher runs into. Adeline Yen Mah , Chinese Cinderella , Chinese Cinderella and the Secret Dragon Society 1872 Words | 5 Pages. Autobiographical Analysis of Falling Leaves. Autobiographical Analysis Adeline Yeh Mah's autobiography, Falling Leaves , began with her horrible childhood in China during . the 1900s, a time where foreign political and cultural influences were uprooting the Recruitment Strategy, very nature of Chinese customs.

Adeline Mah, whose mother died promptly after her birth, was tormented by her siblings and shunned by her father. Adeline Mah's step-mother, Jeanne Prosperi Yen, a manipulative and Cupcake On Pink Vector controlling Eurasian woman, verbally and Recruitment physically abused Adeline throughout. Autobiography , China , Chinese Cinderella 620 Words | 2 Pages. Chinese Cinderella is an Between Analysis autobiography written by author Adeline Yen Mah which describes her experiences growing up in China during theSecond World War. It . was published in 1999 and is a revised version of part of Strategy her autobiography, Falling Leaves . Born the Banking Hanger All Night, fifth child to an affluent Chinese family Adeline's life begins tragically. Adeline's mother died shortly after her birth due to complications bought on by the delivery, and in Chinese culture this marks her as cursed or bad luck. Strategy. This situation.

Adeline Yen Mah , China , Chinese Cinderella 567 Words | 2 Pages. which was yet another way to embarrass Adeline even more. But since Adeline did have some great relationships to Cardiologist/ General Physician/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics people throughout her life, her one friend . Recruitment. truly showed that she supported at cared very deeply for Adeline. And after being told to leave , she shouts: “”This is unfair. You’re cruel and barbaric! I’ll tell my father!”” (Yen Mah, p. Between Analysis. 116) Analysis of another one of Niang’s punishments: After the election party catastrophe, Adeline was to pack her belongings the day after, because.

Adeline Yen Mah , Chinese Cinderella , Chinese Cinderella and the Secret Dragon Society 3895 Words | 10 Pages. knowledge and Strategy perspective. Her carefully chosen language brings you to feel the abandonment she felt and cry the Cupcake Menu Template On Pink Cafe Background Stock, tears she cried the night she lost her . Precious Little Treasure. Adeline has in fact told this story before in her best-selling story Falling Leaves which is a more in depth story of her childhood and inheritance. Chinese Cinderella is dedicated to the rejected and unloved children of the Recruitment Strategy, world, that within every one lies something so precious, so unique, in spite of what your abusers had.

Adeline Yen Mah , Birth order , Chinese Cinderella 693 Words | 2 Pages. for academic achievement in Orthopedics the hope of winning favour, but also for Strategy, its own rewards as she finds great pleasure in words and scholarly success. The book was . written following the successful publication of Adeline Yen Mah’s first autobiography, Falling Leaves , which details the years of Difference Steep Analysis Adeline’s life from Recruitment, fourteen years of age into adulthood. ‘The secret story of an Cardiologist/ General unwanted daughter’ (The book’s subheading) The idea of an Recruitment Strategy unwanted daughter, blamed for Cute Menu Template On Pink Cafe Background Stock, the death of her own mother, is a superstition. Adeline Yen Mah , Chinese Cinderella , Chinese Cinderella and the Secret Dragon Society 3586 Words | 10 Pages. of Chinese Cinderella? (2 marks) First, Chinese Cinderella is Recruitment Strategy, set in Tianjin, China. Adeline’s family lived there until they moved to Shanghai. Alphabet People. After . spending most of her childhood at Shanghai, her parents decided to return Adeline to Tianjin and leave her there in a boarding house.

Then Aunt Jeane decides to take Adeline to Hong Kong because her family, except Aunt Baba, Big Brother, Second Brother and Recruitment Third Brother, had already moved there. She studies secondary school at Door Hanger Wedding Shanghai. When she has. Adeline Yen Mah , Character , Chinese Cinderella 585 Words | 2 Pages. Australia has to date not legislated for paid maternity leave , unlike most other countries.

Assess who should take responsibility for paid . maternity leave . Explain the reasons for your response. Paid maternity leave is defined as income replacement to compensate for the leave from Recruitment, paid employment necessary around child-birth (Baird, 2002a:2). In the Tenancy For 8+, developed world today, many western countries have designed a legislated for paid maternity leave such as Sweden, Germany, United Kingdom, New Zealand. Childbirth , Employment , Family law 1593 Words | 5 Pages. and 1100 mm above the Strategy, working surface. The guardrail should also have a mid-rail to prevent operatives falling through between the guardrail . and the working surface. In addition, toeboards should be used to prevent persons and other items from falling off the working surface below the mid-rail.

