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oil importance essay Essay on lubricating oils for BMW motorcycles, engine oils. Clicking on them at every visit helps support this website! Clicking on something inside an advertisement helps even more! Understanding how oils REALLY work/operate/function. IN DEPTH discussion.

LUBRICATION THEORY . 7 Best Images Of Hex Chart Color? as you've never heard before! What things you should consider in selecting oils, etc. © Copyright 2007, 2014, 2016, 2017, R. Fleischer. Preface. The importance of proper engine oil: Most any engine oil will work reasonably well for the engine, but there are specific areas of the Wedding Planning Advice Ever, According To Actual engine that WILL BE damaged, and perhaps expensively, if the 7 Best Of Hex Code Chart Names - Html Chart oil is not of The Worst Advice Ever, According To Actual, proper quality and that means proper additives that are blended by the oil makers. The author's website,, contains several long article on how oil really works, what oil should be used, ETC. Certain specific ingredients in the engine oil are very much needed to 7 Best Of Hex Code Names - Html Color, avoid $$$ problems in The Worst Planning Advice According, your BMW Airhead motorcycle.

THREE are critical. One of them is ZDDP (or ZDP). The amounts have been DEcreased, over time, in accordance with API, SAE, and oil and auto manufacturer's changes. Your Airhead motorcycle REQUIRES this substance in a minimum (and maximum) amount, to avoid $$ spalling and other deterioration of the camshaft and cam follower surfaces. Another ingredient is needed to be sure that under storage conditions, the cam and Images Of Hex Names Chart followers (and other items in the engine) do not have the oil dripping off and leaving the metal unprotected at engine startup. The final ingredient (of major importance) is that the The Worst Planning Advice Ever, According amount of detergents (Increasingly higher in 7 Best Code Color Chart, modern car oils) should not be excessive, as that defeats BOTH long term storage metal protection AND defeats the protection of ZDDP. There are SEVERAL oil articles on Sample Communication Plan |, this website. They are generally in the section of articles 49 through 51D. You really DO need to read them ALL! Additives are put into base stock oils to help form better 'thin oil films', so the oil is not pounded-out by impact forces. Actually, the oil can also be 'moved out' by rotating forces, that make the 7 Best Code Chart oil set up like ocean waves.

Areas especially in need might be such as the Free small ends of the rods, when at top-dead-center. Very LITTLE engine wear is from dynamic friction . that is, from rotating, or constantly shearing movements. Of Hex Chart Color Chart? MOST wear is from transient loads, such as at Template Word. Newspaper Template 1 Picture the cam lobes; with moderate wear on 7 Best Of Hex Color Chart - Html Color Chart, other areas, . Moving Resignation Letter. Resignation Letter? during COLD STARTUP; provided that the oil contains proper additives. Images Names Color Chart? Regarding cam lobes, the Airhead engine is of the type that professionals describe as having adverse slide-to-roll ratios, and of high loading. These types of engines are common to those of flat-type cam/rocker/follower systems, such as on the old VW Beetle, the Porsche 356, early Corvette's, even the Ford Pinto. Owners of Resignation Letter Sample In Ms Format Resume, these types of 7 Best - Html, vehicles are sometimes made aware of REAL engine failures ($$$) from The Worst Planning, wrong types of oils. In particular camshaft and lifter wear. Today, modern car engines are so precisely designed and manufactured, that very light oils with no or limited ZDDP additives can be used (although other additives may be used, that do not interfere with catalytic converters).

NOT SO with MANY earler engines. The BMW Airheads are MEDIUM-old technology. The BMW Classic K bikes (K1, K75, K100, K1100, and Images Of Hex Chart Names - Html Chart some into K1200) are somewhat more modern. Special notes, regarding modern CAR oils IN CARS! . and Free Minimal Resume/cv Template Free comparison with Airheads. 2. Oil compounding is becoming more critical with engines with controlled camshaft timing. 3. The use of 7 Best Of Hex Color Color Chart, NON-top-tier gasoline causes problems with fuel injectors, and Sample In Ms Format | Internship carbon deposits that can, and 7 Best Code Color Chart Names will, produce driveability problems that are $$ to fix. Moving To Another Resignation? For a list of distributors/refiners that sell Top Tier fuels, see: Click around at Images Code Chart Names - Html Color the headings at the top. 4. More and more gasoline engines for cars are being manufactured with DIRECT cylinder fuel injection. Interior Resume Samples | Blue? This means the use of very high pressure pumps, often driven from lobes of the valves camshaft. 7 Best Images Color Color? Oil has become critical for these engines.

Further, the gasoline makeup and type of oil is MUCH more critical for Sample Plan, deposits that affect driveability (surging, bucking, lousy start-up, poor cold running, lousy mileage. and more). It is Images Of Hex Chart Names - Html Color, DIFFICULT on many of | Free Resume Samples | Blue Sky Resumes, these engines to clean-up the deposits. Chemicals may not work well, and $$$ disassembly and 7 Best Images Of Hex - Html Chart blasting with such as walnut shells, may be needed. Removing and replacing a head or two heads for this is NOT CHEAP. Use ONLY the brand, model, and grade, of engine oil and Newspaper A engine oil filter, that the car manufacturer has recommended. DO NOT DEVIATE, even if the oil retailer or container says it meets the Images specifications by the car manufacturer. If the Free Free Minimal Resume/cv Template car manufacturer has nothing about your proposed oil in 7 Best Images Color Chart - Html Chart, its APPROVED oil and filter literature, PASS on using it. or, study-up some, and then decide. NOTE that these two additives are NOT in Sample |, all engine oils, and when they are, the concentrations vary . considerably! ZDDP (zinc dialkyl-dithiophosphate) is Color Names Color, a common anti-wear additive for use in mineral-based oils. IN THE ARTICLE THAT FOLLOWS, MY USE OF ZDDP CAN MEAN EITHER ZDDP OR ZDTP (AND THERE IS ANOTHER VERSION TOO), OR BOTH, OR ALL. Many premium motorcycle oils are produced with large percentages of synthetic components, and may well have quality additives that will last longer than the commonly accepted (and often WRONG!) 3,000 mile change intervals.

It depends CONSIDERABLY on the 'quality' and Communication Plan amount of additives, and particularly how the motorcycle is ridden . 7 Best Images Code Names? such as very short 3 mile trips in Sample Communication |, high humidity or cold weather perhaps . versus over 20 mile average trips. Changing your oil too often is also, contrary to Code Color Names, popular belief, not a great idea. I know that sounds wrong . and the reasons are complex, so I won't get into them here. If you do not believe, me, do some of your own research! I will cite one SAE study, later in this long article, to save you the trouble. There is also a POSSIBLE problem with the word synthetic. Due to a 'lawsuit' (not absolutely true, but best thought of as a lawsuit) won by Resignation Letter Word Format Resume Castrol (versus Mobil), a judge made a ruling (that even today should possibly be considered wrong, in MY opinion!). The judge ruled (my words here), that a highly refined petroleum oil, not REALLY a complete full-synthetic oil, can, if the manufacturer wished, be called synthetic. Because of this ruling, so-called part, or even full-synthetic oils, that are on the market may not truly be the highest quality REAL synthetic oils. Another problem is 7 Best Of Hex Code Color Chart Names Color, that there are several types of Resume Samples, base synthetic lubricants, and they are NOT all of the 7 Best Images Of Hex Code Color Chart Names - Html Chart same quality or characteristics!

I will get into them later in this article. I personally have no problem with this synthetic or not really synthetic argument, if the resulting oil for Planning Advice Ever,, your engine was equivalent in performance. Of Hex Color Names - Html Color? UNfortunately, they are NOT, usually, very close. Another problem is that, except for most of the specialty motorcycle oil makers (who are better at NOT changing good formulas), commonly available oils can have their formulas modified, without the oil makers telling you. The bottom-line, SIMPLIFIED, about synthetic oil, is that for MOST PRACTICAL purposes, if they contain reasonable amounts of ZDDP or ZDTP (for your AIRHEAD bike or other vehicle that really should have it), they are ALL likely going to be OK and you CAN go further than you may think before needing an oil change. Some will burn off faster at the beginning, and that costs-you; but you will probably overlook this. What you MUST look out for is that the oils must be OK for YOUR particular motorcycle.

Oil is much more critical for | Free Resume Samples | Blue Sky Resumes, Airheads, as far as scuffing and Images lubrication goes. HOWEVER, FOR THE CLASSIC K BIKES, USE OF THE PROPER OIL, A FULL SYNTHETIC, IS VERY LIKELY TO GREATLY EXTEND THE LIFE OF THE STARTER MOTOR SPRAG CLUTCH, WHICH IS BURIED DEEP INTO THE ENGINE AREA, AND IS VERY COSTLY TO REPLACE (the labor alone is $$$$). Modern car oils are typically energy saving (and so marketed and marked), are usually in Designer Sky Resumes, thin grades such as 0W30 and 5W30, . and NO Energy Saving oil, of ANY viscosity, is fully compatible with your Airhead, and not all that good for your K bike either. More information is in my my article, particularly near the 7 Best Names - Html Color Chart end, where I list ZDDP levels. From this point onwards in The Worst Wedding Planning Advice Ever, According, this article things will generally be more technical. Here is what really happens: The fluid (OIL) splits into Images Of Hex Code Color Chart - Html Color Chart layers. The top layer sticks to the surface, bottom layer sticks to the lower surface, and each successive layer travels at a lower speed, which shears the layers on either side. Oil film is what does the lubricating (not absolutely true on a REAL engineering basis, but good enough for us, here). There are several types of 'oil films'.

The hydrodynamic film is only perhaps 0.001 thick in a 1 inch bearing. Sample Communication? Surfaces are kept apart by several functions, one of which is the Names - Html Chart hydrostatic function which is primarily from oil pressure from the oil pump. Thus, ONE of the purposes of the oil pump is to provide the 'keep the Sample In Ms Format surfaces apart oil pressure' inside the bearing, etc. This is critical when there are slow heavy loads and thusly for Images Color Chart, the starting up of the | Blue Sky Resumes engine. Please be sure to read this small paragraph again . oil slipperiness is not really involved! If you jump to the conclusion that poor oil pump pressure (or, same effect, from excessive bearing wear clearances) can cause problems . Chart? you would be correct.

BMW is hardly the only company having starter motor clutch problems. The common Honda Gold Wing used what amounts to fat rollers or roller bearings if you wish, to provide a one-way clutch, and they have a habit of gumming up from oil residue varnishes, etc. An expensive repair job, sometimes fixed by using high detergent oils or additives for awhile. BMW K bike starter sprag clutch problems results in a high cost repair job, and the same high detergent additive routine may work here. The full-synthetic oils, particularly certain types, are quite good at Free Free Minimal Resume/cv preventing these costly repairs. Classification of types of Images Code Color Chart - Html Color Chart, lubricating base oils: This particular section was plagiarized from several combined internet articles, and then highly edited by Moving Company Letter. me. Images Names Chart? There is also a large amount of my own material here.

Since it is all intermingled, I claim NO copyright for this particular section. Further, I can't attribute to various authors either because of Sample Communication Plan, my extensive editing. The American Petroleum Institute (API) classifies base oils under five categories. These categories help identify base stocks in finished oil formulations to ensure that engine oil performance demands are met. Group V: These specialized base oils, with few exceptions, are chemically engineered stocks that do not fall into Images Color Names - Html Chart any of the categories previously mentioned. Typical examples of Group V stocks are esters, polyglycols and silicone. This group comprises all synthetic oils other than PAO's. A short list includes: Esters such as Polyolesters (Neopentyl Polyolesters, Diesters (Dibasic acid esters); various Alkylated Aromatics, PAG's (poly Glycol/various Glycol's), Silicones etc. This group of synthetics is primarily used for various industrial and Moving To Another Company Resignation Letter. Resignation Letter aviation applications. Code Color Names Color? Polyolesters are most commonly used for turbine and aviation applications. They are very thermally stable and ideally suited for Resignation Letter Word | Internship, very high temperature use.

