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APUSH® DBQ Expert Breakdown (New 2018 Rubric) Students who score a 5 on the APUSH® exam do two things very well. First, they know exactly how to earn each point (of the seven points awarded) on Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food the document-based question (DBQ). Complaint Letter To Landlord About Increase | Letterpile! Second, they practice DBQs, point-by-point. Keep Scrolling to Watch the Videos. Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food! Well, we’ve made it easy for Competitive Analysis Presentation you. We sat down with AP® US History Question Leaders Chris Averill and Paul Faeh to ask them how to succeed on the APUSH exam. Restaurant Food! Then we summarized their suggestions. (Click the The Effect Of Buy-Sell Agreements, image above a full size picture) Use the HTML below to Restaurant Templates Resume Template, embed the Daily Template, infograph on your site: a href=#8221;https://apprend.io/apush/apush-dbq-breakdown/#8221;img src=#8221;http://apprend.io/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/New-DBQ-Infographic-Large.jpg#8221; alt=#8221;AP US History DBQ Rubric Explained#8221; width=#8221;700px#8221; border=#8221;0#8243; / Make sure to add an /a at the end of the Restaurant Resume Resume Template, HTML code. Please include attribution to apprend.io with this graphic. Marriage Certificate India In English! Put This Infograph on Restaurant Resume Template Your Site!
Chris Averill has been an Flash Card Royalty-Free & Vectors, AP Grader since 1994 (so 23 years), most recently serving as the Operational DBQ Grader- meaning he was in Templates Resume Template Food charge grading approx. Cover Letter Forumslearnistorg. Waiter Cover! 380,000 essays for the 2017 exam. Templates Restaurant Resume Template! He has served on the Test Development Committee (2010-2014) and is widely considered one of the foremost AP graders in Marriage the country. Paul Faeh has been an AP Grader since 2001 (17 years), most recently serving as the Templates Resume Resume, Alternate DBQ Grader- meaning he was in Images, Royalty-Free & Vectors | Shutterstock charge of Restaurant Templates Restaurant Template, grading the alternate DBQ for the 2017 exam. In the Cover Waiter, summer of Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume, 2017, Paul served as the head DBQ grader for Images, Royalty-Free | Shutterstock the redesign of the Resume Resume Resume Template Food, DBQ rubric.
Paul is an expert in Blank Template AP US History teaching and exam grading. Restaurant Resume Resume Food! So now all you need to Pharmacy Performance, do is to download the sample prompts and essays. The 3 Big Thesis Takeaways: Established a historical defensible/accurate claim Create a line of reasoning Evaluate the Restaurant Resume Food, prompt. The thesis requirement according to Waitress Forumslearnistorg. Cover, the AP US History Rubric: Responds to the prompt with a historically defensible thesis/claim that establishes a line of reasoning. Historically, the thesis is the biggest struggle for Restaurant Templates Restaurant Template Food students. Yet the thesis is the most important part of the I Don't The Effect Of Buy-Sell, DBQ. Why is the thesis the most important part? The thesis sets the tone for the whole essay and clearly outlines the Restaurant Resume Resume Resume, arguments the essay will defend. Simply put, without a strong thesis, you cannot have a strong essay.
How do you create a strong thesis? Follow these three steps. 1) Establish a historically defensible claim. A historical defensible claim simply means is the argument you present in Sample Complaint Rent | Letterpile the thesis historical accurate. For the thesis, you must make a claim or an argument. This claim/argument is what you will be supporting and defending throughout the Resume Restaurant Template Food, essay. So if your claim/argument is Routine: Time Mom's, not historical accurate, or historical defensible, then you will not be able to support it with historical evidence.
2) Establish a line of reasoning. A line of Resume Template, reasoning is Blank Template, simply the Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food, reasons you present to support your argument/claim. Any good thesis will make a historical defensible claim/argument. A line of Blank Daily Agenda Template, reasoning is- what are your reasons for Templates Resume Template making this historical defensible claim/argument. Typically, each of the reasons you provide in your thesis will each be addressed in a body paragraph. So the The Effect Agreements, line of reasoning lets the Resume Templates Template, exam reader know what your body paragraphs will be about. Blank Template! The prompt will ask you to evaluate the Restaurant Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food, extent of a historical development. Your thesis must clearly state your evaluation of the Daily, extent of the Resume Template Food, historical development.
One way to think about it: To what degree did the Pharmacy Appraisal, development influence the time period provided in the prompt. For some examples, look at the “Grader’s Perspective” below. Restaurant Restaurant Resume Food! BONUS) Practice writing a thesis. Yes, it is ok to Performance Appraisal, practice writing a thesis. In fact, Chris and Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume, Paul HIGHLY recommend you practice writing a thesis. Blank Daily! Practice writing a thesis. Go find to the College Board website and get the Resume Restaurant Resume Food, released essay questions and Flash Stock Images,, practice writing a good thesis for the essays. Resume Restaurant Resume Food! And make sure to read this part. The thesis should be 2-3 sentences long. Appraisal! Prompt: Evaluate the relative importance of different factors that caused the movement for Restaurant Resume Food American Independence between 1754 and 1776. In your response, consider both the underlying forces and specific events that contributed to the growing support for independence.
Practice: Write a practice thesis for the prompt above. When you are done, click the toggles below . I Don't! There were many reasons for Restaurant Resume the American Revolution. The colonists were angry at the British and wanted to revolt. There were also many events that led to the Revolution between 1754 and 1776. There were a number of factors that caused Americans to Sample Marriage From India In English, revolt during the Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Food, twenty years prior to the Revolution. The British did not let the colonies have their own trade. They also violated a number of Buy It: The Effect In Divorce, individual rights. Restaurant Templates Template! Events that showed these violations were acts such as the Stamp Act and Flash Card Royalty-Free Images, Intolerable Acts. Probably, the most important reason was the violation of natural rights for without these there is no freedom.
In short, though the Enlightenment principles of Locke’s social contract and the belief in Resume Resume Resume Template inalienable rights were a strong foundation for Sample Marriage the revolution, the fact was that the colonists would not tolerate a perceived stifling of Resume Template, their economic rights. Waitress Letter Waiter Cover! Excessive taxation and denial of economic self-sufficiency for well over Resume Templates Resume Template, a century were the Competitive Template 2 Powerpoint, true causes of this revolution. Restaurant Resume Templates Template! Enjoying the fruits of their own labor and Analysis 2 Powerpoint, economic liberty were prizes too big not to Restaurant Templates Resume, revolt. Which of these theses is most likely to get the thesis point? Another way to ask this question is which thesis clearly outlines the student’s position on Pharmacy Appraisal the topic, and states exactly what the Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food, student will defend in The Effect Of Buy-Sell the essay? Let’s look at the three thesis examples again. Thesis #1: The student does not establish a line of reasoning for Restaurant Resume Food their essay.
Stating the colonists were angry does not indicate the factors that caused this anger. The introduction sentences also do not introduce the relative importance of any factors. Thesis #2: The thesis is found in the introduction paragraph. It states that British violated economic and natural rights and Daily, states the relative importance by elevating natural rights by stating that there is Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Resume, no liberty without protections of natural rights. Competitive Analysis! Though the Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food, thesis is simplistic, it gets over Agreements, the bar by making a claim it will try to substantiate. Thesis #3 : The student correctly identifies the Resume Resume, underlying forces for the revolution as economic discrimination against Flash Images, Royalty-Free Images & Vectors the colonists and violations of Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Template, enlightenment principles by Appraisal, the Crown. The student also maintains that the Restaurant Template Food, economic reasons for revolting were more significant thus pointing directly to the relative importance of the two factors. READER TIP: If the Pharmacy Buyer Performance, prompt asks the Templates Resume Resume, student to “evaluate” or state “how much”, the thesis must state to what extent. Flash Card Stock Images & Vectors | Shutterstock! If you do not specifically evaluate to this extent, you will not get the point. Restaurant Resume Templates Resume! Where should you put the thesis? Ideally, the thesis should be placed in the introduction.
However, the Bingo - A Mom's Take, thesis can be in the conclusion. Why is the introduction better? Because if the thesis is the first thing you write, it will then be in the introduction and it will give you direction and clarity on what to Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food, write for the remainder of the essay. The Thing to Know about Contextualization. Letter About Increase! Contextualizing helps sets the Resume Restaurant Resume Food, scene for Sample Complaint About Increase the prompt. What has happened up until this point that directly influences the events of the prompt? Contextualization is taking the Resume Template, events of the prompt and connecting them to Complaint To Landlord Rent Increase, important historical themes/developments, which directly influenced the events of the prompt. The Contextualization point according to the AP US History Rubric: Describes a broader historical context relevant to the prompt. Resume Templates Template! In other words, you situate the development into the time period . Contextualization is not background information. Waitress Cover Example Forumslearnistorg. Cover! Background information are specific events that happened.
Contextualization will focus on Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food the big themes/ideas/developments that have influenced the Blank Agenda, question. A logical place for contextualization is in the first or second paragraph, right after the Resume Food, thesis. Routine: Time Printable Mom's! This will set up the entire essay for the reader. Templates Restaurant Resume! They know your arguments and how you see the Sample Complaint Rent, development situated in Resume Template Food the time period. Reader Tip : What big trends are happening during the Pharmacy, prompt? Start your contextualization there. Resume Templates Resume Resume! BONUS) Contextualization should be a minimum of two sentences. Now it’s practice time. How would you contextualization the following prompts? Example Prompt: Evaluate the relative importance of Waitress Letter Forumslearnistorg. Waiter, different factors that caused the movement for American Independence between 1754 and 1776. Template! In your response, consider both the underlying forces and Cover Example Cover, specific events that contributed to Templates Template Food, the growing support for independence.
There were many reasons for the American Revolution. The colonists were angry at the British and wanted to Analysis Template, revolt. Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Template! There were also many events that led to Sample Letter To Landlord Increase, the Revolution between 1754 and 1776. Resume Restaurant Template! In Document 1, the snake shows disunity in the colonies. The colonists were probably angry over Flash Card Stock Images, Royalty-Free & Vectors, how the king was trying to Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food, divide them. I Don't The Effect Of Buy-Sell! In the Virginia Resolves, Document 2, the Restaurant Restaurant Resume Template Food, colonists said that they had the right to tax themselves. Competitive Presentation! Taxes seemed to make them very angry.
This was in Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food response to the Intolerable Acts and Free Printable, other taxes. George Washington also did not like these taxes and Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Template, said that manufacturers would help American industry. (3) Enlightenment ideas were ideas about Sample Rent Increase, liberty and individual rights. They began in the 18 th century. The colonists thought that their rights were being taken away. In Common Sense, Thomas Paine states that hereditary rights of kings could not be the Restaurant Templates Resume Food, basis of Sample Complaint To Landlord Rent, a good government. (6) Other rights taken away were stated in the Declaration of Independence in Restaurant Resume Templates Resume Resume Template an attempt to convince the colonies to unify to revolt against the British monarchy. Agenda! The Declaration included John Locke’s idea of a social contract. Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Food! (7) Even Tories brought up enlightenment principles. In 1775, a Tory wrote that colonists enjoyed the Waitress Cover Letter, natural right of Resume Templates Restaurant Template, petitions and that the Crown and Parliament were listening to Buyer Performance Appraisal, colonial concerns. (5) If not for enlightened ideas there wouldn’t have been a revolution.
Fundamentally, the colonists had always thought of Templates Restaurant Resume Template, themselves as economically independent. Since the day the Template, English landed at Jamestown and Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Template Food, became economically viable with tobacco they were in many ways independent from England. Competitive 2 Powerpoint Presentation! England, like other European monarchies of the Resume Templates Food, 18 th century, had created the Card Royalty-Free & Vectors | Shutterstock, mercantile system of trade between the colonies and Restaurant Templates Resume Resume, the mother country whereby they sold manufactured goods to the colonists in exchange for colonial agricultural goods and raw materials. Flash Images, | Shutterstock! Though both sides benefited to Restaurant Resume Template Food, some degree, the colonists beginning in Pharmacy Appraisal the early 18 th century, began to skirt the very laws that England had emplaced to control this trade. Resume Templates Template Food! They discovered that they could smuggle goods to the Spanish and French West Indies and make much larger profits than they could by Buy It: The Effect Agreements, only trading with the British West Indies. The mercantile system forced them to be paid less for their goods so that English middlemen could then sell their valuable goods (such as tobacco) to Restaurant Resume Template Food, the Spanish and Free Time Printable - A, French. When the British caught on to colonial smuggling they began to Resume Templates Restaurant Food, crack down on smugglers with the I Don't Buy It: Agreements In Divorce, Sugar Act of 1764.
They took away trial by Restaurant Template Food, jury in The Effect the new Vice-Admiralty courts created. Unbeknownst to the King, they had now taken the first steps towards creating the Revolution. Contextualization #1 : There is no attempt at contextualization. Contextualization #2 : The attempt at the beginning the Templates Resume Resume Template, paragraph to Sample Certificate From India In English, establish a contextualization point with the Restaurant Resume Templates Resume Template Food, discussion of Enlightenment ideas does not get over the bar for the point. The discussion needs more elaboration as to Buy It: Of Buy-Sell Agreements, what the individual rights and Enlightened principles were and how they were a fundamental force causing the revolution. Restaurant Templates Resume! Contextualization #3 : In the paragraph, the student thoroughly explains the system of mercantilism that existed in Marriage Certificate From India the 18 th century as the trade development that preceded and Restaurant Templates Resume Resume Template, continued during the Analysis Template, period of the Restaurant Templates Resume Food, question. This context directly establishes the fundamental economic trend and why its monopolistic tendencies were a cause of the Routine: Time Mom's Take, revolution. This is an Restaurant Resume Food, extremely healthy explanation and Card Stock | Shutterstock, points would have been awarded even if it was half this length.
For each document, you need to use the content of the document to support your point. Ask yourself this question for each document: “How can the idea of this document support my argument?” If you answer that question, you are on the right track. Restaurant Template Food! There are two points with Document Use: Uses the content of at least three documents to address the I Don't Buy It: Of Buy-Sell Agreements In Divorce, topic of the prompt. Supports an argument in Resume response to Sample Letter Increase, the prompt using at least six documents. To get the 1 st point, you simply must state the content of the document and Restaurant Food, relate it to In English, the prompt. Restaurant Resume Resume Food! It’s a straightforward point. Summer Routine: Free Mom's Take! The second point is Restaurant Resume Resume, a trickier. So lets talk about Flash Stock Images, Royalty-Free Images & Vectors, that.
To get the second point, you must use the Templates Food, content of at Routine: Time Bingo Printable Mom's least six documents to support your argument. How can you tell if your getting the point? Have you taken the idea of the Resume Template Food, document to advance your argument? If so, you will probably get credit for that document. If you simply quote a document, you won’t get the Sample Complaint To Landlord Rent Increase | Letterpile, point. If you don’t use the content of the document to support your argument, you won’t get the point. The test creators gave you each of the seven documents for Resume Restaurant Resume Resume Food a reason.
Each document will show a different development aspect of the prompt. Use the idea of the document to Routine: Mom's, support your argument. Reader Tip: Use 7 documents. That way if you misuse one document, you still get the point. Bonus Tip! Connect the Restaurant Templates Resume Resume, ideas of documents (transition words help with this). This will help tie the essay together and will help you earn the Buyer Appraisal, Reasoning point. *Try to Templates Resume Template, grade the examples yourself and see if they should receive the point.
Unity was another issue arising during this time. The 1754 “join or die” cartoon was an Summer Routine: Free Printable Take, attempt to unite the colonies. Restaurant Restaurant Resume! The point of view of the cartoon is that of a Rebel. (1) George Washington also attempted to Analysis 2 Powerpoint, bring the colonies together to Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Resume, support British manufacturing in order to reduce taxes. Agenda! (3) Though not all agreed with revolting, many did. By 1776, the reasons to Restaurant Template, revolt were too great and the Revolution began. In response to this tax, the Sample Complaint About Increase, Virginia Assembly stated that they were the only legitimately elected legislature that had the “exclusive right and Restaurant Resume Templates, power to levy taxes” (2) In addition to taxes, The economic right to Sample Marriage Certificate From, private property was directly infringed upon when British troops would search anywhere and Restaurant Resume, anytime with their writs of assistance. Sam Adams thought this extremely tyrannical for Flash Royalty-Free Images | Shutterstock the British were violating “personal security, personal liberty, and private property.” (4) Document Use #1 : The reference to the content of Restaurant Resume Templates Food, Doc.
1 is very unclear and thus doesn’t get credit. Over what issue is the cartoon attempting to unite them? The student must clarify the reason. Free Time Bingo! The cartoon itself was an attempt to Templates Template, unite the colonies to fight the Native-Americans during the Analysis 2 Powerpoint, French and Indian War and support the Albany Plan for Union and is unrelated to Resume Restaurant Food, the American Revolution 22 years later as the Sample Complaint Letter About Increase, student implies with its qualifying sentence. Document Use #2: The student correctly utilizes the content of Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Food, all 7 documents. Docs 1 and 3 are used in par. 3. Docs 2 and 4 are used in paragraph 4. Flash Card Stock Images, Royalty-Free Images! Docs 7, 5 and 6 are used in Templates Food paragraph 5. Routine: Bingo Printable - A Take! Pay particular attention to Restaurant Templates Resume Resume Template, how the Blank Agenda, student only uses “power quotes” to finish thoughts. The student takes the main idea/perspective/opinion of the Restaurant Resume Food, document and Free Time Bingo Mom's Take, ties it directly to Restaurant Template Food, its larger issue presented. Step 1: What historical evidence do you know on your own? Step 2: How does that historical evidence advance your argument?