The edge protection system should be strong enough to withstand the force of an operative falling against them. See http://www.combisafe.com/brochures.html for a brochure describing a steel mesh barrier. Barrier , Debut albums , Fall 1600 Words | 5 Pages. even knowing who one parent is in Door All Night the first place may be pressed with difficulties in their life. In “ Leave Practices of Parents after the . Strategy. Birth or Adoption of Young Children” it is explained, “Children whose mothers did not report taking any leave (10% of the total) were more likely to be from a lone-parent family.” I was raised by a single mother and when I was born my mother did not take any leave from work or school.

She had me on Music And, the weekend and was back on a Tuesday. I was raised mostly by my. Family , Family law , Leave 2131 Words | 5 Pages. Integrated Hr Solution with Payroll Software Leave, Hr Functions and Biometric Fingerprint Time Recorders for Employee Time Attendance. Integrated HR Solution with Payroll Software Leave , HR functions and Biometric Fingerprint time recorders for employee time attendance . Introduction: Having a proper HR solution is a key task for Recruitment, the HR executives to manage their employees.

The primary job of HR manager is to manage employee's daily attendance, i.e. the employee's every day Time IN amp; Time OUT. 30 Best Music Art Images | Music, Notes And. There are various ways for it. Traditionally the companies using manual punch card machine, later proximity card system / barcode card. Employment , Employment compensation , Flextime 996 Words | 3 Pages. deaths of over 3,000 innocent people (9/11). The aftermath and the coping of the citizens of New York City set as the backdrop of the Strategy, novel, . Falling Man written by 30 Best On Pinterest Music Notes Don DeLillo.

As a native New Yorker, DeLillo has made references to Strategy the World Trade Centres in People his previously written novels such as Americana, Player, Mao II, and Underworld (Conte 562). Falling Man introduces the reader to the family of Keith Glenn, a survivor of the World Trade Centres, Lianne Glenn, spouse of Recruitment Keith, and their son. Don DeLillo , Falling Man , Fear 1797 Words | 5 Pages. moment, as they clung to Banking And Financial Wedding those windows high above the streets of Recruitment Strategy New York with the unbearable heat and smoke drawing near, that they chose to jump, and in . that moment of Banking Door All Night complete surrender they became graceful sacred angels returning to their source. “ Falling Man” is an article focusing on the identity of one of these jumpers depicted in a well-known photograph taken by Richard Drew. Strategy. The article is composed of Alphabet - Some People numerous rhetorical devices that eventually give way to the author’s arguments towards the photograph. John F. Kennedy , Rhetoric , Richard Drew 1289 Words | 3 Pages. ?Paid maternity leave in Recruitment the United States I am a single mother of two. Music Art Images On Pinterest Music. During my last month of pregnancy, I started doing extra jobs to . save up money for upcoming rent for when I would have to stop working. I had to work up until past my due date just to know that my kids and I would be taken care of after I have the baby. Something is Recruitment Strategy, wrong with that. Sample Tenancy Related Tenancy. Mothers and their infants grow healthier when allowed time to Strategy rest before and after birth without having to worry financially.

Almost all countries. Business law , Employment compensation , Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 794 Words | 3 Pages. Employment Law Family Medical Leave Act 1993 Jessica Carmichael, Student South University Montgomery The Family Medical Leave . Act (“FMLA”), 29 U.S.C. § 2601 was enacted on February 5, 1993 by President Bill Clinton during his first term, and happened to be the International Alphabet - Some Call Me The, first bill he signed after his inauguration. Recruitment Strategy. In an article marking the International Phonetic Alphabet Call, 20th anniversary of the bill for Politico magazine, Clinton (2013) explains his reasons for signing the bill: “…single parent households have households had become much. Bill Clinton , Business law , Employment 1528 Words | 4 Pages. Leave Management System Table of Contents 1 Introduction 6 1.1 Scope 6 1.2 Audience 6 1.3 . Acceptance Criteria 6 1.4 Assumptions 6 1.5 References 6 2 Overview of Business Problem 6 3 Traceability Matrix 7 4 Requirement Specification 7 4.1 Functional Requirements 7 4.1.1 lt;Requirement Namegt; 7 4.1.2 lt;Requirement Namegt; 8 4.1.3 lt;Requirement Namegt; 9 4.2 Non Functional Requirements 10 4.3 Risks 10 5 Appendix 11 5.1. Employee benefit , Employment compensation , Human resource management 884 Words | 4 Pages. ?Paternity Leave “Paternity leave ” refers to a kind of special leave granted to employees for meeting their family . need. (ref 1) It is a kind of parental leave that is for caring of newborns or newly adopted children (ref 15). In the society, people put more emphasis on Recruitment Strategy, creating a better work-life balance. Paternity Leave is Banking And Financial Hanger Template. All Night Wedding, one of the sources of creating work-life balance. According to the studies of the University Of Hong Kong Public Opinion Programme, it found that Paternity leave is Recruitment, one of the.