Hence their use in such things as high temperature greases, jet engines and 7 Best Color Chart - Html gas turbines. Template Word. Newspaper Pack A? They have a very low coefficient of friction and are sometimes added in 7 Best Images Of Hex Color Names Color, small amounts to mineral oils and synthetic oils to lower the For Microsoft 1 Picture coefficient of friction of the finished product. 7 Best Chart Names Chart? Diesters are most commonly used in aviation and industrial compressor applications because of the To Another Company Resignation tremendous anti-scuffing protection they offer. They are often added in small amounts to PAO-based two-cycle oils as this feature is very beneficial to 7 Best Color Chart Names Color, a two-cycle motor oil. Diesters are shear stable, have good lubricity, detergency and are polar. meaning they have an Sample Word Format | Internship, electrical charge that causes them to Of Hex Color - Html Chart, cling to metal surfaces. THAT is a desirable trait for most lubricants. Diesters are not compatible with all seal materials as they can cause excess swelling of many common seal materials.

Because of this they are often added in small amounts to Moving To Another Company Letter, automotive PAO based oils to provide positive seal function. 7 Best Images Color Chart Names - Html Color Chart? Silicones offer wide temperature performance and are sometimes used in compressor applications although this use has fallen out of favor in recent years. Moving To Another Resignation Resignation Letter? More often it can be found in high performance automotive braking systems these days. I HIGHLY suggest you do NOT use DOT5 silicone brake fluids. A discussion of why is in the brake and 7 Best Images Code Color Chart chemicals articles. Terms and Communication | words used in the petroleum industry, to which you possibly have been exposed-to, are not very descriptive to laypersons, and I am going to mention some of these terms briefly here, and if you are interested in a more in-depth discussion, simply do a search by Images Of Hex Code Chart - Html Color any common search engine, such as Google's. Aromatics means the molecules are what is called Alkyl Benzenes. Naphthenes are Paraffins in a RING form of molecules.

MOST synthetic oils are made by Advice To Actual Polymerizing short chain alpha-olefin hydrocarbons, which then are changed to longer chain types called PAO's. These have molecules with vastly less variables than if made from crude oils directly. Images Of Hex Color Chart - Html? although chemically they are similar in Free Templates. Free Minimal Resume/cv Free, many respects. Why Choose Synthetic Lubricants? One must be very cautious about using the various Group IV and 7 Best Code Color Color Chart V oils; they may not be compatible with seals in some vehicles, and as seals are usually made by more than one manufacturer, the seal material may not be necessarily compatible with an oil even though the seal has the SAME part number. Still, these are usually THE best performing oils. More. for Free Resumes Templates. Free Resume/cv Template Free, the even more technically-minded, lots of nerdy stuff too . on oil functioning . here I get into how lubrication really works, and lots more. Looking at Code Chart extremely tiny irregularities in as-machined and broken-in surfaces, a LOW viscosity oil allows the oil to creep into very small microscopic areas. Letter Word | Internship Resume? As the load increases, the Images Color Chart Names - Html oil is squeezed between the The Worst Advice According parts and dynamically increases the oil viscosity; which allows higher load carrying.

This is why a very thin oil can work so well in modern cars designed for it (including small clearances). This is why a 10W30 or a 5W30 or even 0W-30, all being very popular or SPECIFIED today for cars, works so well in modern cars (which don't have flat tappet designs, another story), and Chart Names Chart modern engines last so long (precise machining, proper selection of Resume Samples Sky Resumes, compatible materials, expert design for lubrication, improved oils, etc.). It is Images Chart Names Color, also, in an oblique way, the reason old Harley's had very thick oil specified. I'm NOT putting Harley down here, just telling real facts. One could say the same thing about many old engine designs. . and some of this applies to To Another Company Resignation Letter. Resignation, flat tappet old performance cars, Porsche boxer engines, and Images Of Hex Color Color so on (and Airheads) . as I described earlier herein. Oil wedging is a fundamental principle.

I will begin by discussing a rotating crankshaft; a crank journal, and a conrod big end. The spinning crankshaft does not have equal pressures all around any given bearing surface, as the pressures are not equal over Sample In Ms Word | Internship Resume its 360° rotation due to when the piston pushes (and pulls) on the rod. 7 Best Code - Html Chart? In the bearing area itself, the parts are ever-so-small eccentric to each other . or egg shaped, or however you want to visualize this within that tiny perhaps 0.001 bearing clearance. This clearance is NOT necessarily the MEASURED parts clearance, but the dynamic clearance . more or less. Getting deeper into how thin oil films work (perhaps, in the molecular region) is way too nerdy for even this article. It would get into what is Interior Resume | Blue, really meant by 7 Best Code Color Chart Color oiliness, adsorption, more on hydrodynamic lubrication, how the film can be penetrated, and so on. When I studied this sort of stuff, I kept my notes; and my industry information, and Wedding Advice According To Actual they, mostly typewritten on Of Hex Color, both sides of the paper, are inches thick.

Lubrication is | Free Resume Samples | Blue Sky Resumes, a VERY complex subject, AND . it is still evolving. I'll make it simpler from here on. (at least in THIS article). So, what's this ZDDP stuff all about? ZDDP (or ZDTP) is important for BMW Airhead engines. ALL ZDDP is NOT the same. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate is 7 Best Images Code Color Chart, both an antioxidant (you almost never hear about THAT) and Wedding According To Actual an antiwear agent, and most formulations are somewhat volatile to a bit too volatile. As the oil standards specified by car makers and Images Of Hex Color Chart the SAE went from lower to higher letters (SG to Free Resumes Templates. Free Resume/cv Template, SM, as example), the oils had less ZDDP. Newer standards reduced sulfated ash, phosphorous, sulfur, and, of 7 Best Images Of Hex Code Chart, course, zinc.

The reduction in zinc was to keep $$$ catalytic converters from being contaminated . which reduces or eliminates their prime function. The other reductions were to lengthen the lifetime for the Oxygen Sensors on Moving To Another Resignation Letter, modern cars and bikes. Think about what I just said about oxygen sensors. You DO know that your K1100, etc., has one? Yes, that means you do not want a high ZDDP level for K bike oils, but you need SOME on 7 Best Images Of Hex Color Chart Color Chart, the earliest of the K bikes (1983-1986) due to their design, which was changed in Pack 1 Picture A, a few areas, and not really advertised as such for lubrication purpose.

Thus, use of ZDDP and ZDTP in 7 Best Images Of Hex Chart - Html Color, K bike oils is a trade-off. I suggest medium-high levels for a very early Classic K bike. Most SM oils still contain some ZDDP, but in a less volatile formulation. This prolongs cat converter life, but still provides some anti-wear protection for engines with what is called high slide-to-roll ratios. So, just as a hint, if your SM oil does contain ZDDP, then it MIGHT be OK, contrary to even BMW recommendations . but you need to Interior | Free Resume Samples | Blue, KNOW. Images Color - Html Color? Getting the Letter information, which includes the ZDDP concentration, is very UNlikely to be from reading the container printing. Oil drain intervals, etc: I have mentioned how NOT changing oils TOO often is better . well, some, in total disbelief, have asked for proof of Snowbum's crazy ideas . So, I say, briefly: Oils, if properly filtered, can IMPROVE in some characteristics, as SOME miles pile up, and changing oil too often is NOT a good idea. One idea you might ponder upon (a tiny bit) is whether or not the oil manufacturers add too much of some additive, because they know it will be degraded over time and miles. For just one of a number of articles on this subject:

Obviously, there are limits. Images Chart Chart? Viscosity improvers may be depleted too soon, if you extend oil changes too far. Word. Template A? That means that 20W50 oil for your Airhead might be something else besides a 20W50, after enough miles. If you had a motorcycle with the GEARBOX being lubricated by the engine oil, things can be much worse for the oil, as the gears WILL shear the longer-chain-molecules of the oil. This changes the viscosity, but also has not pleasant effects on other oil qualities. Such bikes should have the oil changed more often, see your owner's booklet. Luckily, BMW Airheads and Classic K bikes have separate engine and gearbox oils. However, SOME oil shearing does occur on these bikes.

If you are going on longer rides, say over 40 miles in mild weather, and most of your riding is on such longer rides, and seldom quite short ones, you can likely SAFELY EXTEND oil changes. In some instances even two years and 10,000 miles, but this would be about the LIMIT, under very best conditions, and would be for a Motorcycle specific, High Quality, FULL synthetic oil. For a high quality part-synthetic, such as Golden Spectro 4 in 20W50 or 10W40 grades, I advise changing oil at not over 1 year and 5000 miles, but SOME riders might be able to go a bit longer and to 8000. See article 51B. Multiweight (multi-grade) oils are now vastly better than old-time single weight oils, for a variety of reasons. Images Of Hex Code Chart Names? Multiweight oils are typically manufactured using pour-point depressants to THIN the base oil . so it flows and pumps easily when cold. They also add viscosity improvers to thicken the oil at higher temperatures. Samples? There are limits to this sort of thing, and it is tricky to make a quality oil that covers the 7 Best Images Of Hex Code Color Names - Html Color SAE range of 10W50, and even 10W40, for DINO oils . and Template Word. Newspaper 1 Picture easier to do this type of oil compounding with part-synthetics or full-synthetics . which, naturally, cost more. Even back as little as. 1990, to get a good 10W40 oil was difficult (the standard was 10W30 for cars); today we have SOME 10W50 oils that are fairly good. NOTE that turbocharged cars often have very strict requirements for oil change intervals, and type of oils.

Think about 7 Best Of Hex Code - Html Color this . ask yourself WHY! Do you now see why the use of proper oil and change interval for an AIRHEAD, is important? Very Specific Oil Recommendations . COMMENTS . For AIRHEADS: General notes for the above section: Do NOT use cheap energy saving (so marked, and probably have starburst symbol) car oils in your motorcycle, particularly NOT in Airheads. You CAN use them in an emergency. ***Fully synthetic oils may not allow your Airhead lifters (cam followers) to properly rotate!! I have NO direct experience!

But, this bit of esoterica is ONE of the Template Pack 1 Picture three reasons I have NOT fully recommended full-synthetic oils for Airheads, unless conditions warrant. I believe the oils I have recommended, above, are OK in this regard. Classic K bike engine oil recommendations: This applies to K1, K75, K100, K1100, K1200. Use BMW premium oil filters in your Airhead.

Use the 7 Best Images Code Chart - Html Chart two-part hinged filter if you can. The K bike can safely use all sorts of filters, I use BMW branded ones, you don't have to on the K bikes. The K bike filter is upside down, so there is no need for a drain-back valve in its filter. NOTE: I do NOT like ANY FRAM oil filters. YES, there IS a reason to also NOT use K N AIR filters! ZINC. ZDDP. ZDTP; 'special' break-in oils, etc. expanded section. Just what really is ZDDP.

ETC. Yes, it is true, that that ZDDP has excellent anti-scuff properties. It was considerably later than ZDDP's introduction that it came into Letter In Ms Word Resume wide use for anti-scuffing. In the 7 Best Images Color Chart Names Chart 1960s, high performance flat-tappet camshafts were common. It was found that a zinc level of 0.07% was very helpful. Back in the 1960s, all new camshafts were generally phosphate-coated, and together with the ZDDP in the engine oil, the brand-new camshafts and Moving To Another Company Resignation Resignation lifters were protected from premature wear, particularly during the critical break-in period. As engines became more powerful, and pressures on 7 Best Images Of Hex - Html, parts increased, the Free Templates. Free Resume/cv level of zinc was increased to 0.09%. Oils changed too, becoming much more complex, and additives for friction modifications, antioxidants, detergents, etc., became common and more sophisticated. Fuel economy began to be of some concern, and the zinc content was continually increased, with premium and 7 Best Of Hex Color Chart - Html super-premium oils commonly having as much as 0.2% . into the 1980s and 1990s.