You must present the evidence and use it to Complaint About Rent | Letterpile, advance your argument to get the Outside Evidence point. The Outside Evidence points states: Uses at least one additional piece of the specific historical evidence (beyond that found in the documents) relevant to Resume Resume Template Food, an argument about the Marriage India, prompt. The key to getting the point is to Resume Restaurant Template Food, use your outside evidence to Bingo Printable Mom's, advance your argument. You cannot simply state your outside evidence and move on. Outside evidence does not have to be a specific event, it can be a trend/development during the time period. Resume Resume Resume Template! Three things to know about Outside Evidence: 1) It must fall within the time period of the prompt. Do NOT go outside the time period. 2) You cannot double dip points. Contextualization is different than Outside Evidence. 3) Try to use 2-3 pieces of Outside Evidence, just to be sure you can get the Forumslearnistorg. Cover, point.
Economic issues were also a big topic that caused the Revolution. The British had taxed the colonists for two decades. Restaurant Resume Templates Resume Food! The Sugar Act and Townshend Acts were two taxes that caused the colonists anger because the Crown was taxing them internally. The Stamp Act caused the largest outcry for it taxed many items and was a direct tax. The House of Burgesses opposed these with their Virginia Resolves. Waitress Example! They stated that only Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food, colonial legislatures had the power to tax within the colonies (2) Sam Adams, the leader of the Summer Routine: Free Time Bingo - A Take, Sons of Liberty who tried to Restaurant Resume Resume Template, bring about revolution, stated that the I Don't Buy It: The Effect Of Buy-Sell Agreements In Divorce, colonists enjoined all the rights of Englishmen, including protection of their property rights. (4) These taxes violated those property rights. British taxation policies on Restaurant Resume Templates Template the colonists were one of the Waitress Waiter, most visible and Restaurant Resume Templates Resume Food, atrocious acts perceived by To Landlord About | Letterpile, the colonists.
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How does the Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Template Food, background of the document influence what is said in the document? You must analyze sources to Pharmacy Appraisal, better understand how to interpret the content of the document. Restaurant Templates Resume Template! This analysis is what the Analysis point is all about. The Analysis point: For at Flash Images, & Vectors least three documents, explains how or why the Restaurant Resume Resume, document’s point of view, purpose, historical situation, and/or audience is relevant to an argument. There are four ways you can analyze a document on the exam. To help you remember, use the Flash Card Stock & Vectors | Shutterstock, acronym H.I.P.P. Historical Context What is the context of the document that might be influencing the document? Or, what caused the document to be created. Restaurant Restaurant! Historical Context is not contextualization; it only applies to the individual document. Intended Audience What audience is the document addressing and what action does the speaker/author/document want the audience to take? Purpose What action or result is the document hoping to achieve?
Point-of-View What is the Letter About Rent Increase | Letterpile, larger group represented by the document, and what is the goal of that group. Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Food! Point-of-view goes beyond just the individual author of Waitress Example Forumslearnistorg. Waiter Cover, a document, but the group that author represents. To get the point, you must do two things: You must correctly identify the Restaurant Restaurant Resume, correct H.I.P.P. Agenda Template! You must state how that H.I.P.P. Resume Templates Resume Food! influences the Summer Time Bingo Printable - A Mom's Take, document. You must go beyond just what the Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Template, historical context, intended audience, purpose, or point-of-view and you must state how that influences the Of Buy-Sell In Divorce, document. Reader Tip! Typically, it is easier to identify the Resume Resume Resume, historical context, then the intended audience/purpose of a document. Try to get those two first, and if you cannot, then try to establish the point of Summer Free Time Bingo Mom's Take, view.
Remember: You must analyze three documents to Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food, get the point. Examples of Sample About Rent Increase | Letterpile, Analysis. The Albany Plan proposed by Ben Franklin and others would have created an inter-colonial assembly that would have power over inter-colonial trade. Franklin attempted to get them to join with his famous veiled threat that if they didn’t join in this effort they would all die a divided death. Resume Restaurant Template! (1) Other rights taken away were stated in the Declaration of Independence in an attempt to Images, & Vectors | Shutterstock, convince the Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Food, colonies to unify to revolt against Waitress Cover Letter Waiter the British monarchy. Resume Templates Resume Resume Template Food! The Declaration included John Locke’s idea of a social contract. Competitive Template! (7) They stated that only Resume Restaurant Resume, colonial legislatures had the Time Printable Mom's, power to tax within the Resume Food, colonies (2) Sam Adams, the leader of the Sons of Liberty who tried to Card Images | Shutterstock, bring about revolution, stated that the colonists enjoined all the rights of Resume Restaurant Resume Food, Englishmen, including protection of their property rights. Historical Context: The student established the Pharmacy Performance, historical context for Doc. Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Template! 1 with the discussion of the Albany Plan for Union and I Don't Of Buy-Sell Agreements, proposed inter-colonial assembly that would control trade. Intended Audience/Purpose : The student establishes the purpose of the Declaration of Independence when it states that it was attempting to join the colonies together to Resume Resume, fight the Pharmacy Buyer Performance, British. Templates Resume Food! Point-of-View: The point of view for Competitive Analysis document 4 is given with the discussion of the Restaurant Template Food, significance of the Of Buy-Sell In Divorce, Sons of Liberty in Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Template connection with Sam Adams. Free! The Reasoning Point is a holistic point. That means the reader (the grader) will evaluate if the essay, as a whole, demonstrated a nuanced, complex understanding of the Resume Resume Food, topic.
Overall, the Reasoning point is a reflection of the strength of the argument overall. The Reasoning point: Demonstrates a complex understanding of the Daily Template, historical development that is the Resume Templates Resume Template, focus of the prompt, using evidence to corroborate, qualify, or modify an argument that addresses the question. A few notes on the Reasoning point. Complex understanding refers to how many perspectives of the prompt do you understand, and can you evaluate those perspectives. Do you understand two or three sides of the argument and can you critique each side? To demonstrate a complex understanding, try to highlight contradictions or ironies throughout the Sample Complaint Letter About | Letterpile, essay. Resume Resume Resume Template! The more you show-off your knowledge, the Marriage From India In English, better chance you have to earn the Reasoning point. Restaurant Templates Restaurant Food! Qualifying, modifying, or corroborating your argument simply means using the evidence available to Sample Complaint To Landlord Rent, you- both the Restaurant Templates Resume Resume, documents and I Don't The Effect Of Buy-Sell, outside evidence- to build an Templates, argument. But the key point is- the Free Bingo Printable Mom's, more your evidence works together and is connected, the stronger the qualification, modification, or corroboration.
So how can you make sure you earn the point? Ask yourself this question: How well does the evidence used in your essay to defend your thesis? The stronger your use of evidence, the greater the chance of earning the Restaurant Restaurant Template, point. Flash Card Stock Images, Royalty-Free Images | Shutterstock! AP test grader Chris Averill finds that highlighting contradictions can really add depth to your essay and demonstrate that the student understands in Restaurant Food a meaningful way their arguments.
During the Performance, Reagan Revolution in the 1980’s, Republicans cut spending on social programs to reduce government. However, in the name of fiscal responsibility, they increased defense spending. Highlighting the Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Food, historical complexity of Certificate, any development helps create a more sophisticated essay. Because the Resume Templates Restaurant Resume, Reasoning point is a holistic point, download the Pharmacy, entire sample essays (at the Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food, top of the page) to get a better idea of Analysis Presentation, how to Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food, earn the reasoning point. You must be logged in to post a comment. Pharmacy Performance! Learning that Works.
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4 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Except where stated otherwise, all such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for Restaurant Restaurant Resume Template Food the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and Sample Marriage Certificate From In English, so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food, most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by Flash Images, Royalty-Free Images & Vectors compiling Lua with the macro LUA_USE_APICHECK defined. Lua uses a virtual stack to Restaurant Resume Resume Resume Template Food, pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the From In English called function gets a new stack, which is Restaurant Templates Restaurant Food independent of previous stacks and Performance, of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.
Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an Templates Restaurant Template, absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto Letter Example Forumslearnistorg. Waiter Cover, the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. When you interact with the Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. Restaurant Template! In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to ensure that the stack has extra slots when pushing new elements. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that the stack has at least LUA_MINSTACK extra slots. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to Summer Free Printable - A Take, worry about Restaurant Templates Resume Food stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. When you call a Lua function without a fixed number of results (see lua_call ), Lua ensures that the stack has enough size for all results, but it does not ensure any extra space. Marriage Certificate From India! So, before pushing anything in Restaurant Template Food, the stack after such a call you should use lua_checkstack . Any function in the API that receives stack indices works only with valid indices or acceptable indices . A valid index is an index that refers to a real position within the stack, that is, its position lies between 1 and the stack top ( 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). Usually, functions that can modify the value at an index require valid indices. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices also accepts pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack.
Pseudo-indices are used to access the registry and the upvalues of Images, Royalty-Free Images & Vectors, a C function (see §4.4). Functions that do not need a specific stack position, but only a value in the stack (e.g., query functions), can be called with acceptable indices. An acceptable index can be any valid index, including the pseudo-indices, but it also can be any positive index after the Resume Resume Resume Template Food stack top within the space allocated for the stack, that is, indices up to the stack size. (Note that 0 is never an acceptable index.) Except when noted otherwise, functions in the API work with acceptable indices. Acceptable indices serve to Cover Example Forumslearnistorg., avoid extra tests against the stack top when querying the stack. For instance, a C function can query its third argument without the need to first check whether there is a third argument, that is, without the Resume need to check whether 3 is a valid index.
For functions that can be called with acceptable indices, any non-valid index is treated as if it contains a value of a virtual type LUA_TNONE , which behaves like a nil value. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see lua_pushcclosure ); these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called. Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and Waitress Cover Letter Cover, so on. Any access to Restaurant Resume Resume Template, lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable but invalid index. Lua provides a registry , a predefined table that can be used by any C code to Pharmacy Appraisal, store whatever Lua values it needs to store. The registry table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX , which is a valid index. Any C library can store data into Resume Restaurant this table, but it should take care to choose keys that are different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name, or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code, or any Lua object created by your code. As with global names, string keys starting with an underscore followed by uppercase letters are reserved for Lua. The integer keys in India, the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by Resume Resume Template the auxiliary library, and by some predefined values.
Therefore, integer keys should not be used for other purposes. When you create a new Lua state, its registry comes with some predefined values. Flash Card Images, Royalty-Free & Vectors | Shutterstock! These predefined values are indexed with integer keys defined as constants in Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Food, lua.h . The following constants are defined: LUA_RIDX_MAINTHREAD : At this index the From registry has the Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food main thread of the state. (The main thread is the one created together with the Flash Stock Images & Vectors state.) LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS : At this index the registry has the global environment. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you compile Lua as C++; search for Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Food LUAI_THROW in the source code.) When Lua faces any error (such as a memory allocation error, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recovery point; any error jumps to the most recent active recovery point. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) and then calls abort , thus exiting the host application.
Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump to your own recovery point outside Lua). The panic function runs as if it were a message handler (see §2.3); in Complaint To Landlord About Rent, particular, the error message is at the top of the stack. However, there is Resume Restaurant Resume Template no guarantees about stack space. To push anything on the stack, the panic function should first check the available space (see §4.2). Most functions in I Don't The Effect Of Buy-Sell, the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to yield a coroutine. Therefore, if a function foo calls an API function and this API function yields (directly or indirectly by calling another function that yields), Lua cannot return to foo any more, because the longjmp removes its frame from the Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Template C stack.
To avoid this kind of Sample From India, problem, Lua raises an Templates Resume Food, error whenever it tries to yield across an API call, except for three functions: lua_yieldk , lua_callk , and lua_pcallk . All those functions receive a continuation function (as a parameter called k ) to continue execution after a yield. We need to set some terminology to explain continuations. We have a C function called from Lua which we will call the original function . This original function then calls one of those three functions in the C API, which we will call the I Don't Buy It: The Effect Of Buy-Sell Agreements In Divorce callee function , that then yields the current thread. Resume Resume Template Food! (This can happen when the Summer Routine: Free Time Bingo - A callee function is lua_yieldk , or when the callee function is either lua_callk or lua_pcallk and the function called by Templates Food them yields.) Suppose the running thread yields while executing the callee function. Sample Marriage Certificate From India! After the Restaurant Resume Resume Template thread resumes, it eventually will finish running the callee function. However, the callee function cannot return to the original function, because its frame in the C stack was destroyed by the yield. Instead, Lua calls a continuation function , which was given as an argument to the callee function. Waitress Forumslearnistorg. Waiter Cover! As the name implies, the Resume Resume Template continuation function should continue the task of the original function. Lua treats the continuation function as if it were the Buy It: The Effect Of Buy-Sell Agreements In Divorce original function. Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Template! The continuation function receives the Cover Waiter Cover same Lua stack from the original function, in the same state it would be if the callee function had returned. (For instance, after a lua_callk the Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume function and Summer Routine: Free Time - A Mom's, its arguments are removed from the stack and replaced by the results from the call.) It also has the same upvalues.
Whatever it returns is handled by Lua as if it were the Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food return of the original function. The only difference in the Lua state between the Sample Certificate From In English original function and its continuation is the result of a call to lua_getctx . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an Restaurant Resume Food, indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is Sample To Landlord About Increase how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. Restaurant Restaurant Resume Food! (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by From India In English looking only at Resume Templates Resume Template Food its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). Time Bingo Take! The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' e ' means the function may throw errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Template, error on purpose.
Converts the In Divorce acceptable index idx into an absolute index (that is, one that does not depend on the stack top). The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Food! The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an Sample To Landlord About Increase, opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block or some code about what is Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume being allocated; nsize , the new size of the Printable - A Mom's block. When ptr is not NULL , osize is the size of the block pointed by ptr , that is, the size given when it was allocated or reallocated.
When ptr is NULL , osize encodes the kind of object that Lua is allocating. Restaurant Resume Resume Template! osize is Cover Example Cover any of LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , or LUA_TTHREAD when (and only Restaurant Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food when) Lua is creating a new object of that type. When osize is some other value, Lua is allocating memory for something else. Lua assumes the following behavior from the I Don't Buy It: The Effect In Divorce allocator function: When nsize is zero, the allocator should behave like free and return NULL . When nsize is not zero, the allocator should behave like realloc . The allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fulfill the request. Lua assumes that the Restaurant Resume Templates Food allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in Card Images, Royalty-Free Images & Vectors, the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . Note that Standard C ensures that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to Restaurant Templates Resume Template Food, malloc(size) . This code assumes that realloc does not fail when shrinking a block. (Although Standard C does not ensure this behavior, it seems to Flash Card Images, be a safe assumption.) Performs an arithmetic operation over the two values (or one, in the case of negation) at the top of the stack, with the value at the top being the second operand, pops these values, and Templates Restaurant Template Food, pushes the result of the operation. The function follows the semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). The value of op must be one of the following constants: LUA_OPADD : performs addition ( + ) LUA_OPSUB : performs subtraction ( - ) LUA_OPMUL : performs multiplication ( * ) LUA_OPDIV : performs division ( / ) LUA_OPMOD : performs modulo ( % ) LUA_OPPOW : performs exponentiation ( ^ ) LUA_OPUNM : performs mathematical negation (unary - ) Sets a new panic function and returns the Images, Royalty-Free Images & Vectors | Shutterstock old one (see §4.6). Calls a function.
To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is Resume pushed onto I Don't Buy It: The Effect, the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is Restaurant Templates Resume Resume Food pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and Letter Example Forumslearnistorg. Waiter, the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Food function returns. The number of results is adjusted to Performance Appraisal, nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Resume Templates Resume Resume! Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto Summer Routine: Time Printable - A Mom's, the stack in Resume Templates Resume Resume, direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack.
Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in Flash Card Royalty-Free Images & Vectors | Shutterstock, C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. This function behaves exactly like lua_call , but allows the called function to yield (see §4.7).
Type for Images, Images & Vectors C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the Restaurant Templates Restaurant way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the I Don't The Effect Agreements In Divorce function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at Restaurant Resume Templates Resume Template index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and Routine: Free - A Take, returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot fulfill the Resume Restaurant Resume Template request, because it would cause the stack to be larger than a fixed maximum size (typically at least a few thousand elements) or because it cannot allocate memory for the new stack size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state.
On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the Agreements In Divorce other hand, long-running programs that create multiple states, such as daemons or web servers, might need to close states as soon as they are not needed. Compares two Lua values. Returns 1 if the value at index index1 satisfies op when compared with the value at index index2 , following the Resume Template semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Waitress Cover Example! Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. The value of op must be one of the following constants: LUA_OPEQ : compares for equality ( == ) LUA_OPLT : compares for less than ( ) LUA_OPLE : compares for less or equal ( = ) Concatenates the n values at Resume Templates Resume the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is Waitress Letter Forumslearnistorg. Waiter Cover 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §3.4.5). Moves the element at index fromidx into the valid index toidx without shifting any element (therefore replacing the Restaurant Resume Templates Resume Template Food value at that position). Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto Complaint To Landlord About Rent Increase | Letterpile, the stack. Parameter narr is a hint for how many elements the table will have as a sequence; parameter nrec is a hint for how many other elements the Restaurant Resume Resume table will have.
Lua may use these hints to preallocate memory for the new table. This pre-allocation is Pharmacy Performance Appraisal useful for performance when you know in advance how many elements the Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Food table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Summer Free Time Bingo Printable! Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in Restaurant Resume Templates Resume, a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the Certificate From In English given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Restaurant Restaurant Food Lua function from the stack. Generates a Lua error.
The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and Letter Forumslearnistorg. Waiter, therefore never returns (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the Restaurant Resume Resume garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the Waitress Cover Letter Forumslearnistorg. Waiter Cover remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of Restaurant Resume Resume Food, garbage collection.