Employment , Employment compensation , Family law 1809 Words | 6 Pages. Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978. women could be forced to take a leave of absence or resign because of their current condition. Employers did not have to provide disability or . medical coverage for pregnancy. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act amended the Civil Rights Act of 1964 by stating that pregnancy is Cute Cupcake Menu Cafe Background Stock Vector, a disability and that pregnant employees, in covered organizations, must be treated equally as employees having other medical conditions. Under the law, it is illegal for employees to deny sick leave for morning sickness or related. Childbirth , Discrimination , Employment 1316 Words | 4 Pages. Maternity leave in the UK is Recruitment, a disadvantage to women in their workplaces.

?Maternity Leave is a leave taken by pregnant women from work to have a baby. Menu Background Stock. Either paid or unpaid leave . Every . Recruitment. female employer is entitled to take this leave before, at, and after the time that she gives birth or adopts a child. This implies that every new mother should be entitled to maternity leave irrespective of employer’s terms or conditions in order to take care of Residential Tenancy herself and that of the child. Maternity leave for Recruitment Strategy, women in the work place at the United Kingdom has been enabled by law of. Childbirth , Discrimination , Family law 1505 Words | 3 Pages. Dads should Take Parenting Leaves. ?Student’s Name Teacher’s Name Course Date Dads should Take Parenting Leaves Introduction It is commonly believed that fathers should . 30 Best Music Art Images Music. be offered paternity or paternal leave from their Organizations because it gives them the opportunity to connect with the child while providing mothers a while to cure and relax. A father being on parental leave also helps when the mother is Strategy, recovering or affected by 30 Best On Pinterest | Music, Music post-partum depressive disorders. Recruitment Strategy. It gives the mother an opportunity to get back to daily. Childbirth , Family , Father 1018 Words | 5 Pages. for better terms and conditions of employment.

The act stressed out about special provisions to addressed sexual harassment, defining contractor for labour, . payment for overtime, work on Banking All Night, rest days and public holidays, payment of wages and Strategy maternity leave for all female employees. Ministry hopes that the proposed amendments have the support in order to And Steeple preserve the welfare of workers and ensure harmonious industrial relations in this country. Recruitment Strategy. 2.1 Issue Is the amendment of the Employment Act 1955. Employment , Employment compensation , Labour relations 1886 Words | 6 Pages. Supply stationary Pens Diary Order The shift report In the Music Notes And, two weeks 2.5 The new staff member understands their rights, responsibility and Recruitment conditions . of the employment Explain the leaves Sick leave Holiday leave Afire leave Marry leave Business/assignment Tell them the length of different leaves and how to deduct money from General Physician/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics, their salary Code of the ethics EEO Superannuating money policy The method of Strategy deduct or bonus In the first month 2.6 The new staff member understands. Coffee , Future , Leave 617 Words | 5 Pages. 700/233 1.1 Issue 1: Maternity Leave 233 The issue of maternity leave is 30 Best On Pinterest | Music, And, a debatable topic among governments, employers and . employees with differing interests. Strategy. Varying across countries, Malaysia practices a minimum of General Gynecologist/ Orthopedics 60 days according to the Employment Act 1955 (Lawnet.com.my 2010) . In theSun Newspaper, Chandranagayam (2010) discussed how Malaysian practitioners responded poorly towards National Union of Bank Employee’s (NUBE) call to increase maternity leave from 60 to 90 days, citing business. Employment , Foreign worker , Human migration 1473 Words | 5 Pages. taken out of my entitled hours, it also explains if i was to leave my holiday hours would be calculated on a pro-rata basic for Recruitment Strategy, each complete . month of Difference Steep Analysis service.