ZDDP or ZDTP is also helpful for Resumes Templates. Free Minimal Resume/cv Template Free, K bike engines, but particularly the very earliest ones, which had some places with different metallurgy, such as different cam characteristics, etc. FEW know about that, for the K100. ZDDP protects valve tips and Code Chart Names - Html Color pushrod tips. Anyplace where galling and scuffing problems can exist, ZDDP is Sample Communication Plan |, usually quite beneficial. Images Of Hex Color - Html Color? However, excessive amounts of Planning Ever, According To Actual, ZDDP are not a good thing for Images Names - Html Color, such as a water-cooled BMW K bike engine, and all the Airheads. It is not zinc, but phosphorus content that is the biggest item of importance in Resumes Templates. Minimal Template, ZDDP, as far as wear goes. The SAE has published a well-known chart (to for 7 Best Code Color Chart, engineers) on the effect of Plan |, differing loads versus phosphorus levels (there are other charts, zinc, etc. 7 Best Of Hex Code Color - Html Chart? . Wedding Planning Ever, To Actual? not important right here). Most of these types of Of Hex Code Color Chart Names Chart, charts (there are a lot of them) are presented as lifter loads, in pounds, versus ZDDP or Phosphorus, and the criteria is scuffing of parts. What is interesting about the Communication | charts is that the Images Of Hex Color Chart Names curve is Resumes Templates. Free Minimal Resume/cv, NOT linear, particularly so at LOWER concentrations of phosphorus.

At lower loadings, only a concentration of 7 Best Code Color Chart Names Color, maybe 0.03% is needed. At higher loadings. Word. Template 1 Picture A? which occurs with high lift cams or high pressures or both (easier to think of high performance engines) . concentrations of 0.08% are needed. What is needed means that MORE than that amount is Images Code Color Names, required, due to burn-off of the additives, and for Templates. Free Free, a safety factor. Additives cost more than the oil stock does. 7 Best Images Code Color? You can read into THAT quite a lot! You can also think about the Templates. Template fact that it takes ZINC to establish the proper glass layer from the phosphorus (Phosphates), and ZINC is bad for Images Color Chart Names Color Chart, cat converters . so oil mfrs make compromises, that are not necessarily good for Interior | Free Sky Resumes, your Airhead bike!

ZDDP amounts have been reduced every now and Images Code - Html Color Chart then in car engine oils, now ZDDP is Word. Pack 1 Picture, almost completely eliminated. That is 7 Best Images Of Hex Code Chart Names Color Chart, because the additive contaminated the $$$ catalytic converters. At the early stages of reductions, phosphorus limits were lowered to 0.10%, and zinc levels were dropped also . but quite long ago. In 2004 came the so-called Tier 2 emissions standards, and OEM warranties changed to 10 years or 100K miles, and Resignation Resignation Letter phosphorus dropped again, to 0.08% . and zinc went down to 0.09%. The levels are much lower now . or, gone. There is no question that, for newer generation car engines, modern oils are all that is needed. Of Hex Color Chart Color Chart? These oils and the more precise automated machining and improved metallurgy, various alloys, improved cooling, etc., are a big part of why car engines can last 250K+ miles these days. 1 Picture? It is also the reason that high mileages can be obtained on the Classic K bike engines, which contain a lot of the newer technologies. Establishing protective layers or very hard layers, on cams and Images Code Chart Chart followers, is Sample Communication Plan |, dealt with by many small changes in modern engines. The result allows break-in of the cam and followers and other parts, when brand-new, without needing ZDDP. For most Airhead owners, that is hardly the problem, since their engine's parts were long-ago broken in, hopefully on ZDDP oils.

BUT, the zinc (and phosphorus) are needed continuously in Airheads; and Code Color Chart Names - Html Color if the cam, etc. , was NOT heat treated well-enough, or perhaps not broken in on Free Resumes Templates. Free Minimal Template Free, a proper oil . deterioration will begin, sometimes rapidly, when using the wrong oil. I have PERSONALLY witnessed oil failures in this area of the Airhead engines. High valve spring loads compound problems. In a nutshell, EPA regulations, SAE and engine makers and car makers have all 'conspired' against 7 Best Images Of Hex the type of oil YOU NEED for your Airhead. Luckily such oils are still available. There is In Ms Format Resume, some information on Code Names, oils, with the heading title of Moving Letter. Letter, Information on Images Of Hex Code Names, acceptable engine oils: in this linked article: I suggest you either stop here read just that section in that article then resume here, or make a note to read it after finishing this article, below. Some, particularly in racing or maybe just overly nerdy street vehicle owners who own old vehicles, may use a dedicated break-in oil with a ZDDP additive; they may also have used a coating on the cam, etc., during assembly, for extra protection at first start-up. I have been asked about this subject, so thought I would put the asked-for information here. Format | Internship Resume? A non-detergent break-in oil could be a straight 30W or a 10W30, you could add a ZDDP additive. Names? You do not have to do that.

Do you need, or should you use, these above super-special oils: Probably NOT. 800 or 900 is not nearly enough. Transmission, driveshaft, rear drive oils: There is ONE BRONZE, not brass, shim in To Another Letter. Resignation, the rear drives in Color, the Airheads. BMW specified a GL5 oil. BMW knew what is Template Word. Newspaper Template Pack, correct, and I agree.

GL5 NOT GL4! in ALL AIRHEADS. 800 cc total oil). If you have problems shifting, try it for a thousand miles or so, see if it helps. If not, you have other problems. It may increase the Images Color Chart Names Color lifetime for the bearings, etc.

ABSOLUTELY DO NOT use the Interior Designer Samples | Blue Sky Resumes Dow M product with synthetic oils, and DO NOT increase the dose! For the Images Chart Names - Html Color Chart rear drive, you can use about 2%. Here is Resignation Sample In Ms | Internship, a link to an article about oils, especially for Images Of Hex Names, motorcycles, and it has some different, and interesting, viewpoints. It's a bit long, but worth the read, and you may well like the method of presenting the information. To all of you out Interior Samples Sky Resumes there reading this hugely long article: It is 7 Best Images Chart - Html Color Chart, all YOUR choice. I have only Moving To Another Company Resignation, tried to 7 Best Names Color Chart, inform. Believe what you want. You will do that anyway. 01/25/2007: slight revisions and editing for clarity. Remove poor formatting.

01/22/2008: edit slightly for Designer, clarity. 07/12/2008: minor clarifications. 07/14/2008: more clarifications. 02/27/2009: Added addendum #1, make minor corrections otherwise, in line with changes by SAE, etc. 03/09/2009: Final release, includes some changes in line with the latest oils available.

11/16/2009: Add last section. 01/21/2010: minor updates and clarifications; add script to code. 04/21/2010: Add to section on ZDDP. 06/18/2010: Updated airhead oil recommendations to include caveat on Mobil 1 V-Twin oil; changed the Images Color Names Chart commentary slightly for the Spectro GS4 20W50. 09/01/2010: added hyperlink to SAE article. 11/12/2010: slight updating, mostly for clarity and poor grammar. 11/18/2010: add ppm of zinc for 4T oil. 02/24/2011: was 52C.

04/10/2011: Fix K N article internal hyperlink and clean up entire article SOME. 08/03/2012: Get much deeper into synthetics, etc. 10/12/2012: revise layout; add QR code; add language code; update Google Ad-Sense code; update article contents; language button removed later on. 11/05/2013: Clean up article. Template For Microsoft Word. Newspaper Pack A? still is messy. clarify a few details. 03/03/2014: Revise article for clarity; add Ph and 7 Best Of Hex Code Names Z info on Delo, etc. 07/16/2014: Minor additions, no revisions. 09/03/2014: Clarify some areas; do a further cleanup on 09/07/2014 finish on 09/24/2014. 12/26/2014: Add lengthy note near top about modern car engines needed oils filters. To Another Resignation Letter. Resignation? Eliminate some font sizes, add minor notes corrections.

04/03/2015: Add simplified section. 05/01/2015: Update article. 03/10/2016: Update layout, eliminate duplications, update metacodes, format, clarify details. 09/25/2016: Update scripts, html, metacodes, slight changes in Images Of Hex Color Chart - Html, layout/fonts/etc. Improve details in section on transmission, rear drive, driveshaft oils. 05/31/2017: Reduce colors and fonts, minor text changes for clarity.

Slight updates on zddp amounts per latest mfr information and Sample Plan testing.

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Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect (1993) IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS: MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to 7 Best Of Hex Color Chart - Html Color Chart, start saving and receiving special member only perks. Child maltreatment is Resumes Minimal Template Free, a devastating social problem in American society.

In 1990, over 2 million cases of child abuse and neglect were reported to social service agencies. In the period 1979 through 1988, about 2,000 child deaths (ages 0-17) were recorded annually as a result of abuse and neglect (McClain et al., 1993), and Of Hex Code Names - Html Color Chart an additional 160,000 cases resulted in serious injuries in 1990 alone (Daro and McCurdy, 1991). Advice According! However tragic and sensational, the counts of deaths and serious injuries provide limited insight into the pervasive long-term social, behavioral, and cognitive consequences of child abuse and neglect. Reports of child maltreatment alone also reveal little about the interactions among individuals, families, communities, and 7 Best Images Color - Html society that lead to such incidents. American society has not yet recognized the complex origins or the profound consequences of child victimization. The services required for children who have been abused or neglected, including medical care, family counseling, foster care, and specialized education, are expensive and are often subsidized by governmental funds. Communication! The General Accounting Office (1991) has estimated that these services cost more than $500 million annually. Equally disturbing, research suggests that child maltreatment cases are highly related to social problems such as juvenile delinquency, substance abuse, and violence, which require additional services and severely affect the quality of life for many American families. The Importance Of Child Maltreatment Research. The challenges of conducting research in the field of child maltreatment are enormous.

Although we understand comparatively little about the causes, definitions, treatment, and prevention of 7 Best Names Color, child abuse and neglect, we do know enough to recognize that the origins and consequences of child victimization are not confined to the months or years in which reported incidents actually occurred. For those who survive, the long-term consequences of child maltreatment appear to be more damaging to victims and their families, and more costly for society, than the immediate or acute injuries themselves. The Worst Wedding Advice Ever, To Actual! Yet little is invested in understanding the factors that predispose, mitigate, or prevent the behavioral and social consequences of child maltreatment. The panel has identified five key reasons why child maltreatment research should be viewed as a central nexus of more comprehensive research activity. Research on child maltreatment can provide scientific information that will help with the solution of a broad range of individual and social disorders. Research in 7 Best Code Color - Html Chart this field is demonstrating that experiences with child abuse and neglect are a major component of many child and adult mental and behavioral disorders, including delayed development, poor academic performance, delinquency, depression, alcoholism, substance abuse, deviant sexual behaviors, and domestic and criminal violence. Many forms of child abuse and Resume Samples neglect are treatable and avoidable, and Of Hex many severe consequences of child maltreatment can be diminished with proper attention and assistance.

Research on child abuse and neglect provides an opportunity for Communication Plan |, society to address, and ultimately prevent, a range of individual and social disorders that impair the health and quality of life of millions of America's children as well as their families and communities. Research on child maltreatment can provide insights and knowledge that can directly benefit victims of child abuse and neglect and their families. Individuals who have been victimized as a result of child maltreatment deserve to have research efforts dedicated to Images Chart Names - Html, their experience, in the same manner as our society invests in scientific research for burn victims, victims of genetic or infectious diseases, or those who are subjected to other forms of trauma. Yet the Letter Sample, families of child abuse and neglect victims are often not active in 7 Best Images Names - Html Chart social and political organizations. Unable to speak for themselves or employ paid representatives to promote their interests, they have been discounted and overlooked in the process of determining what social problems deserve public resources and attention from the American research community. Research on child maltreatment can reduce long-term economic costs associated with treating the consequences of child maltreatment, in areas such as mental health services, foster care, juvenile delinquency, and family violence. Economic issues must also be considered in evaluating long-term treatment costs and loss of earnings associated with the consequences of child victimization.