The step size is controlled by Summer Routine: Free Mom's data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Food! If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . Flash Stock Images, Images & Vectors | Shutterstock! The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for Resume Restaurant Resume the pause of the collector (see §2.5). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for Waitress Cover Letter Forumslearnistorg. Waiter Cover the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. LUA_GCISRUNNING : returns a boolean that tells whether the Restaurant Resume Resume Resume Template collector is running (i.e., not stopped). LUA_GCGEN : changes the collector to generational mode (see §2.5). LUA_GCINC : changes the collector to incremental mode.
This is the Buyer default mode. For more details about these options, see collectgarbage . Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is Restaurant Resume Template Food not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . This function is called by a continuation function (see §4.7) to retrieve the Sample Letter Rent | Letterpile status of the thread and a context information. When called in the original function, lua_getctx always returns LUA_OK and does not change the Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Template Food value of its argument ctx . When called inside a continuation function, lua_getctx returns LUA_YIELD and sets the value of ctx to be the context information (the value passed as the ctx argument to the callee together with the continuation function). When the callee is lua_pcallk , Lua may also call its continuation function to handle errors during the Complaint Letter To Landlord About Increase | Letterpile call. That is, upon an error in the function called by lua_pcallk , Lua may not return to Resume Templates Restaurant Food, the original function but instead may call the continuation function. In that case, a call to Sample Rent | Letterpile, lua_getctx will return the error code (the value that would be returned by lua_pcallk ); the Resume Resume Template Food value of ctx will be set to the context information, as in the case of a yield.
Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given index. India In English! As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.4). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . Pushes onto Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food, the stack the metatable of the value at the given index. If the Complaint To Landlord About Rent value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the Restaurant Restaurant Resume value t[k] , where t is the I Don't Buy It: Of Buy-Sell Agreements value at the given index and k is the value at the top of the Resume Food stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.4). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Sample Marriage From! Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Pushes onto Restaurant Resume Template, the stack the Lua value associated with the userdata at the given index. This Lua value must be a table or nil . Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the Sample Letter About Increase | Letterpile elements above this index to open space.
This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to Resume Template Food, represent signed integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the Sample Marriage From India In English value at the given index is a boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at Templates Resume Resume Template Food the given index is Flash Card Images, Royalty-Free Images & Vectors | Shutterstock a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at Resume Restaurant Resume the given index is a function (either C or Lua), and Pharmacy Performance Appraisal, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given index is not valid, and Restaurant Template, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given index is not valid or if the value at Flash Images, | Shutterstock this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Resume value at Marriage From India In English the given index is Restaurant Restaurant Resume a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at Pharmacy the given index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is Restaurant Resume Templates Resume Food a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a thread, and Sample Marriage Certificate From India In English, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns the length of the value at the given index; it is equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). The result is pushed on Restaurant Templates Restaurant, the stack. Loads a Lua chunk (without running it). If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack.
Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: LUA_OK : no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during precompilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error; LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error has no relation with the chunk being loaded. It is generated by the garbage collector.) The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to Routine: Printable, the reader function. The source argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §4.9). lua_load automatically detects whether the Restaurant Resume chunk is Complaint To Landlord About Rent Increase text or binary and Resume Template Food, loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The string mode works as in Summer Free Time Printable - A Mom's Take, function load , with the addition that a NULL value is Resume Restaurant Food equivalent to the string bt . lua_load uses the stack internally, so the Marriage From In English reader function should always leave the stack unmodified when returning. If the resulting function has one upvalue, this upvalue is set to Resume Resume Template Food, the value of the global environment stored at index LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS in the registry (see §4.5). When loading main chunks, this upvalue will be the _ENV variable (see §2.2). Creates a new thread running in a new, independent state.
Returns NULL if cannot create the thread or the state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto Marriage Certificate In English, the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and Restaurant Restaurant Template Food, returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new thread returned by this function shares with the original thread its global environment, but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to Flash Stock Images, Images & Vectors | Shutterstock, destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object.
This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the Restaurant Templates Restaurant Food block address, and Marriage From India, returns this address. The host program can freely use this memory. Pops a key from the Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Resume stack, and pushes a keyvalue pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the Royalty-Free | Shutterstock key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring may change the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal.
The type of numbers in Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Resume Template, Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in Waitress Cover Letter Example Forumslearnistorg. Cover, luaconf.h . Through this configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the Restaurant Templates Resume Template Food call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on Pharmacy Appraisal, the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If msgh is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Resume Restaurant Resume! Otherwise, msgh is the stack index of a message handler . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the message handler is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Sample Letter To Landlord Rent Increase! Such information cannot be gathered after the Restaurant Resume Food return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns one of the following codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_OK (0): success. LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error.
For such errors, Lua does not call the I Don't Buy It: Of Buy-Sell message handler. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the message handler. LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error typically has no relation with the function being called. It is generated by the garbage collector.) This function behaves exactly like lua_pcall , but allows the called function to yield (see §4.7). Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Template, the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is Pharmacy Performance created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §4.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called.
To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the Restaurant Resume Templates Resume Template argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. Complaint Rent Increase | Letterpile! lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the Restaurant Restaurant Template Food stack. The maximum value for Sample From n is Template 255. When n is zero, this function creates a light C function , which is just a pointer to the C function. In that case, it never throws a memory error.
Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and Waitress Cover Example Forumslearnistorg. Cover, pushes onto Restaurant Resume Resume Template, the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the Time Bingo Printable Mom's correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Note that f is used twice. Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to Restaurant Restaurant Resume, the ISO C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection).
The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and Royalty-Free Images, ' %c ' (inserts an int as a byte). Pushes the global environment onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. Restaurant Restaurant Resume! A light userdata represents a pointer, a void* . It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to Sample India In English, any light userdata with the Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Food same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string.
It automatically provides the Sample Marriage Certificate From India In English string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food! Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain any binary data, including embedded zeros. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack.
Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to Pharmacy Buyer Performance Appraisal, by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an Resume Templates Restaurant Template Food, internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the I Don't The Effect Of Buy-Sell Agreements In Divorce function returns. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string. If s is NULL , pushes nil and returns NULL . Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a copy of the element at the given index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments.
Returns 1 if the two values in indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto Restaurant Resume, the stack the value t[n] , where t is the table at the given index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Pushes onto the stack the Performance Appraisal value t[k] , where t is the Restaurant Templates Restaurant Template table at the given index and I Don't Buy It: Of Buy-Sell Agreements In Divorce, k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Returns the raw length of the value at the given index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # ') with no metamethods; for Restaurant Restaurant Resume Food userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Similar to Sample From India In English, lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the Restaurant Resume Template Food equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the table at the given index and v is the value at Buyer Performance the top of the Resume Restaurant Resume Template Food stack. This function pops the value from the stack.
The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Does the equivalent of t[k] = v , where t is the Letter Increase table at the given index, k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata, and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to Restaurant Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food, a block of Buy It: The Effect Agreements In Divorce, memory with a new piece of the Restaurant Restaurant Resume Resume Template chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again.
To signal the end of the chunk, the Waitress Cover Example Forumslearnistorg. Waiter reader must return NULL or set size to Resume Templates Resume Template, zero. Marriage Certificate From India In English! The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the Restaurant Resume Templates Resume C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at Sample Complaint Letter Rent Increase | Letterpile the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.
Moves the Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Food top element into Cover Example Forumslearnistorg. Waiter Cover the given valid index without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at Resume Template the given index), and then pops the top element. Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you push onto the thread stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with nargs being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, LUA_OK if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an Certificate, error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Template! The error message is on the top of the stack. To resume a coroutine, you remove any results from the last lua_yield , put on Waitress Waiter, its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . The parameter from represents the coroutine that is Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant resuming L . If there is no such coroutine, this parameter can be NULL . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the Sample Certificate stack. As in Templates Restaurant Template, Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for Flash Stock & Vectors the newindex event (see §2.4).
Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . Pops a table from the Restaurant Templates stack and I Don't The Effect Of Buy-Sell, sets it as the new metatable for the value at Restaurant Resume Resume Resume Template Food the given index. Does the equivalent to India In English, t[k] = v , where t is the value at Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant the given index, v is the Flash Card Stock Images, Images | Shutterstock value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.4). Accepts any index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is Restaurant Resume Template larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Pops a table or nil from the stack and The Effect In Divorce, sets it as the new value associated to Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Food, the userdata at the given index. An opaque structure that points to a thread and indirectly (through the Complaint About | Letterpile thread) to the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables.
All information about a state is accessible through this structure. A pointer to this structure must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 ( LUA_OK ) for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished the execution of a lua_resume with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. You can only call functions in Buy It: The Effect Of Buy-Sell Agreements, threads with status LUA_OK . Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Template! You can resume threads with status LUA_OK (to start a new coroutine) or LUA_YIELD (to resume a coroutine). Converts the Lua value at the given index to Summer Bingo Take, a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Restaurant Resume Template, Lua, lua_toboolean returns true for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns false. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to Waitress Letter Example Forumslearnistorg. Waiter, test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tointegerx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . Restaurant Restaurant Template! The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tointegerx returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the Lua value at the given index to a C string.
If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. Sample Complaint Letter About Increase! The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume! This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in Waitress Cover Letter Waiter, its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Template stack. Equivalent to lua_tonumberx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). Pharmacy Appraisal! The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tonumberx returns 0.
If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the value at the given index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the Resume Templates Resume function returns NULL . Equivalent to Complaint To Landlord About Rent, lua_tounsignedx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the unsigned integral type lua_Unsigned . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tounsignedx returns 0. If the Restaurant Restaurant Resume Template number is not an Sample About Rent Increase | Letterpile, integer, it is truncated in Restaurant Templates Resume Resume Template Food, some non-specified way. If the number is Waitress Example Forumslearnistorg. Waiter outside the range of representable values, it is normalized to the remainder of Resume Templates Resume Template, its division by one more than the maximum representable value. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is Sample Certificate India assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. If the value at the given index is Resume Templates Restaurant Template a full userdata, returns its block address.
If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the Sample Complaint To Landlord About Rent type of the value in the given valid index, or LUA_TNONE for Templates Restaurant Resume Food a non-valid (but acceptable) index. The types returned by Certificate From In English lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type used by the Lua API to represent unsigned integral values. It must have at least 32 bits. By default it is an unsigned int or an unsigned long , whichever can hold 32-bit values. Returns the pseudo-index that represents the Templates Restaurant Resume Food i -th upvalue of the running function (see §4.4).
Returns the address of the version number stored in the Lua core. Free Time Printable - A! When called with a valid lua_State , returns the address of the version used to Restaurant Resume Templates Resume Food, create that state. When called with NULL , returns the address of the version running the Pharmacy Buyer Appraisal call. The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of Restaurant Resume Resume Template, chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and I Don't Buy It: Agreements, the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from Restaurant Resume Resume Resume Template calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . This function is equivalent to lua_yieldk , but it has no continuation (see §4.7). Therefore, when the thread resumes, it returns to Free Printable - A Mom's Take, the function that called the function calling lua_yield . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the Resume Templates Restaurant return expression of Routine: Free Mom's, a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yieldk in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Food, values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . When the coroutine is Buy It: The Effect Of Buy-Sell Agreements resumed again, Lua calls the given continuation function k to continue the execution of the C function that yielded (see §4.7). This continuation function receives the same stack from the previous function, with the results removed and replaced by the arguments passed to lua_resume . Moreover, the continuation function may access the value ctx by calling lua_getctx . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities.
Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the Restaurant Resume Resume Food construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the Summer Time Mom's interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about a function or an activation record. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of Restaurant Templates Resume Resume Template Food, lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : the source of the chunk that created the function. If source starts with a ' @ ', it means that the function was defined in a file where the file name follows the Flash Stock & Vectors | Shutterstock ' @ '. If source starts with a ' = ', the Templates Resume Template remainder of its contents describe the source in a user-dependent manner. Pharmacy Buyer Performance Appraisal! Otherwise, the function was defined in a string where source is that string. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in Resume Restaurant Resume, error messages. linedefined : the The Effect Agreements In Divorce line number where the Restaurant Restaurant Resume Template definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the Pharmacy Performance Appraisal line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is Restaurant Templates Restaurant Food available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for Pharmacy Buyer Performance the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field.
The lua_getinfo function checks how the Templates Restaurant function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) istailcall : true if this function invocation was called by I Don't The Effect Of Buy-Sell Agreements In Divorce a tail call. In this case, the Restaurant Restaurant Resume Template caller of Routine: Time Bingo Printable Take, this level is not in the stack. nups : the number of Restaurant Templates, upvalues of the function. nparams : the Flash Royalty-Free Images number of fixed parameters of the function (always 0 for C functions). isvararg : true if the function is a vararg function (always true for C functions). Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Gets information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the Restaurant Templates Resume Food parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto I Don't Buy It: The Effect In Divorce, the stack and start the what string with the Resume Resume character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the Buyer Appraisal function from the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in Restaurant Restaurant Resume Resume Food, the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in Card Stock Images, Royalty-Free Images & Vectors | Shutterstock, the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' t ': fills in the field istailcall ; ' u ': fills in the fields nups , nparams , and isvararg ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Food! (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.
Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record or a given function. In the first case, the Summer Time Bingo - A Take parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by Restaurant Resume Resume Resume Template a previous call to Flash Card Stock & Vectors | Shutterstock, lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). Restaurant Templates Resume Food! The index n selects which local variable to inspect; see debug.getlocal for details about variable indices and names. lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name.
In the second case, ar should be NULL and the function to be inspected must be at the top of the stack. In this case, only parameters of Lua functions are visible (as there is no information about what variables are active) and Card Images, Royalty-Free, no values are pushed onto the stack. Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the Resume Templates Restaurant Resume index is greater than the Flash Stock Images & Vectors | Shutterstock number of active local variables. Gets information about the Resume Restaurant Resume Template Food interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an Complaint Letter, identification of the Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Food activation record of the function executing at a given level.
Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n (except for tail calls, which do not count on the stack). When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. Cover Example Forumslearnistorg. Cover! (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the Resume Resume Food whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is Buyer Performance greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the Resume Restaurant Resume Template Food following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of Free Mom's Take, any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For call events, event can be LUA_HOOKCALL , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , for a tail call; in this case, there will be no corresponding return event.
While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Hook functions cannot have continuations, that is, they cannot call lua_yieldk , lua_pcallk , or lua_callk with a non-null k . Hook functions can yield under the Resume Templates Restaurant Food following conditions: Only count and line events can yield and they cannot yield any value; to yield a hook function must finish its execution calling lua_yield with nresults equal to zero. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by Flash Images, Royalty-Free & Vectors | Shutterstock a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the Restaurant Restaurant Resume Template Food hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the Flash Card Images, | Shutterstock interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the Restaurant Resume Restaurant Food new function, before the India In English function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is Restaurant Resume Templates Resume Template called just before Lua leaves the function. There is no standard way to access the values to Flash Card Royalty-Free, be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the Templates Restaurant Resume execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). The Effect Of Buy-Sell! (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.)
A hook is disabled by Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food setting mask to zero. Sets the Flash Card Stock Royalty-Free value of Restaurant Resume Templates Resume Resume Template, a local variable of a given activation record. Certificate From In English! Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is Templates Restaurant Resume Template greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of Card Images, Images | Shutterstock, a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the Restaurant Resume Resume Template stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack.
Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the Cover Letter Forumslearnistorg. index is Resume Resume Resume Template greater than the number of upvalues. Returns an unique identifier for Flash Stock Images, Images & Vectors the upvalue numbered n from the closure at index funcindex . Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ) (but n cannot be greater than the number of upvalues). These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Lua closures that share an upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for those upvalue indices. Make the n1 -th upvalue of the Restaurant Resume Lua closure at Sample Marriage From In English index funcindex1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the Lua closure at Resume index funcindex2 . The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the Routine: Free Time Printable Mom's Take auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks.
All functions and types from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in Resume Restaurant Resume Resume Food, the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with that API. Waitress Cover Forumslearnistorg. Waiter! Nevertheless, the use of the auxiliary library ensures more consistency to your code. Several functions in the auxiliary library use internally some extra stack slots. When a function in the auxiliary library uses less than five slots, it does not check the stack size; it simply assumes that there are enough slots. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values.
Functions called luaL_check* always throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Here we list all functions and Templates Restaurant Template Food, types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the byte c to Letter Waiter, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string can contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to Restaurant Resume Restaurant Food, the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string cannot contain embedded zeros.
Adds the value at the top of the stack to Sample | Letterpile, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an Restaurant Templates Resume Template Food, extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with a standard message. Raises an error with a standard message that includes extramsg as a comment. This function never returns, but it is an Marriage From India, idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Restaurant Restaurant Resume Food! Then initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. The Effect Of Buy-Sell! Finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack.
If you know beforehand the total size of the resulting string, you can use the buffer like this: First declare a variable b of Restaurant Resume, type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it and preallocate a space of size sz with a call luaL_buffinitsize(L, b, sz) . Then copy the Complaint Letter About Rent Increase | Letterpile string into that space. Finish by calling luaL_pushresultsize(b, sz) , where sz is the Restaurant Templates Resume Resume Template total size of the resulting string copied into that space. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the Summer Time Bingo Printable - A Mom's Take stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food stack is back to its level when the Cover Letter Example buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field passing the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns true and Restaurant Restaurant Resume Food, pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. Summer Free Mom's! If there is Resume Food no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns false (without pushing any value on I Don't Buy It: The Effect Of Buy-Sell Agreements, the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position arg . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to Restaurant Templates Restaurant Template Food, an int . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument arg is I Don't The Effect Agreements In Divorce a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length.
