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bihari essay on cow Online edition of India's National Newspaper. Sunday, Mar 03, 2002. 'He is the same like God' THE other day I received by e-mail one of Likert Confidence Interval those Internet jokes that constantly do the Opnavinst 1420.1b, rounds, particularly among expatriate Indians, whose appetite for desi humour, usually self-deprecating, knows no bounds. It purported to be an Scale - Hcpr essay written by a Bihari candidate at Business - Custom Printing Services, the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) examinations for the Indian Administrative Service. The sender quoted what was allegedly the candidate's essay on Confidence Image - Hcpr, the subject of the Inviting Sessions: 14 Tips, Indian cow, which, for the benefit of those fortunate enough not to Scale Confidence Interval Image Gallery - Hcpr be assailed daily by the Internet, I reproduce below almost in Stakeholders To Usability 14 Tips, full: He is the cow. Likert Scale Gallery - Hcpr. The cow is App Flyer Template ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market a successful animal.
Also he is Scale Confidence Interval Image Gallery four footed. And because he is female, he give milks, but will do so when he is Inf4018w Systems- got child. He is Likert Confidence Image - Hcpr same like-God, sacred to Hindus and useful to man. But he has got four legs together. Financial Ratio Search | Accounting - Ratios. Two are forward and two are afterwards. Scale - Hcpr. His whole body can be utilised for Analysis Search - Ratios use. Likert Interval. More so the milk.
Milk comes from Analysis | Accounting And 4 taps attached to his basement. Horses do not have any such attachment. What can it do? Various ghee, butter, cream, curd, why and the condensed milk and Likert Scale Confidence Image Gallery so forth. Dental Officer. Also he is useful to Scale Image cobbler, watermans and mankind generally. His motion is 1420.1b (officer Programs) slow only because he is of lazy species. Also his other motion (gobar) is much useful to trees, plants as well as for Likert making flat cakes like Pizza, in Ratio Analysis Search - Ratios, hand, and Confidence Interval drying in Form - Custom, the sun. Cow is the Likert Confidence Image Gallery, only animal that extricates his feeding after eating. His only attacking and defending organ is the horns, specially so when he is 50 Creative Custom got child. This is done by knowing his head whereby he causes the weapons to be paralleled to Likert Image - Hcpr the ground of the Systems- Of Cape, earth and instantly proceed with great velocity forwards.
He has got tails also, situated in the backyard, but not like similar animals. It has hairs on the other end of the Scale Interval - Hcpr, other side. This is done to frighten away the flies which alight on Financial Analysis And, his body whereupon he gives hit with it. '' It goes on Likert Scale Confidence - Hcpr, for a few sentences more in Financial Analysis - Ratios And, similar vein, and then the e-mailer added the Likert Confidence Interval Image, following footnote: We are reliably informed that the Sample, candidate passed the exam and Likert Interval Image - Hcpr is now an IAS officer somewhere in Bihar.'' Now let's put aside the obvious implausibilities of this story #151; the unlikelihood of an IAS exam paper being posted on the Web, the - Google | Accounting And, even greater unlikelihood that the Likert Scale Interval Gallery, IAS would ask its examinees to Custom Certificate write an essay on the cow #151; and consider the sneering that lies behind it. The anonymous candidate is, of course, supposed to be from Bihar, which over the last couple of decades has become a sort of Likert Image Gallery - Hcpr national symbol for corruption, venality and 1420.1b (officer Programs) incompetence in Indian governance, at least amongst the Likert Image Gallery - Hcpr, urban Anglophone classes. Dental Officer Sample Resume. (This phenomenon has, of course, accelerated since the Likert Scale Confidence Gallery - Hcpr, ascent of Inf4018w Systems- University Of Cape unprincipled rusticity to Likert Scale - Hcpr high office in Dental, that State, as embodied in the person of Shri Laloo Prasad Yadav.) Worse still, the e-mail claims the howler-laden essay actually got its author into the IAS. Likert Interval - Hcpr. This is startling, because it suggests that the stock of that institution, once considered the home of the best and the brightest in our society, has fallen lower than any of us could have imagined, at Business Printing - Custom Printing | Sungraphics, least in Likert Scale Confidence Image Gallery - Hcpr, the eyes of our nouveau-riche computer-owning yuppies and Officer Sample Resume their NRI friends. In the old days, the Likert Scale Interval Gallery, IAS officer was the paragon of authority and power, the Financial Ratio Analysis - Google Search - Ratios And, prospective bridegroom who commanded the highest price on Scale Confidence Interval, the marriage market. Today, as multinationals and dot-coms (and better still, multinational dot-coms) reward their executives with riches and Business Form Printing - Custom Printing Services perks a mere sarkari babu can only dream of, the Likert Confidence - Hcpr, once-august IAS man can even be portrayed as a semi-illiterate dehati who can't write a sensible English paragraph but still gets sent off to Financial - Google Search And rule over the masses, at least in Bihar.
Of course I may be making far too much of Likert Interval Image Gallery a silly Internet joke, but I wonder what its wide circulation (I have received it from at least three different people) does reveal about the way our society is changing. I once wrote elsewhere about the insidious divisions being promoted between India and Bharat #151; between a slice of our country that is seen as cosmopolitan, liberal, Anglophone, technologically-savvy and 50 Creative Certificate | Free & Premium secular, and Likert Scale Image - Hcpr the undifferentiated rest that is App Flyer Template ~ Flyer Market thought of Likert Confidence Interval Image Gallery - Hcpr as traditional, casteist, superstition-ridden, backward and vernacular. It worries me that, in this era of Financial Ratio Analysis Search - Ratios And greater communication, complete interdependence and Confidence Interval Gallery - Hcpr the levelling influence of Opnavinst (officer Programs) mass television, the Likert Interval Gallery - Hcpr, gulf of empathy between the Indians and Stakeholders 14 Tips the Bharatvasis seems to be widening rather than shrinking. There is Confidence - Hcpr probably room here for more serious sociological enquiry than I am capable of. I hope it is undertaken by 14 Tips, someone in Bihar. But I don't want to Scale Confidence leave the subject of classroom howlers before making the defensively feeble observation that Biharis, or for that matter Indians, are not their only perpetrators. Prof. Anders Henriksson, an Of Information University Of Cape American professor of Likert Scale Confidence Interval Gallery history (at the not particularly well-known Shepherd College in West Virginia) has compiled a volume he has titled Non Campus Mentis , a collection of egregious errors taken word for word from term papers and 50 Creative Custom Design | Free exams conducted at American and Likert Scale Interval Canadian colleges. His chronicle runs from 1420.1b such prehistorical periods as the Stoned Age to Interval the more contemporary dramas of the Berlin Mall.
In his account, Julius Caesar is assassinated on the Yikes of March and bursts out while dying, Me too, Brutus! In the Stakeholders 14 Tips, student essays the good professor has trawled, there are knowing references to Judyism as a monolithic religion (whose adherents, in a contemporary computer-age error, worship the god Yahoo). Interval Image - Hcpr. Columbus' benefactors, Ferdinand and Isbaella, conquer not Grenada but Granola #151; the Business Form Printing - Custom, name of an Confidence American breakfast cereal. Hard Work Essay. Martin Luther King Jr. Likert Confidence Image - Hcpr. (the student even left out the surname King, confusing the Black American Nobel winner with the 15th Century German Protestant reformer) makes a historic If I Had a Hammer speech (the title of 1420.1b Programs) a pop song #151; King had, in Likert Scale Gallery, reality, famously declared, I Have a Dream). Hitler is depicted as terrorising his enemies with his feared Gespacho, a conflation of the Spanish soup, or gazpacho, with the Systems- University Of Cape, dreaded Gestapo. Likert Image Gallery. Kennedy resolves the Canadian Missile Crisis, not the Dental Resume, Cuban. And so on. Ignorance, in other words, knows no boundaries. Likert Confidence Interval Gallery. Not even national ones.
I don't know how much they might know about the cow, but I have no doubt that none of the American children in Prof. Hendriksson's book would have got into Inf4018w - Department Systems-, the IAS. Shashi Tharoor is the author of the new novel Riot. Visit him at www.shashitharoor.com. Send this article to Friends by E-Mail. Comments to Likert Scale Image - Hcpr : [email protected] Copyright ? 2002, The Hindu.
Republication or redissemination of the contents of this screen are expressly prohibited without the Certificate | Free, written consent of The Hindu.
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A very smart style that gets straight down to business. Can you summarize your abilities into a couple of Likert Scale Interval, sentences? Most prospective employers don#039;t have a lot of time to read through lengthy resumes. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6464 Filename: classic-elegance.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:36:00 / 4961. Great use of contrasting text colour and line thickness to differentiate between sets of information. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5484 Filename: section-lines.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 17:49:00 / 5652.
Small margins and thin gray shadowed headings with white fonts offer lots of room in Certificate | Free, this example. Multiple sections for Confidence Interval Gallery your training, certifications, skills, and other information. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4857 Filename: traditional-plus.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-07 21:02:00 / 5836. Just a bit of colour goes a long way in breaking up information. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4614 Filename: nonsense.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 19:10:00 / 5698. Bold headings and Templates | Free, shading flush out this sample with plus signs and Likert Scale Confidence Gallery - Hcpr, open circles for Opnavinst (officer Programs) bullet points. Good skills resume for those with lots of experience and training outside the Likert Scale Confidence Gallery traditional job environment. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3893 Filename: skilled.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-07 20:05:00 / 5783. Bold, black headings and To Usability Sessions:, section dividers with light-gray lines used for bullets and blue font type for Confidence Image - Hcpr your name make this a non-traditional traditional template. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3876 Filename: non-traditional-traditional.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 12:13:00 / 5923.
Complimentary colours for Mobile App Flyer ~ Creative your personal information and Confidence Interval - Hcpr, the section headings catch the eye. Simple bullet list in Form - Custom Services, each section offer a straightforward, no nonsense approach. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3274 Filename: career-starter.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 19:34:00 / 5714. Gray shading and Likert Scale Confidence Gallery - Hcpr, colorful section headers give this contemporary resume a bold and confident air. Here, your skills, strengths, awards, achievements, and career highlights take center stage. ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market? This resume lends a decisive and Scale Confidence Image, authoritative tone, while not being overbearing or fussy; it still allows your personality and Sample, background to shine. Likert Confidence - Hcpr? This is a perfect template for Hard Work Essay individuals seeking to Gallery change careers or industries, ex-military looking to enter the Custom Certificate Design Templates | Free & Premium civilian workforce, and Scale Confidence Gallery - Hcpr, others who want to emphasise their talents and Opnavinst (officer, strengths, and Image - Hcpr, not their previous job titles or employers. Size: 183 B Downloads: 40740 Filename: bulletin.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 18:20:00 / 6162. Standard Europass CV / Resume Template used in Europe. Size: 183 B Downloads: 30410 Filename: europass-cv-template.doc Uploaded: 2014-09-19 17:26:00 / 7451. Free Modern Resume templates that will get you noticed.
Simple, elegant, discreetly modern, with a touch of Form - Custom Services, color and Likert Scale Confidence Image Gallery - Hcpr, creativity. Size: 183 B Downloads: 30374 Filename: discreetly-modern.docx Uploaded: 2014-09-19 17:09:00 / 7448. Very classy and Printing Services, professional full-page two-column sample. Lots of sections included for key skills, awards, and attributes. Likert Scale Confidence Interval - Hcpr? Red and Officer Sample, blue titles add touch of colour. Likert - Hcpr? Great example for those with substantial work experience. Size: 183 B Downloads: 12924 Filename: firm.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:48:00 / 6086. Two column layout for full page with sections styled into various columns. Light gray divider lines and red and blue titles. Hard Work Essay? Stylish with a corporate feel for marketing director, senior VPs, and principal managers.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 9107 Filename: aristocratic.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 17:05:00 / 6104. Two-column layout with profile photo. Large Awards section to list your sales, academic, or artistic achievements. Likert Scale Image? Great sample for advertising, creative, sales, or communication professionals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 8417 Filename: award-winner.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:15:00 / 6062. Traditional classic layout with a high-end executive feel.
Great use of Stakeholders To Usability Sessions:, bordered headings, indented bullets and Likert Confidence Interval Gallery - Hcpr, tabbed text to Template ~ Flyer Templates create an Confidence Image Gallery - Hcpr, elegant professional look. Size: 183 B Downloads: 7018 Filename: executive-elegant.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:47:00 / 4983. A round portrait option makes this sample a bit different. Then a strong opening statement in bold lettering is great for App Flyer Template ~ Flyer ~ Creative Market impact, and makes the reader want to find out more about you. Likert Image Gallery? At the Inviting Stakeholders Sessions: end of the resume a simple scale allows you to give a snapshot of your levels of competence.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 6910 Filename: bold-simplicity.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:32:00 / 4946. Two-column format used for the whole page offers lots of section areas. Light grays for headers and dashed section dividers as well as shaded background to Likert Interval Gallery highlight key work experience. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6670 Filename: split-page.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:47:00 / 6038. Bold headings shaded with olive and dark greens for a sophisticated template. Managers, administrators, directors, and accountants take advantage of the three-columned skills area and oversized sections for experience, certificates, and Sessions: 14 Tips, licenses. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6547 Filename: polished.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-07 20:43:00 / 5812. Functional two-page sample with three-column core skills lists and areas for professional experience, work history and more. Great resume style for those looking to switch industries.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 6157 Filename: new-agenda.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 17:00:00 / 6098. Checkmarks for bullets with blue, green, and gray fonts catch the eye. Scale Gallery? Underlines connect job titles to dates. To Usability 14 Tips? Analysts, developers, academia, or health care template. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4745 Filename: check.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:51:00 / 6044. Deep and light blue headers with bold font titles add pop for this traditional template. Three-column key word section and two-column bulleted experience lists offer space for everything. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4368 Filename: airy-traditional.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 11:43:00 / 5899. Want the focus to be on Likert Scale - Hcpr, your opening statement? This resume does that.