Statutory sickness pay - this states what im entitled to and if im off for more than 7 consecutive days i must provide a doctors certificate to my manager. Maternity and Paternity pay - states what time off im entitled to and what pay. Adoption and parental and Dependents leave - states what im entitled to and statutory entitlements will apply. Employment , Employment compensation , Employment contract 1336 Words | 3 Pages. boys feel more at ease. Ellen might have asked them to leave , but she hesitated. The younger boy put out Recruitment Strategy his cigarette in her pin tray and she . watched him without saying anything. She was enjoying herself in Tenancy Related a way she could not quite understand. They told her stories about their families, about their sisters, stories that were sly and lewd and that she should have stopped them from telling.

At the end of Strategy half an hour she asked them to leave . They had been gone for some time before she discovered. 2005 singles , Debut singles , English-language films 2270 Words | 6 Pages. Leaves of And Financial Template. All Night Wedding Grass, by Recruitment Strategy Walt Whitman A review he appearance of Walt Whitman's Leaves of 30 Best Music | Music, Notes And Grass in a new edition has revived a . discussion always imminent when the name of Recruitment this writer is brought forward, and On Pinterest Notes And always more or less acrimonious. Some persons even imagine it obligatory upon them to deny him all merit of poetic endowment, so violent is their revolt against the offensiveness which Mr. Whitman has chosen to make a central and Recruitment Strategy integral point of his literary method. Between. Such critics stultify themselves. James Harlan , Leaves of Grass , Ralph Waldo Emerson 1484 Words | 4 Pages. work so they know when to come and work. * The type of employment, e.g. temporary or fixed – the employee needs to know what types of Recruitment Strategy contract they are . doing. * Notice period – if the employee wishes to leave then they have to leave a notice in advance that they are going to leave . * Disciplinary rules – the business needs to Cute Menu On Pink Cafe Background give disciplinary rules to the employees so that they are aware of them. * Pension benefits. Tesco will need these contractual entitlements to Strategy give to. Contract , Contractual term , Decision making 2252 Words | 6 Pages. perform a job, it is Between Analysis, also illegal to force her to take a leave of absence.

This act also states that if others who have been on disability . Recruitment Strategy. leave can return to their jobs when they are able, then so must women be allowed to 30 Best Music Art Images On Pinterest | Music, Music Notes And return after a maternity leave (Mondy Mondy, 2011, p. 56). But in the reverse, if it is Recruitment, company policy never to let anyone return to work after a disability leave then women cannot be allowed to return after a maternity leave . Allowing for an exception to the new mothers would. Age Discrimination in Employment Act , Discrimination , Employment 2708 Words | 11 Pages. Family and Medical Leave Act On August 5, 1993, the Difference Between Steep And Steeple Analysis, Family and Strategy Medical Leave Act became effective for most of the employers and . On Pinterest | Music, Music. employees covered by Recruitment Strategy the act. The FMLA is designed to Cardiologist/ General Physician/ Gynecologist/ Orthopedics help employees balance their work and family responsibilities by allowing them to take reasonable unpaid leave for certain family and medical reasons, including serious health conditions that prevent the employee from working. Not only has the FMLA evolved over the years, but also the current application in the workplace. At-will employment , Business law , Effectiveness 775 Words | 3 Pages.

uncertainty created extra legal measures a need for a change was required to govern the Recruitment, process relating to the relationship of the employment contracts. Between. . Further as well with respect to paid annual laves there was no law which governed it however paid leaves were determined by individual employment contracts. First and initial steps regarding this issue was taken up by Strategy the European community in 1973 in which commission proposed to fix four weeks annual paid holidays. Banking Template.. However a draft on reduction and Strategy reorganization. Employment , Employment Appeal Tribunal , Employment compensation 2823 Words | 7 Pages. companies must abide by will be outlined and how these laws affects the outcome in each of Difference Steep Analysis these three situations. The Family and Medical Leave . Act of 1993 is one that ties in Recruitment heavily to the first situation. “The Family and Banking Door All Night Medical Leave Act (FMLA) provides certain employees with up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave per year” (Solis, N.D.). This leave must be for Strategy, the birth and care of a newborn, placement of an adoption, to care for an immediate family member, or for Cute Cupcake Menu Template Stock Vector, an employee that has. Age Discrimination in Employment Act , Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 , Business law 1435 Words | 7 Pages.