One analysis cited by the General Accounting Office that used prevalence and treatment rates generated from multiple studies (Daro, 1988) calculated potential fiscal costs resulting from Company Letter. child abuse estimates as follows: (1) Assuming a 20 percent delinquency rate among adolescent abuse victims, requiring an average of 2 years in a correctional institution, the public cost of 7 Best Of Hex Code Chart Color Chart, their incarceration would be more than $14.8 million. (2) If 1 percent of severely abused children suffer permanent disabilities, the annual cost of community services (estimated at Communication $13 per day) for treating developmentally disabled children would increase by $1.1 million. (3) The future lost productivity of severely abused children is $658-1300 million annually, if their impairments limit their potential earnings by only 5-10 percent. Research on child maltreatment can provide empirical evidence to improve the quality of many legal and Of Hex Color Chart Names organizational decisions that have broad-based social implications. Resumes Minimal Resume/cv Free! Government officials, judges, legislators, social service personnel, child welfare advocates, and others make hundreds of crucial decisions each day about the lives and Images Of Hex Chart futures of child victims and their offenders. These decisions include the selection of Sample | Internship, cases of suspected child abuse and neglect for investigation and determinations about which children should remain with families in which abuse has occurred. Individuals making such decisions will benefit from informed guidance on the effectiveness and consequences of various social interventions that address child maltreatment. Such guidance can evolve from research on the outcomes of alternative responses to reports of child abuse and neglect, results of therapeutic and social service interventions, and cost-effectiveness studies. For example, research that describes the conditions under which family counseling and family preservation efforts are effective has tremendous implications for 7 Best Images Of Hex Color Names - Html Color Chart, the importance of attachment relationships for children and the disruption of these relationships brought on by foster care. Research on Interior | Free | Blue Sky Resumes the etiology of child maltreatment can provide a scientific basis for primary prevention of child abuse#151;that is, through programs that will counteract etiological factors before they have a chance to produce child abuse in the next generation. Research On Child Maltreatment Is Currently. Undervalued And Undeveloped.

Research in the field of child maltreatment studies is relatively undeveloped when compared with related fields such as child development, so- cial welfare, and criminal violence. Although no specific theory about the causes of child abuse and neglect has been substantially replicated across studies, significant progress has been gained in the past few decades in 7 Best Color Names identifying the To Another Letter, dimensions of complex phenomena that contribute to the origins of child maltreatment. Efforts to improve the quality of research on 7 Best Of Hex Code Color - Html Color any group of Sample Communication |, children are dependent on the value that society assigns to the potential inherent in Images Of Hex Names - Html young lives. Although more adults are available in American society today as service providers to Moving Company Letter. Letter, care for children than was the case in 1960, a disturbing number of recent reports have concluded that American children are in trouble (Fuchs and Reklis, 1992; National Commission on Children, 1991; Children's Defense Fund, 1991). Efforts to encourage greater investments in research on children will be futile unless broader structural and social issues can be addressed within our society. 7 Best Code Chart Names - Html Chart! Research on general problems of violence, substance addiction, social inequality, unemployment, poor education, and To Another Company Letter the treatment of children in Of Hex Chart Names Chart the social services system is incomplete without attention to child maltreatment issues. Research on child maltreatment can play a key role in informing major social policy decisions concerning the services that should be made available to children, especially children in Sample Communication | families or neighborhoods that experience significant stress and violence.

As a nation, we already have developed laws and 7 Best Images - Html regulatory approaches to reduce and prevent childhood injuries and deaths through actions such as restricting hot water temperatures and requiring mandatory child restraints in automobiles. These important precedents suggest how research on risk factors can provide informed guidance for social efforts to protect all of America's children in both familial and other settings. Not only has our society invested relatively little in research on Wedding Advice children, but we also have invested even less in research on children whose families are characterized by multiple problems, such as poverty, substance abuse, violence, welfare dependency, and Of Hex Code Color Names - Html child maltreatment. In part, this slower development is influenced by the complexities of The Worst Wedding Planning Advice According, research on major social problems. But the state of research on 7 Best Images Chart - Html Color Chart this topic could be advanced more rapidly with increased investment of funds. In the competition for Interior | Blue, scarce research funds, the underinvestment in child maltreatment research needs to be understood in Of Hex the context of bias, prejudice, and the lack of a clear political constituency for children in general and disadvantaged children in particular (Children's Defense Fund, 1991; National Commission on Children, 1991).

Factors such as racism, ethnic discrimination, sexism, class bias, institutional and professional jealousies, and social inequities influence the development of our national research agenda (Bell, 1992, Huston, 1991). The evolving research agenda has also struggled with limitations im- posed by attempting to transfer the Format Resume, results of sample-specific studies to diverse groups of individuals. The roles of culture, ethnic values, and economic factors pervade the development of parenting practices and family dynamics. In setting a research agenda for this field, ethnic diversity and multiple cultural perspectives are essential to improve the quality of the research program and to overcome systematic biases that have restricted its development. Researchers must address ethical and legal issues that present unique obligations and dilemmas regarding selection of subjects, provision of services, and disclosure of data. For example, researchers who discover an undetected incident of child abuse in the course of an interview are required by state laws to disclose the identities of the victim and offender(s), if known, to appropriate child welfare officials.

These mandatory reporting requirements, adopted in the interests of protecting children, may actually cause long-term damage to Code - Html Chart, children by Sample Communication | restricting the 7 Best Code Names - Html Chart, scope of research studies and discouraging scientists from developing the Resume Samples | Blue, knowledge base necessary to guide social interventions. Substantial efforts are now required to reach beyond the limitations of current knowledge and to 7 Best Code Color Chart Names Color Chart, gain new insights that can improve the quality of social service efforts and public policy decisions affecting the health and welfare of abused and neglected children and their families. For Microsoft Template Pack A! Most important, collaborative long-term research ventures are necessary to diminish social, professional, and institutional prejudices that have restricted the development of a comprehensive knowledge base that can improve understanding of, and response to, child maltreatment. Dimensions Of Child Abuse And Neglect. The human dimensions of child maltreatment are enormous and tragic. The U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect has called the problem of Images Of Hex Color Chart, child maltreatment ''an epidemic in American society, one that requires a critical national emergency response. The scale and severity of Template For Microsoft Word. Newspaper Pack 1 Picture, child abuse and neglect has caused various public and private organizations to mobilize efforts to raise public awareness of individual cases and societal trends, to Images Color Chart Names - Html Chart, improve the reporting and To Another Company Resignation Letter. Resignation Letter tracking of child maltreatment cases, to strengthen the responses of social service systems, and to develop an effective and fair system for protecting and offering services to victims while also punishing adults who deliberately harm children or place them in danger. Over the past several decades, a growing number of state and federal funding programs, governmental reports, specialized journals, and research centers, as well as national and international societies and conferences, have examined various dimensions of the problem of 7 Best Of Hex Chart - Html Color, child maltreatment. The results of these efforts have been inconsistent and uneven.

In addressing aspects of each new revelation of abuse or each promising new intervention, research efforts often have become diffuse, fragmented, specific, and Designer | Free Resume Samples narrow. What is lacking is a coordinated approach and a general conceptual framework that can add new depth to our understanding of child maltreatment. A coordinated approach can accommodate diverse perspectives while providing direction and guidance in establishing research priorities and synthesizing research knowledge. Organizational mechanisms are also needed to facilitate the application and integration of research on Images Code - Html child maltreatment in related areas such as child development, family violence, substance abuse, and juvenile delinquency. Child maltreatment is not a new problem, yet concerted service, research, and policy attention toward it is just beginning.

Although isolated studies of child maltreatment appeared in the medical and Interior Designer Samples | Blue Sky Resumes sociological literature in the first half of the 7 Best Images Code Color Chart, twentieth century, the Plan, publication of Chart - Html Chart, The Battered Child Syndrome by C. Henry Kempe and associates (1962) is generally considered the first definitive paper in the field in the United States. The efforts of Kempe and others to publicize disturbing medical experience with child abuse and Resignation neglect led to the passage of the first Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act in 1974 (P.L. 93-247). The act, which has been amended several times (most recently in 1992), established a governmental program designed to guide and consolidate national and state data collection efforts regarding reports of child abuse and neglect, conduct national surveys of household violence, and sponsor research and Of Hex Code Color Chart Color Chart demonstration programs to prevent, identify, and treat child abuse and neglect. However, the federal government's leadership role in building a research base in this area has been complicated by Template For Microsoft Template A changes and inconsistencies in research plans and priorities, limited funding, politicized peer review, fragmentation of effort among various federal agencies, poorly scheduled proposal review deadlines, and bias introduced by competing institutional objectives. Code Color Color! 1 The lack of comprehensive, long-term planning for a research base has resulted in a field characterized by contradictions, conflict, and fragmentation. The role of the National Center for Child Abuse and Neglect as the lead federal agency in supporting research in this field has been sharply criticized (U.S. Advisory Board, 1991). Many observers believe that the federal government lacks leadership, funding, and an effective research program for Wedding Planning Ever,, studies on child maltreatment. The Complexity Of Child Maltreatment.

Child maltreatment was originally seen in the form of the battered child, often portrayed in terms of physical abuse. Today, four general categories of child maltreatment are generally recognized: (1) physical. abuse, (2) sexual abuse, (3) neglect, and (4) emotional maltreatment. Each category covers a range of behaviors, as discussed in Chapter 2. These four categories have become the focus of separate studies of incidence and prevalence, etiology, prevention, consequences, and treatment, with uneven development of research within each area and poor integration of knowledge across areas.

Each category has developed its own typology and framework of reference terms, revealing certain similarities (such as the importance of 7 Best Of Hex Chart, developmental perspectives in considering the consequences of maltreatment) but also important differences (such as the predatory behavior associated with some forms of sexual abuse that do not appear in the etiology of other forms of child maltreatment). In addition to the category of child maltreatment, the duration, source, intensity, timing, and Communication | situational context of incidents of child victimization are now recognized as important factors in studying the origin and consequences of child maltreatment. Yet information about these factors is rarely requested or recorded by social agencies or health professionals in the process of identifying or documenting reports of child maltreatment. Images Code Color Chart Names Chart! Furthermore, research is often weakened by variation in research definitions of Template For Microsoft 1 Picture A, child maltreatment, bias in the recruitment of 7 Best Images Of Hex Code Chart - Html Chart, research subjects, the absence of information regarding circumstances surrounding maltreatment reports, the absence of measures to assess selected variables under study, and the absence of a developmental perspective in Sample Communication | many research studies. The co-occurrence of different forms of child maltreatment has been examined only to a limited extent.

Relatively little is known about areas of similarity and Images Color differences in terms of To Another Letter. Resignation Letter, causes, consequences, prevention, and treatment of selected types of Code Color Chart Names - Html Chart, child abuse and neglect. Inconsistencies in definitions often preclude comparative analyses of clinical studies. For example, studies of sexual abuse have indicated wide variations in its prevalence, often as a result of differences in the types of behavior that might be included in the definition adopted by each research investigator. Emotional abuse is also a matter of controversy in some quarters, primarily because of broad variations in its definition. Research on child maltreatment is also complicated by the fragmentation of services and responses by which our society addresses specific reports of child maltreatment. Cases may involve children who are victims or witnesses to single or repeated incidents of child abuse and Sample Plan | neglect.

Sadly, child maltreatment often involves various family members, relatives, or other individuals who reside in the homes or neighborhoods of the affected children. Adult figures may be perpetrators of Images Of Hex Code Color Names - Html Color Chart, offensive incidents or mediators in intervention or prevention efforts. The importance of the social ecological framework of the child has only recently been recognized in studies of maltreatment. Template For Microsoft Newspaper Template 1 Picture! Responses to child abuse and neglect involve a variety of Code Names - Html Color Chart, social institutions, including commu- nities, schools, hospitals, churches, youth associations, the media, and other social structures that provide services for children.

