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My Senior Thesis: How Can Great Charities Raise More Money? I haven#8217;t written a blog post for Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts, nearly a full season. One-third of Printable Source Code Escrow Template | Printable Legal, this phenomenon is the fault of Ninedot Art Director Denver, my senior thesis: It#8217;s a very long thesis, and you probably shouldn#8217;t read the whole thing. I conducted my final round of editing over the course of Letter, 38 hours in late April, during which I did not sleep. It#8217;s kind of a slog. Here#8217;s a PDF of the Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, five pages where I summarize everything I learned and make recommendations to charities: In the rest of this post, I#8217;ve explained my motivation for actually writing this thing, and squeezed my key findings into a pair of summaries: One that#8217;s a hundred words long, one that#8217;s quite a bit longer. Americans only give about 2% of their income to charity, and most of that money goes to charities that don#8217;t do an especially good job of helping people. How can the most effective charities (and other charities) raise more money?
There are many different techniques that have been shown to Of Business Formville - Business, work well in multiple studies, but evidence on most techniques is still very mixed, and Art Director By Ninedotarts some popular techniques in Code Template Legal, the real world have no experimental evidence behind them. Charities really ought to run more experiments to figure out which techniques will work for Ninedot Arts Art Director By Ninedotarts, them. In the meantime, some general advice for all charities: Tell donors what their donation will accomplish (be specific!). Tell stories about individual people you#8217;ve helped, Make donors feel like they#8217;re on a winning team with lots of other cool donors, making real progress on an important problem. Also, run experiments. I can#8217;t emphasize that enough. Letter | Program? This year, I began to study the nonprofit sector, because I#8217;m convinced that giving money to the right causes is Art Director By Ninedotarts Denver, one of the best ways for Of Resignation Due To Retirement | Docoments, an average person to improve the world . Job Description By Ninedotarts? I#8217;d seen a lot of studies on fundraising techniques , and on techniques for persuading people in general , but it wasn#8217;t easy to find a lot of 17 Cpo Textbook, Graph Paper, And Summary | Miss, studies in one place, and it was especially tough to figure out whether any particular techniques had super-strong evidence behind them, or whether some techniques were overvalued thanks to Arts Art Director, the results of a single study that wouldn#8217;t necessarily generalize to most nonprofits. So I did something a little bit foolish.
I decided that my senior thesis would attempt to review every experimental study ever conducted on 17 Cpo And Summary | Miss, a charitable fundraising technique. To ensure that I was saying something original, I added a special section on techniques that would apply especially to #8220;effective#8221; charities: Those which could present strong evidence to donors that they were actually making the world a better place (and doing so more efficiently than most other charities). This isn#8217;t the best-written literature review of fundraising techniques, nor the most comprehensive. But it is Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, probably the most comprehensive review of studies conducted specifically using participants who actually gave money. This is Acceptance | Program, actually a major problem in the fundraising literature: About half the studies I found didn#8217;t measure the Ninedot Arts Denver, impact of a technique on real donations. Instead, researchers measured how much money the participants claimed they would give if someone asked them, or whether they gave tokens to people playing an #8220;economic game#8221; with them, or whether they helped a clumsy research assistant clean up spilled coffee. (To make an uncharitable comparison, it#8217;s as though Stanley Milgram had conducted his famous obedience experiment by asking participants whether they would be willing to shock the person on the other side of the curtain if he asked nicely.) I excluded any study that didn#8217;t measure real monetary donations, unless it dealt in some way with evidence-based giving #8212; very little has been written in that domain, so I had to be a bit less selective. Take everything I say with a grain of Free Basic Of Business From Formville - Business, salt: I was an Ninedot Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts undergraduate when I wrote this, and I probably missed some important points in Printable Agreement Template, many of Ninedot Art Director By Ninedotarts Denver, these papers. Almost every study here involves a single request for money, even though donor retention is more important for most charities than getting new donors who only give once. Including donor retention would have made this thesis almost impossible to write, but it#8217;s still an important topic. ( Adrian Sargeant has some great papers on building long-term relationships with donors.) There#8217;s not a lot of research on most of the techniques I covered, with a few exceptions. I found about five studies per technique, on Basic Agreement Formville - Business, average, of which at least one was methodologically flawed.
Sample sizes and effect sizes varied drastically, and Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description the sheer number of techniques meant that running a meta-analysis wouldn#8217;t have made sense. For that matter, nearly everything about these studies varied drastically: The context in which a request was made, the relationship of the participants to the charity, the size of the charity, and so on. What I wound up with, in the end, were a few solid general rules and a lot of results hinting that certain approaches might be effective. Still, it#8217;s better to have hints than to Escrow Agreement, have nothing, and most nonprofit organizations aren#8217;t using all that much science when they try to raise money. Art Director Job Description? Charitable giving is How To Write A Letter Of Resignation Due To Retirement | Docoments, probably a net positive, as far as social phenomena go. And even if it isn#8217;t, the most efficient, data-driven forms of Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, giving are certainly good. (This is To Coaches And, my first thesis, so I#8217;m defending even the most basic assertions.) The latter form of Ninedot, giving, or #8220;effective altruism#8221;, clearly helps the recipients of To Coaches And, donations, but it#8217;s not entirely clear whether giving actually makes people happier. There#8217;s a good chance that happy people give more, or that people claim to be happy after giving so experimenters will like them. But it#8217;s also quite possible that giving money makes us happier than spending it, especially once we#8217;ve spent a certain amount on ourselves. Ninedot Arts Job Description Denver? But even though charitable giving is Of Business Agreement From - Business, a very good thing, we don#8217;t give very much, and Ninedot Denver the rate at Chapter Paper, And Summary Template | Miss, which we give hasn#8217;t really changed since 1970. For some reason, charities are struggling to convince people to give money away.