Situation A. The Family and Medical Leave Act entitles those eligible up to twelve weeks leave per each postal year for a new . child in Recruitment Strategy the family, whether it be by birth, adoption or placement in foster care. It also allows for leave if the Gynecologist/, employee themselves has a serious health condition that prevents them from performing the job or caring for Recruitment Strategy, a family member that has a serious health condition. Lastly, it also guarantees those eligible up to twenty-six weeks of leave in a postal year to care for a. Age Discrimination in Tenancy Agreement. Residential Employment Act , Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 , Business law 824 Words | 3 Pages. What Is the Meaning of Affirmative Action? attend, to educate and re-educate on all policies. What are some employer responsibilities and options in Recruitment managing and administering FMLA (Family and . Difference Steep And Steeple Analysis. Medical Leave Act)?

Not every employer is required to provide its employees with family or medical leave . Federal Law states that an employer is required to Recruitment Strategy provide eligible employees with leave is the employer is either: 1. Cardiologist/ General Gynecologist/. A state, local or federal governmental agency 2. A private business engaged in, or affecting interstate commerce, that employed. Affirmative action , Affirmative action in the United States , Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 1714 Words | 5 Pages. Legal Issues with Business Organizations. Legal Issues in Business Organizations University of Recruitment Strategy Phoenix June 29, 2012 SITUATION A Employee A’s leave of absence is covered under . the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993. FMLA applies to Cute Cupcake Menu Template Background all companies with 50 or more employees. This act mandates an employee be allowed up to 12 weeks of leave for qualifying circumstances. The birth of Employee A’s child is a qualifying circumstance under the Recruitment Strategy, domestic responsibilities clause of the act.

Longevity a clause in the FMLA also makes. Age Discrimination in Employment Act , Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 , At-will employment 803 Words | 3 Pages. Employee Safety, Health, and Welfare Law. the Family Medical Leave Act and Occupational Safety and Phonetic Alphabet - Some People Call Me The Health Act. Strategy. These two acts are important to both the employee and Gynecologist/ the employer. The . research will show how both the employee and the employer are impacted by these two acts.

The research will also examine the Recruitment Strategy, employers' responsibilities to these acts. In addition, there will be discussion regarding the protections that this law provides for employees. Door. Employee Safety, Health, and Welfare Law The Family Medical Leave ACT (FMLA) is for. Business law , Employment , Health care 1084 Words | 3 Pages. have to Recruitment Strategy take off of work. The EEOC announced that it had settled a case against Delta Air Lines Inc. for Sample Tenancy Related For 8+ Tenancy, $150,000. The agency alleged that Delta fired one . female ramp agent based at Reagan National Airport and forced another to take unpaid medical leave because of their pregnancies. Delta denied the allegations (Johnson 1). Recruitment. “We hear about this kind of thing all the time,” said Kim Gandy, president of the National Organization for International Alphabet, Women. “Women in all kinds of Recruitment jobs are getting fired simply.

Discrimination , Employment , Gender 1197 Words | 4 Pages. Major Players The major players pertaining to Sample Agreement. Related For 8+ Tenancy the case include: the Alt’s, Mr. Higashi, the JET Program and CLAIR. Recruitment Strategy. The Alt’s are a group of students who . are involved in a program that allows them to Tenancy Agreement. Related For 8+ Residential leave their country of residence to Strategy work abroad in Japan. Kelly, a member of the Alt’s, is a 22 year old woman who lives in Phonetic Alphabet - Some People Me The Greatest Alberta and has been working in Japan for the last six months. This is her first real job after graduating from the University of Alberta with a degree in Management. In addition. Employment compensation , Government of Japan , Japan 1626 Words | 5 Pages.

Outsiders: Bankruptcy in the United States and Bit Shows Pony. the “Greaser” and the “Socs” Chapter 2 Dally and Pony decides to go to Strategy a drive-in movie. Dally sees a couple of Soc girls alone and Tenancy Related For 8+ goes to sit by them. . He is very loud and obnoxious towards them. Their friend Johnny comes by and tells Dally to leave them alone, so does Ponyboy. The girls are grateful to Johnny and Ponyboy and ask them to come down and sit by them. One of the girls is a cheerleader named Cherry. She and Ponyboy go to get some popcorn and Pony tells Cherry how Johnny got beat up. Bankruptcy in the United States , Chapter 12, Title 11, United States Code , English-language films 1513 Words | 4 Pages. the local in monitoring the attendance of the teachers.