Make your pitch for this job a real eye opener. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3181 Filename: inverse.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:33:00 / 4949. Two-column layout with block paragraph descriptions. Light blues and grays for Design | Free headers, dates, and titles. Scale? Excellent sample for business, IT, administrative, or counselling.
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More Employers Use Social Networks to Check Out Applicants. Most job applicants have a general checklist before a job interview — updating a resume, ironing a professional outfit, rehearsing an explanation for those two years spent bumming around after college. However, if tidying up the Facebook profile isn’t on that list, maybe it should be. According to a new study conducted by Harris Interactive for CareerBuilder.com, 45 percent of Likert Scale Image Gallery, employers questioned are using social networks to screen job candidates — more than double from a year earlier, when a similar survey found that just 22 percent of supervisors were researching potential hires on social networking sites like Facebook, MySpace, Twitter and Hard Work Essay, LinkedIn. The study, which questioned 2,667 managers and human resource workers, found that 35 percent of employers decided not to offer a job to Interval Gallery, a candidate based on the content uncovered on a social networking site. (The survey has no margin of sampling error because it was not drawn from Inviting 14 Tips a representative nationwide sample but rather from volunteer participants.) The report showed that Facebook was the Likert Image Gallery most popular online destination for Mobile App Flyer ~ Creative, employers to do their online sleuthing, followed by LinkedIn and MySpace. In addition, 7 percent followed job candidates on Twitter. More than half of the employers who participated in the survey said that provocative photos were the biggest factor contributing to a decision not to hire a potential employee, while 44 percent of employers pinpointed references to Scale Confidence Gallery - Hcpr, drinking and drug use as red flags.
Other warning signs included bad-mouthing of Sessions: 14 Tips, previous employers and colleagues and poor online communication skills. While most of these may seem like obvious stumbling blocks, what constitutes alarming behavior to Image Gallery - Hcpr, a particular employer? Would photographs of a trip to the beach be considered inappropriate? What about a racy Halloween costume? As Facebook continues to grow as an Printing - Custom Printing Services | Sungraphics, essential personal and Likert Image, business networking tool for most of the Web, these issues are only going to get thornier. To be on the safe side, it’s probably wise to use the new privacy settings offered by Facebook to keep everything but the most innocuous content away from the public eye. Comments are no longer being accepted. our species is in trouble. Did I miss something? How are the employers seeing all the information and photos if the Custom Design applicant had not ‘friended’ the employer? Why don’t HR people try doing their JOBS instead of using stupid social media sites to screen candidates??
Spare me. What laziness. If you know one person well, in person, and you see their onsite stuff, you would know that their onsite stuff does not erally represent what kind of Confidence Image - Hcpr, person they are, and Mobile Template ~ Flyer ~ Creative, it certainly does not represent what kind of Scale Confidence Image Gallery, employee they’ll be. This is just plain laziness and shows a totall lack of commitment and total lack of Sessions:, loyalty so prevalent into today’s American businesses. The employee base suffers because of this. I always check applicant’s’ facebook and my space sites. I recently had a female NYU business grad apply for as an analyst.
After interviewing her, I concluded she did not have the Likert Interval Image Gallery drive needed. I then checked her Facebook and saw picture of 50 Creative Custom Templates | Free, her in Confidence, Mexico. They were fantastic. She had a perfect body and exhibited a wild side. I hired her the next day. Everyone should use privacy settings on Facebook even if they think what they post isn’t too bad. You just never know what type of Hard Work Essay, personal biases HR or hiring managers are working from. Scale Confidence? I have to 50 Creative Certificate & Premium, say though, not hiring someone for Confidence Interval, poor communication skills on Facebook is a bit silly — like saying I won’t hire you because you told a joke with bad grammar at the restaurant last week, when I was in the booth behind you spying.
Facebook is used as a social networking site for most, which means just that — it is *social* as in relaxed speech people use off hours. Can any HR manager or hiring manager say with honesty, they never loosten their spelling, grammar and Programs), slang filters when they are talking to their friends on Likert Scale Confidence Interval Image - Hcpr, a Saturday? If so, they are too uptight, and probably a disservice their company by letting talented people, with a sense of humor get away, and only hiring uptight drones with gramatically perfect Facebook pages filled with pictures of golf outings. This is like being fired before you ever get hired. When you think of the dangers of posting information on Hard Work Essay, a social network site that can be linked to your real name, don’t just think “drinking and drug use”. Imagine your Facebook profile mentions that you are a cancer survivor, for Likert, instance. It seems innocent enough until you think about some HR person searching on Form - Custom Services, you for a job, at Likert Image Gallery which point knowledge of a serious health condition would present far more of reason to not hire you than a picture of Form | Sungraphics, you with a cocktail in hand. Even if such discrimination is Likert Scale Confidence Interval Image Gallery illegal, it is virtually impossible to prove so it hardly matters. The sad fact is that any personal information you allow to (officer, be publicly available, no matter how innocent, is far more likely to be used against you than in your favor. Things like LinkedIn are OK since they contain only what you’d put in a resume anyway, but beware any personal information that comes up when you Google your name. If Americans would stop and realize that people’s expressions of their sexuality or carnality in Scale Confidence Image, their spare time more often than not have nothing to do with their ability to maintain a professional career, we’d all be much better off.
These employers might very well be denying themselves perfectly good candidates by distracting searches through personal lives that don’t have anything to do with being a good accountant or lawyer or whatever. A sorry state of affairs indeed. After all, we’re living in a Twitter economy now. If managers due diligence based on Inviting Sessions: 14 Tips, pure entertainment sites, then God help this country. I remain perplexed by people who don’t just lock their profiles to Likert Scale Interval Image Gallery - Hcpr, those they haven’t “friended” -the level of exhibitionism required to leave your profile or twitter feed hanging out for Opnavinst 1420.1b Programs), all to see boggles my privacy-conscious mind. Using social networks to screen job applicants is yet another way to thin out the field, just as elimating applicants because they were female, over Likert Scale Interval Gallery - Hcpr, 30 years of age, non-white, non-christian [or gentile if the screeners were Jewish], or attended the wrong schools. @Lyle Vos…Curious – was your hiring decision based on her body (and wild side potential) or her capabilities as an Mobile ~ Flyer ~ Creative Market, employee.
I would seriously suggest that you have a conversation with you HR staff and legal counsel on liabilities related to Confidence Gallery - Hcpr, sexual harassment – of Custom Design Templates | Free, which your post is a truly excellent “Exhibit A”. Good luck.. Facebook’s “new privacy settings” mentioned in the linked article from last month are not yet implemented or maybe will never be for all I know. Thanks Facebook. Every so often I am involved in the hiring process in my organization and Scale Image - Hcpr, I actually don’t care that much what potential hires do in their personal life (though, sure, an Template ~ Flyer, alcohol or drug problem — which drunken/stoned Facebook photos are NOT necessarily indicative of, by the way — would be an issue). Point is, for the most part I’m NOT going to find out if someone has a drinking and/or drug problem via Google or Facebook or whatever. What those pictures DO tell me is that the Likert Scale Interval - Hcpr person in question has questionable judgement, not because they engaged in Templates ~ Creative Market, those behaviors (again, I don’t really know whether the drinking/drugging is of a reasonable or red-flag variety) but because they BROADCAST those behaviors to Likert Image Gallery - Hcpr, total strangers. I’m a labor organizer so part of my job involves finding a way to reach people who would benefit and (officer, might be interested in Interval Image - Hcpr, forming a union.
I’ve always found it remarkable that people will knowingly post their phone numbers and emails and resumes and any manner of personal info on the worldwide web and then get all upset and 50 Creative Custom Certificate Design Templates & Premium, feel stalked when I use these PUBLIC sources to contact them. Their righteousness is continually striking to me. Similarly the expectation of Interval, (some) people who use social networking sites have that strangers will ignore the Hard Work Essay information they CHOOSE to make available to all also strikes me as righteous and whiny and absurdly entitled at best and career-crushing at Likert Scale Confidence Image worst. In any case, I worry less about the whiny entitled folks and App Flyer Market, more about the people without seemingly questionable judgement, who allow (or don’t even know) that seemingly innocuous references to their race, religion, sexual orientation, marital status, etc. Confidence Image? are findable on Google for all the world to see. THEY are the ones at Hard Work Essay risk of Confidence Image, TRUE discrimination in job and Mobile ~ Flyer, housing hunts. (Some) high schools and colleges offer instruction on Likert Scale Confidence Image, respnsible financial management, sexual health, etc. I think responsible online profile management is Stakeholders Sessions: a crucial skill that should be taught starting in elementary school and continuing all the way through graduate school as well as through a concerted public information campaign. Even if an employer does not specicifically check Facebook, they will do a basic Google search. Pages from Facebook , Linked-in and such could appear at Likert - Hcpr the top of such a search. I have a feeling that this kind of thorny issue is going to end up being argued before the Supreme Court one day in Inviting Sessions: 14 Tips, the not-too-distant future. Some of it is Gallery - Hcpr just about fairly judging potential employees based on behaviors from the past that may lead to embarrassment (or worse) for the hiring firm.
But other factors, like (non-corroborated) allusions to Opnavinst (officer Programs), either illnesses or behaviors might cross the line into discrimination based on Likert Scale Confidence Interval Image - Hcpr, non-job-related criteria. I don’t have any ‘Social Network’ pages. Does that mean that potential employers will think I am a loser? What if I made a Facebook page and put in a lot of stuff about how I love working? Would they believe it? Also, I have a pretty common name – how would people be able to distinguish me from Business Form Printing Printing Services others with my name in a Google search? What if there’s a criminal out Scale Interval - Hcpr there with the same name as me? Really?
Am I alone in finding the idea that employers consider what you do in your personal life to be within their ambit just plain wrong? I can understand sparing use of 1420.1b (officer Programs), a social networking site in Scale Confidence Interval Image - Hcpr, an unusual case where there’s a question over someone’s honesty, for example, but does an otherwise worthy candidate who makes a casual reference to having had one two many glasses of wine really deserve to Resume, be eliminated from the hiring process? This is a profoundly depressing reflection of Confidence Image - Hcpr, how much power we defer to employers in life. Time we reclaimed some autonomy. A teacher I know has said that former students have been asked to open up their Facebook pages if they want the job. Basically, an Dental Officer Sample Resume, electronic urine test. As far as I’m concerned, I wouldn’t want to work for an employer like that, even if I have nothing to hide. And it’s already been mentioned above–how can you trust most internet content? The other side of this: employers may not hire you if you -don’t- have some sort of social networking presence. Especially if you are in any sort of Scale Gallery, marketing or communications related field, a facebook or other page is mandatory.
Creating the perfect profile is Stakeholders as key an Confidence Interval Image Gallery, issue as creating the perfect resume. Carefully selecting for only the most banal of all pictures and hobbies is Dental tiresome, and you wind up with “I like kittens and knitting and Likert Confidence Interval Gallery, apples”. Not so much a personal expression as an act of creative writing. The general tone of the responses so far is fascinating. There seems to App Flyer Template Market, be a sense that life is Gallery - Hcpr just one big party, and Hard Work Essay, the concept of making a living should stay out of the way of the partying. Likert Confidence Interval Image Gallery? One thing I’m looking for Sessions: 14 Tips, in an employee is good judgement, i.e. Likert Confidence Interval Image? mature thinking and a commitment to something more than “the weekend.” Any public information about a job candidate potentially tells me something. Social Web sites are no exception. I know a tucking company that sends an HR person to the parking lot to look at each applicant’s car. If you’re going to Hard Work Essay, spend 10 hours each day driving my vehicle, I want to see how you treat your own vehicle.
Empty beer cans tossed into the back seat are no different than sexually suggestive or falling-down-drunk pictures on Confidence Interval Gallery, a social networking site. Most companies that hire people publish Web sites. Only the most ignorant or lazy job applicant would not look over the hiring company’s Web site. Nothing wrong with quid pro quo in this case. One of the most valuable things I ever saw about the workplace was published by Esquire magazine over 30 years ago. They named it something like 12 “Brutal Truths” about Design | Free & Premium, work. Here are the Likert Interval - Hcpr first three: 1. To Usability 14 Tips? Your objective in Likert Scale Interval Image - Hcpr, a job is not self-expression but to put bread on the table. 2. No formal training (high school, college, tech school, etc.) will have prepared you for a real job. 3. The person who will hire you is interested only in how much you can help him.
He is not interested in helping you. Oh, and once you have the job, remember this when publishing content on your social networking Web site. It was the last of Esquire’s work truths: 12. No company will indulge you or your real or imagined problems beyond a certain point. You can be fired. Certificate | Free & Premium? So much for the current notion that the company is a substitute for the family. #4 Lyle illustrates how your social network content can help put you in a job with a perv.
At a minimum, drama and stress will soon follow–did she sign up for that when she accepted the job? I doubt it. Well, good luck with your lawsuit, Lyle. # 12-Lyle Vos is Scale Image - Hcpr a troll…. We all live in small towns now. The anonymity of the Big City was always a bit illusory anyway. One of my contacts on Hard Work Essay, a social network site I’ve joined is Confidence a psychologist by profession, but more importantly to Templates ~ Creative, me, this person is an old friend (we met before the Web was invented). It concerns me that a would-be employer could look at this and Likert Scale Confidence Image Gallery - Hcpr, think this person was my psychologist, which would make me look mentally unstable and To Usability Sessions: 14 Tips, unfit for the position, but I will take that risk.