But science can help! This literature review aims to summarize research on the efficacy of various fundraising techniques #8212; particularly those which could be useful to Ninedot Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, the most effective charities. By the way, some charities are more effective than others! Why are some charities #8220;overpriced#8221; for the amount of good they do? Because charities aren#8217;t like soap: When we give, we spend money on something we don#8217;t use ourselves, and we rarely learn how well the How To Of Resignation Due To Retirement | Docoments, charity is helping recipients. It#8217;s as though we bought someone else a bar of soap on Amazon and then tried to review it without ever speaking to Ninedot Art Director, them.
This wouldn#8217;t work very well. Similarly, despite the existence of charity-rating websites, most people give without knowing much about the impact of the charity they support, much less how it compares to Chapter 17 Cpo Paper, Template | Miss, other charities. I read hundreds of pages of Google Scholar and lots of books and more pages in a few specialized databases and Denver the reference sections of Printable Source Escrow Template | Printable, some truly epic literature reviews (which are linked at the end of Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, this post). Some of the techniques I reviewed could be used by just about any charity. Others should be especially useful for charities that have something in common with the most effective charities #8212; that is, they help people in other countries, help lots of people, measure their results, etc. With a few exceptions, I only Free Basic Of Business Agreement - Business, reviewed studies where participants actually gave real money to Job Description, charity, because most other ways of predicting giving behavior in Printable Source Escrow Agreement, the real world don#8217;t seem very effective, and we really want to predict giving behavior! Prediction is the name of the game. I#8217;m also not measuring religious gifts or gifts to colleges, because #8220;giving back#8221; to an institution that helped you isn#8217;t quite the same as the giving I#8217;d like to measure. What motivates people to give money away? I#8217;m not going to say #8220;System One#8221; and Arts By Ninedotarts #8220;System Two#8221;, because that#8217;s cliche, so instead I#8217;ll say #8220;warm giving#8221; and Write Of Resignation Due To Retirement #8220;cool giving#8221; to reflect the fact that giving is driven by a mix of #8220;cool#8221; motivations (an abstract desire to do good, careful calculation of Ninedot Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, your impact, strategic giving that will make people like you) and #8220;warm#8221; motivations (empathy toward the recipient, personal connections to Printable Source Code Escrow | Printable Legal, the charity, a habit of Job Description, giving a dollar to anyone who asks). Yes, this is Printable Escrow Agreement Template | Printable Legal, really just System One and System Two.
You came here for Ninedot Job Description, a literature review, not a philosophical analysis of Chapter 17 Cpo Paper, Template | Miss, altruistic behavior. This section is somewhat lazy. Anyway, who gives the most money away? Sometimes men give more than women, and sometimes the reverse it true. Older people give more until around the time they retire. Richer people give more, but perhaps less money as a percentage of income. Ninedot Arts By Ninedotarts Denver? Religious people might give more, but it#8217;s really difficult to tell because 1/3 of all U.S. donations go toward churches, which only spend a fraction of their income on Template | Business Processes | Standard, traditional #8220;charitable#8221; activities.
Fundraising Techniques that Probably Help. Art Director Denver? #8220;Legitimizing paltry contributions#8221;: Tell donors that #8220;even a penny will help#8221; (or something like that), and they#8217;ll usually be more likely to give without giving much less. I have a bunch of theories about why this happens, but we have many more techniques to cover, so let#8217;s move on! Anchoring: Suggesting that donors give $20 tends to bring in more than suggesting they give $10, but a very high anchor scares donors away. Use experiments to figure out the optimal suggestion! Dialogue: Ask someone how they#8217;re doing, wait for them to answer, and then ask for money. This is a much better idea than asking right away, but so far we#8217;ve only seen it work in person, not over the phone. Bonus points if you mention having something in common with the donor! (In my favorite #8220;similarity#8221; study, the Acceptance Letter | Program Format, experimenter lied about having the same birthday as the participant. I can#8217;t believe the IRB let them get away with that.) Publicity: When someone#8217;s donations will be made public (or even seen by Art Director By Ninedotarts Denver, just a single experimenter), they tend to 17 Cpo Textbook, Graph And Summary, give more.
This may not hold true for Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description, Muslims or other religious groups where quiet, private giving is a virtue. But that#8217;s a minor exception hypothesized from a single study: Mostly, publicity is a good strategy in the context of these experiments. Photographs: Adding pictures to donation materials tends to make them more effective, though it#8217;s unclear whether sad children are better than happy children. Especially sad or upsetting photos could backfire. Sop Procedure Template | Standard? Individuals: We really like helping individuals, possibly because it#8217;s easier to Arts Art Director, empathize with one person than with a whole group of Letter And, people. Rather than talking about the sheer scope of the problem your charity deals with, it#8217;s generally best to talk about how a donation has helped, or could help, a single sympathetic person. In fact, people will literally give more money to save the life of one child than to save the lives of eight, even when eight lives can be saved for the price of Ninedot Arts Art Director, one!
This is a troubling result, but one team of researchers may have discovered how to reverse it with something called #8220;the unit asking effect#8221;. How To Write A Letter Of Resignation Retirement? (That paper might be my favorite in the entire thesis #8212; check it out if you can.) Follow the Leader: Potential donors give more after they learn about the gifts of past donors, especially those who were very generous or who resembled the potential donor in some way. This also works if the potential donor sees another donation happen, or is told that the amount they donate will be known by another person (so that they have the chance to become #8220;leaders#8221; themselves). Matching donations: Ben Kuhn is better at statistics than I am, and his summary of the Ninedot Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, literature on matching is very rigorous. If you really care about donation-matching, you should read it. Template | Pinterest? My shorter summary: If you have some money lying around, you might be able to Arts Job Description, use it to increase donations by #8220;matching#8221; the Free Agreement, gifts of future donors, so that people feel like they can do more good for the same #8220;price#8221; (as though your nonprofit was having a buy-one-get-one-free sale). Ben Kuhn points out that most of the research on matching is sketchy, but it#8217;s no sketchier than the rest of the research on fundraising. Also, matching is #8220;free#8221;, since your charity gets the matching dollars either way, so you might as well experiment. Seed donations: Announce that you#8217;d like to By Ninedotarts Denver, raise a set amount, then #8220;seed#8221; part of that amount so that #8220;success#8221; seems more likely. Donors like giving to specific campaigns that seem like they will meet their goals, and Write Retirement | Docoments seed donations work about Ninedot Art Director Denver as well as matching in head-to-head experiments. On the other hand, if you have money you could use to Letter And, seed a campaign or match donations, you could also try#8230; Overhead coverage: When a charity announces that donors#8217; gifts will only cover #8220;programs#8221; (like giving mosquito nets to families) rather than #8220;overhead#8221; (like paying the salaries of Ninedot Denver, professional fundraisers ), donors give quite a bit more.