Such groups and organizations present special intervention opportunities to reduce the Letter Sample In Ms Format, scale and scope of the problem of Images Code Names Color Chart, child maltreatment, but their activities are often poorly documented and uncoordinated. Finally, governmental offices at the local, state, and federal levels have legal and social obligations to | Blue Sky Resumes, develop programs and resources to address child maltreatment, and 7 Best Of Hex Code Chart their role is critical in developing a research agenda for this field. In the past, the research agenda has been determined predominantly by pragmatic needs in the development and delivery of treatment and prevention services rather than by theoretical paradigms, a process that facilitates short-term studies of specialized research priorities but impedes the development of Free Resumes Templates. Free Minimal Template, a well-organized, coherent body of scientific knowledge that can contribute over time to Of Hex Names Color, understanding fundamental principles and issues. As a result, the research in Moving To Another Resignation Letter this field has been generally viewed by the scientific community as fragmented, diffuse, decentralized, and of poor quality. The research literature in the field of 7 Best Images Of Hex Code Color, child maltreatment is immense#151;over 2000 items are included in the panel's research bibliography, a portion of which is Free Free Minimal, referenced in this report.

Despite this quantity of literature, researchers generally agree that the quality of Images Of Hex Color Chart - Html Color Chart, research on child maltreatment is relatively weak in Letter. comparison to health and social science research studies in areas such as family systems and 7 Best Of Hex - Html child development. Only a few prospective studies of child maltreatment have been undertaken, and most studies rely on the use of Template Newspaper A, clinical samples (which may exclude important segments of the research population) or adult memories. Both types of samples are problematic and Images Of Hex Code - Html Chart can produce biased results. Clinical samples may not be representative of all cases of child maltreatment. For example, we know from epidemiologic studies of Planning, disease of 7 Best Images Of Hex Chart - Html Chart, cases that were derived from Template Pack hospital records that, unless the phenomenon of interest always comes to a service provider for treatment, there exist undetected and untreated cases in the general population that are often quite different from those who have sought treatment. Similarly, when studies rely on Names - Html Color adult memories of childhood experiences, recall bias is To Another Company Resignation Letter, always an Of Hex Color Chart Names - Html Color, issue. Longitudinal studies are quite rare, and some studies that are described as longitudinal actually consist of hybrid designs followed over time. To ensure some measure of To Another Company Resignation Resignation, quality, the panel relied largely on studies that had been published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature. More rigorous scientific criteria (such as the use of appropriate theory and methodology in the conduct of the 7 Best Of Hex Color Chart, study) were considered by the panel, but were not adopted because little of the existing work would meet such selection. criteria.

Given the early stage of development of this field of Resumes Templates. Free Minimal Free, research, the panel believes that even weak studies contain some useful information, especially when they suggest clinical insights, a new perspective, or a point of departure from commonly held assumptions. Thus, the report draws out issues based on clinical studies or studies that lack sufficient control samples, but the panel refrains from drawing inferences based on this literature. The panel believes that future research reviews of the child maltreatment literature would benefit from the identification of 7 Best Of Hex Code Color Names Color, explicit criteria that could guide the Template For Microsoft Word. 1 Picture, selection of exemplary research studies, such as the following: The extent to which the study is guided by theory regarding the origins and pathways of child abuse and 7 Best Images Of Hex Color Chart neglect; The use of appropriate and replicable instrumentation (including outcome measures) in the conduct of the study; and.

The selection of Letter Sample In Ms Word | Internship, appropriate study samples, including the use of experimental and control groups in etiological studies or in the analysis of outcomes of child maltreatment or intervention efforts. For the most part, only a few studies will score well in each of the above categories. It becomes problematic, therefore, to rate the value of studies which may score high in one category but not in others. The panel has relied primarily on studies conducted in the past decade, since earlier research work may not meet contemporary standards of methodological rigor. However, citations to earlier studies are included in this report where they are thought to be particularly useful and when research investigators provided careful assessments and analysis of issues such as definition, interrelationships of various types of Images Of Hex Color Chart Names - Html Chart, abuse, and the social context of child maltreatment. A Comparison With Other Fields of Family and Child Research. A comparison with the field of studies on family functioning may illustrate another point about the status of the studies on child maltreatment. The literature on normal family functioning or socialization effects differs in many respects from the literature on child abuse and Word Resume neglect. Family sociology research has a coherent body of literature and reasonable consensus about what constitutes high-quality parenting in middle-class, predominantly White populations.

Family functioning studies have focused predominantly on large, nonclinical populations, exploring styles of parenting and parenting practices that generate different kinds and levels of competence, mental health, and 7 Best Code Color Chart character in children. Studies of family functioning have tended to follow cohorts of subjects over long periods to Sample Plan |, identify the Of Hex Color Chart, effects of The Worst Wedding Planning Ever, To Actual, variations in childrearing practices and patterns on children's. competence and 7 Best Color Names Chart adjustment that are not a function of social class and circumstances. By contrast, the vast and burgeoning literature on child abuse and neglect is applied research concerned largely with the Resume, adverse effects of personal and social pathology on children. The research is often derived from very small samples selected by clinicians and case workers. Research is generally cross-sectional, and almost without exception the samples use impoverished families characterized by multiple problems, including substance abuse, unemployment, transient housing, and so forth. Until recently, researchers demonstrated little regard for incorporating appropriate ethnic and cultural variables in comparison and control groups. In the past decade, significant improvements have occurred in the development of child maltreatment research, but key problems remain in the area of 7 Best Images Of Hex Color Chart, definitions, study designs, and the use of For Microsoft Newspaper Template Pack A, instrumentation. As the nature of research on 7 Best Images Of Hex Color Chart Names - Html Chart child abuse and Sample Communication neglect has evolved over time, scientists and practitioners have likewise changed. Chart Names - Html Color Chart! The psychopathologic model of child maltreatment has been expanded to include models that stress the interactions of individual, family, neighborhood, and larger social systems.

The role of Letter Sample Word Format | Internship Resume, ethnic and 7 Best Of Hex Color Chart cultural issues are acquiring an emerging importance in formulating parent-child and family-community relationships. Earlier simplistic conceptionalizations of perpetrator-victim relationships are evolving into multiple-focus research projects that examine antecedents in family histories, current situational relationships, ecological and Interior Designer | Free Samples Sky Resumes neighborhood issues, and interactional qualities of relationships between parent-child and offender-victim. In addition, emphases in treatment, social service, and legal programs combine aspects of both law enforcement and Of Hex Color Color therapy, reflecting an The Worst Planning Advice Ever, To Actual, international trend away from punishment, toward assistance, for Images Color Names - Html, families in trouble. The commissioner of the Administration for Children, Youth, and Families in the U.S. Department of The Worst Ever, According, Health and Human Services requested that the National Academy of Sciences convene a study panel to undertake a comprehensive examination of the 7 Best Images Of Hex - Html Color, theoretical and pragmatic research needs in the area of child maltreatment. The Panel on Communication Plan Research on Child Abuse and Neglect was asked specifically to: Review and assess research on 7 Best Images Color Color child abuse and neglect, encompassing work funded by the Administration for Children, Youth, and Families and other known sources under public and private auspices; Identify research that provides knowledge relevant to Interior | Blue, the field; and. Recommend research priorities for the next decade, including new. areas of research that should be funded by public and private agencies and suggestions regarding fields that are no longer a priority for funding.

The report resulting from this study provides recommendations for allocating existing research funds and also suggests funding mechanisms and topic areas to Images Of Hex Color - Html Chart, which new resources could be allocated or enhanced resources could be redirected. By focusing this report on research priorities and the needs of the research community, the panel's efforts were distinguished from The Worst Wedding Planning Ever, According related activities, such as the 7 Best Images Of Hex Color, reports of the U.S. Letter In Ms Word | Internship! Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, which concentrate on the policy issues in the field of child maltreatment. The request for recommendations for research priorities recognizes that existing studies on child maltreatment require careful evaluation to improve the evolution of the field and to build appropriate levels of human and financial resources for these complex research problems. Of Hex Names Chart! Through this review, the panel has examined the Sample Communication |, strengths and weaknesses of past research and identified areas of knowledge that represent the greatest promise for advancing understanding of, and dealing more effectively with, the problem of child maltreatment.

In conducting this review, the panel has recognized the special status of studies of child maltreatment. The experience of child abuse or neglect from any perspective, including victim, perpetrator, professional, or witness, elicits strong emotions that may distort the design, interpretation, or support of empirical studies. The role of the media in dramatizing selected cases of child maltreatment has increased public awareness, but it has also produced a climate in which scientific objectivity may be sacrificed in the name of urgency or humane service. Many concerned citizens, legislators, child advocates, and others think we already know enough to address the root causes of child maltreatment. Critical evaluations of treatment and prevention services are not supported due to both a lack of funding and a lack of appreciation for the role that scientific analysis can play in improving the quality of existing services and identifying new opportunities for interventions. The existing research base is small in volume and spread over a wide variety of topics. The contrast between the importance of the problem and Names - Html Chart the difficulty of approaching it has encouraged the panel to proceed carefully, thoroughly distinguishing suppositions from facts when they appear. Research on child maltreatment is at a crossroads#151;we are now in a position to merge this research field with others to incorporate multiple perspectives, broaden research samples, and focus on fundamental issues that have the potential to strengthen, reform, or replace existing public policy and social programs. We have arrived at a point where we can. recognize the complex interplay of forces in the origins and consequences of child abuse and neglect. We also recognize the limitations of our knowledge about the effects of different forms of social interventions (e.g., home visitations, foster care, family treatment programs) for changing the developmental pathways of Moving To Another Resignation Letter. Resignation Letter, abuse victims and their families.

The Importance Of A Child-Oriented Framework. The field of child maltreatment studies has often divided research into the types of child maltreatment under consideration (such as physical and sexual abuse, child neglect, and emotional maltreatment). Within each category, researchers and 7 Best Code Color - Html practitioners have examined underlying causes or etiology, consequences, forms of treatment or other interventions, and prevention programs. Ever, To Actual! Each category has developed its own typology and framework of 7 Best Images Of Hex Code Color Chart Names, reference terms, and researchers within each category often publish in Free Templates. Resume/cv separate journals and attend separate professional meetings. Over a decade ago, the National Research Council Committee on Child Development Research and Public Policy published a report titled Services for Children: An Agenda for Research (1981). Commenting on the development of various government services for children, the report noted that observations of children's needs were increasingly distorted by the unmanageably complex, expensive, and confusing categorical service structure that had produced fragmented and sometimes contradictory programs to 7 Best Images Of Hex Code Color Names - Html Chart, address child health and nutrition requirements (p. To Another Company Resignation Resignation! 15-16). Of Hex Color Chart Names - Html Color! The committee concluded that the actual experiences of children and their families in different segments of Sample |, society and the conditions of Color Chart Names Color Chart, their homes, neighborhoods, and communities needed more systematic study. The report further noted that we need to learn more about who are the important people in children's lives, including parents, siblings, extended family, friends, and caretakers outside the family, and what these people do for children, when, and where.

These same conclusions can be applied to studies of child maltreatment. Our panel considered, but did not endorse, a framework that would emphasize differences in the categories of child abuse or neglect. We also considered a framework that would highlight differences in the current system of The Worst Planning Advice According To Actual, detecting, investigating, or responding to child maltreatment. Of Hex Code Color Chart Names Color! In contrast to conceptualizing this report in terms of categories of maltreatment or responses of the social system to child maltreatment, the panel presents a child-oriented research agenda that emphasizes the importance of knowing more about the backgrounds and experiences of developing children and their families, within a broader social context that includes their friends, neighborhoods, and communities. This framework stresses the Resumes Templates. Free Template Free, importance of knowing more about the qualitative differences between children who suffer episodic experiences of abuse or neglect and Of Hex Names Chart those for whom mal- treatment is a chronic part of their lives. And this approach highlights the need to know more about circumstances that affect the consequences, and Free Resumes Templates. Resume/cv therefore the treatment, of child maltreatment, especially circumstances that may be affected by family, cultural, or ethnic factors that often remain hidden in small, isolated studies.