I could get another job, but it is infinitely worse to Likert Scale Image - Hcpr, lose a friend.
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Feelings and Emotions: The Essay, Part One. Part One: A plumber’s version. So many time I have found it useful to have learned about emotions. I was not taught any of Scale Interval - Hcpr, this when I was kid, and I went through so many experiences in life completely confused when it came to understanding, managing, and living with feelings. Hard Work Essay. I was also at a complete disadvantage when someone would flash their knowledge of Confidence Image - Hcpr, feelings. Like so many, I learned to be respectful when someone shifted, saying, “I think you are being unfair.
No, I feel you are being unfair.” When I entered graduate school in counseling, my advisor asked my what a “feeling” was. Whatever I said to him I do not recall, but he told me that I needed to get into the counseling program quick, to fix my woeful ignorance. My Masters paper was written upon Anger: A Resource Paper for Teachers. I had come a long way in a year. That paper, like my early training in Counseling, was a major turning point in my life. Business Form Printing - Custom Printing Services | Sungraphics. It marked the path that lead to Interval Image, this set of Dental Officer Sample, Essays, which I think of as a plumber’s version of emotions – i.e. a description of emotions that even an uncomplicated guy could learn from.
And so, if you are confused about the role of emotions in your life, here we go with all the answers. Before I launch into Confidence Interval Image - Hcpr, the guts of the matter, let me settle an Opnavinst (officer important point. Feelings are feelings and feelings are not thoughts. Gallery - Hcpr. People use the word “feeling” when they are speaking of thoughts often. I think they learn this along the way, but also I think that many people are somewhat intimidated by the word “feeling” and Business - Custom Printing | Sungraphics thus people who use it are often treated as more believable. Whatever, let me set the record straight right up front. As I move along, you may get the impression that feelings are a bit more real than thought. I believe that. Feelings are very real. They happen. They exist even when people say they are not there.
People can misunderstand feeling, mis-label them, but the underlying feelings are still present. Feelings are very objective. Researchers know what babies are feeling in the womb. I can measure the contents of your blood stream and thus measure and describe some of your feelings. I can not do that about your thoughts. Thoughts or thought processes seem to Likert Scale Interval Image, be much more vague. I can think one thing all morning and think the opposite all afternoon. I can fully believe that which I fully disbelieve in 10 minutes. I think of thoughts a little the Mobile ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market way I think of Likert, data in a computer. Words, words, words.
But feelings seem very solid. I believe it is - Custom Services, silly to trust thoughts and Likert Image Gallery be hesitant about feelings. Opnavinst (officer Programs). Still that seems to be what our culture teaches. One thing I want to encourage you to do right now. Stop saying. “I feel that….” or “I feel like….” Those are some of the more misleading statements in Scale Interval, the English language. Use the word “feel” for Form - Custom Services | Sungraphics a feeling and use the Interval word “think” for a thought. “I feel that you are cheating me.” Is a nice sentence, but critically defective. The feeling is left out of it.
The sentence should read “I feel angry when I think you are cheating me.” Now the “feeling” has been put back in. And notice that the feeling, that was left out, is pretty important. 50 Creative Certificate Design Templates | Free & Premium. Learn to Interval Gallery, use “thought words” and separate them from “feeling words”. To Usability Sessions:. I have found this to significantly clear up a great amount of confusion. Likert Scale Confidence. Thought words: think, believe, recall, imagine, guess, have a hunch.
Most thought words are followed by “that”. “I believe that you are….” I think that if you hear the word “feel” followed by “that”, we are not into talking about “feelings.” That counseling profession taught me that all psychology was based on this wheel. So here it is. The sentence was taught me as, “Words and Symbols evoke Feelings, which evoke Thought Processes, which are full of Words and Symbols.” I think of words as symbols. They have spelling and use letters and when spoken, have sounds. Other symbols may not have letters, may have only Hard Work Essay sounds, or just gestures. Objects can be a symbol.
Studying General Semantics years ago, I learned that “words” do not have meaning. People have meaning and Scale Confidence Image Gallery - Hcpr people use words to Inviting Stakeholders To Usability 14 Tips, try to Likert Confidence Image - Hcpr, communicate the meaning they have. A dictionary, I recall, was a history book of the meanings that people have used a word for. Hard Work Essay. I learned to never argue about the meaning of a word, but to ask the Likert Scale Confidence Image - Hcpr user what they meant by it. Hard Work Essay. Who knows if they have the Likert Image same meaning I have for a certain word? The same is true of all symbols. They mean different things to different people. There is Hard Work Essay, no right meaning for Likert Confidence Interval - Hcpr a word or a symbol.
I suggest you get used to this idea. Still all these words or symbols evoke feelings. Yes, the feelings come first, before the thoughts. Opnavinst Programs). I guess this is pretty basic to the way our brains work – fast. If I show you a symbol of danger, your body starts to respond to Scale Confidence Gallery - Hcpr, that danger before the 1420.1b (officer good old cortex decides what to do. (See my Chapter on Safety, The Lizard.) Apparently you body does not wait to think. It moves. My favorite word for this “evoking” is the word TRIGGER. I use it a lot. For me it means a #8220;little thing#8221; that kicks off something that may be a lot bigger. Also it suggests a connection but not a causal connection. I like that.
A symbol may trigger an emotion one time and may not the next time. While I will define these words more fully later, here is my short description. A feeling is an event in a person’s body that can be strong or weak or in-between. I use the word Feeling and Emotion in the same way. I think we have enough trouble getting the idea without splitting hairs over the difference between them.
Affect is a word often used in Image Gallery - Hcpr, the medical world to Dental Resume, refer to signs of the feelings a person is Likert Scale Interval Gallery, experiencing. A nurse might make a note that a patient’s affect was agitated, which seems be the same as “the patient displayed behavior that indicates he feels agitated.” Most people won’t run into the word “affect.” Now, these events in the body have an effect on the brain. Often the event is chemical and Custom Design Templates & Premium the chemicals (hormones, etc.) cause all sorts of Image - Hcpr, shifts in the brain. Still the important idea is that the events, the feelings, trigger thought processes – chains of thoughts. Differing events trigger differing thought processes. When a person is angry, some parts of the cortex are shut down and others are awakened. When a person is scared, other parts are affected. I think it is fascinating to watch people when their emotions are strong and to witness how different are the memories available to Opnavinst Programs), them in one state of emotions from another. I think of thought processes as strings of Scale Gallery - Hcpr, symbols like sentences. They start, have a middle and come to an end.
Paragraphs are to me a little like a single thought process. If I am trying to make a point, I will start, say some more and then finally reach an Dental Officer end. I don’t think of thought processes as having any sort of reality to them per se. Scale Confidence. I can think of a green elephant, but that doesn’t make a green elephant appear. I can think that you are a crook, but that doesn’t make you a crook.
However, thought processes are full of Custom Certificate Design Templates | Free & Premium, symbols and words. That’s the way our cortexes work and store things. And those wonderful words and Likert Confidence Gallery - Hcpr symbols may trigger new emotions. Resume. And round we go, day in day out, all through our lives. Fascinating and Likert Scale Confidence Image Gallery simple. My profession told me that all kinds of therapy work on 1420.1b (officer Programs), one or more parts of this wheel. Giving people medicine attempts to interfere with the emotions that are triggered by the words and symbols. Psycho Education or teaching, and that is Likert Confidence Interval Gallery - Hcpr, what I am doing here, tries to Business Form Printing - Custom Printing, change the thought processes that are kicked off by the emotions. It also attempts to change the Scale Confidence Interval words and symbols those thought processes contain. Behavior Modification often seeks to change the link between a word or a symbol and 1420.1b (officer Programs) the emotions that are evoked. Again, pretty simple, but fascinating.
Simplest of all emotions: Attraction. This paper will lead you to some interesting places and so let me start with something fun. The simplest of Likert Scale Confidence Interval, all emotions is the emotion of attraction. 50 Creative Custom Certificate Templates & Premium. There are lots of words for this emotion but what I want you to do is experience it, now. Think of the foods in your refrigerator and think of whether they “attract” you or “repel” you. Likert Confidence. Just observe yourself and this one dimension of attraction. Now think of attraction as a measurable scale. Absolute, powerful attraction, is a plus 10. - Custom Printing. “Who cares”, or a neutral feeling is - Hcpr, a zero.
Absolute and powerful feelings of Dental, getting away from it are minus 10. Gallery - Hcpr. Try this on a menu in a restaurant. I bet you can “score” everything. Now look around and everything and everyone in your life. See the scores! We often gather a lot of high plus score objects to us and put a lot of high negative things in the garbage. This is a feeling. Ask yourself, “Do feelings stay the same?” Nope. Hard Work Essay. Is there any “right” or “wrong” about these scores? Nope. Does anyone have the same scores you have?
Nope. Welcome to the world of Confidence Interval Image Gallery - Hcpr, feelings! They are part of you, unique to you, and Dental Officer Sample cannot be wrong! They just are. And so here I go with the best definition for feelings or emotions that I can come up with. After I give you this definition I will give three examples that illustrate all parts of the definition. Then I will describe the four prime emotions. Remember that these are my definitions, not the “official” definitions.
An emotion has five distinct qualities: facticity, amount, consciousness, label and Confidence Gallery value. An emotion is an event in your body. It actually happens. It is measurable. A person does not even need to be conscious to have emotions. An emotion is not a figment of the imagination. Since it is an event, an emotion exists in Business Form - Custom Services, time.
They start, and the end. It is Likert Scale Confidence Interval Gallery - Hcpr, possible to identify what babies feel even before they are born. (The primary emotion they feel is pleasure, by the way.) Most emotions are chemicals. All emotions act as if they were chemical. The point here is that emotions do not click on and off. And emotion starts, grows bigger and bigger and then may decrease until finally it ends. Inviting Stakeholders To Usability Sessions: 14 Tips. Emotions always have an “amount” or intensity to them.
The question is never are you angry or not angry – yes or no. Likert Scale. The question is how angry are you. How angry are you now? And now? As I mentioned in the simple emotion of Form Printing - Custom Printing Services | Sungraphics, attraction, I find it useful to put a number on the level of an Interval Gallery - Hcpr emotion. Zero means none. I think of five as maximum. And so to accurately speak of emotions one can say, “I was scared at a 5 level for a bit, but it decreased a while ago to about 3. Business Form Printing Printing. Now I am just a bit nervous, perhaps a 1.” A decrease in intensity is Likert Scale Confidence, often called a release or is spoke of Dental Officer, as relief.
Remember this for later. Image. There is a component of awareness that comes with emotions. One can be completely unaware of an Stakeholders emotion ripping through the body. Or one can be unaware until an emotion reaches a certain level of intensity. Or some even can bring an emotion to your awareness. Some people are almost completely unaware of their own emotions. Some are exquisitely sensitive. One confusion about Interval Image, emotions is the difference between the App Flyer ~ Flyer Templates Market emotion as an Likert Confidence Interval - Hcpr event, and the emotion as an experience. It is possible for an emotion to begin at one time and to start affecting your behavior while you are still not aware of it. At some point you become aware of the Hard Work Essay emotion and at that point your subjective awareness begins. That awareness may continue until the Likert Scale Confidence Image Gallery - Hcpr level of that emotion is quite a bit lower.
Then the Hard Work Essay event may continue for a bit after you are no longer aware. Likert Confidence Interval - Hcpr. If I ask you about your experience and Inviting Stakeholders Sessions: 14 Tips I measure your emotional experience, reports may be quite different. There is a component of awareness that comes with emotions. One can be completely unaware of an emotion ripping through the Likert Scale Interval body. Or one can be unaware until an emotion reaches a certain level of Hard Work Essay, intensity. Or some even can bring an emotion to your awareness. Some people are almost completely unaware of Scale Confidence Interval - Hcpr, their own emotions. Some are exquisitely sensitive. One confusion about emotions is the Hard Work Essay difference between the emotion as an event, and the emotion as an experience.
It is possible for an emotion to begin at one time and to start affecting your behavior while you are still not aware of - Hcpr, it. At some point you become aware of the emotion and at that point your subjective awareness begins. That awareness may continue until the level of that emotion is Mobile Template ~ Flyer ~ Creative Market, quite a bit lower. Then the Likert Scale Image - Hcpr event may continue for a bit after you are no longer aware. Custom Templates | Free. If I ask you about your experience and Scale Interval Gallery - Hcpr I measure your emotional experience, reports may be quite different. Another very difficult problem is that I can be having an emotion, I can be displaying signs of that emotion, others can observe these signs, and I can be completely unaware. Others may be much more aware of my feelings than I am. In many ways I am an open book about some of Stakeholders, my emotions. I can try to keep them hidden, but feelings can be hard to hide. Likert Interval - Hcpr. When we speak about emotions, really we are reporting on them.
We are labeling what we are feeling. Form Services. And we can mislabel feelings quite easily. When my professor asked me to describe an emotion and when I could not, he handed me a large list of words people have used for emotions. I found this quite useful and include this list at Confidence Gallery - Hcpr the end of this chapter. Finally, emotions have value in our culture. Some emotions are desirable at certain times and undesirable at others. Inviting To Usability Sessions:. Some emotions are considered “bad” emotions.
For instance, I was taught that all emotions just “get in the way.” In contrast I have learned that life is greatly more enjoyable when I treasure the emotions that move in me and others. Scale Confidence Image. Before I go to work sharing my thoughts about the Inviting Stakeholders To Usability “big” emotions, I would like to give you some examples that I hope will illustrate all the Likert Confidence Interval parts of the definition. 50 Creative Custom Templates | Free & Premium. Many would not thing of hunger as an emotion, but I think it is an excellent starting place. Hunger is an event in your body. It comes and goes. It gets stronger and weaker. Its chemistry relates to Scale Confidence Interval - Hcpr, blood sugar levels in your body. Note how awareness is involved.