This phenomenon can be hacked if a charity uses leftover funds to #8220;cover#8221; its own overhead, or convinces one particular donor to cover all of the overhead so that most donors never have to think about it. Which is kind of Source Escrow Template, weird, since this is all just accounting trickery #8212; the amount spent on Ninedot Art Director By Ninedotarts Denver, overhead isn#8217;t changing #8212; but if it works, why not? Donors seem to | Business | Pinterest, prefer charities with lower overhead even when the overhead isn#8217;t #8220;covered#8221;, but it#8217;s unclear whether that#8217;s true independent of donors#8217; fear that their own money will pay for overhead rather than programs. Many nonprofits claim that #8220;overhead doesn#8217;t matter#8221; , because forcing charities not to spend on overhead keeps them from growing or innovating. This is partly true, though especially high overhead is a clear warning sign. What really matters is how much good each dollar does, however the charity spends it. Ninedot Job Description? (Still, donors speak the language of overhead, so charities may have to do the same.)
This summary is long enough already, so I#8217;ll skip talking about techniques that only work sporadically, or don#8217;t seem to | Pinterest, work at all. Ninedot By Ninedotarts Denver? With one exception: Offering gifts or prizes in | Business | Pinterest | Standard, exchange for donations works very badly in Ninedot Job Description By Ninedotarts, every study that tries to do it. This may not be the case for gifts #8220;related#8221; to the nonprofit (like a PBS tote bag), but telling people you#8217;ll give them random chocolate if they donate is a terrible idea. On the other hand, telling donors they#8217;ll feel great after they give works pretty well, despite playing on the same selfish motivation. And giving people gifts before you ask them to give leads to amazing results (at least in the fourth study mentioned on page 20 of To Coaches, this paper ). Really Obvious Helpful Techniques.
Here are some brief, simple things that all nonprofits should probably be doing: Talk about your beneficiaries a lot. Make them sound like nice, hardworking people who have a lot in Art Director By Ninedotarts Denver, common with the | Business | Pinterest | Standard, donor. Talk about the progress your organization has been making, not the enormous scope of the problem (or, at the very least, talk about both). People want to Arts By Ninedotarts, be on the winning team. Look good. Letter? Dress nicely. Be attractive and Art Director By Ninedotarts Denver high-status (donors can be shallow, especially male donors talking to cute female fundraisers). It might even help to play catchy music and smell good, though that study has yet to Sop Procedure | Pinterest, be funded. If someone signs up for your mailing list, send them an email right away, and ask them to donate soon after.
As of Ninedot Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, 2014, some of the largest charities in the U.S. didn#8217;t send a single email to Free Basic Sale Of Business Agreement From Formville - Business, new subscribes within 30 days #8212; the perfect amount of time for a potential donor to completely forget about them. Use simple, visual language. One clever study took issue with the fact that newspapers tend to Ninedot Denver, use the word #8220;affected#8221; to describe the people who survive natural disasters. Referring to these people as #8220;homeless#8221; (which is Agreement, what #8220;affected#8221; really means in Ninedot Arts Job Description Denver, this context) substantially increases the amount donors are willing to give to them. This isn#8217;t surprising: I don#8217;t know what an #8220;affected#8221; person looks like, but I can picture a #8220;homeless#8221; person without difficulty, and being able to imagine someone is an important step toward caring about them.
Visual language is important. Sop Procedure Processes? When we consider the size and sociological importance of the Ninedot, nonprofit sector, it becomes clear that we need more research on fundraising techniques! Yes, like any person who researches a topic in great depth, I conclude that more research is How To Retirement, needed. On the other hand, I#8217;m not going to grad school, so I#8217;m not biased by the need to churn out more papers on things I already know about. You can trust me on this one. There are a few topics I think would be especially neat to Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, research in more depth, but I talk about those within the thesis. How To A Letter Due To Retirement | Docoments? For the rest of this summary, all I#8217;d like to Arts Art Director, say is that charities should be running more experiments, and Chapter Textbook, And Summary publicizing their results. Note: The below is mostly uninformed speculation, and I could be very misguided. Ninedot Arts By Ninedotarts Denver? One cool thing about the nonprofit sector is Sop Procedure Template Processes | Pinterest, that it isn#8217;t a zero-sum game. It#8217;s true that charity money is Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description, limited, and that someone who donates a lot to one charity will typically give less to others as a result. Printable Template | Printable Legal? But if we somehow raise charitable spending from 2% to Arts Job Description, 3% of the U.S.
GDP, the Source Escrow Agreement, gains from that will dwarf the pain of charitable competition. And one of the ways charities can raise the national giving rate is to Ninedot Arts Denver, work together to figure out better fundraising techniques. Acceptance | Program? What would happen if charities with excellent websites #8212; like Kiva or Acumen or charity: water #8212; shared the results of their A/B testing with the rest of the nonprofit world? What if the five largest charities in America pooled funds to hire a couple of full-time researchers who could run a dozen experimental replications of important studies over the next year, and begin to figure out Ninedot Arts Art Director, which techniques consistently had large effects on Template | Printable, charitable giving? What if the By Ninedotarts, hundred largest charities in America hired a couple of extra lobbyists to push for a U.S. version of Letter Format, Gift Aid, which could push the giving rate from 2% to 2.5% within a couple of years? I don#8217;t know if any of this would help, but it seems like it would be worthwhile to try.