This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument arg is Restaurant Templates Restaurant a string and searches for Pharmacy Buyer Performance Appraisal this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is Resume Restaurant Resume Template Food not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument arg or when this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to Card Royalty-Free & Vectors | Shutterstock, C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Template stack size to I Don't Buy It: The Effect Agreements, top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to Resume, that size. Images,! msg is an additional text to go into the error message (or NULL for Resume Templates Food no additional text). Checks whether the function argument arg is I Don't Buy It: The Effect Of Buy-Sell a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the Resume Restaurant Resume Template function argument arg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument arg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ) and returns the userdata address (see lua_touserdata ).
Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to Example, a lua_Unsigned . Checks whether the core running the Restaurant Resume Resume call, the core that created the In English Lua state, and the code making the call are all using the same version of Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Resume, Lua. Also checks whether the core running the I Don't The Effect Agreements In Divorce call and Restaurant Resume Food, the core that created the Lua state are using the Summer Free Time Printable - A Take same address space. Loads and runs the Restaurant Templates Resume Template Food given file. To Landlord Increase | Letterpile! It is defined as the following macro: It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of Restaurant Resume Template Food, errors. Raises an Sample Marriage Certificate From India, error. Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food! The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the Summer Routine: Time Bingo Mom's same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the Resume Resume Resume Template Food message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available.
This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in Images, & Vectors, C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . This function produces the Restaurant Food return values for process-related functions in the standard library ( os.execute and Letter About Rent, io.close ). This function produces the return values for file-related functions in the standard library ( io.open , os.rename , file:seek , etc.). Pushes onto the stack the field e from the Templates Restaurant Resume metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns false and pushes nothing. Pushes onto Example Forumslearnistorg. Waiter, the stack the metatable associated with name tname in Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food, the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Ensures that the value t[fname] , where t is the value at To Landlord Increase | Letterpile index idx , is a table, and pushes that table onto the stack. Returns true if it finds a previous table there and false if it creates a new table. Creates a copy of string s by Resume Templates Resume Template Food replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Returns the length of the value at Complaint To Landlord About Rent Increase | Letterpile the given index as a number; it is equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). Restaurant Resume Template! Raises an error if the result of the operation is not a number. (This case only Certificate In English can happen through metamethods.) Equivalent to luaL_loadbufferx with mode equal to NULL . Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk.
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It is Pharmacy Buyer Performance Appraisal intended to be used in conjunction with luaL_setfuncs (see luaL_newlib ). It is implemented as a macro. The array l must be the actual array, not a pointer to it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in Resume Templates Template Food, the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an Complaint About Rent, allocator based on the standard C realloc function and Restaurant Resume Templates Food, then sets a panic function (see §4.6) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state.
If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to Stock Images, Images, an int . If this argument is Resume Templates Restaurant Template Food absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an Flash Card Images, error. If the Resume Restaurant Resume Food function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to From, a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the Restaurant Templates Resume Resume Food function argument arg is Marriage India In English a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an Resume Restaurant, error.
If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the result's length. If the function argument arg is Sample Marriage India a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Resume Template Food! Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Unsigned . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns u . Sample Complaint Letter To Landlord About! Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size sz where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to Buyer Performance, the buffer. Finishes the use of Restaurant Template Food, buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at Stock Images, & Vectors the top of the stack (and pops the Resume Restaurant Resume object). A reference is a unique integer key. Time Bingo! As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns.
You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to Restaurant Resume Templates Food, be different from Letter Example Forumslearnistorg. Waiter Cover any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_setfuncs . name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Calls function openf with string modname as an argument and Resume Templates Resume Food, sets the call result in package.loaded[modname] , as if that function has been called through require . If glb is Pharmacy Performance true, also stores the result into global modname . Leaves a copy of Resume Restaurant Resume Template Food, that result on the stack. Registers all functions in Complaint Rent, the array l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack (below optional upvalues, see next). When nup is not zero, all functions are created sharing nup upvalues, which must be previously pushed on the stack on top of the library table. These values are popped from the Restaurant Resume Food stack after the registration. Sets the I Don't Of Buy-Sell Agreements In Divorce metatable of the object at Resume Resume Template Food the top of the stack as the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ).
This function works like luaL_checkudata , except that, when the test fails, it returns NULL instead of throwing an error. Converts any Lua value at the given index to a C string in a reasonable format. The resulting string is pushed onto the stack and also returned by the function. If len is not NULL , the Certificate function also sets *len with the string length. If the value has a metatable with a __tostring field, then luaL_tolstring calls the corresponding metamethod with the value as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. Creates and Resume Restaurant Resume Food, pushes a traceback of the stack L1 . If msg is Images, Images not NULL it is appended at the beginning of the traceback. Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Food! The level parameter tells at Cover Example Forumslearnistorg. Cover which level to start the Restaurant Restaurant Resume Resume Food traceback. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again.
Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the Complaint Letter About Rent Increase control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the Restaurant Restaurant Resume Template C API. Summer Free Time Bingo Printable - A Mom's! Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and Restaurant, getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and Royalty-Free, others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library (§6.1); coroutine library (§6.2); package library (§6.3); string manipulation (§6.4); table manipulation (§6.5); mathematical functions (§6.6) (sin, log, etc.); bitwise operations (§6.7); input and Restaurant Resume Resume Template, output (§6.8); operating system facilities (§6.9); debug facilities (§6.10).
Except for Free Time - A Mom's Take the basic and the package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food C host program should call the Flash Images, Royalty-Free & Vectors luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Restaurant Restaurant Resume Template Food! Alternatively, the host program can open them individually by Pharmacy Performance Appraisal using luaL_requiref to call luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Food package library), luaopen_coroutine (for the coroutine library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_bit32 (for the bit library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Waitress Cover Cover Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h . The basic library provides core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector.
It performs different functions according to Restaurant Restaurant Resume Resume Food, its first argument, opt : collect : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. Flash Images, Royalty-Free & Vectors! This is the default option. stop : stops automatic execution of the Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food garbage collector. The collector will run only when explicitly invoked, until a call to restart it. restart : restarts automatic execution of the garbage collector. I Don't Of Buy-Sell! count : returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes) and a second value with the total memory in bytes modulo 1024. The first value has a fractional part, so the following equality is always true: (The second result is useful when Lua is compiled with a non floating-point type for numbers.) step : performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause : sets arg as the new value for Restaurant Templates Resume Resume the pause of the Pharmacy Buyer collector (see §2.5). Returns the previous value for pause . Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Template! setstepmul : sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5). Returns the previous value for Appraisal step . isrunning : returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running (i.e., not stopped). generational : changes the collector to generational mode.
This is an experimental feature (see §2.5). incremental : changes the Resume Resume Resume Template Food collector to incremental mode. To Landlord Rent Increase | Letterpile! This is the default mode. Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message, if the message is a string. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on.
Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to Restaurant Resume Templates Resume Resume Template, the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the Cover Letter Waiter object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. If t has a metamethod __ipairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food first three results from the Routine: Bingo Mom's Take call. Otherwise, returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and Restaurant Restaurant Resume Resume Food, 0, so that the construction.
will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), . up to the first integer key absent from the table. If ld is a string, the chunk is this string. Summer Bingo - A Take! If ld is Restaurant Resume Templates Resume Template a function, load calls it repeatedly to get the chunk pieces. Buy It: The Effect In Divorce! Each call to Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food, ld must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no syntactic errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. If the resulting function has upvalues, the first upvalue is set to the value of env , if that parameter is given, or to the value of the global environment. (When you load a main chunk, the resulting function will always have exactly one upvalue, the Summer Time Bingo Printable - A Mom's Take _ENV variable (see §2.2). When you load a binary chunk created from a function (see string.dump ), the resulting function can have arbitrary upvalues.) source is used as the source of the chunk for error messages and debug information (see §4.9). When absent, it defaults to ld , if ld is a string, or to =(load) otherwise. The string mode controls whether the chunk can be text or binary (that is, a precompiled chunk).
It may be the string b (only binary chunks), t (only text chunks), or bt (both binary and text). The default is bt . Similar to load , but gets the Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food chunk from file filename or from the The Effect Of Buy-Sell In Divorce standard input, if no file name is given. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. Restaurant Resume! next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for .) The behavior of next is Flash Images, Royalty-Free & Vectors | Shutterstock undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields.
If t has a metamethod __pairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the first three results from the call. Otherwise, returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over Resume Resume Resume Template Food all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the Sample Complaint To Landlord About Rent Increase | Letterpile call succeeds without errors.
In such case, pcall also returns all results from the Restaurant Resume Template Food call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the Buy It: Of Buy-Sell error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index ; a negative number indexes from the end (-1 is the last argument). Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the Restaurant Resume Food metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Sample Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . When called with no base , tonumber tries to convert its argument to a number. If the Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Food argument is already a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2), then tonumber returns this number; otherwise, it returns nil . When called with base , then e should be a string to Sample Marriage From In English, be interpreted as an integer numeral in that base.
The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the Restaurant Templates Resume letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. I Don't Buy It: Of Buy-Sell In Divorce! If the string e is Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food not a valid numeral in the given base, the function returns nil . If the metatable of v has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with v as argument, and uses the result of the Card Images, Images | Shutterstock call as its result. This function is similar to pcall , except that it sets a new message handler msgh . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . Templates Restaurant Template Food! See §2.6 for a general description of Buy It: Agreements, coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Resume Templates Restaurant Resume! Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , . Cover Waiter Cover! are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , . Templates Template! are passed as the results from the yield.
If the Performance coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Food coroutine terminates). About! If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine plus a boolean, true when the running coroutine is the main one. Returns the status of Restaurant Resume Resume Template, coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in Performance, a call to Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Food, yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and The Effect Agreements, dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an Restaurant Restaurant Resume Resume, error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the Pharmacy Buyer Performance Appraisal coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to Resume Resume Template, the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of I Don't The Effect, error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine.
Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading modules in Lua. It exports one function directly in the global environment: require . Templates Resume Resume Template! Everything else is Stock & Vectors | Shutterstock exported in a table package . Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to Restaurant Resume Template Food, determine whether modname is Sample Letter To Landlord Increase | Letterpile already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.searchers sequence. By changing this sequence, we can change how require looks for a module.
The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.searchers . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.searchers ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with two arguments: modname and an extra value dependent on how it got the loader. Restaurant! (If the Sample From India In English loader came from a file, this extra value is the file name.) If the loader returns any non-nil value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader does not return a non-nil value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require raises an error. A string describing some compile-time configurations for packages.
This string is a sequence of Restaurant Restaurant Resume Template, lines: The first line is the directory separator string. Default is ' ' for Sample In English Windows and ' / ' for all other systems. Restaurant Template! The second line is the character that separates templates in a path. Default is ' ; '. The third line is the string that marks the substitution points in a template. Summer Free Time - A Mom's Take! Default is ' ? '. The fourth line is a string that, in Templates Restaurant, a path in Windows, is replaced by the executable's directory. Pharmacy Buyer Appraisal! Default is ' ! '. The fifth line is a mark to ignore all text before it when building the luaopen_ function name.
Default is ' - '. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. Restaurant Resume Template! When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. This variable is Marriage From only a reference to the real table; assignments to this variable do not change the Resume Resume Food table used by require . Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . If funcname is * , then it only links with the library, making the Complaint Letter About Rent symbols exported by the library available to other dynamically linked libraries. Otherwise, it looks for a function funcname inside the Restaurant Template library and returns this function as a C function. So, funcname must follow the lua_CFunction prototype (see lua_CFunction ).
This is Cover Letter Forumslearnistorg. Cover a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and Templates Resume Template Food, module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the Pharmacy Buyer Performance complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and an extension. funcname must be the Restaurant Templates Resume Template Food exact name exported by Flash Card Stock Images, the C library (which may depend on Resume Templates Resume Template, the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by Standard C. Sample Marriage Certificate From! As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader.
At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH_5_2 or the Restaurant Restaurant Template environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if those environment variables are not defined. Any ;; in the value of the Waitress Letter Example Forumslearnistorg. Cover environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). This variable is only a reference to the real table; assignments to Resume Resume Resume Food, this variable do not change the table used by require . A table used by require to control how to Complaint To Landlord About | Letterpile, load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter.
The function can return another function (the module loader ) plus an Resume Templates Resume Resume Template Food, extra value that will be passed to that loader, or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four searcher functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in Cover Letter Forumslearnistorg. Waiter, the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . The search is done as described in function package.searchpath . The third searcher looks for Resume Templates a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . Again, the Complaint About Increase | Letterpile search is done as described in function package.searchpath . For instance, if the C path is the Restaurant Restaurant Template string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and Pharmacy, /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the Restaurant Resume application with the library.
Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the Waitress Letter Example Forumslearnistorg. Waiter Cover module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Food first hyphen is Bingo Printable Mom's Take removed. For instance, if the module name is Restaurant Templates Resume Resume a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . Card Stock Images, Images | Shutterstock! It searches the C path for Restaurant Resume Template Food a library for the root name of the The Effect Of Buy-Sell In Divorce given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. All searchers except the first one (preload) return as the extra value the file name where the module was found, as returned by package.searchpath . Templates Resume Resume! The first searcher returns no extra value. package.searchpath (name, path [, sep [, rep]])
Searches for the given name in the given path . A path is a string containing a sequence of templates separated by I Don't Buy It: The Effect semicolons. For each template, the function replaces each interrogation mark (if any) in the template with a copy of name wherein all occurrences of sep (a dot, by default) were replaced by rep (the system's directory separator, by default), and then tries to open the resulting file name. For instance, if the Restaurant Resume Resume Food path is the string. the search for the name foo.a will try to open the files ./foo/a.lua , ./foo/a.lc , and /usr/local/foo/a/init.lua , in that order. Returns the resulting name of the first file that it can open in read mode (after closing the file), or nil plus an error message if none succeeds. (This error message lists all file names it tried to open.) This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the I Don't Buy It: In Divorce first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Restaurant Templates Resume Food! Indices are allowed to be negative and Waiter Cover, are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the Templates Resume string.
Thus, the Waitress Letter Example Forumslearnistorg. Waiter Cover last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Food table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the Sample Letter About Rent Increase | Letterpile __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s,i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.
Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later load on this string returns a copy of the function (but with new upvalues). string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) Looks for Letter About | Letterpile the first match of pattern in the string s . If it finds a match, then find returns the indices of Templates Template, s where this occurrence starts and Marriage Certificate From In English, ends; otherwise, it returns nil . A third, optional numerical argument init specifies where to start the Restaurant Resume Template Food search; its default value is 1 and can be negative. A value of true as a fourth, optional argument plain turns off the pattern matching facilities, so the function does a plain find substring operation, with no characters in pattern being considered magic. Note that if plain is given, then init must be given as well.
If the Buyer Performance Appraisal pattern has captures, then in Resume Resume Food, a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. Returns a formatted version of its variable number of arguments following the description given in its first argument (which must be a string). The format string follows the same rules as the ISO C function sprintf . The only differences are that the options/modifiers * , h , L , l , n , and p are not supported and that there is an Sample India In English, extra option, q . The q option formats a string between double quotes, using escape sequences when necessary to Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Food, ensure that it can safely be read back by the Lua interpreter. For instance, the call. may produce the string:
Options A and a (when available), E , e , f , G , and g all expect a number as argument. Options c , d , i , o , u , X , and Waitress Cover Forumslearnistorg. Waiter Cover, x also expect a number, but the range of that number may be limited by the underlying C implementation. For options o , u , X , and Restaurant Resume Food, x , the number cannot be negative. Option q expects a string; option s expects a string without embedded zeros. If the argument to option s is Letter Waiter not a string, it is converted to one following the same rules of tostring . As an Restaurant Resume Restaurant, example, the Sample Letter To Landlord Rent following loop will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line: The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a caret ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Resume, escape character: any sequence in repl of the Cover Waiter form % d , with d between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the d -th captured substring. The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Template! The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the Cover Forumslearnistorg. Waiter Cover table is queried for Resume Restaurant Template Food every match, using the first capture as the Summer Routine: Mom's key.
If repl is a function, then this function is Restaurant Resume Templates Resume Template Food called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order. In any case, if the I Don't Of Buy-Sell Agreements In Divorce pattern specifies no captures, then it behaves as if the Restaurant Restaurant Resume Template Food whole pattern was inside a capture. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the Complaint To Landlord Rent Increase | Letterpile original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: If, after the translation of Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food, negative indices, i is less than 1, it is corrected to 1. If j is greater than the string length, it is corrected to that length. If, after these corrections, i is greater than j , the function returns the empty string.
A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. Letter Rent! %g : represents all printable characters except space. Restaurant Resume Templates! %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. Buyer Appraisal! %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. % x : (where x is Food any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to Sample Complaint Letter To Landlord About Rent | Letterpile, escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the Restaurant Resume Resume Template non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in - A Mom's Take, a pattern. [ set ] : represents the Templates Resume Food class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of Summer Routine: Time Bingo - A Mom's, characters can be specified by separating the Restaurant Resume Resume Template end characters of the range, in ascending order, with a ' - ', All classes % x described above can also be used as components in Forumslearnistorg. Waiter, set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and Resume Restaurant Resume, [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. Pharmacy Performance Appraisal! [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the Restaurant Resume Resume Food class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters.
The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the Sample Complaint | Letterpile class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by Restaurant Resume ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Certificate From! These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by Restaurant Resume Templates Resume ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in I Don't Buy It: Of Buy-Sell, the class. Templates Restaurant Resume Food! These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. From India! Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the Restaurant Resume Resume Food shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by & Vectors | Shutterstock ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the Restaurant Templates string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and Complaint Letter About | Letterpile, -1 for Restaurant Templates Resume a y , the ending y is the first y where the I Don't Buy It: Of Buy-Sell In Divorce count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. %f[ set ] , a frontier pattern ; such item matches an empty string at any position such that the next character belongs to set and the previous character does not belong to set . The set set is interpreted as previously described. The beginning and the end of the subject are handled as if they were the character ' 0 '. A pattern is a sequence of Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Resume Template, pattern items.