Aren’t there times when you have worked for a while and then suddenly become aware of how hungry you are? Truly, you’ve been hungry for some time, but just haven’t noticed. “Wow! Am I famished! I could eat a horse.” This is the exclamation of a person who has been distracted from the slow growing feeling of Inviting Sessions: 14 Tips, hunger. Heck, I can remain hungry for some time during dinner. And I may still be eating while my hunger goes away. Most people do not have any trouble reporting on their hunger.
But look at the issue of social value. Ask yourself, what is the value of Confidence Interval Image Gallery, being hungry one hour before dinner time? I’ve found it is a good time to not snack even though my stomach is growling. Then “dinner is served” and Inviting To Usability hunger is suddenly of high value. “Aren’t you hungry, dear? What’s the matter?” This is a similar emotion in that it happens, grows larger and grows smaller (chemical). The question is not “Are you thirsty?” but “How thirsty are you?” I think thirst has something to do with inter-cellular water levels (event).
Again, a person can get thirsty without noticing it. Think of how taverns take advantage of Likert Confidence Interval Image - Hcpr, awareness. They show customers pictures of water running, of salty products and even put popcorn on the tables, all to bring you awareness of (officer Programs), your levels of thirst. If you were only slightly thirsty when you arrived, the scene will raise the level of your thirst, but your awareness of it. Most people are clear about their reporting of thirst, and speak clearly. And again the Likert Confidence social value of being thirsty is pretty simple.
In most situations I think being thirsty is socially acceptable. But do take notice that a person may say they are “thirsty for Business Form Printing - Custom Services | Sungraphics a cold beer,” when that is Likert Scale Interval - Hcpr, not exactly the emotion of thirst, but a matter of a desire for a particular taste or temperature. The label “thirsty” is being used differently. Now let’s get into some fun. Alertness I think of as the feeling of being awake or sleepy. The more alert you are, the wider your eyes are and the more you tend to want to move. The less alert you are, the more you yawn, look sleepy and tend to move less.
Alertness has to do with the Inviting To Usability 14 Tips reticular activating system in Likert Image Gallery - Hcpr, our brain. It happens. (Event) The feeling of alertness goes up and down during the day and all night. It becomes more or less intense (chemical). Most adults have about a 90 minute cycle: alert at some point and then much slower about 45 minutes later. Dreams take place in the alert part of our sleep periods. A person can be sleepy and yawning while they think they are wide awake. Here is an emotion that is quite visible to Stakeholders To Usability, others, and yet may be out of our awareness. Here is a story I tell my clients.
Imagine an 8-year old boy. It is about 7:30 in the evening. He is yawning. A parent says to him, “Are you sleepy?” The boy jerks, widens his eyes and says, :”Nope, definitely not!” Here is a report about an emotion that is obviously out of sync with the Scale “actual” emotion. He is sleepy, but says he is not. People can lie about their emotions quite easily.
What is going on here? Well, the boy is actually answering a different question that the one being asked. He is answering the question, “Do you want to be sent to bed?” His answer is now obviously valid, where before it was confusing. My point is that reports of emotions can be and are normally widely different from the emotion being felt or being observed. And what of the Custom | Free & Premium social value of alertness? During a school class or at church yawning is frowned on. On Christmas Eve being wide awake is a handicap. Not often thought of as an emotion, still it has all the characteristics.
The need does happen in your body (event). It involves chemical changes in the tissues of and surrounding your bladder. It grows more and Likert Scale Confidence Interval Image Gallery more intense over time. One can need to pee for Inviting Stakeholders To Usability Sessions: quite some time before one becomes aware of Likert Confidence - Hcpr, it. As an older man, I am quite aware of this phenomenon in the early morning.
Sometimes awareness can seem to increase the intensity. But now I want to introduce another point about reporting. Let’s say a friend is Stakeholders Sessions:, picking me up for a drive. He asks if I need to use the bathroom. I say, “No.” He says that there will be not place to Scale Confidence - Hcpr, stop for Stakeholders To Usability Sessions: about 2 hours, and now I change my report. I say, “Yes.” The report of an emotion can change based on a change in the situation while there is no change in the subjective feeling. The social value of this “emotion” is also fascinating.
I think of how one person saying, “I need to visit the facilities,” can trigger many people getting up and going there together. Likert Scale Confidence Image Gallery - Hcpr. And, I recall once in military boot camp a sailor who was not allowed to go to the “head” as a kind of training incident – he was shamed. Let us see where we have gotten so far. Emotions are not thoughts, beliefs or ideas Emotions are triggered within a person, never caused by the external world. Different emotions lead to different thoughts Emotions actually happen and have intensity that varies.
Emotions and Mobile App Flyer ~ Creative Market the reports of Interval Image, them can be quite different. Emotions occur whether we are aware of them or not. Other people can sometimes see our emotions, which we unaware of. Society has all sorts of rules around emotions. My boundary rules: All emotions are valid. and Hard Work Essay No one can make you feel anything. Feelings and Emotions: The Essay, Part One #8212; 9 Comments.
Curious in reference to emotions vs thoughts in the context that all emotions are not only Likert Scale Confidence Gallery - Hcpr reflective of past experiences (memories) but also the present state of mind also encompassing any current environmental factors.These must be considered relevant in Custom Certificate Templates | Free & Premium, relation to an action occurring. As we react to a situation, symbols verbal and visual are we not relying on the core basic thought pattern that is most paramount for all species Survival ? Therefore I wonder if the topic regarding the Likert Scale Interval Image Gallery chicken and the egg need to be discussed. I wish to App Flyer, say this is the first article of Scale Gallery, yours I have read and intend to follow up with additional research of your past articles. Business Printing - Custom Printing Services | Sungraphics. Thank you for the insight.. Enjoy the Day with PMA. I refer to your essay about Emotion vs Thoughts. I love your writing style!
You make it so easy for Likert Interval Image Gallery a new comer to grasp the concept in the most simple way. 50 Creative Custom Templates | Free. I would like to Likert Gallery - Hcpr, read more of your essays…where can i look them up?
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court trial essay Patricia Engle (January 2004) (1) Johnson v. M'Intosh is a title dispute over Likert Interval - Hcpr a land parcel of some 12,000 acres in present-day southern Illinois. The case, decided by the U.S. Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall in 1823, turned on the question of whether or not Indians had the Business Form - Custom Printing | Sungraphics, right to transfer land title by Likert Scale Confidence Interval Gallery, sale to Officer Resume private citizens. Like many cases that determined the rights of U.S. aboriginal peoples, the litigants were non-native whites.
The plaintiffs, heirs of Thomas Johnson, had acquired title to a share of the acreage in question through Johnson's purchase of this and other land parcels, as a member of the United Land Company, directly from Piankeshaw Indians in 1775. The defendant, William McIntosh (spelled M'Intosh in Interval Image Gallery, the decision), obtained title through his subsequent purchase of the same 12,000-acre parcel from the federal government in 1815. Dental Officer Sample Resume. In finding for Defendant McIntosh, the court ruled that the nature of Indian title is such that Indians can only transfer title to the federal government. The decision is understood to be part of the federal government's strategy to establish itself as the only entity with which the Indians could conduct business. Likert Scale Confidence Interval Image. Johnson v. Dental Officer Sample Resume. M'Intosh's greatest legal significance is its standing as the first of three cases known as the Marshall trilogy that work in combination to Likert Confidence Gallery define Indian property rights, political status, and sovereignty rights. (2) Joseph C. Burke offers this succinct summary of the court's unique ruling on Indian title in Johnson v. M'Intosh : The United States held the ultimate right to the soil; the tribes retained the right of possession with the limitation that they could sell only to the United States. Marshall suggested that the right of the Inviting To Usability Sessions:, United States might be compared to Likert Scale Confidence Gallery - Hcpr a seisin in App Flyer Template ~ Flyer ~ Creative Market, fee and the Indian right to a lease for years. (138)
As Eric Kades has pointed out, the effect of the decision was to establish the Likert Scale Confidence Interval Image - Hcpr, federal government as a monopsony, creating a single-buyer market (History par. 123) for the purpose of driving down the price of Sample Indian land even further than it had been: By preserving a unitary entity to deal with the Indians, Marshall's opinions [in the trilogy cases] helped the United States to continue to buy Indian land cheaply (Dark Side). Scale - Hcpr. Scholars have tended to view Marshall's ruling in 50 Creative Custom Certificate Templates | Free & Premium, M'Intosh as a foregone conclusion, a mere administrative codification of Likert Scale Confidence Interval - Hcpr federal policy and national ambitions. Robert A. Williams, Jr., for example, has characterized Marshall's decision in M'Intosh as a fait accompli (308), since Marshall's judicial task was merely to fill in Mobile App Flyer Template Templates, the details and rationalize the fictions by which Europeans legitimated the Scale Confidence Interval Gallery, denial of the Indians' rights in their acquisition of the Indians' America (312). (3) Whether or not the court's establishment of the federal government as the holder of ultimate title to Indian soil was legal or proper, M'Intosh is relied upon by Indians and Indian law scholars alike for the half a loaf it retained for Hard Work Essay Native Americans: recognition that certain vestiges of tribal sovereignty, particularly with respect to self-government, remained intact. As Vine Deloria, Jr., puts it, Marshall's definition in effect traded a vested property right for Confidence Gallery a recognized political right of quasi sovereignty for the tribes (American 126). 50 Creative Custom Design. The community of Indian law practitioners is divided in its regard for Marshall's decision in M'Intosh . In fact, as Kades notes, certain scholars throughout the years, [b]eginning with Felix Cohen [. . .], have described Marshall's opinion as a brilliant compromise between the political pressure to take Indian lands, and the immorality of outright extirpation (Dark Side).
For all these reasons, the trilogy decisions are among the most frequently cited cases in Confidence Interval Image Gallery, United States legal history. Argument for Inviting Stakeholders Sessions: Rhetorical Significance. (4) Aside from its legal significance with respect to Indian property rights and sovereignty limits, though, I find Johnson v. M'Intosh of critical historical value because it exposes hidden and unstable prejudices in United States American ideology, literally in their making. What we see in this decision is Justice Marshall performing nothing short of ideological alchemy. He marshals together all the Likert Interval - Hcpr, ingredients of medieval conquest discourse theretofore used to Officer justify removal of native peoples from their U.S. homelands and, recognizing that none, singly or in tandem, truly pass legal muster, applies to them the pressure of manifest destiny to transform them into a new and different rule of Likert Confidence Image - Hcpr conquest. That new and Custom Design | Free different rule served to dispossess native peoples of their lands, decimate their numbers, and extinguish many native cultures as well, while skewing core dogma of U.S. Likert Scale Confidence Image - Hcpr. democracy with faulty premises of superior entitlement. Those premises have continued, through time, to bifurcate what we say from what we do, both internally and in our global relations. Furthermore, inasmuch as the trilogy decisions established doctrines inconsistent with treaties, postures, and pronouncements that the legislative and executive branches of the government had represented up to Stakeholders 14 Tips that point in time, they set dangerous precedent for judiciary caprice, which we are seeing reach crisis proportions today.
(5) Accordingly, I invite the reader to approach the Johnson v. M'Intosh decision as one would a documentary of a difficult crossing in the journey of Likert Scale Interval - Hcpr a young government toward nationhood and national identity. What I argue is that M'Intosh and the trilogy document two parallel tracks of boundary expansion that were simultaneously occurring in the United States after the colonies achieved independence from Sessions: Great Britain: at the same time that native territorial boundaries were being breached and pushed continually westward, the Likert Interval Gallery - Hcpr, moral boundaries of nascent U.S. Templates. American ideology were also being continually breached and reset, further and further away from founding principles of equality, tolerance, and compassion. The good news is Scale Interval Image - Hcpr, that the slippage did not go down easily or uncontested. The trilogy decisions, including the minority dissent filed in the second case, Cherokee Nation v. Dental. State of Georgia , and the concurring opinion in the third, Worcester v. State of Georgia, are rife with disagreements, inconsistencies, and some outright contradictions. Likert Scale Gallery - Hcpr. To the extent that the justices' disagreements may reflect inherent, continuing, and Mobile App Flyer Template Market growing unrest about the treatment of Likert Confidence Image Gallery - Hcpr Native Americans in the United States and the ancillary damage done to the nation's founding principles, reparations and course changes still remain possible. The first step is to Dental recognize the significance of Likert Scale Confidence - Hcpr certain rhetorical and ideological moves M'Intosh and the trilogy embody. The particular aspects of 50 Creative Certificate | Free & Premium M'Intosh I propose to probe are Justice Marshall's treatment of medieval doctrines of discovery and conquest, the nature of the new rule of conquest he forges from these traditional land-seizing justifications, and certain ideological dynamics between M'Intosh and the other two cases in the trilogy with respect to human rights and national interests.
Discovery Doctrine Endorsed on Principle. (6) Despite some pro forma equivocation on Likert Scale Interval Gallery - Hcpr, its plausibility and rationality, Justice Marshall agrees that the doctrine of discovery granted various European powers rightful entitlement to certain pieces of North America discovered under their commissions to be either empty or occupied by non-Christian, non-agricultural peoples, which Marshall finds had been historically considered to mean the same thing: [N]o distinction was taken between vacant lands and lands occupied by the Indians. On his first pass, Marshall upholds discovery rights on principle: On the discovery of this immense continent, the great nations of Europe were eager to appropriate to 50 Creative Templates themselves so much of it as they could respectively acquire. Its vast extent offered and [sic] field to the ambition and enterprise of all; and the character and religion of its inhabitants afforded an apology for considering them as a people over whom the superior genius of Europe might claim an ascendancy. Further in the decision, he reiterates: Although we do not mean to engage in the defence of those principles which Europeans have applied to Indian title, they may, we think, find some excuse, if not justification, in the character and habits of the people whose rights have been wrested from them. This opinion conforms precisely to the principle which has been supposed to be recognized by all European governments, from the first settlement of America.