Fundraising experiments are easy to run, and By Ninedotarts can even be profitable. Acceptance Format? Even small charities can pull off an experiment once in a while, especially if they collaborate with academics. Many of the Art Director Job Description Denver, studies I examined found that some techniques can boost donations by 50% or more. Chapter Paper, | Miss? Either these results don#8217;t carry over to the real world, or charities can profit enormously from experimentation; I#8217;d really like to know which one is Ninedot Denver, true. It may be that no technique or set of techniques, however clever, is | Standard, going to push the 2% giving rate to 3% or higher. Ninedot Arts Denver? If so, we#8217;ll need to Of Resignation Due To Retirement | Docoments, figure out Art Director By Ninedotarts Denver, other ways to Source Code Agreement Template Legal, do more good with our charitable giving. This is why I#8217;m so excited about effective altruism: The movement is built around organizations like GiveWell , which help people do as much good as possible with their limited donations, and Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts organizations like Giving What We Can , which encourages people to ignore fundraising #8220;techniques#8221; and instead make a habit of giving generously to organizations they#8217;ve researched themselves. Sop Procedure Processes | Pinterest | Standard? Both organizations are at the forefront of Ninedot Art Director Job Description Denver, a very positive cultural shift in the nonprofit world, and I hope that they #8212; and other nonprofits like them #8212; might benefit in some small way from the work I#8217;ve presented here. (It#8217;s not exactly likely that they#8217;ll read the thesis, but I#8217;m in Chapter Textbook, Graph And Summary Template, regular contact with people who work for EA nonprofits, and Ninedot Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver there#8217;s a good chance I#8217;ll work for one myself some day. Hopefully, writing this thesis has given me the How To | Docoments, tools I need to contribute something to Arts By Ninedotarts, the movement.) Interesting Papers and Other Links.
As I discovered while writing this thesis, the science of Sop Procedure | Business Processes | Standard, fundraising isn#8217;t very rigorous yet. The team at Charity Science explains why. The Behavioural Insights team designs very cool experiments, many of Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description Denver, which use subconscious #8220;nudges#8221; to boost charitable giving. One of the deepest threats to effective giving is #8220;psychic numbing#8221;: The more suffering we know about, the How To Write A Letter Of Resignation | Docoments, less likely we are to take an objective approach to dealing with it. When one person is in danger, we#8217;ll make an enormous effort to save them; when hundreds of thousands are in danger, we often fall into Job Description despair and stop trying to How To Write A Letter Retirement, help. Paul Slovic explains.
In 2010, a group of nonprofit foundations published the Money for Good study, which surveyed thousands of high-income donors in an attempt to figure out how people might be convinced to give more money, and give more to the #8220;highest-performing nonprofits#8221;. The results are fascinating, and a little sad: Only 35% of participants ever did research on their favorite charities, and only 10% of By Ninedotarts, those people used neutral sources rather than the 17 Cpo Textbook, Graph Paper, And Summary | Miss, charities#8217; websites. Why did I focus on giving advice to especially #8220;effective#8221; charities? Partly because I#8217;m not sure I want charities that don#8217;t keep good records to raise more money. This sad article on the Red Cross is one example of how even big-name charities go off the rails.
Also: I#8217;d never have finished this thesis without the Ninedot Job Description, help of my wonderful advisor, Hedy Kober . I#8217;d also like to thank Dean Karlan , my second reader, whose work helped inspire me to | Pinterest, pursue this topic in the first place.
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conflict essay ideas IN WATCHING the Arts By Ninedotarts Denver flow of Acceptance | Program Format, events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts! The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Free Sale Of Business! Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from Arts Art Director Denver, a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict.
And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to How To Write A Letter Due To | Docoments, lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war. But the Ninedot Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and Of Business Agreement From, political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. Ninedot Arts Job Description Denver! But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the How To Of Resignation Retirement Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of Ninedot Arts By Ninedotarts, history as such: that is, the end point of A Letter Of Resignation Retirement, mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts final form of human government. This is How To Write A Letter Retirement | Docoments, not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of Ninedot Arts By Ninedotarts, international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in And the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world.
But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one. Arts Art Director Job Description! Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to Of Business Agreement, an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the Arts Art Director concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Chapter 17 Cpo And Summary, Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on Ninedot, his path to Of Resignation Due To | Docoments, the present, and that these stages corresponded to Ninedot Arts Job Description, concrete forms of Write A Letter Due To, social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and Arts Job Description, finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the 17 Cpo Textbook, Graph And Summary modern understanding of man.
Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, man's natural environment through the application of Free Of Business Agreement From - Business, science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is Ninedot Arts Art Director, our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an To Coaches, effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time.
Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the Acceptance Letter | Program greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on Ninedot Art Director By Ninedotarts, the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on Letter | Program, the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Job Description Denver Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at Source Code Escrow Agreement Template | Printable Legal, an end in Ninedot Job Description Denver 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Sop Procedure Template | Business Processes | Pinterest | Standard Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the victory of the Arts Job Description ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of Template | Business Processes | Standard, liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the By Ninedotarts Denver various provinces of To Coaches, human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at Graph Paper,, the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully.
The state that emerges at the end of Job Description, history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and Code Agreement Template | Printable Legal, protects through a system of Ninedot Job Description, law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only Letter with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Ninedot Arts Art Director Common Market. But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the Letter To Coaches And transformation and mastery of nature, the Ninedot Art Director Denver struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is 17 Cpo Textbook, Template, primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968.
To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of Ninedot, World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas - not the Free Of Business Agreement trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in Sop Procedure | Pinterest | Standard this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the Ninedot Art Director Denver real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of Code Escrow, philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts, equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and Free Sale Agreement From Formville, hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of Arts Art Director Job Description Denver, men of Acceptance | Program, affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and Art Director By Ninedotarts Denver, academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits.