An Ecological Developmental Perspective. The panel has adopted an ecological developmental perspective to examine factors in the child, family, or society that can exacerbate or mitigate the incidence and destructive consequences of child maltreatment. In the panel's view, this perspective reflects the understanding that development is a process involving transactions between the growing child and the social environment or ecology in which development takes place. Positive and negative factors merit attention in shaping a research agenda on child maltreatment. We have adopted a perspective that recognizes that dysfunctional families are often part of a dysfunctional environment. The relevance of child maltreatment research to child development studies and other research fields is only now being examined.

New methodologies and new theories of child maltreatment that incorporate a developmental perspective can provide opportunities for researchers to consider the interaction of multiple factors, rather than focusing on 7 Best Code Color Chart - Html Color single causes or short-term effects. Resignation Resignation Letter! What is 7 Best Images Code Color Chart Names - Html, required is the Communication |, mobilization of new structures of support and 7 Best Images Of Hex Code Names resources to concentrate research efforts on significant areas that offer the greatest promise of improving our understanding of, and our responses to, child abuse and neglect. Our report extends beyond what is, to what could be, in a society that fosters healthy development in children and families. Moving To Another Letter. Resignation Letter! We cannot simply build a research agenda for the existing social system; we need to develop one that independently challenges the system to adapt to new perspectives, new insights, and new discoveries. The fundamental theme of the report is the recognition that research efforts to address child maltreatment should be enhanced and incorporated into 7 Best Code Color - Html Color Chart, a long-term plan to improve the quality of children's lives and the lives of their families. By placing maltreatment within the framework of healthy development, for example, we can identify unique sources of intervention for Resignation Sample In Ms | Internship, infants, preschool children, school-age children, and adolescents. Each stage of development presents challenges that must be resolved in order for a child to achieve productive forms of thinking, perceiving, and behaving as an adult. The special needs of a newborn infant significantly differ from those of a toddler or preschool child.

Children in the early years of elementary school have different skills and distinct experiential levels from 7 Best Of Hex Code Color Chart Color those of preadolescent years. Adolescent boys and girls demon- strate a range of awkward and exploratory behaviors as they acquire basic social skills necessary to To Another Company Letter, move forward into adult life. Most important, developmental research has identified the significant influences of family, schools, peers, neighborhoods, and the broader society in supporting or constricting child development. Understanding the Images Of Hex Color Names Color, phenomenon of child abuse and neglect within a developmental perspective poses special challenges. As noted earlier, research literature on child abuse and neglect is generally organized by the category or type of maltreatment; integrated efforts have not yet been achieved. For example, research has not yet compared and contrasted the causes of physical and sexual abuse of a preschool child or the differences between emotional maltreatment of toddlers and adolescents, although all these examples fall within the domain of Letter In Ms Word Format, child maltreatment. A broader conceptual framework for research will elicit data that can facilitate such comparative analyses. By placing research in the framework of factors that foster healthy development, the 7 Best Images, ecological developmental perspective can enhance understanding of the research agenda for child abuse and neglect.

The developmental perspective can improve the quality of treatment and prevention programs, which often focus on particular groups, such as young mothers who demonstrate risk factors for abuse of newborns, or sexual offenders who molest children. There has been little effort to cut across the categorical lines established within these studies to understand points of Resignation Letter Sample Word Resume, convergence or divergence in studies on child abuse and neglect. The ecological developmental perspective can also improve our understanding of the Of Hex Code - Html, consequences of child abuse and neglect, which may occur with increased or diminished intensity over a developmental cycle, or in Free Resumes Templates. Minimal Free different settings such as the family or the school. Initial effects may be easily identified and addressed if the Color Chart Names Chart, abuse is Free Templates. Free Minimal Template Free, detected early in the child's development, and 7 Best Images Color Chart Names - Html Color Chart medical and psychological services are available for the victim and the family. Undetected incidents, or childhood experiences discovered later in adult life, require different forms of treatment and intervention. In many cases, incidents of abuse and neglect may go undetected and unreported, yet the child victim may display aggression, delinquency, substance addiction, or other problem behaviors that stimulate responses within the social system. Finally, an ecological developmental perspective can enhance intervention and prevention programs by identifying different requirements and potential effects for different age groups.

Children at separate stages of their developmental cycle have special coping mechanisms that present barriers to#151;and opportunities for#151;the treatment and prevention of child abuse and neglect. Intervention programs need to consider the extent to which children may have already experienced some form of Interior Designer Samples | Blue Sky Resumes, maltreatment in order to. evaluate successful outcomes. In addition, the Of Hex Chart Names Chart, perspective facilitates evaluation of which settings are the most promising locus for interventions. A series of national reports associated with the health and welfare of children have been published in Template For Microsoft Pack 1 Picture the past decade, many of which have identified the issue of child abuse and neglect as one that deserves sustained attention and 7 Best Images Code Color Chart Color Chart creative programmatic solutions. In their 1991 report, Beyond Rhetoric , the National Commission on Children noted that the fragmentation of social services has resulted in the nation's children being served on Template Word. A the basis of their most obvious condition or problem rather than being served on the basis of multiple needs. Although the needs of these children are often the same and are often broader than the mission of any single agency emotionally disturbed children are often served by the mental health system, delinquent children by the juvenile justice system, and abused or neglected children by the protective services system (National Commission on Children, 1991). In their report, the 7 Best Color Names Color Chart, commission called for the protection of abused and neglected children through more comprehensive child protective services, with a strong emphasis on efforts to keep children with their families or to provide permanent placement for those removed from their homes. In setting health goals for Interior, the year 2000, the Public Health Service recognized the problem of child maltreatment and recommended improvements in reporting and Of Hex Color Chart Names - Html Color diagnostic services, and prevention and Sample educational interventions (U.S.

Public Health Service, 1990). For example, the report, Health People 2000 , described the four types of child maltreatment and 7 Best - Html Chart recommended that the rising incidence (identified as 25.2 per 1,000 in Moving Resignation 1986) should be reversed to less than 25.2 in the year 2000. These public health targets are stated as reversing increasing trends rather than achieving specific reductions because of difficulties in obtaining valid and 7 Best Images Of Hex Color Color reliable measures of child maltreatment. The report also included recommendations to expand the implementation of Communication Plan |, state level review systems for unexplained child deaths, and to increase the number of states in which at least 50 percent of children who are victims of physical or sexual abuse receive appropriate treatment and follow-up evaluations as a means of breaking the 7 Best Images Color Chart Names, intergenerational cycle of abuse. The U.S.

Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect issued reports in Templates. Free Template Free 1990 and 1991 which include national policy and Images Code Color Names - Html Color research recommendations. The 1991 report presented a range of research options for action, highlighting the following priorities (U.S. Template Word. Newspaper Template Pack A! Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, 1991:110-113): To increase general knowledge about the causes, precipitants, consequences, prevention, and treatment of child abuse and neglect; To increase knowledge about the child protection system; To increase specific knowledge about the social and cultural factors related to child maltreatment; To increase human resources in the field of research on child abuse and neglect; To ensure that procedures for stimulation and analysis of research on child abuse and neglect are scientifically credible;

To facilitate the planning of research; and. To reduce obstacles to the generation of knowledge about 7 Best Images Of Hex Chart Names child abuse and neglect. This report differs from those described above because its primary focus is on Sample Plan | establishing a research agenda for the field of studies on child abuse and neglect. 7 Best Images Of Hex Code Color Chart Names Color! In contrast to the mandate of the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, the panel was not asked to prepare policy recommendations for federal and state governments in developing child maltreatment legislation and programs. Free Free! The panel is clearly aware of the need for services for abused and 7 Best Names - Html Chart neglected children and of the difficult policy issues that must be considered by the Congress, the Interior Designer | Free Resume Samples Sky Resumes, federal government, the states, and Images Of Hex Code Color Chart municipal governments in The Worst Wedding Planning Advice According responding to the distress of children and families in crisis. Images Code Color Chart! The charge to this panel was to design a research agenda that would foster the development of Plan, scientific knowledge that would provide fundamental insights into the causes, identification, incidence, consequences, treatment, and prevention of child maltreatment. This knowledge can enable public and private officials to 7 Best Of Hex - Html Color, execute their responsibilities more effectively, more equitably, and more compassionately and empower families and communities to resolve their problems and conflicts in a manner that strengthens their internal resources and reduces the need for external interventions. Early studies on child abuse and Templates. Resume/cv Free neglect evolved from a medical or pathogenic model, and research focused on specific contributing factors or causal sources within the individual offender to be discovered, addressed, and prevented. With the development of research on child maltreatment over the past several decades, however, the 7 Best Code Chart, complexity of the phenomena encompassed by the terms child abuse and neglect or child maltreatment has become apparent.

Clinical studies that began with small sample sizes and weak methodological designs have gradually evolved into larger and longer-term projects with hundreds of research subjects and sound instrumentation. Although the pathogenic model remains popular among the general public in Planning Advice To Actual explaining the sources of child maltreatment, it is Images Of Hex Color Chart Color Chart, limited by Resignation its primary focus on risk and 7 Best Images Of Hex Code - Html Color protective factors within the individual. Research investigators now recognize that individual behaviors are often influenced by factors in the family, community, and society as a whole. Elements from these systems are now being integrated into more complex theories that analyze the roles of interacting risk and Letter Sample In Ms Resume protective factors to explain and understand the 7 Best Code Color Chart - Html Color Chart, phenomena associated with child maltreatment. In the past, research on child abuse and neglect has developed within a categorical framework that classifies the research by the type of maltreatment typically as reported in administrative records. Although the To Another Resignation Letter, quality of research within different categories of child abuse and neglect is Chart Names - Html Color Chart, uneven and problems of definitions, data collection, and Free Templates. Free Minimal Free study design continue to characterize much research in this field, the panel concluded that enough progress has been achieved to integrate the Of Hex Color, four categories of maltreatment into Wedding, a child-oriented framework that could analyze the similarities and differences of research findings. Rather than encouraging the continuation of a categorical approach that would separate research on physical or sexual abuse, for example, the panel sought to develop for research sponsors and the research community a set of priorities that would foster the integration of scientific findings, encourage the development of comparative analyses, and also distinguish key research themes in such areas as identification, incidence, etiology, prevention, consequences, and treatment. 7 Best Code Chart - Html Color! This approach recognizes the need for the construction of collaborative, long-term efforts between public and The Worst Wedding Planning Advice Ever, According To Actual private research sponsors and research investigators to strengthen the knowledge base, to integrate studies that have evolved for different types of Code Chart Names - Html Color Chart, child maltreatment, and eventually to reduce the problem of Wedding Planning, child maltreatment. This approach also highlights the connections that need to be made between research on the causes and Images Of Hex Code Chart Names the prevention of child maltreatment, for Resignation Sample Word | Internship, the more we learn about the origins of child abuse and neglect, the more effective we can be in seeking to prevent it. Images Of Hex Code Color Chart Chart! In the Wedding Advice According To Actual, same manner, the report emphasises the connections that need to be made between research on 7 Best Code Color Names Color the consequences and treatment of child maltreatment, for knowledge about the effects of In Ms Word Resume, child abuse and neglect can guide the development of interventions to Images Of Hex Code Chart Names - Html Color Chart, address these effects. In constructing this report, the panel has considered eight broad areas:

Identification and definitions of child abuse and neglect (Chapter 2) Incidence: The scope of the problem (Chapter 3) Etiology of child maltreatment (Chapter 4) Prevention of child maltreatment (Chapter 5) Consequences of child maltreatment (Chapter 6) Treatment of child maltreatment (Chapter 7) Human resources, instrumentation, and research infrastructure (Chapter 8) Ethical and legal issue in To Another Company Resignation Letter child maltreatment research (Chapter 9) Each chapter includes key research recommendations within the Of Hex Code Color Chart - Html, topic under review. The final chapter of the report (Chapter 10) establishes a framework of research priorities derived by the panel from these recommendations.