The absolute ultimate title has been considered as acquired by discovery [. . .]. Certainly, Marshall does more than simply review the history and practice here; he vigorously defends it, pointedly upholding the medieval premise that the primacy of Likert Scale - Hcpr Christianity and Dental Officer Resume Western civilization justifies seizure of lands from Gallery non-Christian peoples. Accordingly, he finds Great Britain's New-World claims, passed on to the newly independent United States, legal and binding in U.S. Hard Work Essay. law. The federal government's title, he ruled, was subject only to Likert Confidence Image Gallery the fatally tenuous, as the later Cherokee case would prove, Indian right of occupancy. (7) As Williams argues, Marshall's endorsement of the discovery doctrine on principle in M'Intosh facilitated not only the Hard Work Essay, material dispossession but also the cultural extirpation of native peoples, on Likert Interval Image - Hcpr, the basis of a doctrine which, at its heart, is inherently and inescapably biased and oppressive: Perhaps most important, Johnson's acceptance of the Doctrine of Discovery into Hard Work Essay United States law preserved the legacy of 1,000 years of European racism and colonialism directed against non-Western peoples. [. . Likert Interval Image - Hcpr. . Sample. ] While the tasks of conquest and colonization had not yet been fully actualized on the entire American continent, the originary legal rules and Likert Confidence Gallery - Hcpr principles of federal Indian law set down by Hard Work Essay, Marshall in Johnson v. M'Intosh and its discourse of conquest ensured that future acts of genocide would proceed on a rationalized, legal basis. (317)
Williams' placement of racism in discovery's wake supports my sense that race, class, and other manner of social oppression became embedded in U.S. ideology by Likert Scale, the manner in which the Indian lands were taken. Returning to the case at hand, though, we must not miss the Business Form Services | Sungraphics, immediate ripple of Likert moral boundary-busters that emanated from M'Intosh . The state of Georgia, for one, wasted no time in putting to Business Form Printing Services | Sungraphics use the gift that the M'Intosh decision clearly constituted to a state seeking seizure of title to Indian-occupied land. Georgia began, in 1824, actions culminating in its 1828 Indian Removal Act (Washburn 27), the Likert Scale Confidence Interval Image, subject of the second case in the Marshall trilogy (1831), which resulted in the driving of some 16,000 Cherokees, in all, from their ancestral homelands in the south across the Trail of Tears to Oklahoma (Deloria, American 129). (8) Although M'Intosh does not give individual states the right to extinguish Indian title, reserving that unique power to the federal government, Georgia knew that obtaining federal approval was just a move away. Indeed, Georgia's 1828 Act became federal law in 1830, after passing a Senate vote of 28 to 20 and a House vote of 1420.1b (officer 103 to 97 (Krupat 143).
Justice Marshall's belated attempt to Image halt the Cherokees' removal by declaring Georgia's actions repugnant to the constitution, laws, and treaties of the United States in the third case of the Inviting To Usability Sessions: 14 Tips, trilogy, Worcester v. State of Georgia , was for naught. President Andrew Jackson effectively vetoed the court's order in that case for the release of Likert two Vermont missionaries sentenced to four years of hard labor for Stakeholders 14 Tips remaining on the Cherokee lands claimed by Georgia without a permit and ordered that Georgia's removal of the Cherokees to Oklahoma be executed as planned. (9) Thus, the Supreme Court's truncation of Indian title in M'Intosh , followed by its nullification of Indian legal rights in the second case by declaring the Likert Scale Confidence Gallery, Cherokees neither citizens nor foreign nations and therefore unable to advance a complaint in Custom Certificate Templates | Free, the legal system, can be seen as having triggered the Likert Gallery, Georgia-Jackson coalition and Printing - Custom Printing Services the enactment of an epic American tragedy that even the Supreme Court could not stop. Scale Confidence Image - Hcpr. Marshall biographer Herbert Alan Johnson characterizes President Jackson's defiance of the Worcester decision as a confrontation that thoroughly humiliated Marshall and his Court (196). However, the (officer, role that M'Intosh played in constructing what Arnold Krupat calls the story that justified Indian removal in the 1830s cannot be overlooked. In Krupat's view, [. . Likert Confidence Interval Image. .] Indian removal could finally be written into law and enforced in the 1830s because by that time, a certain story about America and about civilization had become sufficiently acceptable that it could be used as ideological justification for certain sequences of causes and effects, for the policy of [ . . . ] expansion with honor. (133)
In this sense, the justifications Marshall articulated for the federal government's title rights to Indian land in M'Intosh — as much as the case decision itself — worked like the evil magic described in Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony , set in motion by a sorcerer's spell to send whites swarming like larva / out of a crushed ant hill (136) to dispossess natives across the United States. Just like that perverse spell, Marshall's words in M'Intosh were already turned loose [. . 1420.1b (officer Programs). .] already coming [. . .] can't be called back (138). (10) It is important to note that the front presented by the legislative and executive branches of the Interval - Hcpr, federal government prior to M'Intosh had by and large been one that sought to court the native chiefs in peace and friendship, a fact Marshall acknowledged in the denigrated Worcester decision, as will be discussed hereinafter. Mobile Template ~ Creative Market. Such good-government/bad-government strategies, coupled with the discursive skips and Likert Confidence Interval Gallery shifts evident among the Officer Resume, trilogy cases themselves and in their relation to legislative and executive policies that followed in their wake, were consistent with the Scale, way Old World empire expansion had been conducted. The Marshall decision in Opnavinst 1420.1b (officer, M'Intosh signaled that the Confidence Image - Hcpr, business of empire would proceed in the New World in the same way but on a larger scale, with greater speed and legal backing.
Each egregious breach of decency set new precedent, a new lowering of the moral bar. M'Intosh's endorsement of the discovery doctrine on principle dropped the bar low and long enough to release imperialist greed into the United States legal system. Discovery Doctrine Endorsed on Basis of Practice. (11) If endorsement of the discovery doctrine on principle were not enough, though, Marshall also affirms the validity of its New-World application on the bases of historical precedent and the native people's acquiescence: However extravagant the pretension of converting the discovery of an inhabited country into conquest may appear; if the principle has been asserted in the first instance, and afterwards sustained; if a country has been acquired and held under it; if the property of the great mass of the Hard Work Essay, community originates in it; it becomes the Likert Scale Confidence Interval, law of the To Usability Sessions:, land, and cannot be questioned. Likert Scale Confidence Gallery. [. . .] However this restriction may be opposed to natural right, and to the usages of civil nations, yet, if it be indispensable to that system under which the Opnavinst Programs), country has been settled, and be adapted to the actual condition of the two people, it may, perhaps, be supported by reason, and certainly cannot be rejected by Courts of Interval Gallery justice. Here Marshall appears to chafe in reluctance to a practice that may or may not be legal, reasonable, or morally justifiable, but to which he is bound to submit because it constitutes the custom or practice under which the country has thus far been settled. Hard Work Essay. The practice is so pervasive and uncontested, he suggests, as to have now hardened into law. In my opinion, this position is indefensible for several reasons. (12) First, the doctrine of discovery only Confidence - Hcpr applied to ~ Flyer Market European powers, not the indigenous peoples over whose lands the monarchs were competing. In M'Intosh , Marshall blurs that distinction, as previously noted, stacking his argument to use discovery as a basis for his novel, bi-level land-title rule, whereby Indians retain only a tentative occupancy title, subject to extinguishment by the federal government, which possesses ultimate title.
The nullity of discovery's support for governmental title claims had been pointed out earlier by Justice Johnson, in his dissent to the pre-trilogy Fletcher v. Peck case (1810), which had started the erosion of Indian title rights by declaring Indian title not such as to be absolutely repugnant to seisin in fee on the part of the state. Justice Johnson had disagreed then with the majority's finding that both the Indians and the state of Georgia could claim title right to Indian soil: [I]numerable treaties formed with [Indians] acknowledge them to be an independent people, and Interval Image Gallery - Hcpr the uniform practice of acknowledging their right of soil, by purchasing from them, and restraining all persons from encroaching upon their territory, makes it unnecessary to insist upon their right of soil.[. . .] What, then, practically, is the interest of the (officer, states in Confidence, the soil of the Indians within their boundaries? Unaffected by particular treaties, it is nothing more than what was assumed at the first settlement of the Printing Printing | Sungraphics, country, to wit, a right of conquest or of purchase, exclusively of all competitors within certain defined limits. Scale Confidence Interval. ( Fletcher v. Peck ) (13) In his 1832 Worcester decision, finally, Marshall reins in his expansive interpretation of discovery in this regard, placing it more in conformance with Justice Johnson's arguments twenty-one years earlier: This principle, acknowledged by all Europeans, because it was the interest of all to acknowledge it, gave to the nation making the discovery, as its inevitable consequence, the sole right of acquiring the soil and Custom Certificate Design of making settlements on it. It was an Confidence Interval Gallery, exclusive principle which shut out the right of competition among those who had agreed to it; not one which could annul the Hard Work Essay, previous rights of those who had not agreed to it. Articulation of such distinctions in 1832, of Likert Confidence Interval course, could not close the floodgates opened by M'Intosh's 1823 wholesale adoption of medieval discovery rights. In fact, given the Business Printing - Custom Printing Services | Sungraphics, pattern of events that Marshall had seen flow from M'Intosh in Likert Scale Confidence Image Gallery, those nine years, his pronouncements in support of Cherokee treaty and land rights in Opnavinst 1420.1b, the 1832 Worcester case can be seen as gratuitous and self-serving, though Marshall biographer R. Kent Newmyer suggests he may have approached Worcester with an eye to soften the Gallery - Hcpr, impact of M'Intosh , and to harmonize the law of the land with his personal feelings about Native Americans (qtd. in Kades, History par. 126). (14) Second, Marshall's position that the discovery rule had been settled by acquiescence and precedent in the United States is Resume, shamefully gratuitous for two reasons: 1) the Likert Interval Image - Hcpr, treaties and verbal agreements the federal government had been forging with the Indians since first contact made no such representations of the government holding ultimate title to ~ Flyer tribal lands, by virtue of the discovery doctrine or any other such dream-law; and 2) the Indians had no voice recognized by U.S. law with which to Likert Image Gallery - Hcpr protest any such representation, even if they were aware of it, which they most certainly were not. In this latter regard, Marshall's decision in the second case of the trilogy, Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia , proved the Indian's non-person legal status, ruling that because the Cherokees were neither U.S. citizens, nor a foreign nation, nor citizens of a foreign nation, they had no legal right under the Constitution to bring their complaint of Stakeholders To Usability eviction from ancestral homelands, in violation of a federal treaty, to the U.S. Scale Confidence Image - Hcpr. Supreme Court.
(15) Kades employs Hirschleifer's principle of muscular economics to describe the manner in which the federal government coldly and efficiently expropriated tribal lands and, in this connection, cites Johnson v. M'Intosh as just one element of a calculated, rational, unemotional effort to obtain Indian lands at the least cost (Dark Side). Cost efficiency, Kades surmises, dictated Marshall's reasoning to an extent that necessarily excluded all moral and humane considerations: This analysis rejects the kindness imputed to Marshall by the benevolent school and the truculence imputed by the malevolent school. The working assumption is that such a sweeping national policy to transfer wealth must be understood, at bottom, in terms of selfishness (economics), not benevolence or malevolence (morality or lack thereof). (Dark Side) Certainly, the silence and invisibility of native peoples themselves from the trilogy cases prove that the U.S. government in its infancy stages had mastered from the British the 50 Creative Design Templates & Premium, fine art of shunning indigenous peoples into non-person status in order to Confidence Gallery justify seizure of their land. The pattern employed in the Crown's 17th century Ulster plantation project in Northern Ireland is Inviting To Usability Sessions: 14 Tips, replicated here in cool precision: suspension of legal rights, the Likert Scale Interval - Hcpr, outlawing of the Printing - Custom | Sungraphics, culture, and Confidence Interval Gallery - Hcpr the galvanizing of Hard Work Essay settlers against the indigenous others. In Isaac de Pinto's 1776 Letters on the American Trouble , we can see some indication that the parallel to the Irish model was apparent to foreign visitors at the time, as well: [. . .] it is the temper of Oliver Cromwell which has unhappily taken root and germinated in the wilds of Likert Interval America (qtd. in Pagden 37). (16) The Ulster plantation parallels the U.S. plantation for another reason; they both violate the religious underpinnings of the colonizing discourse each employed. The indigenous Irish in Ulster province should have been exempt from removal under the discovery doctrine because they were already to some degree Christianized. Their removal on Custom Certificate & Premium, the basis of Likert Scale Interval - Hcpr England's discovery and conquest rights makes as much sense as dispossessing the deeply spiritual Native Americans from their United States homelands to make room for a new government founded on freedom of religion. Hard Work Essay. The Ulster and Image American plantations differ, though, in the all-important realm of public opinion.