And yet this realm of Printable Code Escrow Template | Printable, consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image. Consciousness is Ninedot Denver, cause and A Letter Due To, not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the Ninedot Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the How To A Letter Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of Ninedot Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, great powers to simple economic overextension.
Obviously, this is Free Of Business From, true on some level: an empire whose economy is Art Director, barely above the level of Chapter 17 Cpo Textbook, And Summary, subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver! But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of Printable Source Escrow Agreement | Printable, its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts, that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in Acceptance Letter | Program the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on Ninedot Art Director, the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the And Wall Street Journal school of Ninedot Art Director, deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and Acceptance Letter Format, sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. Ninedot! It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the Acceptance | Program problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in Arts Art Director Job Description the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income.
The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over How To Due To Retirement | Docoments the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the Art Director Job Description ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and Processes | Pinterest, the profit motive one had to Ninedot Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, study their antecedents in Sale From Formville - Business the realm of the Ninedot Art Director Job Description Denver spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of How To Of Resignation Retirement | Docoments, free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to Ninedot Arts Art Director By Ninedotarts, allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to Printable Code Agreement Template, capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and Arts Art Director Job Description Denver, family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of | Program Format, economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in Ninedot Arts Art Director Denver explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature. For example, it is commonplace in the West to Textbook, And Summary | Miss, interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest.
But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to Arts By Ninedotarts, anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security. That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on Textbook, | Miss, the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of one idea over another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of Ninedot Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in Letter To Coaches 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts, Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to Sop Procedure Template | Business | Pinterest, defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver! The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to deny the role of material factors as such. Acceptance Letter! To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world.
And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the Ninedot nature of the Holy Trinity. But while man's very perception of the material world is Chapter Template | Miss, shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the Of Resignation Due To | Docoments content of the Ninedot Art Director Job Description universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in Sop Procedure Template the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic.
HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness. Letter And! Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind.
In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in Ninedot Arts Denver liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by To Coaches And, World War II. This was a defeat, of Art Director, course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal.
The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Template | Printable Legal, Hiroshima and Ninedot Job Description By Ninedotarts, Nagasaki killed this ideology on Sale From, the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Art Director Denver Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the Acceptance Letter | Program Format historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver the developed Western world, it is Printable Source Escrow Agreement Template, safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War.
This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Art Director Denver Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. Letter To Coaches! But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for Ninedot Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and adaptability of the Write Of Resignation Retirement | Docoments indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago.
It is easy to Free Basic Sale Agreement - Business, forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the Arts Art Director By Ninedotarts Denver fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. To Coaches And! Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by | Miss, a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the Arts Art Director By Ninedotarts Denver factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Chapter Textbook, Graph Template! Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of Arts By Ninedotarts, economic and Source Escrow Template | Printable Legal, political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description Denver the long run.
More important is the Acceptance | Program contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Ninedot, Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of How To Write A Letter Due To | Docoments, restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the Free Agreement Formville spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in Ninedot Arts Art Director By Ninedotarts Denver promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability.
Here again we see the victory of the Sop Procedure Template | Business | Pinterest idea of the universal homogenous state. Ninedot Art Director Job Description! South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and How To Write A Letter Of Resignation Due To | Docoments, well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of Ninedot By Ninedotarts Denver, this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. Even the former socialist regime in Sale Of Business - Business Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and Arts Art Director Job Description Denver, political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by Acceptance Letter | Program, its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the Ninedot Art Director By Ninedotarts Denver liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in Letter And Asia, China. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an Ninedot Job Description Denver, almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of Letter To Coaches, consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in Ninedot Arts Denver only five years, and in the process created for Letter To Coaches And Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to Ninedot Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, extend the 17 Cpo Graph And Summary Template | Miss reform to other parts of the economy.
Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and Art Director, most importantly it continues to be ruled by To Coaches, a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of Arts Job Description, wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Free - Business, Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the Arts Job Description political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. Textbook, Graph Paper, | Miss! But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts! The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the Sop Procedure Template Processes | Pinterest | Standard campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the Ninedot question of political reform while putting the economy on Free Sale Agreement - Business, a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to Ninedot Arts By Ninedotarts, be very strong as economic power devolves and Acceptance Letter Format, the economy becomes more open to the outside world. There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for Ninedot By Ninedotarts Denver China to be the Format only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of Art Director, what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well.
What is important about China from the Chapter Graph Paper, standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the Ninedot Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the | Business Processes | Pinterest Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the Art Director Denver changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is Chapter 17 Cpo And Summary Template | Miss, hard to Arts Job Description, be too sanguine about the Letter chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver the sphere of ideology and consciousness.
And in Letter that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of Ninedot Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on Template Processes | Pinterest, the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, their replacement by other principles which do not amount to Write Of Resignation Due To Retirement | Docoments, liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. There is Arts Job Description Denver, a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and Sop Procedure Processes, the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Ninedot Art Director Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and Acceptance Letter | Program, prices. After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of new laws on Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description, enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and Acceptance Letter, family farming. There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver the current implementation of the reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the Basic Of Business Agreement From Formville - Business problem is Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description Denver, no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and A Letter Of Resignation, his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of Ninedot Art Director By Ninedotarts Denver, marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the Letter And social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector.
In the Arts political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Source Code Agreement Template | Printable Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the Ninedot Art Director Job Description general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of Acceptance Letter, powers and Ninedot Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for Letter And open discussion of Job Description Denver, public issues and the right of public dissent, the Letter | Program Format empowering of the Soviets as a forum in Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to Letter To Coaches And, the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Arts Art Director By Ninedotarts, Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and | Program Format, rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the Arts Art Director By Ninedotarts Denver demos. All of 17 Cpo Graph Paper, And Summary Template, Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and Arts Art Director Job Description, freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to From Formville, return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Ninedot Arts Soviet history on which to anchor the Basic Sale From legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description Denver, decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the Letter To Coaches And economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, both Marxism and Leninism. Sop Procedure Template | Business! Indeed, if the bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in Ninedot Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future.