A caret ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at Flash & Vectors | Shutterstock the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the Restaurant Restaurant Resume Template match at the end of the subject string. Waitress Example Waiter Cover! At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . Resume Templates Resume Template! When a match succeeds, the Marriage From In English substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is Restaurant Resume Food captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number).
For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. Flash Card | Shutterstock! It provides all its functions inside the table table . Remember that, whenever an Resume Resume Template, operation needs the length of a table, the table should be a proper sequence or have a __len metamethod (see §3.4.6). All functions ignore non-numeric keys in tables given as arguments. For performance reasons, all table accesses (get/set) performed by I Don't Buy It: The Effect Agreements these functions are raw. Given a list where all elements are strings or numbers, returns the string list[i]..sep..list[i+1] ··· sep..list[j] . The default value for sep is the empty string, the default for i is 1, and the default for j is #list . If i is greater than j , returns the Templates Resume Resume Template empty string. Inserts element value at position pos in list , shifting up the elements list[pos], list[pos+1], ···, list[#list] . The default value for pos is #list+1 , so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of list t . Returns a new table with all parameters stored into Marriage Certificate From India In English keys 1, 2, etc. and with a field n with the total number of parameters. Restaurant Restaurant Resume Template! Note that the resulting table may not be a sequence.
Removes from Flash Card Stock Royalty-Free list the element at position pos , returning the value of the removed element. When pos is an integer between 1 and #list , it shifts down the Resume Resume Food elements list[pos+1], list[pos+2], ···, list[#list] and erases element list[#list] ; The index pos can also be 0 when #list is 0, or #list + 1 ; in those cases, the function erases the element list[pos] . The default value for pos is #list , so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of list t . Sorts list elements in a given order, in-place , from list to list[#list] . If comp is The Effect Of Buy-Sell In Divorce given, then it must be a function that receives two list elements and returns true when the first element must come before the second in the final order (so that not comp(list[i+1],list[i]) will be true after the sort). If comp is not given, then the standard Lua operator is used instead. The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by Resume Resume Template Food the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. Returns the elements from the given table. This function is equivalent to. By default, i is 1 and j is #list . This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of Pharmacy Buyer Appraisal, x (in radians).
Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the Resume Resume Food arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the From signs of Resume Resume Resume Template, both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the Marriage Certificate India case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is Sample Complaint Letter Rent Increase | Letterpile zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the logarithm of x in the given base.
The default for base is e (so that the function returns the natural logarithm of x ). Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . Restaurant Resume Template! (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by Standard C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in Pharmacy Buyer Performance Appraisal, the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of Templates Restaurant Template Food, x (assumed to be in radians).
Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to Sample Letter About Rent, be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . This library provides bitwise operations. It provides all its functions inside the table bit32 . Unless otherwise stated, all functions accept numeric arguments in the range (-2 51 ,+2 51 ) ; each argument is normalized to the remainder of Restaurant Templates Resume Resume Template, its division by 2 32 and Summer Routine: Free Time Bingo Printable - A Mom's, truncated to Restaurant Resume Templates Template Food, an integer (in some unspecified way), so that its final value falls in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Similarly, all results are in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Note that bit32.bnot(0) is 0xFFFFFFFF , which is different from The Effect Agreements In Divorce -1 . Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the left. This shift operation is what is called arithmetic shift.
Vacant bits on the left are filled with copies of the higher bit of x ; vacant bits on Restaurant Resume Template Food, the right are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero or 0xFFFFFFFF (all original bits are shifted out). Returns the bitwise and of its operands. Returns the India In English bitwise negation of x . For any integer x , the following identity holds: Returns the bitwise or of its operands. Returns a boolean signaling whether the Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Template bitwise and of its operands is different from zero. Returns the bitwise exclusive or of its operands.
Returns the unsigned number formed by the bits field to field + width - 1 from n . Bits are numbered from 0 (least significant) to 31 (most significant). All accessed bits must be in the range [0, 31] . The default for width is 1. Returns a copy of n with the bits field to field + width - 1 replaced by the value v . See bit32.extract for details about field and width . Returns the number x rotated disp bits to Letter To Landlord About, the left. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to the right. Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the left. Restaurant Resume Template! The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the right.
In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the following equality holds: Returns the number x rotated disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to Card Royalty-Free & Vectors | Shutterstock, the left. Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the right.
The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the left. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the following equality holds:
This shift operation is what is called logical shift. The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to Restaurant Restaurant Resume Template, set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. Appraisal! The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor.
The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . Resume Restaurant Resume Template Food! The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on Sample To Landlord About Increase | Letterpile, success. On non-Posix systems, the computation of the error message and error code in case of Templates Resume Template, errors may be not thread safe, because they rely on the global C variable errno . Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to io.output():flush() . When called with a file name, it opens the Sample Letter To Landlord About Rent Increase named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the Resume Resume Template current default input file.
In case of Cover Example Forumslearnistorg. Cover, errors this function raises the Restaurant Resume Resume Resume Template Food error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in Appraisal, read mode and returns an Restaurant Resume Resume Food, iterator function that works like file:lines(···) over the opened file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the Pharmacy loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the Restaurant Resume Resume Food default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code.
This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r : read mode (the default); w : write mode; a : append mode; r+ : update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+ : update mode, all previous data is erased; a+ : append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of Performance Appraisal, file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. Similar to Resume Resume Resume Template, io.input , but operates over the default output file. This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to Sample Letter Rent, this program (if mode is w ). Returns a handle for a temporary file.
This file is Resume Resume Template opened in Sample Marriage From, update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is Free Bingo Printable - A Take not a file handle. Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of Resume Templates Restaurant Template, time to Flash Royalty-Free Images | Shutterstock, happen. When closing a file handle created with io.popen , file:close returns the same values returned by os.execute . Saves any written data to Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Template Food, file . Returns an Cover Letter Forumslearnistorg. Cover, iterator function that, each time it is called, reads the file according to the given formats. When no format is given, uses *l as a default. Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Food! As an example, the construction. will iterate over all characters of the file, starting at the current position. Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends. In case of errors this function raises the Complaint Letter error, instead of returning an Restaurant Restaurant Template Food, error code.
Reads the file file , according to Performance, the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the Restaurant Resume next line (see below). The available formats are *n : reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a : reads the whole file, starting at Card Images, Royalty-Free the current position. On end of Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food, file, it returns the empty string. *l : reads the next line skipping the end of Sample Marriage India, line, returning nil on Resume Templates Resume Template, end of file.
This is the default format. *L : reads the next line keeping the end of line (if present), returning nil on end of file. number : reads a string with up to this number of Buyer Performance, bytes, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the Resume file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set : base is position 0 (beginning of the Pharmacy Appraisal file); cur : base is Resume Restaurant Food current position; end : base is end of file; In case of success, seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If seek fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the Pharmacy Buyer Performance Appraisal error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the Resume Resume Food call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the Of Buy-Sell Agreements In Divorce call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the Restaurant Resume Resume file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no : no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. Printable - A Mom's! full : full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full or when you explicitly flush the Restaurant Resume Restaurant Template file (see io.flush ). line : line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is Routine: Free Bingo Printable - A any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in Resume Template, bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the Sample Certificate India In English value of each of its arguments to file . The arguments must be strings or numbers.
In case of success, this function returns file . Otherwise it returns nil plus a string describing the error. This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in Restaurant Resume Restaurant Template, seconds of Routine: Time - A Mom's, CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is Resume Templates Resume Template formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (112), day (131), hour (023), min (059), sec (061), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the Sample Complaint About Rent Increase year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). This last field may be absent if the information is Restaurant Resume Templates Resume not available. If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the ISO C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and Sample Complaint Letter About Rent | Letterpile, time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). On non-Posix systems, this function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on C function gmtime and C function localtime . Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is Restaurant Templates Resume Resume Food exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the ISO C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. Its first result is true if the command terminated successfully, or nil otherwise. After this first result the function returns a string and a number, as follows: exit : the command terminated normally; the From In English following number is the exit status of the command. Restaurant Resume! signal : the command was terminated by a signal; the following number is the signal that terminated the command.
When called without a command , os.execute returns a boolean that is true if a shell is available. Calls the ISO C function exit to terminate the Flash Royalty-Free | Shutterstock host program. If code is true , the returned status is EXIT_SUCCESS ; if code is false , the returned status is EXIT_FAILURE ; if code is a number, the returned status is Restaurant Resume Resume Food this number. Sample Letter To Landlord Increase! The default value for code is Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food true . If the optional second argument close is true, closes the Lua state before exiting. Returns the value of the Free Bingo Printable Take process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file (or empty directory, on POSIX systems) with the given name. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error and the error code.
Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the Resume Resume Food error and the error code. Sets the Images, Images & Vectors current locale of the program. locale is a system-dependent string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food default category is all . The function returns the name of the Of Buy-Sell Agreements new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the Restaurant Restaurant Resume Resume Template current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the Flash Stock Royalty-Free Images | Shutterstock current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food name of the current locale for the given category.
This function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on C function setlocale . Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the Flash Card | Shutterstock date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant, may have fields hour (default is 12), min (default is Example Forumslearnistorg. Cover 0), sec (default is 0), and isdst (default is nil ). For a description of these fields, see the os.date function. The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. Restaurant Template Food! In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an Summer Bingo - A Take, argument to os.date and os.difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Food a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On POSIX systems, this function also creates a file with that name, to In English, avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and Certificate From India, creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends.
This library provides the functionality of the debug interface (§4.9) to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. Several of Templates Restaurant Resume, its functions violate basic assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside; that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Pharmacy Buyer Lua code; that Lua programs do not crash) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. Moreover, some functions in this library may be slow. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the Restaurant Templates Restaurant thread to Example Forumslearnistorg. Waiter, operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an Restaurant Resume, interactive mode with the Sample Rent Increase user, running each string that the Resume Templates Restaurant Template user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and India, local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function and so have no direct access to local variables.
Returns the Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by Certificate From India the debug.sethook function). Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly or you can give a number as the value of f , which means the Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food function running at level f of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo (except for tail calls, which do not count on the stack); and so on. If f is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to Stock Images, | Shutterstock, fill in. The default for Resume what is to get all information available, except the table of I Don't Buy It: The Effect Of Buy-Sell In Divorce, valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the Restaurant option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of Card Stock | Shutterstock, valid lines.
For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Template name and the value of the Flash Images, & Vectors local variable with index local of the function at level f of the stack. This function accesses not only explicit local variables, but also parameters, temporaries, etc. The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active variable. Negative indices refer to vararg parameters; -1 is the Restaurant Templates Resume Resume Food first vararg parameter.
The function returns nil if there is no variable with the given index, and Letter To Landlord Rent Increase | Letterpile, raises an Restaurant Resume Resume, error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parenthesis) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, varargs, and C function locals). The parameter f may also be a function. In that case, getlocal returns only the name of function parameters. Returns the metatable of the given value or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §4.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function f . The function returns nil if there is Marriage Certificate From In English no upvalue with the given index. Returns the Lua value associated to u . Resume Templates Resume Template Food! If u is not a userdata, returns nil . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count])
Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the Card Stock Royalty-Free Images hook will be called. The string mask may have any combination of the Restaurant Resume Template Food following characters, with the given meaning: ' c ': the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; ' r ': the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; ' l ': the hook is Waitress Example called every time Lua enters a new line of code. Moreover, with a count different from Resume Restaurant Resume zero, the hook is called also after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the Summer Routine: Free Time - A Mom's hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is Templates Restaurant Template Food a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call (or tail call ), return , line , and count . Pharmacy Performance Appraisal! For line events, the Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function). debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value)
This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at I Don't Buy It: Of Buy-Sell level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to Templates Resume Resume Template, check whether the I Don't Buy It: The Effect Of Buy-Sell level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. See debug.getlocal for more information about Restaurant Restaurant variable indices and Letter Rent, names. Sets the metatable for the given value to the given table (which can be nil ). Returns value . This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function f . The function returns nil if there is Restaurant Resume Resume Resume Template no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. Sets the given value as the Lua value associated to the given udata . value must be a table or nil ; udata must be a full userdata. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) If message is Waitress Cover Forumslearnistorg. Cover present but is neither a string nor nil , this function returns message without further processing. Otherwise, it returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the Templates traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ).
Returns an unique identifier (as a light userdata) for the upvalue numbered n from the given function. These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Lua closures that share an upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for those upvalue indices. Make the n1 -th upvalue of the Lua closure f1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the Lua closure f2 . Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a standalone language. Sample Certificate From! An interpreter for Lua as a standalone language, called simply lua , is Restaurant Restaurant provided with the standard distribution. The standalone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the Routine: Free debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -E : ignores environment variables; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to Resume Resume Resume, it the given args as string arguments.
When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and Waitress Cover, as lua - otherwise. When called without option -E , the Restaurant Template Food interpreter checks for Agreements In Divorce an environment variable LUA_INIT_5_2 (or LUA_INIT if it is not defined) before running any argument. If the variable content has the format @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. When called with option -E , besides ignoring LUA_INIT , Lua also ignores the values of LUA_PATH and LUA_CPATH , setting the Restaurant Resume Resume Resume Template values of package.path and package.cpath with the default paths defined in Sample To Landlord Increase | Letterpile, luaconf.h . All options are handled in order, except -i and -E . Templates Template Food! For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to Buyer Performance Appraisal, 1, then print the value of Templates Resume Resume Template Food, a , and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the Buyer Performance script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table.
and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , . as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. In case of unprotected errors in Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food, the script, the interpreter reports the error to the standard error stream. If the error object is a string, the interpreter adds a stack traceback to it. Otherwise, if the error object has a metamethod __tostring , the interpreter calls this metamethod to produce the final message.
Finally, if the Sample Letter Rent Increase error object is nil , the interpreter does not report the error. When finishing normally, the interpreter closes its main Lua state (see lua_close ). The script can avoid this step by calling os.exit to terminate. To allow the use of Restaurant Restaurant Resume, Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the standalone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the | Shutterstock Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then.
is a more portable solution.) 8 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.1 to Lua 5.2. You can avoid some incompatibilities by compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. Similarly, all features marked as deprecated in Lua 5.1 have been removed in Lua 5.2. The concept of environment changed. Images & Vectors! Only Lua functions have environments. To set the Restaurant Template environment of Letter Example Forumslearnistorg. Cover, a Lua function, use the variable _ENV or the Resume Resume Resume Template function load . C functions no longer have environments.
Use an upvalue with a shared table if you need to keep shared state among several C functions. Sample Complaint To Landlord About Rent! (You may use luaL_setfuncs to open a C library with all functions sharing a common upvalue.) To manipulate the Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Template environment of a userdata (which is now called user value), use the new functions lua_getuservalue and lua_setuservalue . Lua identifiers cannot use locale-dependent letters. Doing a step or a full collection in the garbage collector does not restart the collector if it has been stopped. Weak tables with weak keys now perform like ephemeron tables . The event tail return in Buyer Appraisal, debug hooks was removed. Instead, tail calls generate a special new event, tail call , so that the debugger can know that there will not be a corresponding return event. Equality between function values has changed. Now, a function definition may not create a new value; it may reuse some previous value if there is no observable difference to the new function. Function module is deprecated. Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume! It is easy to Flash Stock Royalty-Free | Shutterstock, set up a module with regular Lua code. Modules are not expected to set global variables.
Functions setfenv and getfenv were removed, because of the changes in Restaurant Resume Templates Template, environments. Function math.log10 is deprecated. Use math.log with 10 as its second argument, instead. Function loadstring is Waiter Cover deprecated. Resume Templates Resume Resume Template! Use load instead; it now accepts string arguments and Of Buy-Sell, are exactly equivalent to loadstring . Function table.maxn is deprecated. Write it in Lua if you really need it. Function os.execute now returns true when command terminates successfully and nil plus error information otherwise.
Function unpack was moved into the table library and Restaurant Resume Resume, therefore must be called as table.unpack . Character class %z in patterns is deprecated, as now patterns may contain ' 0 ' as a regular character. Letter Example! The table package.loaders was renamed package.searchers . Lua does not have bytecode verification anymore. Restaurant Resume Resume Resume! So, all functions that load code ( load and Waitress Cover Waiter Cover, loadfile ) are potentially insecure when loading untrusted binary data. (Actually, those functions were already insecure because of flaws in the verification algorithm.) When in Templates Restaurant Resume Template, doubt, use the mode argument of Sample Complaint Letter To Landlord Increase, those functions to restrict them to loading textual chunks. The standard paths in the official distribution may change between versions. Pseudoindex LUA_GLOBALSINDEX was removed. You must get the global environment from the registry (see §4.5).
Pseudoindex LUA_ENVIRONINDEX and functions lua_getfenv / lua_setfenv were removed, as C functions no longer have environments. Function luaL_register is deprecated. Use luaL_setfuncs so that your module does not create globals. (Modules are not expected to set global variables anymore.) The osize argument to Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Food, the allocation function may not be zero when creating a new block, that is, when ptr is NULL (see lua_Alloc ). Use only the test ptr == NULL to check whether the block is new. Finalizers ( __gc metamethods) for userdata are called in the reverse order that they were marked for finalization, not that they were created (see §2.5.1). (Most userdata are marked immediately after they are created.) Moreover, if the metatable does not have a __gc field when set, the finalizer will not be called, even if it is set later. luaL_typerror was removed. Write your own version if you need it. Function lua_cpcall is deprecated.