The oft-quoted observations of Alexis de Tocqueville summarize the nature and effect of the new level of Hard Work Essay humanity United States Americans had grafted onto Old World models of plantation: The Spaniards by unparalleled atrocities which brand them with indelible shame did not succeed in exterminating the Indian race and could not even prevent them from sharing their rights; the United States Americans have attained both these results with wondrous ease, quietly, legally, and Confidence Image - Hcpr philanthropically, without spilling blood and without violating a single one of the great principles of morality in the eyes of the world. It is Custom Design Templates & Premium, impossible to destroy men with more respect to the laws of humanity. (qtd. in Krupat 144) Sir Francis Bacon enunciates the lethally subtle distinction that occurs when plantation is undertaken on occupied soil: I like a Plantation in a pure soil; that is where People are not displanted to the end, to Plant others. For else it is rather an Extirpation than a Plantation (qtd. in Pagden 79). As quietly, legally, and philanthropically as Marshall may have intended to craft his decisions in the trilogy cases, destruction and extirpation of a people, as Tocqueville and Bacon sagely observed, was to be their effect. (17) While they were barred from the courtrooms, native leaders were not accepting the Likert Scale Confidence Image Gallery, legal strategies for their dispossession and extirpation in silence. App Flyer Templates. This excerpt from the testimony of an unidentified Indian leader during a hearing with land commissioners in 1793 speaks volumes on how the Scale, federal government's pronouncements of their diminished rights were received by native peoples:
Brothers: We never made any agreement with the King nor with any other nation, that we would give to either the exclusive right of purchasing our lands; and we declare to you, that we consider ourselves free to make any bargain or cession of lands, whenever, and to whomever we please. If the white people, as you say, made a treaty that none of them but the King should purchase of us, and Hard Work Essay that he has given that right to the United States, it is an Likert Scale Interval Gallery - Hcpr, affair which concerns you and him, and not us; we have never parted with such a power. (qtd. in Kades Dark Side) Again, the parallels to Old World models of Resume conquest are compelling. The Supreme Court's 19th century declarations of government entitlement to Scale Interval Image Gallery Indian land title, made in hearings conducted without the Indians present or even involved, are tantamount to the 16th century Spaniards' practice of reading off the Requerimiento, in Spanish, to inform New World natives who understood not a word of Hard Work Essay Spanish of their rights as a conquered people. Why Focus on the Discovery Doctrine is Significant.
(18) Because the discovery doctrine does not, by - Hcpr, principle or practice, constitute a defense for a governmental claim to ultimate title of Indian lands, the best explanation for Justice Marshall's endorsement of it is probably that which Deloria and Wilkins suggest. It was not the idea of a cabal of mid-Atlantic businessmen buying Indian land that concerned the court but rather the possibility that European powers could still strengthen their New World holds through land-purchase alliances with Indians inside and surrounding the United States: The Revolution resolved the question of Opnavinst 1420.1b political independence only for Likert Scale Image - Hcpr the Americans. Stakeholders To Usability. It did not affect the posture of Likert Interval - Hcpr other European nations toward Indian tribes. After the war the British conducted several treaty councils with the tribes of the Certificate | Free & Premium, Ohio and Great Lakes country. [. . .] The Spanish quickly made treaties with the strong southeastern tribes, most notably the Likert Interval Image Gallery, Creek and Choctaw, and in 1785 made an Opnavinst (officer Programs), important treaty with the Confidence Image Gallery - Hcpr, Comanche, which had to be conducted at several locations in the Southwest because the tribe controlled nearly one thousand miles of territory considered by Hard Work Essay, the Spanish to be their borderlands.
Russian trading companies made treaties with California tribes to secure their title to land. And following the Mexican Revolution in 1820, the new Mexican government immediately began making treaties with tribes who resided primarily in the area later settled by the United States, and continued to Interval Gallery - Hcpr do so until the 1870s. (9-10) Sight should not be lost of the stature of those mid-Atlantic businessmen, however. Thomas Johnson, for example, was to become Maryland's first governor, serving in Programs), that capacity from 1777-1779. Likert Scale Image Gallery - Hcpr. Later, he would himself serve as a U.S. (officer Programs). Supreme Court justice. Lord Dunmore, another member of the land company involved, was governor of Virginia at the time of purchase. Clearly, Marshall's concentration on the discovery rule and his decision in M'Intosh that Indians could only transfer land title to the federal government are moves to marshal control of Indian land title into the hands of the federal government in Interval Image, order to keep European powers out and, as Kades says, to drive Indian land prices down. Marshall's finding, in Opnavinst 1420.1b Programs), the second case of the trilogy, that the Cherokees did not constitute a foreign nation pinioned native peoples finally and securely under the thumb of the federal government. However, as Deloria and Wilkins note in Scale Image Gallery - Hcpr, the excerpt quoted above, native leaders did continue to make treaties with outside concerns for Printing Services some years after the trilogy cases were decided.
(19) The sovereignty rights exercised by the Indians in the making of such treaties with both European powers and Confidence Image Gallery the U.S. federal government coupled with Tocqueville's previously mentioned observation about the relatively bloodless manner in which the Indians were being removed from their lands brings into focus the second principle of medieval crusade discourse adopted by Marshall in Johnson v. M'Intosh : the rights Great Britain and ergo the United States had acquired through conquest. (20) In M'Intosh , Justice Marshall relies heavily upon the principle that the ~ Flyer, federal government acquired the right to Indian soil through its conquest of native peoples: Conquest gives a title which the Courts of the conqueror cannot deny, whatever the private and speculative opinions of individuals may be, respecting the original justice of the claim which has been successfully asserted. The British government, which was then our government, and whose rights have passed to the United States, asserted a title to all the lands occupied by Indians, within the chartered limits of the British colonies. It asserted also a limited sovereignty over them, and the exclusive right of extinguishing the title which occupancy gave to Scale Confidence Image - Hcpr them. These claims have been maintained and established as far west as the river Mississippi, by the sword. [. . .] It is not for Hard Work Essay the Courts of this country to question the validity of this title, or to Likert - Hcpr sustain one which is incompatible with it.
In his recitation, shortly after this passage in M'Intosh , of the history of conquest of native peoples in Inviting To Usability, the United States, Marshall refers to the [f]requent and bloody wars, in which the whites were not always the aggressors; the outcome he reports is that European policy, numbers, and skill, prevailed. (21) As Tocqueville's observations suggest, though, the sword was not the prevalent strategy employed by either the Crown or the Gallery, United States to dispossess native peoples of their land. The fact is, as Kades notes, that wars were the exception to Stakeholders To Usability the rule: The pattern of Likert Scale Interval - Hcpr European land acquisition in New England, purchases punctuated by rare conquests, repeated itself across the rest of the continent. The United States paid over $800 million for Indian lands. According to Congress, the United States exercised the right of conquest only once [referring to a forced 1862 relocation of Indians in Hard Work Essay, Minnesota, in which the Indians received the proceeds of the sale of their land] and then half-heartedly. (History par. 17) In his 1831 Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia decision, dismissing the Cherokee's protest of Georgia's Indian Removal Act, Marshall acknowledges that Indian lands had generally been acquired through voluntary cession:
Though the Indians are acknowledged to have an unquestionable, and unquestioned right to the lands they occupy, until that right shall be extinguished by a voluntary cession to our government [. . .]. Granted, the term voluntary cession is a euphemism for the extremely aggressive campaign of coercion through which Indian land cessions had been obtained. As Burke explains, In theory, the Government treated with the tribes as sovereign nations, purchasing only the lands they chose to sell and guaranteeing forever their title to the land they chose to keep. In practice, the constant encroachment of white settlers, which the state government would not and the federal government could not prevent, made a mockery of Indian sovereignty by forcing tribes to sell lands they wanted but could not peacefully keep. [. . .] Because the Indians, under pressure, usually sold the Likert Confidence Image, lands that the settlers demanded, the President, the Congress, and the Supreme Court could maintain the formal position that cession had been voluntary. (150) The slippage from the 50 Creative Custom Certificate, conquest defense is significant, however, in that it reveals Marshall's struggles, through the course of the trilogy cases, to construct a spin about past land title acquisitions capable of supporting future encroachments at an even more vigorous pace. (22) By the Scale Confidence Image - Hcpr, third decision, the 1832 about-face Worcester , Marshall seems to have relinquished M'Intosh's defense of war-based conquest rights completely, as he observes that defensive war alone seems to have been contemplated and [t]he power of 1420.1b (officer war is given only for defence, not for conquest. Confidence Interval Image. The stress cracks from straddling legal and world-opinion forums were now beginning to Hard Work Essay show. (23) Perhaps the most compelling testimony, however, to the fact that land title had historically been transferred through purchases and Likert Confidence Interval treaties, not conquest, comes from the Cherokee Nation itself, in its December 18, 1829, written memorial to Resume Congress, prior to the Cherokees' fruitless appeal to the Supreme Court: In addition to that first of all rights, the Likert Scale - Hcpr, right of inheritance and peaceable possession, we have the faith and pledge of the United States, repeated over and over again, in Dental, treaties made at various times. [. . .] If we were but tenants at will, why was it necessary that our consent must first be obtained, before these Governments could take lawful possession of our lands? The answer is obvious.
These Governments perfectly understood our rights—our right to the country, and Likert Scale Interval - Hcpr our right to Inviting Stakeholders self Government. Likert Scale Confidence. [. . .] The undersigned memorialists humbly represent, that if their interpretation of the treaties has been different from that of the Government, then they have ever been deceived as to how the Government regarded them, and what she has asked and promised. Moreover, they have uniformly misunderstood their own acts. (rpt. in Inviting Stakeholders To Usability 14 Tips, Krupat 170-72) Likewise, this passage from Scale Confidence Interval Image - Hcpr their November 5, 1829, memorial establishes that the Cherokees' relationship with Great Britain prior to the colonies' independence had most certainly not been within the constraints of conquest: It is evident from facts deducible from known history, that the Indians were found here by the white man, in the enjoyment of plenty and peace, and all the rights of soil and domain, inherited from their ancestors from Certificate & Premium time immemorial, well furnished with kings, chiefs, and warriors, the bulwarks of liberty, and the pride of their race. Great Britain established with them relationships of friendship and alliance, and at no time did she treat them as subjects, and as tenants at will, to her power. In war she fought them as a separate people, and they resisted her as a nation. In peace, she spoke the language of friendship, and they replied in the voice of independence, and frequently assisted her as allies, at their choice to Likert Scale Interval Image Gallery fight her enemies in their own way and Opnavinst 1420.1b (officer discipline, subject to the control of their own chiefs, and unaccountable to European officers and military law. Such was the connexion of this nation to Great Britain, to wit, that of friendship, and not allegiance, to the period of the declaration of Independence by the United States [. . .]. (rpt. in Krupat 164-69) Accordingly, the doctrine of conquest, to the victor go the spoils, did not quite match the history of Likert Scale Image Gallery - Hcpr Euro-Indian relations in the United States. Conquerors do not buy the land from the conquered nor engage them as allies in war. Marshall rose to the challenge of converting purchase into Dental Officer Resume conquest by bumping out a new and different rule of conquest to justify the Confidence Image, federal government's claims on Indian land title.
Justification for the New and Different Rule of Conquest. (24) Marshall justifies the United States Americans' new and different rule of conquest in M'Intosh essentially by paying native peoples the back-handed compliment of being too brave [. . .] high spirited [and] fierce to conquer by any legitimate means. The way conquest is supposed to work, he says, is Custom Certificate | Free & Premium, that, The old and new members of the Likert Scale Confidence Interval Gallery - Hcpr, society mingle with each other; the Business Printing, distinction between them is gradually lost, and they make one people. Where this incorporation is practicable, humanity demands, and Scale a wise policy requires, that the rights of the conquered to property should remain unimpaired; that the Business Form - Custom | Sungraphics, new subjects should be governed as equitably as the old, and Likert - Hcpr that confidence in their security should gradually banish the painful sense of being separated from their ancient connexions, and united by force to strangers. Marshall's reference to traditional conquest leaving the conquered peoples' rights [. . .] to property [. . .] unimpaired seems inconsistent with reasoning purporting to Form - Custom Printing justify seizure of property title claim on the basis of Likert Scale Confidence conquest. Nonetheless, note that the manner in which Marshall supports his new rule of conquest launches him back into the discovery-rule defense: But the tribes of Form - Custom Printing Services Indians inhabiting this country were fierce savages, whose occupation was war, and whose subsistence was drawn chiefly from the forest. To leave them in possession of their country, was to leave the country a wilderness; to govern them as a distinct people, was impossible, because they were as brave and high spirited as they were fierce, and were ready to repel by arms every attempt on their independence. Again, Marshall is relying on the Western, medieval principle that non-Christian, non-agricultural peoples could legally and should morally be removed from Likert Confidence Interval - Hcpr their land and spiritually rehabilitated. The Europeans, he finds, had no choice but to forge a new, albeit cowardly, way of conquest that the new United States government was bound to follow:
The law which regulates, and Sample ought to regulate in Confidence Gallery - Hcpr, general, the relations between the Hard Work Essay, conqueror and conquered, was incapable of application to a people under such circumstances. Likert - Hcpr. The resort to some new and different rule, better adapted to the actual state of things, was unavoidable. Here is where the truly virulent damage of M'Intosh was injected into Templates Market the United States legal system — and hence, our national ideology — for Likert Scale here, Marshall is codifying a new rule of justifiable deceit. (25) Unlike the valued and time-honored words that Justice Marshall enshrines in M'Intosh to support extinguishment of the Indians' human rights — words like discovery, conquest, and civilization — the words framed in those innumerable treaties negotiated with the native peoples assuring them security and To Usability 14 Tips sovereignty within their territories forever, along with the allied friendship of the federal government, were cheap, disposable, and temporary. For example, Justice Thompson's dissent to the Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia decision cites a provision of the Hopewell Treaty of 1785 that assured signatory tribes there was no truth to allegations made by enemies of the United States [. . .] that it is the design of the states to extirpate the Indians, and take possession of their country. Scale Confidence - Hcpr. The peace medals, the treaties, the solemn meetings with presidents — Marshall is acknowledging and tacitly approving the Hard Work Essay, fact that none of Likert Scale Interval Image Gallery these meant what they were portrayed to mean. (26) In Worcester , Marshall gives greater recognition to the strategy of subterfuge through which native peoples were now being determined by the highest court of the country to Custom Certificate have been conquered: Fierce and warlike in Scale Interval - Hcpr, their character, they [the Indians] might be formidable enemies, or effective friends. Instead of rousing their resentments, by asserting claims to their lands, or to 1420.1b dominion over their persons, their alliance was sought by flattering professions, and purchased by rich presents. [. Likert Scale Confidence Gallery - Hcpr. . Custom Templates | Free. .] Not well acquainted with the exact meaning of words, nor supposing it to be material whether they were called the subjects, or the children of their father in Europe; lavish in professions of Image - Hcpr duty and affection, in return for the rich presents they received; so long as their actual independence was untouched, and their right to self government acknowledged, they were willing to profess dependence on the powers which furnished them supplies of which they were in absolute need, and restrained dangerous intruders from entering their country: and this was probably the sense in which the term was understood by them. At this point, Marshall's history of Inviting Stakeholders Sessions: 14 Tips Euro-Indian relations conforms more precisely to what the Cherokees describe in their Memorials, but, of Confidence Image course, the damage is done.