But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of human society. And in Sop Procedure | Pinterest | Standard this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in Job Description Denver any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. Retirement! The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it. For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of Arts Art Director Job Description, some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on Code Agreement | Printable Legal, the horizon.
IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of Ninedot Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Free Basic From Formville - Business, Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the Arts Art Director emptiness at the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of Free Basic Agreement From - Business, religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism. But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to Sop Procedure Template Processes | Standard, believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies.
The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness. It is Ninedot Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of 17 Cpo Graph | Miss, post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to Arts By Ninedotarts, the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the Formville - Business latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on Ninedot Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts, the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the A Letter Of Resignation Due To Retirement | Docoments world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts, independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas.
While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. How To Due To Retirement! Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and Art Director Job Description Denver, nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in How To Write A Letter Due To Retirement liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the wars and Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. Code Escrow Legal! In the meantime, they have helped to spread the Ninedot Arts Denver universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations.
WHAT ARE the implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the Template vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come. But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and Arts, China are not likely to join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in How To Write Of Resignation Due To | Docoments the foreseeable future, but suppose for Arts Art Director By Ninedotarts Denver a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in Sop Procedure Template | Business Processes | Pinterest | Standard the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. 17 Cpo Textbook, Paper, Template! This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in Ninedot Arts Art Director the classical nineteenth century European balance of How To Write Of Resignation Due To, power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Ninedot Arts Art Director Denver, Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Of Resignation, Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century.
This is, of course, a convenient point of view for Ninedot Denver people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for Letter recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of Arts Job Description, prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century.
For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to Sop Procedure Template Processes | Pinterest | Standard, rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from Job Description Denver, a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to Template | Pinterest, give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the Arts Art Director particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the And United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in Ninedot Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in Template | Business Processes | Pinterest | Standard retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture. International life for the part of the world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat.
This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the earth. That is, West Germany and | Program, France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of Arts Art Director Job Description Denver, world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in Letter Format self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to Arts Job Description Denver, China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. Acceptance! But the former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries.
The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. Acceptance Format! From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to Arts Job Description, the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the Basic Of Business Agreement From general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description Denver, economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of Sop Procedure Template Processes | Standard, military force becomes less legitimate. As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is Sop Procedure | Pinterest, no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era.
At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to Ninedot Arts Art Director By Ninedotarts Denver, distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to Template | Business Processes | Pinterest | Standard, restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. Ninedot! There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for Acceptance Letter | Program those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is Letter | Program, not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the Arts Job Description Denver path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of How To A Letter Due To | Docoments, Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to Job Description Denver, preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. Letter To Coaches! For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in Art Director Denver which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in Free Basic From the vanguard of human history.
And the death of this ideology means the Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of Template, large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of Arts Art Director Denver, international conflict per se. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of Free Basic Of Business Agreement, history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Ninedot Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts! Palestinians and Template | Business | Pinterest | Standard, Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of Job Description, national liberation will continue to be an | Program Format, important item on Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, the international agenda.
But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time. The struggle for Chapter 17 Cpo Textbook, Paper, Template recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the Arts Art Director Denver worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the To Coaches And museum of human history. I can feel in Arts Denver myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for Write the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to Arts, fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the Chapter Template most ambivalent feelings for Ninedot Arts Art Director By Ninedotarts the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of Free Basic Sale Of Business Formville, history will serve to get history started once again.
1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Arts By Ninedotarts, Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). Acceptance Letter | Program Format! (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver! (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the Sale Of Business - Business postwar American way of Ninedot Job Description, life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is Free Agreement, real, and everything that is real is rational. (back to text) 5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by Ninedot Arts Art Director, the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the 17 Cpo Textbook, Graph Paper, And Summary Template | Miss pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and Arts Job Description, consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in Basic - Business China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest.
The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the Ninedot Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts eve of its reforms was in Acceptance Letter such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description Denver Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Chapter Graph Paper, And Summary | Miss Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Arts Art Director Job Description Denver! Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over Acceptance Letter | Program Format the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people.
Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to Sale Of Business Agreement From - Business, country. (back to Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, text) 12. I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at Chapter 17 Cpo Graph Paper, Template, the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. Arts Art Director! (back to text) 13. This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text) 14.
This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the To Coaches And deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description Denver! I am thinking particularly of How To Write A Letter Due To, Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts! (back to Acceptance, text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Arts Art Director Job Description Denver Allied victory which had been based on the promise of Letter | Program, a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no.
15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)
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(801) 585-6105 (fax) Seedfolks: Stories that Make a Difference. Thinking Reasoning Communication Character Social Civic Responsibility Systems Thinking. 8 class periods that run 70 minutes each. This lesson plan is designed for a Language Arts short story unit, and introduces students to various elements of Arts Art Director Job Description narrative/writing, including: plot, point of view, first-person narrative, conflict and resolution. Students will also use a variety of comprehension and critical reading skills. Using the book Seedfolks as the Printable Source Code Agreement Template, primary learning tool will also engage issues of diversity, acceptance, and community involvement. Computers for Ninedot Arts Art Director each student Student versions of story.
Grade form for student writing assignment. Garden/gardening education opportunities in Salt Lake City. Background For Teachers: Teachers should be familiar with Paul Fleischman's Seedfolks . (A guide to teaching the Processes | Standard, book is attached). Teachers should have a basic understanding of the various minority groups living in Utah. Becoming familiar with the book Missing Stories will help provide this information. Student Prior Knowledge: Intended Learning Outcomes: Students will learn how to use a variety of comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading.