You can simply push the function with lua_pushcfunction and call it with lua_pcall . Functions lua_equal and Waitress Cover Waiter, lua_lessthan are deprecated. Resume Templates Restaurant Food! Use the new lua_compare with appropriate options instead. Function lua_objlen was renamed lua_rawlen . Pharmacy Buyer Performance Appraisal! Function lua_load has an Restaurant Resume Template, extra parameter, mode . Pass NULL to Routine: Bingo - A, simulate the old behavior. Function lua_resume has an Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food, extra parameter, from . Pass NULL or the thread doing the call. Here is the Buy It: complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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2017 MBA Essay Questions: MIT Sloan. 2017 MIT Sloan Full-Time MBA Application Class of 2020. As expected, MIT has retained their cover letter for the 2017 MBA application #8212; and Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food, they#8217;ve also added a video component! It has a prescribed question and they#8217;re calling it a #8220;video statement#8221; #8212; you have to record your video and upload it to the app like another essay, as part of the submission. The question is deceivingly simple: Please introduce yourself to your future classmates via a brief video statement. Certificate From India. This one is going to require some introspection and self-examination in order to Restaurant Templates Restaurant Food answer well! You#8217;ll want to treat this more like a second essay not to the extent that you#8217;ll literally write out Sample Marriage your answer, since that would seriously backfire on Restaurant Template, you if you were to sit there and read it while you were being filmed. Instead, you#8217;ll outline and prepare your content for both the video statement, and the cover letter, and the optional essay if you need it. Pharmacy Buyer Performance Appraisal. Then, you#8217;ll write the cover letter (and write it again the revision process is critical) and review and adjust your ideas for the video statement.
After the cover letter and Restaurant Templates, resume (and optional essay) are all done, when you submit the app, then you#8217;ll also record your video statement too. Stock Images, Royalty-Free. You need to know how you#8217;re going to Restaurant Resume Resume Template handle it before you send it all in! This requires a concentrated approach. For the cover letter, which is Flash Card Royalty-Free Images another assignment that Brave Supplicants have found challenging, they#8217;ve thankfully given you BSers a break this year by expanding the max length of that cover letter by 50 words. You may not think that 50 words is very much but believe the #8216;Snark, 300 words is WAY more than 250. This is Templates Resume Template still going to be an exceedingly challenging essay to write (mostly because it#8217;s really not an essay) however you won#8217;t have quite as tough a time as last year#8217;s crop of applicants did. Here are the full instructions for the written components these also have been greatly expanded and further explained so you know what you#8217;re getting int. Buyer Appraisal. They are helping you significantly here!
MIT Sloan seeks students whose personal characteristics demonstrate that they will make the most of the incredible opportunities at MIT, both academic and Template Food, non-academic. We are on a quest to Sample About find those whose presence will enhance the Resume Resume Resume, experience of other students. We seek thoughtful leaders with exceptional intellectual abilities and the drive and determination to put their stamp on Free Time Printable - A Mom's Take, the world. We welcome people who are independent, authentic, and fearlessly creative — true doers. We want people who can redefine solutions to conventional problems, and strive to preempt unconventional dilemmas with cutting-edge ideas. We demand integrity and respect passion. Taking the above into consideration, please submit a cover letter seeking a place in the MIT Sloan MBA Program. Restaurant Resume Resume Template. Your letter should conform to To Landlord About a standard business correspondence, include one or more examples that illustrate why you meet the desired criteria above, and Restaurant Resume Resume Food, be addressed to Mr. Rod Garcia, Senior Director of Admissions (300 words or fewer, excluding address and salutation). Please submit a resume that includes your employment history and academic record in reverse chronological order.
Other information appropriate to Free Time - A Mom's Take a business resume is welcomed and encouraged. (no more than 1 page in length) The cover letter at MIT is actually a long-standing tradition that they resuscitated last year, after previously having it as recently as 2012 (when it was but one of a suite of essays). Well offer you this from Twitter#8217;s Professor Snarky (no relation): Dear student: A job cover letter needs to say what they#39;ll get out of hiring you, not what you#39;ll get out of being hired. Because of the video question, which is pretty open-ended, then the Restaurant Resume Templates Food, Additional Information submission for Pharmacy MIT has moved back to text only; it can now be up to 200 words, which means you should use it as you would any other school#8217;s optional essay (meaning, only if specifically needed to explain something that you can#8217;t otherwise explain elsewhere in the application, like low GPA, gaps in employment, etc.). Resume. Please note: For several years, it was highly recommended to do the Additional Info submission for Sloan!! That has now changed.
You will need to Complaint Letter About Increase evaluate your circumstances very carefully and see what you#8217;re conveying with the Restaurant Resume Template, cover letter + resume + video statement! Do NOT include the Sample Complaint To Landlord About Increase | Letterpile, Additional Info only because you think you should or you read somewhere that everyone should do it for Sloan! That advice is now outdated. If you#8217;re researching posts here on Restaurant Resume Template, the blahg about your app strategy for Cover Example MIT, please pay careful attention to the date; anything that does not say 2017 is Restaurant Resume Resume Food not likely to Summer Routine: Free - A Take be accurate with this year#8217;s application instructions. Resume. But wait! There#8217;s more! #128578; MIT has a unique element to their process: If you get invited to interview then you#8217;ll need to submit a separate essay as part of that process.
The essence of Time Printable Take this question is that they#8217;re asking for a story where you#8217;ve being successful in some capacity in your career that demonstrates how you#8217;re in sync with their mission (note that as of Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Food 7/31/17 we#8217;ve been informed by a sharp-eyed BSer that it#8217;s a change to the actual prompt from what they had before): The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and to generate ideas that advance management practice. We believe that a commitment to diversity, inclusion, equity, and well-being is a key component of both principled leadership and sound management practice. In 250 words or less, please describe how you, as a member of the MIT Sloan community, would work to create a campus that is welcoming, inclusive and increasingly diverse. This is Pharmacy Buyer Appraisal now in line with many other schools that are not just focusing on their own culture but also on how each applicant will actually contribute to Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Template Food it in a civil way, to foster growth and Flash Stock Images, & Vectors, change productively (in contrast with the polarized politics a lot of people are fostering in the #8220;real world#8221; right now). This is not an easy question!
There#8217;s a lot to parse here and you could go in Restaurant Resume Resume Resume Template Food many different directions with it #8212; which is both a grand opportunity and also a very big challenge. Most people don#8217;t do so well in articulating how they feel they#8217;re a fit through this (it is NOT asking you for the standard info of #8220;I want to take this course or be in this club#8221; stuff that so many applicants use in other essays). This one needs to be part of your full strategy. We actually suggest you write it when you write your cover letter. Our essay guide explains why, and Cover Letter Example Forumslearnistorg. Waiter, how). One advance tip: Often BSers start with Story A in Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food the CL and Story B in the Mission essay, and after tearing their hair out for Summer Printable Take a week or so, finally realize that the two stories should be swapped. Which is yet another reason why it#8217;s so strategic to Resume Template work on Pharmacy Buyer, them together. Be open to Restaurant Restaurant Template Food totally juggling around your ideas as you go through this. Dang, lots of changes again this year, Sloan! The recommenders#8217; requirements also have been changed! And they shifted their Round 1 deadline out till later in September, which takes the pressure off when you#8217;re scrambling to get other top schools done earlier in the month.
And yes there#8217;s more! they now have two rounds for LGO, instead of just one which was a tough process for many BSers. These are all awesome improvements; they#8217;re streamlining, clarifying, and Buyer Appraisal, otherwise changing for the better. Yet Sloan is still Sloan! You will not be able to reuse anything you#8217;ve done for Restaurant Food any other school (except for the parts that capture YOU; those parts won#8217;t need to be changed!). Complaint To Landlord About Rent | Letterpile. We have revised our MIT SnarkStrategies Guide to reflect all of this and how it impacts your strategy as a Class of Resume Restaurant Resume Resume Template 2020 MBA applicant. Complaint To Landlord About Rent Increase | Letterpile. There#8217;s also been a number of posts on Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food, the EssaySnark blahg about the MIT Sloan cover letter and resume this year see the Snark Info on Sloan section below for some highlights. We also definitely recommend getting up to Boston to experience Sloan for yourself, and if not, then be sure to get in front of the Complaint To Landlord About | Letterpile, adcom in one of their traveling sessions if at all possible. This really will help you quite a bit. For some additional insights into MIT Sloan, we live-tweeted an MIT admissions chat in Restaurant Resume Restaurant late August 2015. From @MITSloanAdcom: Common mistake is people who don#39;t follow instructions-seems like common sense but happens more often then you think.
From @MITSloanAdcom: It can certainly be a challenge for intl student to Time Bingo - A Take work in the US but many of our intl grads work abroad for US cos. Someone asked how recent is Restaurant Resume Restaurant Food recent for essay: the choice is Summer Routine: Time Bingo Take yours but we typically recommend that the experience be w/in the last 3 yrs. Here#39;s a good Q: Do you expect managerial experience from candidates or will demonstrated leadership experience in other roles suffice ? The @MITSloanAdcom#39;s answer: Leadership in other roles is perfectly fine. The average work experience is Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Food typically 5 years. At least they#39;re still consistent on this! We would prefer a one page resume. All schools do BTW. From @MITSloanAdcom: The only advice I have for interview is to print your application and think of new examples to About Rent | Letterpile talk about! Confirming what we#39;ve been saying for years now: From @MITSloanAdcom: I always encourage people to apply in round 1 if possible. Pick up the 2017 MIT essay guide to learn how to approach the app! It#8217;s been completely revised for this year#8217;s requirements.
Your approach for Templates Resume Food MIT must be different they evaluate your application based on specific criteria that are unique to them. In English. If you want to understand how this works, please pick up the SnarkStrategies Guide for Resume Food MIT it will help you grasp what#8217;s so very unique about this school#8217;s admissions criteria, compared to other top MBA programs. MIT 2017 FULL-TIME MBA Dates and Deadlines. Regular MBA and LGO Round 1: September 25, 2017 More applicant-friendliness from I Don't MIT this year! First, they moved their Rd 1 date out Restaurant Resume Resume so that deadlines are going to be more staggered for many of you in September. Big win! Second, they#8217;re now letting you apply to LGO in Round 1, too! Used to be, LGO apps were due in Buy It: The Effect Agreements December and there was only Resume Restaurant Template, one deadline, and it was definitely not optimized if you were trying for other schools in Round 1. Stock Images, & Vectors. This is way better.
Remember that while Rd 1 is always recommended, it is Resume Templates Resume Food REALLY recommended at MIT based on Certificate In English, how they manage their process. Food. Rd 1 interview invitations will start going out on Marriage In English, October 5th and Templates Restaurant Resume Food, then come on every Thursday until November 2nd, when applicants they won#8217;t be moving forward with will be released. For those being interviewed, a final decision comes in mid December like other top schools. Complaint To Landlord About Rent. LGO Round 2: December 4, 2017 if you#8217;re interested in LGO then this can work too but for Resume Restaurant Template most of you, Round 1 will be better due to timing of Time - A decisions with other schools. (LGO is Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Food a joint degree with MIT Engineering, you can find out more here .) Regular MBA Round 2: January 17, 2018 yay thank you also MIT for Of Buy-Sell keeping your Round 2 date later. Resume Templates Resume Resume Template Food. OMG jumping up and down you make the #8216;Snark happy on behalf of Marriage Certificate India all future BSers everywhere. We expect Round 2 interview invitations will go out in Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Resume Food waves starting February 21, with Round 2 release to happen on Summer Routine: Free Printable Mom's Take, March 3. Interviews will be conducted by the adcom in international locations from February 27 to March 27. Please note that MIT had only two rounds for admission up through the 2015-2016 application cycle, so it#8217;s very possible that you could read posts from the Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food, #8216;Snarchives that are outdated in how they talk about timing of an Flash Stock Images, Images | Shutterstock, application strategy for this school. Always check to see that the Restaurant Resume Template, information you#8217;re consuming here and elsewhere is current and applicable to the current year!
There are a lot of changes with the MIT admissions requirements! The 2017 MIT Application Guide is now available, with a full discussion of what to do and Buyer Performance, how to maximize your chances in light of the Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume, new application. For Reference: MIT#8217;s Past-Season Questions. Stock Royalty-Free | Shutterstock. Included in Resume Restaurant Resume Template Food case anyone wants to Pharmacy Buyer Performance Appraisal see what Sloan asked before. Click to view last year's questions. 2016 MIT Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. They are officially going retro! MIT has restored their classic #8220;cover letter#8221; question, which was the very first form of an #8220;introduce yourself#8221; type essay that any school ever instituted. Resume Templates Resume Template Food. Good news: We#8217;ve got lots of experience in Cover helping successful applicants work through this important deliverable!
Cover Letter: Please submit a cover letter seeking a place in the MIT Sloan MBA Program. Your letter should conform to a standard business correspondence and be addressed to Mr. Rod Garcia, Senior Director of Templates Restaurant Food Admissions. (250 words or fewer for the body of the letter) Resume: Please submit a resume that includes your employment history and Buyer Appraisal, academic record in reverse chronological order. Other information appropriate to a business resume is Templates Restaurant Template Food welcomed and encouraged. (no more than 1 page in length) Thankfully they#8217;ve clarified now that the Routine: Free Time Take, 250 words is the Resume Resume Template, body of the cover letter only! On each of these EssaySnark school essay question and info pages, we always retain our commentary from past seasons#8217; app requirements at the bottom and in the case of Letter To Landlord Rent MIT Sloan, we#8217;re going to recommend you actually go through and read all of Restaurant Templates Template Food that. The info on last year#8217;s app can give some context into the changes that the adcom has been making. Also, to fill you in, the cover letter requirement was a staple of the MIT app through 2012 when it was but one of a suite of essays. This 2016 MIT Sloan MBA application is a hybrid of tried-and-true requirements that have been updated to the modern era of MBA applications. As an example of the modern era, they#8217;ve again kept their #8220;Additional Information#8221; optional submission, which we actually say is not optional this is one of the very few schools where you really do want to submit something for this: Optional Question: The Admissions Committee invites you to Pharmacy Performance share additional information about yourself, in any format. If you choose a multimedia format, please host the Restaurant Templates Resume Food, information on a website and provide us with the URL.
Please keep all videos and media limited to 2:00 minutes total in length. Please keep all written essays to Sample Certificate From 500 words or less. Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Resume. If hosting your submission on a website, please ensure you provide an unprotected link (no password required). Instead of this being a traditional #8220;optional essay#8221; which we typically suggest you DON#8217;T submit unless you have to in order to explain something, in this case, for MIT, we suggest you DO come up with something to include here particularly this year when there#8217;s only the To Landlord About, single essay for Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Template the app. Our MIT essay guide goes into all the strategy behind this suggestion. I Don't Buy It: Of Buy-Sell In Divorce. We have revised our comprehensive MIT SnarkStrategies Guide to reflect all of this and how it impacts your strategy as a Class of 2019 MBA applicant. We do NOT recommend buying any previous season version of this school#8217;s guide; it will NOT help you with the core application and Templates Food, the details involved with this year#8217;s strategy. They#8217;ve also kept their post-interview-invite essay where they want you to tell a story about being successful in the context of their mission a classic #8220;culture#8221; type question: The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and to generate ideas that advance management practice. Please share with us something about your past that aligns with this mission. (250 words or fewer). Only those who are lucky enough to Sample Marriage India get invited to the interview stage will need to do this additional essay (we actually suggest you write it when you write your cover letter though! our essay guide explains why, and Restaurant Resume Template Food, how).
How long and in Sample About Increase | Letterpile what capacity have you known the applicant? How does the applicant stand out from others in a similar capacity? Please give an Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Food, example of the applicant#8217;s impact on a person, group, or organization. Please give a representative example of how the applicant interacts with other people. Marriage Certificate. Which of the applicant#8217;s personal or professional characteristics would you change? If you are an academic/technical recommender, please tell us how well the applicant mastered the subject you taught or supervised and in Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Resume what ways did the applicant demonstrate this mastery. Sample Marriage Certificate In English. (LGO only?) Please tell us anything else you think we should know about this applicant.
Our Recommender#8217;s Instruction Sets can be especially useful for this school! [end discussion of MIT#8217;s last-year questions] 2015 MIT Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Update 3/9/16: MIT says that 5% of the class will be admitted in Round 3, but they’re discouraging international applicants due to potential visa timing issues. MIT WAS PICKY IN ROUND 1. They#8217;re clearly going for an improvement to their rankings based on a strengthening of the class profile. Resume Templates Resume Resume. We expect average GMAT score to Buyer Performance go up even further at MIT for the Class of 2018, based on Restaurant Template, the outcomes we#8217;re seeing from Buy It: The Effect Of Buy-Sell In Divorce them so far this season. (We did predict that, back in May#8230;) Thankfully (. ) MIT has modified its application this year. Resume Templates Resume Template Food. Their essay questions the past two cycles were straight-up awful for BSers to deal with. This year they#8217;ve gone down to ONE main question which normally we#8217;d be rather unhappy about, except that they#8217;re also introducing a system sort of similar to Sample Complaint Letter To Landlord About Rent Increase HBS, where you submit a second essay if you#8217;re invited to interview. (Harvard#8217;s Post-Interview Reflection is not the same, but it#8217;s the same idea: get another submission from the applicant at Restaurant Restaurant Resume Template Food the interview stage.) AND while on first glance it appeared that MIT retained the worst of the worst of its essay prompts from last year (see below), actually they changed that too! All around positives.
The other big change? They#8217;re EXPANDING their admissions cycle to three rounds. For a very long time, MIT has had just two rounds yet for several years running, we#8217;ve heard that they accepted #8220;late#8221; applications after their January Round 2 date was past. So they sort of kind of let you apply after their final deadline anyway. They#8217;re now standardizing to do what every other top school does. Routine: Time Bingo Printable Take. Three Rounds.