The Legacy and Significance of the New and Different Rule (27) The legacy of M'Intosh , on its own and in the context of the trilogy cases, is of the veritable forked tongue. The new and different rule Marshall approves is that saying one thing and doing another is a sanctioned expedient for furthering national interests. With the new rule come ancillary principles of exclusion and oppression, and a model for Printing - Custom Services | Sungraphics a privileged, bi-level application of law. Under Marshall's new rule, agreements securing any rights of marginalized peoples are temporary markers on Likert Interval Image - Hcpr, the next boundaries to Hard Work Essay be surreptitiously seized and reset by imperialistic or nationalistic bulldozers. Evidence of Likert Interval Image Gallery this fact can be seen in the continuing struggles of Native Americans to Templates Market retain and utilize even their most fundamental rights to self-government left to them by the Marshall trilogy. Continued judiciary erosion of those rights prompted hearings before the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs in February 2002. Professor David Getches of the University of Colorado was among the legal scholars who testified to petition congressional intervention:
Indian rights and Indian sovereignty are essential in a government-to-government relationship that goes all the way back to the founding of the nation. If the Court understood this and appreciated this grounding in original intent, Indian laws could be put back on track by Likert Confidence Interval Gallery, the Court itself, but this seems unlikely. The Court's primary mission has little to do with Indian law. Opnavinst 1420.1b. It will be up to Congress to Confidence Interval reverse this trend. (Hearing) As Committee Vice-Chairman Ben Nighthorse Campbell said at the close of those hearings, in response to Getches' testimony, with a succinctness that can only come from aged exasperation, [. . .] when I hear comments like yours [. . .] I do get mad [. . .] at [. . .] the way we have treated Indians in the history of this country. It seems to Hard Work Essay me that they should have two sets of Interval Gallery - Hcpr rights: that of being Native Americans as given in the treaties and that they inherit being an American, like any other American. Yet, we see a constant erosion of their rights on both sides of that equation. (28) Thus it seems that the cultural bias of white, Christian supremacy embedded in U.S. ideology with Marshall's endorsement of discovery and conquest principles continues its active destruction of native people's human rights. Template ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market. It must be noted that any implied characterization of the Indians' demise as inevitable due to some perception of inferiority on their part is Likert Scale Interval - Hcpr, belied by the events of Templates record in the trilogy cases. Likert Confidence Interval Image. Krupat's analysis of the tenor of the Cherokee Memorials is compelling here:
The Cherokee memorialists will not allow their dispossession to be seen as savagist ideology would have it, as inevitable or necessary, neither God's will, nor Nature's law. Rather, should they be translated west of the Mississippi, such an outcome would be the result of no more than the force of Business - Custom Services | Sungraphics American imperial power. (161) Indeed, the political savvy and eloquence of the Cherokee leaders, apparent in those excerpts from their Memorials previously quoted, deeply affected Justice Joseph Story, who co-signed Justice Thompson's dissent to Scale Confidence Interval - Hcpr the majority opinion authored by Marshall in the Cherokee case. Some measure of Story's regret regarding the government's treatment of the Cherokees can be seen in this excerpt from a January 13, 1832, letter to his wife: At Philadelphia, I was introduced to two of the chiefs of the Custom & Premium, Cherokee Nation so sadly dealt with by the State of Likert Image Georgia. They are both educated men, and conversed with a singular force and Officer Sample propriety of language upon their own case, the law of which they perfectly understood and reasoned upon. I never in my whole life was more affected by the consideration that they and all their race are destined to destruction. And I feel, as an American, disgraced by our gross violation of the public faith towards them. I fear, and greatly fear, that in the course of Providence there will be dealt to us a heavy retributive justice. (qtd. in Scale Image - Hcpr, Lubbers 65) Examination of this passage shows Story falling prey to the all-too-human tendency to at first shift culpability (to the State of Georgia), only to be crushed, within the same breath, by the recoil of such suppression, since the gross violation of the Custom Certificate | Free & Premium, public faith towards them rests, as he says, with all Americans.
(29) Greed wrote the new rule of conquest Marshall endorsed in Johnson v. M'Intosh . He could not come out and say it, but others before and after him have duly noted the emperor's nakedness in this regard. As Pagden suggests, our national origins lie in our European ancestors' melding of Christianly avaricious desires: [The American colonies] had been created out of a seemingly insatiable European need for precious metals, and an ambition, which the Ancients could scarcely have understood, to change the religious beliefs of their autochthonous inhabitants. Scale Image Gallery. (11) Certainly, the App Flyer Templates ~ Creative, blurring of Confidence Image gold and God in medieval discovery and conquest discourse was not overlooked by all people of the times, though. Resume. In his In Defense of the Likert Scale, Indians , for example, the 16th century Dominican friar Bartolome de las Casas excoriates Spain's use of forced conversion of native peoples to Christianity, pursuant to the discovery rule, as a means to seize their lands: All this drags innumerable souls to Stakeholders Sessions: 14 Tips ruin and blocks the service of spreading the Christian religion by closing the eyes of those who, crazed by blind ambition, bend all their energies of mind and body to the one purpose of gaining wealth, power, honors, and dignities. For the sake of these things they kill and destroy with inhuman cruelty people who are completely innocent, meek, harmless, temperate, and quite ready and Scale Confidence Interval Image - Hcpr willing to receive and embrace the word of God. (26)
Long before the trilogy cases, greed had become sacralized in Inviting 14 Tips, the foundations of United States American ideology. In this respect, Williams is right; M'Intosh is a fait accompli formality. Kades makes the very good point, in support of his cost-efficiency view of M'Intosh , that, If it were cheaper to be more brutal, then Europeans would have been more brutal (Dark Side). Likert Scale Confidence Image - Hcpr. However, from the history of Euro-Indian relations Marshall uses to justify his new and ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative different rule, we can see that Marshall, at Confidence Interval Image - Hcpr least, had concluded the native peoples could not have been defeated, at least when their numbers were strong, on brute force alone. (29) Marshall's new rule mythologized a false and schizophrenic memory of Euro-Indian relations in Printing Services | Sungraphics, the United States that continues to twist and shift through our popular culture today. One of the new, 2004 United States nickel designs, for example, incorporates the 1801 Thomas Jefferson peace medal image of. [. . .] two hands clasped in friendship — one with a military uniform cuff, symbolizing the American government, and the other with a silver band adorned with beads and a stylized American eagle, representing the Scale Confidence Interval Image, Native American community with whom the United States sought good relations. (New Nickels)
That handshake, the international symbol of partnership and good will between respected equals, was interpreted by Business Form Services, Marshall as a justifiably deceptive measure toward New World conquest and land seizure. The seeding of our collective memory with such contradictions hampers our ability to Likert Scale Confidence Interval Gallery - Hcpr recognize, as Justice Story did, the gross violation of the public faith committed toward Native Americans. If we cannot see the treatment of Native Americans for what it is and has been, we surely cannot see how their degradation degraded all of us, or how the U.S. Dental Officer Sample. government's endorsement of deceit and treachery in furtherance of national interests set in motion, along the lines that Silko's Ceremony suggests, an almost hypnotic suggestion of self-perpetuating avarice in our national ideology. (30) Pagden sees the United States' ambitions for global democracy as the third wave of the Imperium Romanum-turned-Imperium Christianum ideology (24) that fed our originary colonizing discourse: The modern United States still pursues very much the same political ideology with respect to Likert Image Gallery - Hcpr their relationship with the rest of the world. If the European settlers exported to America one notion of a civitas, sustained and enforced by a corresponding vision of a Christian imperium, their descendents have created a universal order based upon another, but no less encompassing, conception of civility: democracy, an ideology which is quite as pervasive, and certainly as demanding as its ancient (and its Christian) ancestors. (199)
The internal manifestations of our present-day Imperium Democraticum, as it were, are no less pervasive, demanding, or exclusionary. As Pagden says, the model for U.S. democracy relies for its civilizing machinery upon an exalted vision of commerce (199-200). Satisfaction of this vision's demands currently forces stratifications across race, class, and culture lines that limit many United States Americans' abilities to achieve economic progress and, in some cases, survival. Greed is an ancient, primitive impulse that only truly became dangerous when it masked itself in the guise of civilization and Christianity. The decisions in the Marshall trilogy adopted the guise into United States democratic ideology. Until we can see and begin to rectify the guise's first harm to the Native Americans, we cannot begin to Hard Work Essay arrest its continuing damage to Scale Confidence Image Gallery our culture and restore our founding, democratic principles toward fulfillment of their original promise. Burke, Joseph C. The Cherokee Cases: A Study in Law, Politics, and Officer Sample Morality.
Native American Law and Colonialism, Before 1776-1903 . Ed. John R. Scale Confidence Interval Image Gallery. Wunder. New York: Garland, 1996. 136-67. Casas, Bartolome de las. In Defense of the Indians . Ed. Trans. Stafford Poole. DeKalb: Northern Illinois UP, 1974. Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia.
30 U.S. 1. U.S. Supr. Ct. 1831. Lexis-Nexis. Design & Premium. 23 Sep. 03. Deloria, Vine, Jr. Confidence Interval Image Gallery. American Indians in Stakeholders To Usability Sessions: 14 Tips, Historical Perspective. Native American Law and Colonialism, Before 1776-1903 . Ed. John R. Wunder.
New York: Garland, 1996. 123-34. Deloria, Vine, Jr., and David E. Wilkins. Scale - Hcpr. Tribes, Treaties, and Constitutional Tribulations . Austin: U of Texas P, 1999. Fletcher v. Peck. 10 U.S. 87. U.S. Supr. Hard Work Essay. Ct. 1810.
Lexis-Nexis. 11 Sep. Confidence Interval Gallery. 03. Hearing Before the Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session on Concerns of Recent Decisions of the U.S. Business Printing Services. Supreme Court and Likert Scale Confidence Image Gallery the Indian Tribal Governments in America. 27 Feb. 02. U.S.
Government Printing Office. 24 Oct. 03. http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS20968. Johnson, Herbert Alan. John Marshall. The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Inviting Stakeholders To Usability Sessions: 14 Tips Major Opinions . Likert Confidence Interval Gallery - Hcpr. Vol. 1. Eds. Leon Friedman and Template ~ Flyer ~ Creative Market Fred L. Israel.
New York: Chelsea, 1997. 181-99. Johnson v. M'Intosh. 21 U.S. 543. U.S. Supr. Ct. 1823. Lexis-Nexis. 21 Oct. 03. Kades, Eric. The Dark Side of Efficiency: Johnson v. M'Intosh and the Expropriation of American Indian Lands. U of Pa. Likert Confidence Interval Gallery - Hcpr. Law Review 148 (Apr.
2000):1065-1190. App Flyer Template Templates ~ Creative. Lexis-Nexis. 23 Sep. 03. ---. History and Interpretation of the Great Case of Johnson v. M'Intosh . Law and History Review 19.1(Spring 2001): 67+. 11 Sep. 03. http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/lhr/19.1/kades.html. Krupat, Arnold.
Ethnocriticism: Ethnography, History, and Literature . Berkeley: U of California P, 1992. Lubbers, Klaus. Born for the Shade: Stereotypes of the Native Americans in United States Literature and the Visual Arts, 1776-1894 . Likert Interval - Hcpr. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1994. Pagden, Anthony. Lords of All the To Usability Sessions:, World: Ideologies of Empire in Spain, Britain, and France c. 1500 – c. 1800 . New Haven: Yale UP, 1995. Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony . New York: Penguin, 1977. Washburn, Wilcomb E. The Moral and Legal Justifications for Dispossessing the Indians. Seventeenth Century America: Essays in Colonial History . Ed. James Morton Smith.
New York: Norton, 1972. 15-32. Williams, Robert A., Jr. The American Indian in Western Legal Thought: The Discourses of Scale Confidence Interval Image Gallery Conquest . New York: Oxford UP, 1990.
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Contemporary Issues in Travel and Tourism. Get your First Order at 25% off. Essay Writing Travel and Tourism Contemporary Issues in Travel and Tourism. Tourism is travel for entertaining, business and leisure purpose. According to - Hcpr World Tourism Organization tourists can be defined as “travelling to 50 Creative & Premium and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purpose (Williamson, 2003).
The present study will focus on identifying contemporary issues in travel and tourism industry, it will analyze current issues and changes in the travel and tourism sector and will critically evaluate their impact on the tourism industry. Analyze issues currently driving changes in the travel and tourism sector. Tourism is important and vital for every country today and can be said as an activity essential to the existence of countries because of its direct impact on social, cultural, educational and economic sectors of the countries (Vance and et.al., 2011) Instant Essay Writing. Travel and tourism plays an important role in Interval - Hcpr, Egypt’s economy. The stunning, colossal monuments of Ancient Egypt never fail to Business Form Printing Services | Sungraphics overwhelm and the heat, sand and light of the Likert Scale Image Gallery desert rejuvenate. More than 10 million tourists visit Egypt every year providing revenue of nearly $ 10 billion. Tourists arrivals in Hard Work Essay, Egypt has raise from 5.5 million in 2000 to 14 million in 2010.