Students will learn to read purposefully, actively, and critically from literary texts. Students will demonstrate understanding of various elements of fiction: character, plot, setting, point-of-view, and conflict. Ninedot Arts Art Director By Ninedotarts. Students will write an original short story focusing on plot and | Program Format, conflict. Students will learn to write descriptively (showing not telling). Students will learn to write from multiple points of view. Scheduled two days (the last two days of the lesson) in the school’s computer lab for Ninedot Art Director By Ninedotarts student use. They will use this time to enter, edit, and format their stories. How To Due To Retirement | Docoments. Be sure to follow the Arts Job Description, district and school guidelines in formatting the stories on a shared drive. Daily Classroom Preparation. Each day display the Letter To Coaches And, character posters produced from the preview day of class.
As discussion is conducted about the story each class period, write the comments/answers about Arts, each character on a whiteboard/chalkboard. At the end of the Acceptance | Program, day, compile the most common answers and Job Description By Ninedotarts, write them on Letter And, the poster paper. Display the posters, so that students may refer to them daily as future chapters are read. Provide the following overview of Seedfolks and Paul Fleischman to the students. Paul Fleischman is a Californian who likes to read while he enjoys his morning cup of coffee and a bagel. Frustrated when he couldn’t find a copy of the Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, local newspaper, he picked up a free new age newspaper and was “instantly rewarded.” There he found an article about a psychotherapist who used gardening as therapy. She mentioned that doctors in ancient Egypt prescribed walking through a garden as a cure for 17 Cpo Graph And Summary Template | Miss the insane. “That’s the line that set the hook deep,” he stated in an interview. Arts Job Description Denver. From there, he began to develop memories, ideas, and newspaper stories. Interviewing others who have experienced therapeutic gardening, he began to develop the various characters for his new book, Seedfolks . It is set in Printable Code Template | Printable Legal, the present where the story is Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, told from the points of view of 13 different multicultural characters.
The setting is a patchwork of plots in the community garden. Several characters are developed from his association with people and their experiences, while others are completely fictional. “For me, the Letter To Coaches, ancient Egyptians were right. Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver. A stroll through a community garden leaves me happy and Write Due To | Docoments, hopeful, cheered by the sight of what we can accomplish together.” (Paul Fleishman, www.harperchildrens.com). After reading this introduction to the class, begin reading the Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, first chapter in Seedfolks . The procedure for the remaining 12 chapters should be the same. Read Kim’s story to 17 Cpo Textbook, Graph Paper,, the class or as a class.
Upon completion, ask the questions associated with Kim’s chapter. Each question should produce a class discussion. Write the students responses on the board under the heading “Kim.” Answers are provided parenthetically, some questions might have to be revisited when more of the story is completed. Read Ana’s story to or with the Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, class.
Upon completion, ask the How To Write Of Resignation Due To Retirement, questions associated with Ana’s chapter. Write responses on the board under the column for Anna. Story Closure for Day One. Discuss with students Fleischman’s writing style. How we learn about Ninedot, characters through their own chapters as well as through the chapters about others? As a class read Wendell’s story.
Discuss questions for Wendell. Write the responses on the board under the column for Wendell. Reed Gonzalez's story and discuss the questions. Read Leona's story with the class. Write the responses to the questions on How To A Letter Due To, the board. After the students ready Leona's chapter, read to the class the preface of the section on African-American's in Missing Stories (by Ronald Coleman, pg. 65) to give students a better understanding of the history of African-Americans in Utah.
Have students break up into Job Description, cooperative learning groups and Printable Source Code Agreement, assign each group a story. Ninedot Art Director Denver. The stories used in this lesson are: Frances Leggroan Fleming, Mrs. Lucille Bankhead, Howard Brown, Sr., Nathan “Woody” Wright, Albert Fritz and John Oscar Williams (pgs. 70-120). Students should read their stories in a “round-robin” method. Each group is responsible for answering several questions about their story and to Printable Escrow Template | Printable, share this information with the class. What was their approximate age?
What brought them to Utah? What was their occupation/livelihood? Briefly retell their life story to the class in Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description, first-person. Describe the prejudices/or how they dealt with prejudices. What did you find admirable about this person? If you could interview this person what would you want to ask them? What comparisons would you make between this person and Leona?
After each group has read their stories, answered the questions and presented their findings to the class, assign a journal writing assignment using Pastor Frances A. Davis’ quote on Printable Source Code Agreement Template Legal, page 73. “we have a notion in our community that unless you know where you come from and where you are going, you’ll never get anywhere. Ninedot Arts Art Director By Ninedotarts Denver. That’s an Letter | Program old adage, but you need to know where you come from. You need that bridge to cross over. If you don’t know where it is, you’re going to be in trouble.” Students should spend time writing in Ninedot Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, their journal about the meaning of this statement. Have several students share their writing with the class. This should lead to a class discussion of this passage. Day Two Closure. Remind students of the discussion of Fleischman’s writing style. How effective is it?
How are we learning about the characters? As a class, read Sam’s story and Acceptance Letter | Program, write the responses to Arts Job Description Denver, the question for Sam on the board. After reading Sam’s chapter, assign the students to read from Missing Stories the And, story of Joel Shapiro (pg.153). Discuss as a class Mr. Ninedot Art Director By Ninedotarts Denver. Shapiro’s experiences and how they related to other stories of Jewish American citizens. Many students have previously studied Night and The Diary of Acceptance Format Anne Frank . Read to the class, the picture book, When Jessie Came Across the Sea , by Amy Hest and JP Lynch. Place on an overhead a picture of Mr. Shapiro (www.dev.uen.org/mcst/gallery.html) and have students “free write” questions they would ask him about his life. Each student should then share with the class one question they would ask. Read Virgil's story. Discuss the questions for Ninedot Art Director Job Description Denver Virgil and list the answer on the board under the column for Virgil.
Introduction of the How To A Letter Due To Retirement, Writing Assignment. As the students have learned about seven of the characters in Seedfolks , they have seen how one single person can begin changing an Ninedot Art Director By Ninedotarts Denver entire community. To Coaches. They have seen how people can come together for a common cause. Ask the students if they have had any experience with gardening. Ask the students if they have had any experiences with becoming involved with a community effort.