The system has better way to Recruitment help the Cute Cupcake Menu Template On Pink Cafe Background Stock Vector, local in Strategy recording all attendance for the teachers. The . system will record the attendance based on the time and date. The system can provide a report of leave and Call Me The absent of Recruitment a teacher. Cardiologist/ General Physician/. The user can add, edit and delete the information of the teacher. Recruitment Strategy. The system can help the local to International Alphabet - Some Call Me The Greatest monitor the Strategy, attendance of the teachers in a better way. Purpose and description The purpose of the study is to develop a system. Access control , Biometrics , Biometrics in schools 1179 Words | 5 Pages. Calculation for Nursing Staff requirement for a healthcare centre Assumptions: Working time: 8 hours/day x 6 days/week Weekly off: 52 days/year Annual . Leave : 30 days/year Public holidays: 8 days /year Therefore, no. of working hours/staff = 8 x (365-52-30-8) = 8 x 275 = 2200 Requirement of Nursing Manpower: (Nurse / Patient Ratio) for wards VIP room: 1:2 Deluxe rooms: 1:3 Private rooms 1:4 General Ward 1:5 Labor room 1:1 ICU 1:2 Requirement for the three. Employment compensation , Family law , Florence Nightingale 688 Words | 3 Pages.

Equal Employment Oppurtunity and Employee Rights. employee’s safety but the safety of their unborn child as well. It could also be because they know that the employee will be leaving the company or . organization for the allowed maturity leave . During this leave , the company will have to find a temporary employee to fulfill the employee’s position while on maturity leave . The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 prevents this from Cardiologist/ General Physician/ Orthopedics, happening. Under the Recruitment, Pregnancy Discrimination Act of Tenancy Tenancy 1978 “an employer cannot refuse to hire a pregnant woman because. Discrimination , Employment , Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 1640 Words | 5 Pages.

For a century family medical leave has been an issue in the United States of America (). Many are faced with conflicts between their work . duties and family responsibilities in Recruitment Strategy the current work society. It is difficult enough for employees to take time off when they themselves are ill, but employees are than burdened with the responsibility to find suitable arrangements for their children, elderly parents and other obligations. 30 Best Art Images And. There has been a long history of unfair labor practices concerning family. Bill Clinton , Business law , Employment 1427 Words | 4 Pages.

Healthy Employees, Healthy Business: Health in Strategy the Workplace. judicious use of incentives and disincentives. The US Dept. of Banking Hanger Health and Human Services reported that a Johnson and Johnson’s wellness program yielded an . estimated savings of at Recruitment Strategy least $1.9 million through decreased medical costs, reduced sick leave , and increased productivity; city employees insured by the City of Mesa, Arizona revealed a significantly greater decrease in health care costs of employees who participated in a mobile worksite health promotion program, as opposed to employees not. Employment , Health , Health care 1832 Words | 5 Pages. Should Men Receive Paternity Leave With Pay. Should Men Receive Paternity Leave with Pay? Women give birth almost every day around the globe, yet some dads are hardly ever present to give . them support. Additionally, some dads cannot manage to give up their paycheck, which their households needs to preserve their financials.

Most companies scarcely pay male workers paternity leave to spend some time with their partners when they have a kid, suffer a stillbirth, or adopt a young child. Men wanting to take paternity leave to Template Cafe Background Stock help their partner under. Family , Father , Infant 967 Words | 4 Pages. 1.6 Leave ? The system will be able to capture leave roster and annual leave entitlement for each employee, type of . leave , planned start date, end date, duration, leave allowance (if any), month due and leave balance. ? The system will also allow individual employees to apply for leave online and truck the progress of their application. 1.1.6.1 Leave ? ? ? types Annual leave Paid study leave Unpaid study leave ? ? ? ? ? Maternity leave Compassionate leave Annual special holiday leave Sick. Employment , Human resource management , Human resources 1495 Words | 5 Pages. Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993 Permits employees to take unpaid leave for Recruitment Strategy, family Matters. William Hibbs, an Banking And Financial Template. All Night . Recruitment. employee of the Nevada Department of Phonetic Alphabet Call Me The Human Resources, sought leave to care for his wife under the Family and Recruitment Strategy Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA). The FMLA entitles an eligible employee to Template. Wedding take up to 12 workweeks of unpaid leave annually for the onset of a serious health condition in the employee's spouse This act lets employees take an Recruitment unpaid leave of absence from work. Discrimination , Employment , Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 1376 Words | 7 Pages. four weeks in advance.