Egypt is ranked as 75th position in world’s best travel and tourism destinations. The inbound and outbound tourism segments have witnessed positive growth in Egypt regardless of slow growth during the worldwide slump (Harrison, 2006). The outbound travel tourism market in the country is enduring exceptional transformation and it’s likely to sustain growth and development whereas inbound market will continue to contribute share in the revenue of the Likert Interval Image industry. Travel and tourism industry is witnessing many types of changes worldwide these include: Technological changes: these include changes in Mobile App Flyer ~ Flyer Market, information and communication technology (ICT) and developments in transport system. ICT has had considerable impacts on the travel and tourism industry and customers are reaching their travelling destinations by making bookings online through online bookers (Petrova and Mason 2004).
Social changes: trends like more people living alone, families led by single parent and increase in number of empty nester households raises issues of product and Confidence Interval, service provision for the travel and tourism industry. Liberalization Many visitors and tourists are attracting towards other countries and destinations because of the Inviting Stakeholders To Usability Sessions: 14 Tips liberalization policy in UK about the visa (Swarbrooke and Horner, 2012). This has resulted in fall of business of UK travelling companies. Changes in consumer demand demand for different types of destinations are rising, people wants more holidays for Confidence Interval Image Gallery - Hcpr travelling, demand for Dental Sample high quality standards is also increasing in the industry (Triantafillidou and et.al., 2010). Product developments: new products are introduced in the industry such as budget (no add-ons) airlines and Likert Scale Confidence Image, hotels for 50 Creative identified customer groups. Analyze different current issues using appropriate methods and Likert Scale Confidence Image, resources. The world is a relentlessly changing place and the issues affecting the travel tourism industry diverge from Hard Work Essay place to the next and from one day to the next. The factors affecting the tourism industry may be political or it can be influenced by Scale Interval Gallery - Hcpr, worldwide economic development or they can be climatic or even tectonic such as tsunami calamity in 2004 (Zehrer and Siller 2007). Advances in the Information and Communication Technology are having a deep effect on life of people and particularly the coming out of e-tourism which is leading to changes in the composition of travel tourism industry. For some companies in the tourism industry globalization seems to be the most profitable resolution and global conglomerates are beginning to appear, witnessing growth from hotel chains to tour operators (Vrana and Zafiropoulos, 2006).
E-tourism is the use of ICT to facilitate tourism destinations and providers to function more effectively and to reach customers worldwide and Inviting 14 Tips, serve them. As one of the most popular industry the travel tourism is Likert Confidence Interval, as discovered as any other to the threats and opportunities bring about by all developments in ICT. Opnavinst Programs)! Today online booking systems, with their amenities to compare, search and purchase tourism products have transform the method the tourism sector accomplish its dayto-day business (Stone, 2013). The arrival of the Scale internet has had a considerate effect on the travel tourism sector and travel has turn into the single greatest category of Opnavinst, products services sold online. E-retailing is the advertising of Likert Scale Confidence Interval, travel and tourism products by electronic method over the internet. Presently travel is the utmost e-commerce category on the internet, representing around one third of entire online business. The sale of travel products is preferably matched to the online channel, given the survival of wide network of global travel suppliers (e.g. hotels, airlines and tour packages) and a vastly isolated customer pool. E-retailing also helps organizations to manage well with one of the travel tourism key properties- the Hard Work Essay fact that the industries’ products are perishable (Ingram, 2002). Over recent years the Likert Interval - Hcpr gaining popularity of online travel booking companies or agencies among people has led to a speedy migration of travel bookings from Form Printing Services | Sungraphics conventional means to online channels such as E bookers, Lastminute.com etc. Understand how the travel tourism sector responds to change.
The crowning glory of Trafalgar Square, London’s National Gallery is one of the beautiful galleries with a vast space filled with Western European paintings from the 13th to Confidence Interval - Hcpr the 19th centuries (Tosun and Timothy, 2001). In this iconic gallery works by masters such as Van Gogh, da Vinci, Botticelli, Constable, Renoir, Titian and Stubbs can be found. SWOT analysis of the UK tourism industry. The major strength of the UK tourism industry is that the industry is taking initiatives for Green destination and is having good infrastructure. Certificate | Free! It is also maintaining a good cultural relationship with other different countries of the world (O'Connor, 2011). Industry is having weaknesses of lack of accessibility, isolated industry, poor customer services, dissatisfaction among customers, less variety of food. Opportunities in front of the industry is branding positioning of UK travel products, industry can gain many opportunities by strengthening its eco-tourism and developing its market. The industry must focus on introducing new travel tourism products and Scale Confidence Interval Image - Hcpr, services in the market.
UK tourism sector is also facing threats like competition from other tourists’ destination places, there is an indirect competition from other substitutes, and various political, social, economical and technological factors are also creating threats for the industry (Sherlock, 1999). The UK travel and tourism industry is influencing the Government to Business Form Printing discard the tourism tax proposals currently being considered by the Lyons Inquiry into local government. UK launches a probe into travel insurance and would consider new legislation if it uncovered miss-selling practices (Fynn, 2004). Airline that advertise attractive fares but add further charges once the customer has decided to buy might find they performing illegally under EU proposals. Holiday or flights bought online can prove to be costly for the consumer if the airline, tour operator or hotel collapses either before or during stay.
The Air Travel Insolvency Protection Advisory Committee, a Government body that was put up to object air travelers, reports that many consumers are parting themselves open to financial risk because they incorrectly assume they are covered, either through the travel operator or by their insurance, against companies collapsing (Inskipp, 2008). After analyzing the industry it can be said that the industry could do more to attract 20 million potential visitors .Visit Britain and the national registered charity tourism for all UK are working together to ensure that older people and those with sensory and mobility impairments, can enjoy the same holiday experiences as the rest of the population (Sharpley, 2006). Many numbers of travel consultants are opting to carry out their business from Scale Confidence Image Gallery home and many of the Officer Sample leading travel organizations are competing to attract people to their firms. The industry persisting to come under attack for the environmental damage it causes. Corporate social responsibilities has increased the Likert Scale Image Gallery importance of travel companies in recent years and the leading companies like Thomas Cook Group, My Travel Group and First Choice Holidays has individuals whose sole responsibility is Sample, CSR (Dale and Likert Scale Interval Image - Hcpr, Oliver, 2005). Technology has speedily become main weapons for every company in the travel tourism industry, to Officer Resume remain ahead in the cut throat competition. The hotel industry looks keen to pursue the airline industry into the bunch exercise of online check-in with guest services becoming the significant competition for Likert Scale Confidence Interval Image the sector. Many of the Sessions: 14 Tips travelling firms are investing in Scale Confidence Image Gallery - Hcpr, relationship technology that could eventually lead to online check-in and even check-in through other media, including cell phones (Smith III., 2005). The industry is also using technology like “polymer electronic displays” where chips are inserted into plastic sheets so that information can be updated automatically.
Dynamic packaging in tourism industry keeps on 1420.1b (officer evolving and is determined by the consumer’s desire for choice and flexibility in travel arrangements (Swarbrooke and Horner, 2012). Economic factors have their impact on individual company’s offerings and purchasing power of potential customers. UK economy is getting advantages from gradually low rate of inflation, in the country unemployment is low, job confidence is high and because of this confidence spending power is Scale Confidence Interval Image Gallery - Hcpr, high of the 50 Creative Custom Certificate & Premium consumer (Spilsbury, 2011). Predictions point to Likert Scale Interval Gallery - Hcpr continuing GDP growth over the period averaging around 2.4 a year with real household disposable income rising at a somewhat faster rate. Exchange rates are flattering for UK residents for traveling abroad due to strong position of British Pound as compared to other foreign currencies and also it is Hard Work Essay, stable against other currencies. The downturn is that disparities between the Scale wealthier parts of the country and pockets of deprivation will get extensive with implications for App Flyer Templates ~ Creative travel demand. These are likely to impact the development of UK resident travel market (Fynn, 2004). Analyze the impacts of issue and trends that drive changes in the travel and tourism sector. Thomas Cook is one the world’s largest travel service organization operating in different countries; it offers flight bookings, hotels and vacations together with mainstream and independent holiday options and Scale Confidence Interval Image, also offering its services to Sample Resume about 24 million consumers.
The company operates on Interval Image Gallery its mission statement “to be the best travel company in Dental Officer Resume, the world to travel with, work for, and invest in.” company also implements its operation on basis of Interval Image, marketing strategy of improving performance in mainstream tour operating, making significant innovations in independent travel, travel related financial services and Hard Work Essay, emerging markets and Image Gallery - Hcpr, making overall revenue and profit (Tosun and Timothy, 2001). Its main competitors are American Express Company, Carlson Wagonlit Travel, Inc. and TUI Travel PLC; these companies give a tough competition to Thomas Cook. There are various factors that drive changes in the travel and tourism industry. Companies in the industry are making efforts to overcome the challenges and issues in the sector. (officer Programs)! Organizations are adopting strategies like mergers and acquisitions in order to increase the Likert Scale Interval Gallery customer and profitability (Ayre, 2013). There are various issues also that impact the industry immensely such as terrorist attacks, pandemics and health panic and disaster like floods, cyclones, earthquake etc. All these issue has wrinkled the share of travel 7 tourism industry. There are many trends which the travel and tourism industry has witnessed such as development and advancement of inns and motels (Buckingham, 2012). Many types of Opnavinst 1420.1b Programs), luxury hotels, resorts, casinos, club house etc have been established that are offering luxury and comfort to the customers.
Not unexpectedly, given the Likert Scale Interval Gallery - Hcpr huge advances in technological relevance for the travel tourism sector today consumer is constantly bunged into To Usability, the World Wide Web. Likert! Because of online search tourists of all age’s groups are very well informed about the Resume travel tourism products and services. Online booking facilities is enabling the customers to book their staying and travelling tickets from any part of the world. Information about the hotels, resorts and their occupancy is Likert Confidence Interval Image Gallery, available on their relevant websites (Mirbabayev and Shagazatova, 2013). Use of Hard Work Essay, technology keep informed the customers about the travel and tourism products and services. Customers can design their tour and Gallery, travelling packages as per their choices and willingness. Mobile technology has now furthered more people can able to book, research and review travel products between the journeys.
Consequences of Inviting Stakeholders To Usability, businesses failing to respond to market changes. Organization in travel tourism industry failing to respond to market changes can result in various consequences for the business. Booming tourism relies on creating a fundamental infrastructure such as visitor centers, roads and hotels, the cost of this falls on government so it has to come out of Likert Confidence Gallery - Hcpr, tax revenues (Inskipp, 2008). Jobs generated by Opnavinst (officer, tourism are frequently seasonal and poorly paid, yet tourism can push local property prices and cost of goods services (Zehrer and Siller, 2007). Money raised by the tourism not always benefits the local community, as some of it leaks out to Likert Scale Confidence Gallery great international companies such as hotel chains.
Tourist behavior can have a detrimental effect on the quality of life of the host community for example drugs alcohol problems, crowding and congestion. Failing to respond to market changes in the industry can lead to decline in Programs), sales of travel tourism products, it will also affect their profitability, and profit margin of the Confidence Interval Image Gallery - Hcpr industry will become low (Triantafillidou and et.al., 2010). Competitors will become strong and can give a strong competition to the company, there will be a decline in the rate of consumers also, and consumers will find products of other travel companies more interesting and innovative, hence they can shift on to another option. Officer Sample Resume! There can be a negative impact on Likert Scale Interval - Hcpr the images of products services. Rate of suppliers for the business will also become low as a result it will affect the supply chain management of the business (Williamson, 2003). From the above study it can be concluded that travel tourism industry is growing and expanding day by day. Every travel agency or organization makes effort to innovate and Officer, advance their travel products to ensure better services to customers all over the world. The companies in this industry use various tools and methods to promote their businesses and invest lot of money in attracting the customers (Harrison, 2006). There are certain issues and challenges which are need to be look out specially the terrorism issue which is exploiting the travel tourism market immensely. Companies must respond to Likert Gallery changes in the industry because if they fail to react to these changes definitely they can lose their profitability and sustainability (Louise, 2011).
Lots of Hard Work Essay, new companies are emerging in this sector by Likert Image Gallery, coming with different kinds of Dental Officer Resume, travel tourism facilities to people, so the existing companies need to Scale Interval Image Gallery - Hcpr keep on adopting diverse kind of strategies to remain in the competition. Williamson, J., 2003. A Dictionary of Travel and Certificate Design Templates, Tourism. Reference Reviews. 17(3). Vance, M. C. and Likert - Hcpr, et.al., 2011.
Building global competencies through experiential coursework in international travel and tourism. Journal of International Education in Business. Hard Work Essay! 4(1). Harrison, D., 2006. Scale Image! Dictionary of Leisure, Travel a 398.nd Tourism (3rd edition). Reference Reviews, 20(3).
Petrova, P. and Mobile Template ~ Flyer Market, Mason, P., 2004. The value of Confidence Interval Gallery, tourism degrees: a Luton-based case study. Education + Training. 46(3). Triantafillidou, A. and et.al., 2010. Pilgrimages: the “promised land” for travel agents?.
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 22(3). Enter your Phone number to receive latest updates for offers, discounts much more! Refer our services to Hard Work Essay your friends to win amazing. Get App Copyright 2017 @ Instant Essay Writing.
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