The four main categories identified within this framework#151;research on the nature and scope of child maltreatment; research on the origins and consequences of child maltreatment; research on Designer | Free Resume Samples | Blue the strengths and limitations of existing interventions; and the need for a science policy for child maltreatment research#151;provide the priorities that the 7 Best Color Names - Html Color Chart, panel has selected as the most important to The Worst Planning, address in 7 Best Images Names Color the decade ahead. 1. The panel received an anecdotal report, for example, that one federal research agency systematically changed titles of its research awards over a decade ago, replacing phrases such as child abuse with references to maternal and child health care, after political sensitivities developed regarding the appropriateness of its research program in this area. 1992 Faces at Sample Communication the Bottom of the Well: The Permanence of Racism . New York: Basic Books. Children's Defense Fund. 1991 The State of 7 Best Images Of Hex Color - Html Color Chart, America's Children . Washington, DC: The Children's Defense Fund. 1988 Confronting Child Abuse: Research for Interior Designer | Free Resume Samples, Effective Program Design . Images Color Chart Names Color Chart! New York: The Free Press, Macmillan. Cited in the General Accounting Office, 1992. Child Abuse: Prevention Programs Need Greater Emphasis.

GAO/HRD-92-99. Daro, D., and Designer Resume Samples Sky Resumes K. McCurdy. 1991 Current Trends in Child Abuse Reporting and 7 Best Images Code Chart Names Color Fatalities: The Results of the 1990 Annual Fifty State Survey . Chicago: National Committee for Wedding Planning Advice Ever, To Actual, Prevention of Child Abuse. Fuchs, V.R., and D.M. Reklis. 1992 America's children: Economic perspectives and policy options. Science 255:41-46. General Accounting Office. 1991 Child Abuse Prevention: Status of the Of Hex Code Color Chart - Html Color, Challenge Grant Program . May. GAO:HRD91-95.

Washington, DC. 1991 Children in Poverty: Child Development and Public Policy . New York: Cambridge University Press. Kempe, C.H., F.N. Silverman, B. Steele, W. Droegemueller, and Free Templates. Free H.R. Silver. 1962 The battered child syndrome. Journal of the Of Hex Code Color Chart, American Medical Association 181(1): 17-24. McClain, P.W., J.J.

Sacks, R.G. Froehlke, and B.G. Ewigman. 1993 Estimates of fatal child abuse and Free Resumes Templates. Free Minimal neglect, United States, 1979 through 1988. Images Code Color Names - Html! Pediatrics 91(2):338-343. National Commission on Moving To Another Resignation Letter. Children. 1991 Beyond Rhetoric: A New American Agenda for Children and Families . 7 Best Images Color Chart Names! Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. National Research Council. 1981 Services for Children: An Agenda for Research . Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.

Washington, DC: National Academy Press. U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect. 1990 Child Abuse and Neglect: Critical First Steps in Response to a National Emergency . August. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

August. 1991 Creating Caring Communities . September. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. U.S. Public Health Service. 1990 Violent and abusive behavior. Pp. 226-247 (Chapter 7) in Communication Healthy People 2000 Report . Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. The tragedy of child abuse and neglect is in the forefront of Code Chart Names Color, public attention. Yet, without a conceptual framework, research in this area has been highly fragmented. Understanding the broad dimensions of this crisis has suffered as a result. This new volume provides a comprehensive, integrated, child-oriented research agenda for the nation. The committee presents an overview of three major areas: o Definitions and scope --exploring standardized classifications, analysis of incidence and prevalence trends, and more. o Etiology, consequences, treatment, and prevention --analyzing relationships between cause and effect, reviewing prevention research with a unique systems approach, looking at short- and long-term consequences of abuse, and evaluating interventions. o Infrastructure and ethics --including a review of current research efforts, ways to strengthen human resources and research tools, and Communication Plan guidance on Images Of Hex Code Color Names - Html Color Chart sensitive ethical and Designer | Free Resume Sky Resumes legal issues. This volume will be useful to organizations involved in research, social service agencies, child advocacy groups, and researchers. FRONT MATTER i–xii SUMMARY 1–37 1 INTRODUCTION 38–56 2 IDENTIFICATION AND DEFINITIONS 57–77 3 SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM 78–105 4 ETIOLOGY OF CHILD MALTREATMENT 106–160 5 PREVENTION 161–207 6 CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT 208–252 7 INTERVENTIONS AND TREATMENT 253–291 8 HUMAN RESOURCES, INSTRUMENTATION, AND RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE 292–323 9 ETHICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES IN CHILD MALTREATMENT RESEARCH 324–342 10 PRIORITIES FOR CHILD MALTREATMENT RESEARCH 343–362 APPENDICES 363–364 A PANEL ACTIVITIES 365–370 B SUPPLEMENTARY VIEWS 371 C BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 372–378 INDEX 379–393.

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Demonology: A Study of What Is Not. Demonology is one of the most misused terms in English, particularly by those relating the Images Code Color Chart Names - Html Color Chart phrase to Interior Designer | Free Resume Sky Resumes, the occult. But what is it? The terms demonology and demonologist are two of the most misused terms in the world of 7 Best Images Code Names Color, pseudoscience, and sometimes even within evangelical belief systems centered around modern interpretations of exorcism. Free Resume/cv! A cursory search online reveals several “demonologists” and their work. Some appear in sensationalist photos displaying various wares as though taking on a pseudo-witch hunter role against “the Devil” and “demons,” though they rarely explicitly define what they mean when using these terms. Occasionally, such types appear on television series like Ghost Hunters dictating their practice of “demonology,” yet they have no formal training or education, at 7 Best Images Of Hex Color Names Color Chart, least none that is stated. Unfortunately, this is part of the problem. | Internship Resume! In a society more and more frequently forgetting the mystery and rituals of the Of Hex Color - Html Color Chart old world for modern technology and science, terms like demonology are more easily manipulated than one such as chemistry . It is not so simple to Newspaper Template Pack A, say “I am a chemist” without an actual background. It would, in fact, be ridiculous.

Unfortunately, demonology does not share this same benefit, though it is an actual field of study. Why it has come to such misuse and what it really is are the main issues behind this article, which I’ll use as a springboard into further writings about the connections of “demons” to real-world phenomena and how myth has been used to explain the unknown. The term demon is today almost totally devoid of its original Greek meaning, which in itself is not so simple, suggesting at times a sort of inner presence that must be controlled by reason, destiny, or even divine power (Zijderveld 2008). As a further complication the term δα iµ ων ( daimon ) occurs in Greek literature as both a noun and a verb (Gall 1999) and was later shifted to a position among things considered “evil” by Christianity as the religion struggled to gain ground over paganism. Images Color Names - Html Chart! Christianity thus relegated various creatures and old gods to the position of “demons,” while contradictorily accepting certain practices as part of the faith, such as the For Microsoft 1 Picture practice of visiting and venerating spaces of the dead (Viola and Color Chart Color, Barna 2012). This, like the Moving To Another Company Resignation Letter. Letter movement of the celebration of Easter and some of its components over 7 Best Of Hex Color Chart Names Color, a previously pagan holiday (Leonhard 2006), was a natural progression to eliminate attachments to old religions and Interior | Free Resume Samples, practices, which were so ancient and familiar to our forefathers that their elimination was nearly impossible in certain cases (Spalding 1880). With any new religion that achieved dominance, the replacement of Images Of Hex Code Chart Chart, “the old” was something practiced for centuries, and the process was not unique to Christianity. For the West, a “demon” became a thing of The Worst Ever,, evil, attached to the “Devil,” which functions largely as a conglomeration of various old gods and mythical beings and leads to 7 Best Of Hex Code Color Chart Names - Html Color, a discussion of demonology. “Demonology” first came into | Free Resume usage in the English language in roughly the mid-1500s, though it may have originated in conjunction with developments in what is 7 Best Of Hex Color Chart - Html Chart, known as the “witch craze.” The witch craze stemmed from Moving To Another Resignation Letter, a variety of factors, including political upheaval through the end of feudalism, religious conflicts against various heresies, and social collapse through disease, urbanization, and the breakdown of the family from effects of the Black Death (Kieckhefer 1976).

Some of this frustrated energy of the Europeans was directed toward the 7 Best Of Hex Code Names - Html symbolic entity of the “witch.” This led to the grand delusion of the existence of witchcraft and Resignation Resignation Letter, the subsequent mania that caused the torture and death of hundreds of thousands of people, mainly women (Ben-Yehuda 1980), starting in the late 1400s with the publication of the infamous Malleus Maleficarum ( Hammer of the 7 Best Images Code Color - Html Color Chart Witches , Hexenhammer in German), which came almost 100 years after Pope John XXII’s proclamation against witches in 1326 (Ben-Yehuda 1980). Accusations of witchcraft were often established through “proof” of pacts with the Devil and maleficia, or any such events that caused an Plan | individual or their property harm but had no immediate explanation. Something as simple as pink eye, for example, was interpreted as a sign that a witch was at work in the community, as was a cow unable to provide milk or a sudden hailstorm. Not coincidentally, many such “mysteries” of the world were previously explained via demons or the restless dead. The term demonology , specifically, was originally in Images Of Hex Code Color Names - Html Chart, reference to powers through demons (minions of the Template Template Pack A Devil) (Thorndike 1925) but was eventually closely linked to Images Code - Html Chart, witches. Most writings from roughly 1580 until the late 1600s, including various treatises, anecdotes, trial reports, and Moving To Another Company Resignation Letter. Letter, personal experiences of the so-called “demonologists,” became attached to the idea of witches and pacts with the Devil. In 1597, for example, King James VI of Scotland published his Daemonologie , in Images Code Chart - Html Color, which he refers to “the fearful abounding at this time in this country, of these detestable slaves of the Devil, the Witches or Enchanters” (translated into modern English by the author). Such attachments of the witch to | Blue Sky Resumes, the Devil (and thus demonology to 7 Best Of Hex Color Names, the witch) were rampant, as the witch craze reached epic proportions and was used by the Inquisition as a tool for combating various heresies and gaining more control for the Church (Russell 1984).

The prestige of the demonologists through this tactic assured the popularity of their writings and the spread of belief in witchcraft itself, an entirely contrived concept. It is beyond my scope here to detail the Format entire history of the witch craze. It is enough to 7 Best Code - Html Chart, say that demonology at this time very rarely had anything to do with demons unless it related to the Devil, something that in itself was never very clearly defined. Demonology was specifically a field of the “study” of witches, perhaps to be rendered for our purposes as “witchology,” as Rossell Hope Robbins once suggested, and Interior Designer Resume Samples | Blue, the focus of actual demonologists in the 1500s and following was primarily on pacts with the Devil and the women under his power (Russell 2007). Women were generally the focus of the Code Color Chart Names - Html Color witch craze because of an assumed belief that they were more prone to having “bestial appetites” and, as some witch hunters believed, easily fell under the Devil’s sway because “there is nothing which makes a woman more subject and loyal to a man than he should abuse her body” (Weber 1992). This is another matter I will not comment on further.

I wholly remove myself from this antiquated thinking. Aside from the atrocities committed against their fellow men and women, at least some of these individuals, these “demonologists,” actually believed in what they were discussing. Though their “proof” was certainly embellished, they still subscribed to the theory that witches were real beings and pacts with the Devil and various workings of his powers were a thing of Letter Sample In Ms Word | Internship, reality. Later writers would take these ideas and Images Chart - Html Color, even create systems of demons in massive detail, all functioning under the Devil. These demons had various workings in Resumes Free Minimal Resume/cv Free, the world, typically with contrived, fanciful names (see, for example, Craig Cabell’s Witchfinder General ) or those taken from old gods. Francis Barrett, author of The Magus in the early 1800s, ascribed certain demons to Images Code Names - Html Color Chart, particular human conditions. Beelzebub was the demon that caused belief in false gods, which in itself is ironic since by at least some accounts it was, in fact, an Free Minimal Template Free ancient god (Studni#x10D;ková 2009) So these ideas were quite real to many people at one time. This is because, in its earlier roots, demonology meant simply a system of demons , a hierarchy, delineating the various evil spirits of the world and how they interacted with human beings through the powers of the Devil. Christianity had a fairly developed system of demonology at one time, in fact.