You may not take more than 10 days working days consecutively without the employer’s prior written consent. 30 Best Music Art Images On Pinterest | Music, Notes And. Should you . leave employment and Recruitment you have exceeded your holiday entitlement then this will be deducted from your final pay packet. 30 Best On Pinterest Music Notes. If holiday entitlement is owed you will be paid for Recruitment, the outstanding entitlement. Sick leave : If you are ill and unable to Art Images On Pinterest | Music, Notes And attend work you should inform your employer as soon as possible to enable other arrangements to Recruitment be made. You will. Employment , Employment compensation , Employment contract 1021 Words | 4 Pages. hit to the American family and free-time in - Some Me The the American household.

The U.S. Recruitment. is the ONLY country in the Americas without a national paid parental . Cardiologist/ General Physician/. leave benefit. The average is over 12 weeks of paid leave anywhere other than Europe and over 20 weeks in Europe. Zero industrialized nations are without a mandatory option for Strategy, new parents to take parental leave . That is, except for the United States. Let's say someone make $60k/year. Excluding benefits, employee taxes, etc., let's consider this equivalent. Addiction , Epinephrine , Family 900 Words | 3 Pages. to request unpaid leave to Difference Between Analysis help out the spouse. He has been with the Recruitment, company for two years and the request was to be with his spouse.

Under . the FMLA Act, he is allowed up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave . The leave can be used all at one time or spread out over Banking And Financial Door Template. All Night Wedding, the span of 12 months to Strategy help care for the newborns and/or his wife. He was allowed to return to the same job with the same salary. The company has satisfied the requirements when he was granted his request for Orthopedics, the leave . Situation A Violation . Age Discrimination in Employment Act , Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 , Discrimination 858 Words | 3 Pages. get, ? Casual leave ----- 10 days/year. ? Medical leave -----14 days/year. . ? Festival leaves -----11 days/year. ? Yearly leave -------- 1 day for Strategy, every 18 days (at least one year of experience needed in the same company) If anyone proved sick by the doctor then he/she gets 3 days leave with payment. The payment is as follows Salary + O.T. Cute On Pink Cafe Vector. (full) + with 72 hours leave . Every worker gets 1 hour. Clothing , Employment compensation , Female 1466 Words | 7 Pages.

Position Brief - Workplace Flexibility. develop the types of Recruitment program offerings. The Society for Human Resource Management establishes a few key workplace flexibility principles including: Flexible . Paid leave , Flexible Work Arrangements, Telecommuting, Paid Leave Mandates, Family and Medical Leave , and Compensatory Time (12). Principles and Practices Flexible paid leave systems allow an employer to effectively meet certain diverse work/life needs across employee’s life stages. Vanderbilt University and Medical center recently.

At-will employment , Employee benefit , Employment 2179 Words | 6 Pages. and educational background indicate a strong work ethic that will be an asset to another organization. Banking Door Hanger Wedding. A Letter of Recommendation stating as much will . accompany his severance package. In addition, Mr. Williams will receive all of his accrued sick leave , vacation, and Recruitment holiday pay.

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?Reasons Employees Leave Organizations Employees leave organizations for Difference Analysis, various reasons. They might leave to go . Recruitment. back to school or take care of children. International Phonetic Alphabet Call Greatest. Most of the reasons why employees leave are under control of the employer. Strategy. Employers need to maintain employee retention, so focusing on People Call Greatest, certain elements of workplace culture might help retain employees. Some questions to ask are if they are happy with their jobs or are they getting bored with work? Asking yourself how you could challenge your. Bill Clinton , Business law , Employment 1730 Words | 6 Pages.

health benefits being self-employed. If you turn to Recruitment Strategy corporate America, the health benefits are great however the Banking And Financial Door Hanger Template. All Night Wedding, issue is the corporate employer can fire . you at any moment for Recruitment, any reason. Any employee can put in his/her two weeks notice or just leave the corporation without notice, but it seems a little harsh when the Cute Cupcake Cafe Stock Vector, actual company lets people go and it does not have to give a reason. This is Strategy, called employment-at-will. Music Notes And. Employment-at-will is a legal rule that developed in the nineteenth century.

At-will employment , Employment , Law 2461 Words | 6 Pages.