Discuss the way Fleischman has presented his story through these characters. What voice are they speaking through? (Gonzalo tells about Tio Juan through limited third person, Sam tells about segregation through third person omniscient, all other characters are first person point of view. Tell students they are to become part of the garden. This could be as one of the un-named characters we have/will learn about, a fictional story about themselves, or a real experience they have had placed in the setting of the garden in Cleveland. The title of their chapter will be their own name--just as Fleischman has titled his chapters. Arts. Their story will be the 14th chapter to the book. Students should begin thinking of how they can become involved in this community. Rough drafts of Textbook, And Summary Template | Miss stories will be due on Day Five, when a peer edit will be conducted.
Further directions on Art Director Denver, peer editing and a sample chapter will be given on Day Four. Continue reading with Sae Young's story. Discuss the questions and list the To Coaches And, answers on the board in the column for Sae Young. Read Curtis' story and answer the questions for Curtis. Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description Denver. Record the Acceptance | Program Format, student answers on the board under the column for Curtis. Read Nora's story and discuss the questions, placing the Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, answers on the board in the column for Nora. Discuss the rules for peer editing.
Author reads the Acceptance Format, story aloud to partner/group Author asks for feedback Audience gives feedback in a positive way. They must give compliments as well as constructive criticism. Day Four Closure. Remind students they should have the rough draft of their chapter for the following class period. Before reading the chapter about Ninedot Art Director, Maricela, discuss the Sale Agreement - Business, somewhat controversial nature of her chapter (teen pregnancy).
Mention that she is Art Director, a sarcastic young woman in an extremely difficult situation. She is Sop Procedure | Business Processes, very angry about her situation--not necessarily about the By Ninedotarts, baby. Read the chapter and answer the questions. After reading Maricela's chapter arrange the Acceptance | Program Format, desks in the classroom into a large circle and read as a class (each student reading one paragraph) of the story of Epiefanio Gonzales ( Missing Stories pg. 445). Have students break into cooperative learning groups and have each group read another story. The stories include, Father Reyes Garcia Rodriguez, Francisca “Pancha” Gonzales, Silas Ephraim Lobato, William Herman Gonzales, and Dahlia Cordova (pgs. 449-504).
Each group should answer the following questions: What was their approximate age? What brought this person/their family to Utah? What were their educational achievements? What was their occupation/livelihood? How does religion effect their life? Describe the prejudices/or how they dealt with prejudice. How have they assimilated into Utah life? What questions do you have for this storyteller?
After each group has presented to the class the answers to the above questions,have a class discussion about the Ninedot Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, final two paragraphs of Free Basic Of Business Agreement Dahlia Cordova’s story on page 503-504 of Ninedot Art Director By Ninedotarts Missing Stories . Peer Editing Activity. Divide students into groups of 2-3 for peer editing of rough draft of Free Basic From their Seedfolks chapter. Remind students of the purpose of a peer edit and Ninedot Arts, how to be tactful in their comments. Monitor students preparation by giving 25 points for having something to work on Printable Template | Printable, and share. If they come to class unprepared but had an idea to share and if they work on their chapter in class, give partial points (10-15). Monitor students activity throughout the remainder of the class period. Day Five Closure. Tell students that they will be given the entire class period to Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts, work on their stories on Printable Code Escrow, day seven. Tell them to make sure they are prepared with a copy of Job Description By Ninedotarts their story to share with others and to work on it in class. This is the final day of reading Seedfolks . As students read the final two chapters by Amir and Florence, they will see how the garden has become a community of diversity--both in plants and people.
Make sure that these points are brought out as the reading progresses. Read Amir's story and answer the Write A Letter Due To Retirement | Docoments, questions. Read the final chapter by Florence and answer the questions and record the answers on the board in the column for Florence. Tell the students to think of the future and write a letter to their child who came home from school upset because they had been taunted or discriminated against. What would you say to your child to combat this? How would you comfort your child? How do you explain prejudice or discrimination to your child? Have a class discussion about what the By Ninedotarts, students wrote. How does the garden itself become a metaphor for what happens among its members? What are some of the ways in which the characters work around language barriers to communicate? List some of the problems that the gardeners encountered.
How do they help each other deal with these obstacles? Day Seven (may carry over into Day Eight) Objective : As a culminating activity to reading Seedfolks , students will enter their chapter of the A Letter Due To Retirement | Docoments, book into the computer for publication in their class' edition. Remind students of the school's policy on use of Art Director Job Description Denver computers. (Refer to the Acceptable use Agreement each student signed at the beginning of the year). Students should enter their document in a standard format, used by all students in Template | Pinterest, the class (12 point font, 1 inch margins, double spaced, Times New Roman font, etc--or other settings the teacher decides). This will allow for easier manipulation as the book is Ninedot Art Director Job Description Denver, compiled. Allow students sufficient time to enter their stories into the computers. Have them print a copy for | Program Format final editing and corrections. After their story has been edited by peers or teacher, have the By Ninedotarts Denver, students make the necessary corrections and revisions to Acceptance Format, their stories. Have students save the final story to Ninedot Arts Art Director Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, the shared folder for future retrieval by the teacher.
Seedfolks Final Discussion. When the student stories have been compiled into Letter, book form, pass them out to each student so that they have their own copy. Allow time for several students to share their stories. Discuss the Ninedot Arts Job Description By Ninedotarts Denver, emotions and changes that have taken place throughout the study of Sop Procedure | Business Processes | Pinterest | Standard this book. Try to find guest speakers that can come to the class to share their personal experiences. Perhaps in the school there is someone who is Ninedot Arts Denver, African-American, Jewish, and/or Hispanic who could come to class and talk to the students and answer their questions. Fleischman, P. Sop Procedure Template Processes | Standard. (1999).
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