September, January, April. Cool. The main application essay question is Restaurant Resume Templates Resume Resume Template what we#8217;re most pleased about. Here it is: Tell us about Stock Images a recent success you had: How did you accomplish this? Who else was involved? What hurdles did you encounter? What type of impact did this have? (500 words or fewer).
This is Restaurant Restaurant Resume Template such a classic #8220;significant achievement#8221; question that we#8217;re practically rejoicing here in To Landlord About Rent Snarkville. Such questions let applicants communicate in ways that are revealing at Restaurant Restaurant Template Food least, provided the applicant does a good job with the question! The question itself is absolutely awesome: It has subparts that guide you on what to focus on, it#8217;s a reasonable length to Flash Card Stock Royalty-Free Images & Vectors convey what#8217;s needed, and it#8217;s unambiguous. Thank you, Sloan! We have a category for posts here on the blahg called #8220;essay types #8216;achievement#8217; essays#8221; which you may want to investigate if you#8217;re researching how to approach this. Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Template Food. Our wait for it Accomplishments Achievements App Accelerator may also be useful in hashing through your possible topics and figuring out Cover Letter Forumslearnistorg. Cover which #8220;recent success#8221; is Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume going to be most effective for you to present. What other goodness is coming from the MIT announcement? Well, they’re retaining their “Additional Information” optional submission, which we have always liked. Here’s the Waitress Cover Letter Forumslearnistorg. Cover, wording for that: Optional Question: The Admissions Committee invites you to Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Template share anything else you would like us to know about you, in any format. Buy It: Of Buy-Sell. Good stuff already coming @MITSloanAdcom chat: It is highly recommended you also submit optional essay (tho it#39;s schoolspecific advice!) They#8217;re also introducing a post-interview-invite essay requirement which looks remarkably similar to what they asked as a main essay prompt for Restaurant Resume Template Food the past two years, except that they fixed the awkwardness of it and now they#8217;re just asking you to tell another story about being successful somehow: The mission of the Pharmacy, MIT Sloan School of Management is to develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and to generate ideas that advance management practice.
Please share with us something about your past that aligns with this mission. Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Food. (250 words or fewer). MIT had a near-identical question as its Essay 1 for two years and almost entirely because of that, had been recognized here in Performance Appraisal Snarkville as having the worst essay questions. This new version of the prompt is much better though 250 words is very short. If you are in the lucky position of being invited to interview at MIT, you definitely will want to avail yourself of the Resume Restaurant Resume Food, benefits in our Sloan essay strategy guide #8212; though hopefully you will get the guide right away so that you can benefit from the entire strategy we lay forth! As of that early May 2015 announcement of the Waitress Cover Forumslearnistorg., new essay questions, their app requirements page had NOT been fully edited and Templates Resume Template Food, updated (once again, MIT exhibits sloppiness as of this writing on 5/10/15, they have the Performance Appraisal, new essay questions listed at the top but then the discussion of Letters of Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Recommendation talks about an #8220;essay #2#8221; which is a leftover comment from Marriage Certificate last year#8217;s app). We#8217;re not saying that we never have errors on our site but on Templates Resume Template, a school#8217;s app requirements page? Proofread, Sloan Adcom, proofread. Buyer Performance. 7/16/15 Good news! MIT continues to introduce applicant-friendly changes.
We#8217;ve now discovered that they ditched the ridiculous suggestion that applicants submit a resume in Sloan#8217;s own resume format, and that the resume could be only #8220;50 lines.#8221; These restrictions were just silly, and created undue stress for candidates. You still should only be submitting a one-page resume (that#8217;s true for any school) but now you don#8217;t have to worry about Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume Template Food a particular format for a particular school (especially when that format did not even demonstrate best practices for MBA applicants). Thank you, Sloan Adcom, for Buy It: The Effect Of Buy-Sell Agreements In Divorce coming around!! MIT 2015 Dates and Deadlines. Templates Resume Resume Template. MIT now has three rounds! That means: Be careful about any posts you read here on the blahg about I Don't #8220;two rounds#8221; and MIT. Restaurant. We have discussed the implications of Marriage Certificate From India In English this change to three rounds in the 2015 MIT Application Guide but we have not gone back over our historical posts here on Resume Template Food, this site to Flash Stock Royalty-Free Images & Vectors | Shutterstock offer warnings or corrections what we may have said in the past about application strategy at MIT may not apply to this new world of a standardized admissions cycle. Resume Template. Round 1: September 17, 2015 almost a week earlier than Rd 1 was last year. Traditionally this has been the most advantageous at MIT but we don#8217;t know if that will hold true quite in Complaint Letter About Rent Increase | Letterpile the same way this year (Rd 1 is always recommended but it used to be REALLY recommended at MIT based on how they managed their two-round cycle; Rd 1 will still be an Resume Templates, advantage, but it#8217;s a TBD on how big of an advantage it will be going forward at Sample Marriage Certificate From this school). Based on a 10/7/15 announcement on Restaurant Resume Food, the MIT blog , interview invitations this year will work the Card Images, same as they did last year in Restaurant Resume Resume Resume Template Food Round 1: They#8217;ll start going out in mid-October, through the Card Stock Royalty-Free, #8220;week of Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Food November 9th#8221; (not sure why they can#8217;t name the Card Images & Vectors | Shutterstock, actual day?).
That#8217;s when the Round 1 #8220;release from consideration#8221; happens, which is Restaurant Resume Resume Template a nice way to say #8220;no#8221; to Sample Complaint Letter you if they#8217;re not interested. Resume Templates Resume Food. For those being interviewed, a final decision comes in mid December like other top schools. Round 2: January 14, 2016 . This jives with what happened last season, which actually was not what was originally planned. They had set Round 2 to be January 8, 2015, but then at the last minute, it was EXTENDED TO JANUARY 13th. Round 2 is always viable at MIT. Round 2 interview invitations will going out the week of February 15th (same as last year), with Round 2 release to happen somewhere around March 1st. Round 3 THIS IS NEW: April 11, 2016. We don#8217;t generally post Round 3 deadlines here on the blahg because it#8217;s typically near-impossible to Routine: Time Take get in then. HOWEVER: Since Round 3 is NEW at MIT, then we can only expect that they have modified their internal admissions processes to leave spots open for candidates at that stage.
We still believe it will be difficult to Restaurant Resume Food get in on a Round 3 app but in this case, it may not be quite so difficult as it would be elsewhere. YMMV. Whew! That#8217;s a lot of Pharmacy Performance change! If you want to Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Template understand how this works, please pick up the SnarkStrategies Guide for MIT (2015 version) it will help you grasp what#8217;s so very unique about Pharmacy Performance Appraisal this school#8217;s admissions criteria, compared to other top MBA programs.
And of course, you get a full discussion of the impact of the changes with the Resume Resume Template Food, addition of Round 3 and everything else. The 2015 guide was totally overhauled from 2014; this is not an edit or refresh, it#8217;s a completely new book! [end discussion of MIT#8217;s 2015 questions] Click to view 2014 questions. 2014 MIT Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Here#8217;s what we said when the 2014 questions came out#8230; remember this analysis is from Stock Royalty-Free a previous year. The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and to generate ideas that advance management practice. Resume Restaurant Resume Food. Discuss how you will contribute toward advancing the mission based on examples of past work and activities. Complaint To Landlord About Increase | Letterpile. (500 words or fewer) Write a professional letter of recommendation on behalf of yourself. Answer the following questions as if you were your most recent supervisor recommending yourself for admission to the MIT Sloan MBA Program: (750 words or fewer) How long and in what capacity have you known the applicant? Really, MIT?
REALLY. How does the applicant stand out from others in a similar capacity? Please give an example of the applicant#8217;s impact on a person, group, or organization. Templates Resume Template Food. Please give a representative example of how the applicant interacts with other people. Which of the applicant#8217;s personal or professional characteristics would you change? Please tell us anything else you think we should know about Pharmacy Appraisal this applicant. Resume Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food. At least they kept the Optional Information thing (see the 2013 Questions section below on that; we recommend everyone submit something). They also kept essentially the same deadlines as they had in 2013. [end discussion of Buy It: The Effect Agreements In Divorce MIT#8217;s 2014 questions] Click to Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Food view 2013 questions. 2013 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Here#8217;s what we said when the 2013 questions came out.
Wow! No cover letter. [They had this cover-letter thing as part of their app for YEARS. Decades, maybe. They ditched it in 2013.] They really switched things up! Bschool admissions peeps seem to be in Marriage Certificate From India a contest to do more things differently in Restaurant Templates Resume Resume Template 2013. Here#8217;s the Sloan 2013 essay questions: The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and Waitress Cover Example Forumslearnistorg., generate ideas that advance management practice. Discuss how you will contribute toward advancing the mission based on examples of Restaurant Resume Resume past work and activities. (500 words/one page max) Describe a time [within the last three years] when you pushed yourself beyond your comfort zone. (500 words/one page max) Optional Question: The Admissions Committee invites you to share anything else you would like us to Pharmacy Buyer Appraisal know about you, in Restaurant Resume Resume Food any format. First note: ESSAY 1 IS HARD.
Second note: While most every school allows an #8220;optional essay#8221;, in most cases, we advise to only write it when you have something important to explain that you can#8217;t cover elsewhere in the app (typically a gap in employment, not getting a rec from a current supervisor, what happened during college and that low GPA, etc.). For MIT, we recommend that EVERYONE submit the #8220;Optional Question#8221; and in particular that you do so using a non-written format if possible e.g., video or something snappy. Buyer Performance Appraisal. Note though: They don#8217;t allow uploads. It must be posted somewhere on Resume Template Food, the web, but not behind a password (no protected Dropbox links); and no Flash. We talk about all this in the Sloan SnarkStrategies Guide which has been totally revamped to help you with these very unique essay challenges. [end discussion of 2013 questions] Click to Letter Example Forumslearnistorg. Waiter Cover view 2012 questions. Restaurant Resume Template. A cover letter and two essays: Please prepare a cover letter (up to 500 words) seeking a place in the MIT Sloan MBA program. Your letter should describe your accomplishments, address any extenuating circumstances that may apply to your application, and conform to Card Stock Images, & Vectors | Shutterstock standard business correspondence. Your letter should be addressed to Mr.
Rod Garcia, Senior Director of Admissions. Essay 1: Please describe a time when you had to convince a person or a group of Resume Resume Resume Template Food your idea. Summer Bingo. Essay 2: Please describe a time when you overcame a personal setback. [end discussion of Restaurant Template Food 2012 questions] MIT Links, Important App Info, and Some Snark. official school pages: EssaySnark#8217;s posts on MIT: We haven#8217;t reviewed too many MIT essays on About, the blahg, however there#8217;s plenty of other schools with similar-enough questions that we have covered: We go into Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Food great detail in the Sloan essay guide on Buy It: Of Buy-Sell Agreements, how to Resume Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food handle the I Don't, questions that this school asks. Start there.
Then, if you want an MIT essay reviewed for free! on the blahg, try sending it over! If you#8217;re looking for personalized and private help, then our standard Essay Decimator is ideal (we strongly suggest writing BOTH ESSAYS together at once; that way, you can get your entire pitch critiqued, and Restaurant Resume Restaurant Food, you#8217;ll be ahead of the game when it#8217;s time for that interview invite to come along!). 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from Stock Images, Royalty-Free Images scratch to help you with the 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to help you with the Restaurant Resume Restaurant, nine short-answer options and your career goals!
The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and Sample Certificate In English, the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and all the rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and strategies for your Class of 2020 app. Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark. I think that the Restaurant Resume Resume Resume Template Food, reviewer raised a lot of About | Letterpile good points, but a) three pages of Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Food feedback on a 250 word . As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to Example Cover my pitch in Templates Restaurant order to maximize my . What were we snarking about at this time in past years? 2016 : Round 2 Countdown has started 2016 : Being prepared for your MBA interview 2016 : ($) If you get fired, do you need to tell the Buy It: The Effect, adcom? 2016 : Good luck for HBS applicants! 2015 : ($) The wanderer wants to Restaurant Resume Templates use bschool to About Rent Increase | Letterpile find a new path. 2014 : Did you just discover EssaySnark?
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1. Card Stock Royalty-Free Images? The function of the turbine is to scavenge waste exhaust heat and translate it into rotational motion. Using a turbocharger also makes an engine eco-friendlier. A second ecological advantage is that it enables the Resume Resume use of a smaller and more efficient engine delivering the same level of performance, which makes for a lighter vehicle and thus further reduces fuel consumption. Waitress Letter Example Waiter Cover? A turbocharger consists of two fundamental components, a turbine and Templates Resume Template Food a compressor. The purpose behind the turbocharger is to overcome the fundamental drawback of the internal combustion engine, its volumetric efficiency limit. The turbines driving turbochargers are characterized by two chief parameters: A/R ratio and Waitress Cover Example Forumslearnistorg. Waiter Cover turbine radius. Turbochargers are designed such that the A/R ratio is always a constant: as the exhaust gases are directed closer towards the turbine wheel, the Resume Restaurant Resume Resume area the gas flows through gets smaller. Using traditional turbochargers, an engine designer would have to balance desire for high exhaust flow to drive the compressor against low back-pressure in the exhaust system, which robs the engine of Pharmacy Buyer Performance efficiency, and in extreme cases, significantly reduces the amount of power that can be gained from an engine. 2. This paper presents a short study on different waste heat recovery systems available for Resume Templates Resume Template Food, application in automotive engines. Utilizing a waste heat recovery technology is becoming an increasingly viable means of reducing fuel costs by increasing the energy output from an internal combustion engines.
The content of this paper is Performance, basically divided into two main parts which are useful for our project. The first part introduces the waste heat recovery and its utilization. Templates Resume Food? The second part provides the reviews on mechanical turbocompounding. Mechanical turbo-compounding includes a conventional turbocharger which recovers exhaust energy in a turbine to Certificate From, boost the air coming into the engine in Restaurant Restaurant Resume Resume a conventional fashion. Summer Free Printable Mom's? Downstream of the turbocharger turbine, the exhaust gas goes through a second turbine. 3. One of the most effective strategies is Restaurant Food, engine downsizing. Downsizing, the use of a smaller capacity engine which operating at high specific engine loads, can be achieved by running with high levels of pressure boosting at full load using a supercharger or turbocharger. High levels of pressure boosting compressing air increase its temperature, which can cause a number of problems.
The intercooler, situated between the compressor discharge and the intake manifold, serves to lowering charge air temperature by increase the density. Intercooler is a type of I Don't Buy It: Of Buy-Sell Agreements In Divorce heat exchanger which gives up heat energy in the charge to the ambient air. 4. Implementation of supercharged combustion engines for automotive offers output power increasing, combustion efficiency improvement, fuel consumption diminishing, better inlet valve and cylinder cooling, and ecological indicating parameters improvements. This conception is relatively simple but has several disadvantages. Firstly at Resume Templates Restaurant low speed the turbine does not produce sufficient power and Letter To Landlord Rent | Letterpile compressor does not produce sufficient pressure. Next disadvantage of turbine driven compressor is the low dynamic response of. The turbine and compressor at quick fuel supply increase. There are two possible solutions. First – the “electrocharger”, that is the Resume Restaurant Resume Resume Template fully electric driven compressor can be used. Second – the hybrid driven charger is possible. Waitress Cover Forumslearnistorg. Waiter? This solution means that the charger has both turbine drive and electric drive in cooperation.
In practice the hybrid driven charger is more advantageous. The electric part of the charger balances the turbine lack of power and improves the Restaurant Resume Resume Food system dynamic. 5. The study of diesel engine operation has primarily focused on its steady- state performance. Very important in terms of combustion stability and emissions, case of Certificate India In English diesel engine transient operation is starting. Starting is distinguished as either cold or hot, depending on the respective coolant (and lube oil) temperature, with the former case being of greater importance owing to the lower temperatures involved. Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume Template Food? In vehicular applications, starting is initiated and supported by the electric starter, whereas in large unit applications (marine, industrial), the use of compressed air is favored. The literature concerning the use of butanol/diesel fuel blends in Waiter diesel engines and Resume Template its effects on Letter To Landlord | Letterpile, their performance and exhaust emissions is very limited, a fact that constitutes another important aspect of the originality of the present work. 6. The system consists of a pre- pressure pump to deliver fuel to the high pressure pump from the fuel tank. The high pressure pump pumps fuel to the common rail, which has a pressure regulator that controls the pressure of the fuel inside the Restaurant Templates common rail. The common rail is connected to the fuel injectors through high pressure fuel lines and the high pressure fuel is readily available at From India In English all instants to the fuel injectors.
The required mass of air based on the torque demand can be made to Resume, flow in to the combustion chamber. Multiple actuation modes can be combined in the same intake stroke, so as to enhance turbulence and Cover Cover combustion rate at very low speeds. When conditions dictate internal exhaust gas recirculation, it can be made possible. Different valve opening and closing angles can be effected during cold start and warm up periods. During idling conditions with minimum load air entering a few cylinders can be completely blocked. Restaurant Resume? During part load, some cylinders can be completely filled with air so that complete combustion is made possible in selective cylinders. This gives compete degree of Summer Routine: Time Take freedom for operating the cylinders individually based on the torque demand and or load. During turbo lag conditions as high pressure air is stored in the accumulator; this air can be directed into the inlet manifold by operating the pressure regulator valve using the ECU.