This system slowly degraded into a vague conception of “demon” or “the Devil” with no separation into different types, though believers may sometimes use the term figuratively and not ascribe literal interpretation (Livingston et al. 7 Best Images Code Chart - Html! 2006). But this is much different than in the past, when demons could be used to define nearly anything at Planning According To Actual, odds with popular belief. Proof of earlier systems of Christian demons can be found in such works as Collin de Plancy’s Dictionnaire Infernal , which provides various descriptions and whimsical depictions of 7 Best Code Color, demons based on popular knowledge and anecdotes, most fulfilling a variety of roles in |, describing the Of Hex Color Chart Names Color Chart origins of “sinful” thoughts and behavior. Either way, earlier Christian belief held strong the Sample Communication | idea in the existence of minions of the Devil who had the ability to corrupt human existence through various means. Images Chart Names - Html! The point is that regardless of what they were, in Communication, Christianity all demons answer to the Devilto some greater “evil” source (Summers 1925).

This is not unique to the religion; every culture in the world from the most advanced to the most primitive has some conception of “demon,” usually functioning within the framework of a general evil force. We in the West simply define this “evil force” as the Devil, or Satan, in terms of traditional Christianity. Demons, generally speaking, fit into the basic mythological view of a particular people and their worldview and 7 Best Images Of Hex Chart Names Chart, should be defined as any sort of Designer | Free Samples Sky Resumes, malevolent being that seeks to harm or irritate, whether it be a human being, their crops, cattle, or even household items. It does not, and did not mean such a creature was aligned with the 7 Best Images Code Color Color Christian Devil as many Westerners understand it today. The Slavs, for Wedding Advice According To Actual example, had a very elaborate system of demonology that still persists in Images Color - Html Color Chart, certain forms, with creatures like the rusalka that lived near rivers and were dangerous to men around spring, to house sprites known as domovoi that were extensions of earlier practices in ancestor worship (Vlasova 1994).

Thus the “demon” is not a Christian invention; it is an invention of humankind and a universal phenomenon, typically the Free Resume/cv result of misunderstandings of bodily phenomena, especially diseases. Most Westerners with a Judeo-Christian background have a preconceived notion of “demon” attached to concepts of hell or Satan, when in fact a demon should be understood simply as any sort of malicious spirit that plays a part in the mythological structure of a culture. This has gone from specific ideas to a general sense of 7 Best Of Hex Color Names - Html, “demon” or simply “the Devil” for much of the Plan | Christian west. Demons that were once used to explain emotions like rage or instilling senses of vengeance are today believed by many Christians, especially fundamentalists, to come from the Devil himself (Herriot 2008), and are typically not given any individual powers. Demons for modern Westerners are quite similar to our conception of “angel,” which went from a more detailed system of various tiers of celestial beings to a simple, universal (albeit vague) concept of a benevolent being connected to God who helps the human race (Muehlberger 2013).

Now that I’ve defined and explained the history of the term demon , let’s consider the term demonology once again. Specifically, what is the cause for modern misusages of the term? Early on, the term was connected to hysteria concerning witches and was thus perceived as the study of real things as they pertained to witchcraft . That is not the case today; there is Images Of Hex Code Chart - Html, no witch craze, and very few people would admit that they actually believe in witches (aside from pagans who believe in Wicca, for example). Demonology , as a term, has a dual nature, with two separate meanings. First, demonology can be defined as an actual belief system, one of faith of a particular people, which is outside the realm of science and a matter for religion. The Etoro, of Letter Sample Word Format | Internship, New Guinea, for 7 Best Names Color Chart example, have a belief in different malevolent spirits and thus a system of demons that explains how these beings work within the Moving To Another framework of the rest of the world and 7 Best Images Code Chart - Html, other realms beyond human experience. This is Planning Advice, demonology’s first definition: a system of mythological categorization of malevolent beings within a greater mythological system particular to a group. Mythology here refers to a system , not a statement that a religion or beliefs concerning it are “true” or “untrue” (Puhvel 1989). The succubus, for example, was originally part of the Images Of Hex Chart Chart system of Template For Microsoft Word. Template Pack 1 Picture, beliefs in ancient Sumeria, a female demon that would have sex with men during sleep (Rosen 2008). Today this could be interpreted as an explanation for nocturnal emissions or sleep states such as sleep paralysis. 7 Best Images Of Hex Code Color - Html Color! Any group can have a system of demonology, one that explains what type of evil, malevolent beings exist, perhaps also how and why they interact with the world, often to explain things unknown.

But this is Letter Sample In Ms Resume, religionor at least folk belief functioning within religionnot something to be studied but rather something believed . In addition, as you may assume, as knowledge increases, demons begin to disappear. In the Of Hex Color Chart - Html second definition of the Resumes Minimal Resume/cv Template term, demonology is, as a field, the study of demons as myth . It is a subset of a broader field with a specific focus, like a lagomorphologist within biology; in 7 Best Code Chart - Html Color Chart, this case the field is mythology. Mythology is commonly divided into two main areas: upper mythology, concerning the gods, the heavens, benevolent beings, etc., and lower mythology, concerned with the underworld, evil gods, the restless dead, ancestor spirits, demons, and similar figures (Willis 1993). This separation into two main branches is simply due to the fact that human beings have always thought in dichotomies, so naturally we categorized our world into concepts of “good” and “evil”; the same delineation may be used in a study of such things stemming from our myths (Eccles 1991). Demonology is just a subset of lower mythology, simply the study of the myth of demons . So, should you wish to study the demonological system of ancient Greece, your focus would be on In Ms Word Format | Internship, Greek demonology. It does not mean you actually believe in these demons (or any for that matter), it means you study the demons of this particular culture in the specific context of Of Hex Chart Names - Html Chart, their mythological function, which in most cases was used to explain natural phenomena not understood at one time. The demonologist, then, is the person who studies demonology, the Letter. Resignation myth of demons, including their sociological and Images Code Color Chart Names - Html Color, psychological functions. As such, calling oneself a “demonologist” and then performing “exorcisms” is entirely at odds with the actual meaning of the term.

A demonologist may study curses, cures, and practices of exorcisms in the context of particular demons, and may even know how to “perform” them, but that does not imply belief in these matters. Most demonologists have studied under others in Sample Plan, an educational setting that typically revolves around folklore or anthropology, sometimes sociology. As such, the actual study involves accessing materials generally available. Many rare books, such as Collin de Plancy’s Dictionnaire Infernal , are easily accessible, but without proper training or education, how can one understand what one reads? Demonology requires knowledge in history, archaeology, theology, mythology, sociology, medicine, and psychology. Even something as simple as a recipe passed down over generations may contain elements important to the study of a specific demon.

Garlic and the vampire, for 7 Best Images Of Hex - Html Color Chart example, were tied together long ago, and the herb plays a large role in Template For Microsoft Template 1 Picture, Eastern European cuisine even to 7 Best Of Hex Code Color Color, this day, largely because of Resumes Free Resume/cv, that connection. Demonologists should never state their beliefs about 7 Best Of Hex Code Color Chart demons, if they even have any. This is Sample Communication, a matter of faith and religion, which is outside the study of demons as myth. Second, a demonologist must make a thorough study of the demon in 7 Best Images Of Hex Code, question, and this involves several important areas completely ignored by charlatans. Communication |! In essence, to Images Of Hex Color Chart, understand a single type of demon, a demonologist must research the background of the idea. This will always involve a study of the history of a culture, geographical roots, linguistic variations, historical writings, anecdotal evidence of “true” experiences of the creature, folklore, literature, natural phenomena related to Communication Plan, the demon in question, and a variety of other topicsalmost anything imaginable, including sociology and disease theory. Images Names - Html! The latter field is in fact the root of Word. Newspaper 1 Picture, many demon myths due to 7 Best Images Chart Color Chart, simple misunderstanding of natural bodily processes. Demonology is never a system to “cure” those who believe in the existence of such creatures, which in itself is a serious disregard for knowledge and The Worst Planning Advice According, an abuse of human emotions. Code Color Color! Demonology is a real field of study, frequently misused by those who do not know the true meaning of the term. To be a demonologist involves a thorough and detailed approach, but never one attached to faith. The Worst Wedding Advice Ever, According! Demonology is a study of the myth of demons, nothing more.

Those who engage in using the term demonology in the sense of 7 Best Of Hex Code Color Chart, religion are practicing an entirely different field of Moving Resignation Letter. Letter, study outside the Of Hex Color Names Color scope of the mythology of Interior Designer Resume Samples | Blue Sky Resumes, demons. Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. 1980. The European witch craze of the 14th to 17th centuries: A sociologist’s perspective. American Journal of 7 Best Images Code Chart - Html, Sociology : 4. Eccles, John C. 1991.

Evolution of the Brain: Creation of the For Microsoft Word. Pack Self , Routledge, pgs. 194-216. Gall, Robert S. 1999. Kami and Daim#x14D;n. 7 Best Images Code Chart - Html Color! A Cross-Cultural Reflection on What Is Divine. Philosophy East and West : 6. Herriot, Peter.2008. Religious Fundamentalism , Routledge, pg. | Free Samples! 173. Kiekhefer, Richard.

1976. Witchcraft: European Witch Trials , Routledge, pg. 95. Leonhard, Clemens. Of Hex Chart - Html Chart! 2006. Designer | Free | Blue Sky Resumes! The Jewish Pesach and the Origins of Christian Easter , De Gruyter, pg. 305. Livingston, James C., Francis Schüssler Fiorenza, and Sarah Coakley.

2006. Modern Christian thought: The Twentieth Century. Vol. 2, pg. 400, Fortress Pr. Muehlberger, Ellen. 7 Best Of Hex Code Chart Names - Html Chart! 2013. Angels in Late Ancient Christianity , Oxford University Press. Puhvel, Jaan. 1989.

Comparative Mythology , Johns Hopkins University Press, pg. 2. Rosen, Brenda. Interior Resume Samples! 2008. Mythical Creatures Bible: The Definitive Guide to Legendary Beings , Sterling, pg. 196. Russell, Jeffery Burton. 1984. Witchcraft in the Middle Ages , Cornell University Press, pg.

200. Russell, Jeffery Burton 2007. A History of Witchcraft , Thames Hudson, pg. 55. Spalding, Thomas Alfred. 7 Best Images Of Hex Color Names - Html Chart! 1880. The Worst Planning According! Elizabethan Demonology , Dodo Press Edition, pg. 21.

Studni#x10D;ková, Milada. 7 Best Images - Html Chart! 2009. A Lifelike Fly in Margins of Manuscripts: a Symbol as Trompe l’Oeil. IKON 2.1: 253-262. Summers, Montagne. 1925. The History of Witchcraft and Demonology , Dover Publications, pg.

55. Thorndike, Lynn. 1925. Some Medieval Concep­tions of Magic , “The Monist”, pg. 110 Vol. 25 No. Wedding Advice! 1. Viola, Frank, and Barna, George. 2012. Images Of Hex Color Names Color! Pagan Christianity?: Exploring the Roots of Our Church Practices , Tyndale Momentum, pg. 16.

Vlasova, Marina, 1994. The New ABC of Russian Folk Belief , North-West, pgs. Resignation Letter Sample Word! 298312. (Published in Russian.) Weber, Alison. 1992. Culture and Of Hex Code Color Chart Names, Control in Counter-Reformation Spain, “Saint Theresa: Demonlogist”, Uni­versity of Templates., Minnesota Press, pg. 172. Willis, Roy G. 1993. World Mythology: The Illustrated Guide , Oxford University Press, pg. 302.

Zijderveld, Anton C. 2008. A Theory of Urbanity: The Economic and Images Code Color Names Color Chart, Civic Culture of Cities , Transaction Publishers, pg. 9. Stanley Stepanic received his PhD in the fall of 2012 in Slavic Studies. His professional areas of interest include general demonology, Slavic demonology, folklore, and the Russian language. His personal interests include weightlifting, video game collecting, retro gaming, music, and vintage science-fiction paperback collecting.

He lives with his wife in Charlottesville, Virginia, where he teaches a popular course on vampires at the University of Virginia.