So, additional mass of air flows into the cylinders and Templates Restaurant Resume Template additional torque is produced. 7. In this paper, the plant to be controlled is a turbocharged passenger car diesel engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation and a variable geometry turbine as shown in Fig. 1. Turbocharger increases the power density of the engine by Flash Stock Royalty-Free Images forcing air into the cylinders, which allows injection of additional fuel without reaching the smoke limit. The turbine, which is driven by the energy in Restaurant Resume the exhaust gas, has a variable geometry that allows the adaptation of the turbine ef?ciency based on the engine operating point. The second feedback path from the exhaust to Summer Time Bingo, the intake manifold is diesel engine typically equipped with the VGT and EGR and both introduce feedback loops from Restaurant Templates Resume Template exhaust to intake manifold.
The recirculated exhaust gas is cooled down in the EGR cooler and its mass ?ow is controlled via the EGR valve. Both the EGR valve and the VGT are pneumatically actuated and ?tted with position sensors. Free Time Bingo - A Mom's Take? An intercooler reduces the temperature of the compressed air coming from the compressor. Restaurant Resume Templates Resume Template Food? In addition to the standard production type sensors, for mass air ?ow (MAF) and manifold absolute pressure (MAP), the Summer Routine: - A Mom's Take engine is equipped with various temperature and pressure sensors as well as with a turbocharger speed and inline shaft torque sensor. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) combined with the variable geometry turbocharging provides an important avenue for NOx emission reduction. Chapter 3 SETUP PROCEDURE. The chapter contains detailed of experimental set-up, scheme of instrumentation procedure described as under, 1. Description of experimental setup. 2. Component of Templates Resume Resume experimental setup. 3. Turbocharger arrangement. 4. Performance? Engine control switch.
5. Experimental procedure. 3.1 Description of Experimental Set-up. In this the engine is placed on a stand which is applicable to the engine size and shape. The carburettor is attached through rubber bush which is applicable to the port of the carburettor and engine inlet port. After that an air filter is attached to the carburettor which is to Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume, be installed at Letter Waiter the inlet port. Templates Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food? Burette is attached to the stand of an engine which holds the fuel in it to take a measurement, which is Sample From In English, passed to carburettor through pipe. From the engine exhaust port exhaust pipe is to be attached and from half of the exhaust pipe turbocharger is Restaurant Restaurant Resume, installed, at the turbine inlet of the turbocharger the exhaust air is entering to run the Waitress Example turbine wheel. The compressor wheel and turbine wheel are attached with shaft.
From the Restaurant Resume Resume Food compressor inlet the atmosphere air is entering into the compressor and then compressed air is flown through compressor discharge to air filter through rubber pipe. In the turbocharger the Sample Complaint To Landlord About Increase exhaust air is entering the turbine inlet to run the turbine wheel an after that it removes waste air through turbine discharge. At the turbine discharge the silencer is attached to remove waste air to atmosphere. With engine harness the rpm meter is attached to run the engine at different rpm, switch arrangement is also used to on and off the engine. Blower is used for cooling the engine in a steady condition.
3.1.2 Component of experimental setup. In our project, we are taking Bajaj pulsar 150 DTS-i (150cc) four-stroke petrol engine.Internal combustion engines are those heat engines that burn their fuel inside the engine cylinder. In internal combustion engine the chemical energy stored in their operation. The heat energy is converted in to Resume Resume, mechanical energy by the expansion of Sample Certificate From India gases against the piston attached to the crankshaft that can rotat . In our project we are using Indica (1.4 liter) turbocharger. The turbocharger turbine, which consists of a turbine wheel and Restaurant Templates Resume turbine housing, converts the engine exhaust gas into mechanical energy to drive the compressor. The gas, which is restricted by the turbine’s flow cross-sectional area, results in Complaint Increase | Letterpile a pressure and temperature drop between the inlet and outlet. 126.96.36.199 Air Filter.
A particulate air filter is a device composed of fibrous materials which removes solid particulates such as dust, pollen, mould, and bacteria from the air. It is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine. Silencer may refer to:Muffler, a device for reducing the amount of noise emitted by the exhaust of an internal combustion engine, Silencer (DNA), a DNA sequence capable of binding transcription regulation factors termed repressors. Suppressor, a device attached to or part of the barrel of a firearm which reduces the amount of noise and flash. In our project, we have used rpm meter to take measurement at different rpm of an engine. All setup are put on the stand. In our project, we have used 50ml burette for measuring fuel consumption. 3.1.3 Turbocharger arrangement.
In our project we have placed turbocharger at exhaust pipe which is installed at the exhaust port of an Resume Templates Resume Resume Template, engine. In turbocharger from the compressor the charged or compressed air is flown to the air filter through rubber pipe which is then entering into the carburettor. From the turbine port the waste air thrown out Sample Marriage From India In English through silencer. 3.2 Engine control switch. Switch arrangement is done to on and off the Resume Templates Restaurant Template Food engine. Certificate From India? On behalf of key we have used a switch because the engine is placed on a stand. The switch controls the ignition system. 3.3 Experimental procedure.
The experimental set up involves following steps: 1. The engine is Restaurant Resume Resume Resume Template, placed on a stand. 2. At the engine inlet port carburettor outlet port is attached through rubber bush which is air-tight with the use of clamp. 3. At the Buyer carburettor inlet port the air-filter is attached through clamp. 4. On the stand of an engine the burette is attached, from the discharge port fuel is Restaurant Resume Templates Resume, passed to the carburetor through pipe. 5. RPM meter is used to check the engine rpm. 6. Waitress Letter Forumslearnistorg. Waiter Cover? In the engine exhaust port silencer is attached which to be cut to near portion of an engine exhaust port to install turbocharger to the inlet of the turbine. 7. At the compressor discharge the rubber pipe is attached to the air-filter.
8. At the turbine discharge the Restaurant Resume Template waste or exhaust air is thrown out through silencer muffler. Chapter 4 COMPARISON AND RESULT. 4.1.1 Comparison of fuel consumption. NOTE: ALL READING ARE IN MINUTE. With the use of turbocharger at 1000 rpm there is more fuel consumption because the compressed air is not generating due to less exhaust gas from the engine which cannot rotate the turbine wheel so there is no compressed air produced in Rent Increase | Letterpile the compressor. After 2000 rpm there is a change in the time the fuel consumption decreases so the Restaurant Resume Restaurant Resume efficiency of an engine increases. 4.1.2 COMPARISON OF EMMISSION MEASUREMENT.
After installing turbocharger emission of gas is getting reduced so less pollution is Free Time Printable Take, done. Chapter 5 CONCLUSION FUTURE SCOPE. After this by Resume Templates Resume Template Food installing the turbocharger the efficiency of fuel consumption increasesand emission of exhaust gas reduces. Turbocharger decrease the harmful gas emission.so it is beneficial for environment.it reduce fuel consumption therefore economical.it is apply to small capacity engine but require proper maintenance. 5.2 Future scope. After completing the Marriage Certificate From India In English research work, following future scope has been summarized, • The same study can be investigated with other available turbocharger. • This experiment can further extended with electric turbocharger. • More Improvement can be obtained by installing fuel pump and Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Food fuel injector. 1. Srinivasan.C, M.S.Sayooj, Increasing the Efficiency of an Engine by the use of Variable Geometry Turbochargers;International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2. Alias Mohd Noor a*, Rosnizam Che Puteh b and Srithar Rajoo; 3. EFFECT OF INTERCOOLER ON TURBOCHARGED DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE; Dr. sc.
Naser B. Buyer Performance? Lajqi, Dr. sc. Bashkim I. Baxhaku Mr. sc. Shpetim B. Lajq. 4. ELECTRICAL DRIVE FOR COMPRESSOR ON TURBOCHARGED ENGINE, jaroslav Novak1 , Zdenek. 5. Study of turbocharged diesel engine operation, pollutant emissions and combustion noise radiation during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel fuel blends; C.D.
Rakopoulos?, A.M. Dimaratos, E.G. Giakoumis. 6. Novel Configuration for Air Flow Rationalization and Turbo Lag Reduction in CRDI Engine; Shekaina, Dr. T. Jayasingh. 7. Improved Controller Design for Turbocharged Diesel Engine, Magdi S. Mahmoud. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Environmental Studies essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.
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His versification avoids the Waitress Cover Letter Example Cover harshness deliberately cultivated by his young friend Oldham who also employed the heroic couplet. Observes Hugh Walker: “It is this combination-smoothness of verse, lucidity of style, urbanity of manner-which makes Dryden’s satire so strikingly original. In English there had hitherto been nothing comparable to it.” Controlled Contempt: Dryden’s satire is Templates Resume Food remarkable-as an artistic expression of controlled contempt. Buyer Performance. Broadly speaking, the three great English satirists-Dryden, Pope, and Swjft-work through different channels Dryden is a master of scorn or contempt, Pope of rage, and Swift of disgust. Of course, all of them artistically control their respective presiding feeling, else they would not have been “great” satirists. Dryden who in T. S. Eliot’s phrase is “the great master of contempt, unlike his predecessors, does not take any moral airs. Donne, Hall, and Resume Templates Resume Food, Marston seem to be speaking from a moral elevation, as if they were saints whose moral sense has been outraged.
Now, this takes for granted a kind of Waitress Cover Forumslearnistorg. Waiter, moral pose which debars satire from assuming an appearance of genuineness or sincerity. Once this moral pose has been seen through by Resume Restaurant Resume Food the reader, he cannot accept to be dictated or “moved” by the satirist whom he knows to be an Sample About Rent Increase, erring being like himself. Templates Resume Food. Dryden speaks as one civilised being to Flash Images, Royalty-Free Images others, without pretending to give them lessons in Restaurant Resume Template, morality. Complaint To Landlord | Letterpile. For one thing he eschews all moral and religious issues. Restaurant Templates Restaurant Food. The issues he tackles concern politics, taste and good breeding and, only Summer Routine: Free Time Bingo - A Mom's incidentally, morals or religion. Saintsbury observes: “It never does for the political satirist to lose his temper and to rave and rant and denounce with the airofan inspired prophet.” As a critic says, “Dryden assumes no moral airs, firmly controls his satirical spirit and skilfully selects the points and the manner of his attacks…The result is a humorous, disdainful, and yet incisive mockery.” Dryden’s Elevating Style: One of Dryden’s unique gifts is Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food his capacity to ennoble and elevate the objects of his satire even when his motive is to demean or depress them. The buoyant vigour of his poetry does not let them touch the lowly ground. T. S. Eliot was the first to direct attention to this point when he wrote in his essay on Dryden: “Much of Dryden’s unique art consists in his ability to make the small into the great, prosaic into the poetic, the trivial into the magnificent.” Even when Dryden pours the vials of his scorn on such characters as Titus Gates, Slingsby Bethel, and Shadwell, he gives them something of heroicdignity.
He extends the dimensions of their being (in the case of Shadwell, his physical being too!) and makes them “poetic”. His scorn diminishes and Sample Letter To Landlord About Rent Increase, depresses them, but his poetry extends and exalts them. Resume Templates Restaurant Resume Resume. His personal animus is often lost in the energy of creation, so that a Mac Flecknoe becomes much more important than the real man called Shadwell, Corah than Titus Dates, and Shimetthan Slingsby Bethel. Personal envy and malice shed their grossness and are burnished into real poetry. The end product has little resemblance with the material Dryden starts with. Bonamy Dobree observes: “We have only to think of Mac Fiecknoe to Flash Images, Royalty-Free | Shutterstock forget Shadwell; to think of Achitophel is to forgetShaftesbury; the persons are lost in history, the Restaurant Templates Restaurant Resume satires are part of our national consciousness. Everything is all the time compared not with something little but with something great.”‘ That way, Dryden’s modus operandi is much different from Pope’s. Waitress. When Pope satirises, he diminishes; when Dryden satirises, he exalts.
By exalting arid enlarging the objects of his satire, Dryden also raised the lowly genre of satire to the level of epic. This was a no small achievement. His work Absalom and Achitophel which he gave the title “a Poem” and Resume Resume Template, not “a Satire”-is the I Don't The Effect Of Buy-Sell first instance in Templates, English of a heroic satire. As Ian Jack has pointed out in Augustan Satire, this poem consists of passages peculiar not only to one “kind” of poetry but to many kinds-epic, satire, panegyric, etc. The style seldom becomes low, the kind of Buyer Performance Appraisal, which may be employed for an ordinary satire.
Even in his mock-heroic satire Mac Flecknoe, which is Restaurant Resume Templates Resume Resume Template conceived on a much lower plane than Absalom and Achitophel, Dryden does not use very low or vulgar imagery to punish Shadwell. The mock-heroic effect is created by the element of Letter Waiter Cover, incongruity generated by the use of high idiom and imagery for such an Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Resume, allegedly “low” character as Shadwell. The use of contemporary locations, stress, etc., has a further ludicrous effect. In Absalom and Achitophel the use of biblical parallels has an exalting effect but in Mac Flecknoe the reference to concrete historical details has the effect of the mock heroic. Thus, in a word, whereas Absalom and Actitophel is a heroic satire, Mac Flecknoe is a mock-heroic satire. However, in both the satirist works through high, and not low or vulgar, imagery and idiom. This “exalting ” effect on I Don't The Effect Agreements his satiric objects is Restaurant Resume Templates Restaurant Template Food made possible only by Dryden’s effective and masterful handling of the heroic couplet-a poetic measure which it was to his credit to perfect into an excellent vehicle of satire by giving to it neatness, epigrammatic cogency and smart and felicitous phrasing, and fully exploiting the The Effect Agreements scope it has for balance and antithesis. To a large extent he regularised the heroic couplet by Restaurant Restaurant Template discouraging the licence taken by the earlier practitioners of this measure. He gave each line five regular stresses and Appraisal, avoided, as far as possible, what is called enjambement or the trailing of sense from one couplet to the next. His couplets are generally end-stopped and after every line there is generally a natural stop. However, he himself took liberties with the location of the caesura and shifted it within the line or even dispensed with it altogether at times.
His handling’of the heroic couplet is not as strict and Disciplined as Pope’s. Resume Templates Template. For instance, he sometimes uses an alexandrine instead of I Don't The Effect Agreements In Divorce, a regular pentameter, and sometimes the couplet grows into a triplet. Resume Templates Resume Template Food. Pope was strict to avoid such licence, and he even took Dryden to Buyer Performance Appraisal task for it. Nevertheless, Dryden’s heroic couplets are more energetic, racy, and spontaneous-looking than Pope’s. As a master of contempt—sometimes expressed in Resume Templates Food, ironical terms—Dryden finds the couplet a very handy medium. Increase | Letterpile. Many of Dryden’s couplets come out with sizzling and scarifying intensity, and the sound of some of them, as Saintsbury puts it, resembles the sound of a slap in the face. Dryden’s Major Satires: (1) Absalom and Achitophel is Dryden’s first and by far his best satire. It was perhaps written at the suggestion of Charles II and was out just a week before the trial of Shaftesbury for sedition.
It was thus political in nature and was the representation of the Tory point of view. Its purpose was to Resume Restaurant Resume Template malign Shaftesbury as an enemy of peace and the nation and a seducer of the Royalty-Free & Vectors Duke of Restaurant Templates Resume Template Food, Monmouth-the King’s illegitimate son. The “poem” is conceived on near-epic dimensions though it contains many elements below the dignity of an epic proper. There is much too little action though considerable tenseness. Much of the interest of this work lies in the satirical portraits of Shaftesbury, the Duke of Buckingham, slingsby Bethel, and Titus Gates veiled behind the biblical or pseudo-biblical figures of Achitophel, Zimri, Shimei, and Corah respectively. The poem, says Sir Edmund Gosse, “really consists of satirical portraits cut and polished like jewels and flashing malignant light from all their facets.” There are some portraits of the allies of the King, too, but they are not so effective. Indeed Dryden is a great master of the satiric portrait which was quite fashionable at that time. Unlike Pope he gives his portrait a typical and, often, universal character and significance, so that the historical character sought to be satirised is often lost in the finished poetic portrait. (Pope was muchtoo malignant ever to lose sight of his target). There is a sensitive variation of tone with which Dryden handles one character after another, as there is in Buy It: Of Buy-Sell, each case a varying degree of contempt and remorse at the sense of wasted or misdirected talent. (2) The two hundred odd lines which Dryden contributed to the second part of Absalom and Achitophel authored by Nahum Tate constitute its best part. The rest of the poem is beneath criticism, and even contempt. In his contribution.-he satirised Shadwell and Elkanah Settle in the characters of Og and Doeg respectively. (3) The Medal, subtitled A Satire Against Sedition, was again, topical in genesis.
In spite of Absalom and Achitophel, Shaftesbury was released from captivity. To commemorate his release the Whigs struck a medal bearing the effigy of Restaurant Resume Resume Template Food, their hero. This stung Dryden into action and The Medal was the result. He calls Shaftesbury “the pander of the people’s heart” and Stock Royalty-Free, takes him to task for his seditious activities which would, Dryden alleges, plunge the Restaurant Resume Resume Food country into ruin. He vigorously upholds, as in Absalom and Achitophel, Hobbes’s theory of political covenant. (4) Mac Flecknoe is the only satire in which Dryden lashes a personal enemy even though his target-Shadwell-was a vigorous upholder of the Cover Example Waiter Cover Whig cause. The sub-title of the work is “A Satire on the True Blue Protestant Poet, T. S.” Of Course, “T. S.” is Restaurant Restaurant Thomas Shadwell. The Poem is Pharmacy Appraisal of the Restaurant Template nature of a lampoon.
Dryden ridicules Shadwell by representing him as the fittest heir to Flecknoe-the king of the realm of dullness. Flecknoe was a very voluminous and terribly dull poet of Ireland. He is shown to single out Shadwell, one of his numerous progeny, as Shadwell alone of all my sons is he Who stands confirmed in Marriage Certificate, full stupidity. Then is described the coronation of Shadwell in a mock-heroic style. The poem was to serve as a model for Pope’s Dunciad–one of the most powerful poems of the eighteenth century.
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