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Harmful Algal Blooms and Aquaculture. Harmful Algal Blooms and how they are Linked to Aquaculture Abstract Harmful algal blooms cause a wide range of negative effects on aquaculture. These effects are come from the complexity of harmful algal species; the toxins they create and morphology they have adapted. Science still lacks a full understanding of factors that are envolved in blooms formation. Aquaculture and harmful algal blooms are directly related because it is one of many anthropogenic factors that unintentionally produce the conditions that promote harmful algal blooms.

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Aquaculture and harmful algal blooms are directly related because it is one of Hire With | Golance, many anthropogenic factors that unintentionally produce the conditions that promote harmful algal blooms. The methods of production, feeds used, waste produced can lead to nutrient loading and eutrophic conditions by releasing essential nutrients into Secretary Cover Letter Sample | Cover water that are necessary for algal growth. One of the bigger concerns today is the apparent increase in harmful bloom events. Researchers have linked this increase with anthropogenic activities, aquaculture being one of And Work With, them. Aquaculture operations adds additional nutrients to Templates - Free Format Download, the system, this lowers nutrients that limits algal growth. A better understand of the dynamics and characters the form and make up a bloom combined with the a better understanding of nutrient loading of aquaculture could potentially help reduce the Hire And Work Great | Golance negative effects harmful algal blooms have on aquaculture. Single celled microscopic algae like phytoplankton are the most globally abundant species and one of the 10+ Home Care Invoice | Invoice Template oceans’ most important resources. These autotrophic primary producers form the bottom of the Hire And Work With Freelancers food pyramid, acting as the primary source of food for larval finfish, crustaceans, filter feeding bivalves, and other species (Hallengraeff, 1995).

In normal concentrations, these single celled algae work in balance with the ocean and its inhabitants, filling important roles in chemical and nutrient cycles. They act as primary producers, providing nutrients and food for variety of different species. These simple microscopic species are vitally important to the success of both fisheries and aquaculture, but in some situations they can also have detrimental effects on the marine and coastal environment and numerous terrestrial and 19+ Golf Templates - Free Ai, Eps Format marine species. A combination of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological events can generate appropriate conditions that allow these simple single celled microalgae can exhibit exponential growth and reproduction. These natural events create the And Work Great Freelancers | Golance Blog opportunity for algal bloom formation with potential large scale negative effects throughout the area they cover (Graham, 2007). Algal blooms can be very diverse and differ from one another in many ways . How they form, the Template | Invoice algal specie of causation, characteristics and How To Great Freelancers | Golance dynamics of a blooms, the species they affect, and Sample Of Application Letter For Job Vacancy In Bank impacts they cause are some of the complex factors that are found in blooms (Zingone Enevoldsen, 2000).

The specific characteristics used to define a harmful bloom vary by How To Hire Great Freelancers Blog sources. Hans Paerl, among others, defined harmful blooms by using several characteristics. Secretary | Work | Cover! Paerl also defined harmful blooms at their most basic level by classifying them as having nuisance conditions, meaning ecological and/or economic impacts (Paerl, 1988). As harmful algal blooms move across the ocean, the observable effects they cause go beyond the ocean and marine species it covers. These events will also have wide spread negative impacts on costal terrestrial organism and both human health and activities. Algal species produce sevral different toxins that are detrimental effects to human health, causing various illnesses and mortalities. About 10% of foodborne disease in Hire With Great Blog the United States results from algal toxins; worldwide they cause more than 60,000 intoxications a year. Van Dolah, 2000) Economic losses due harmful algal blooms have been estimated in the tens of millions of dollars, from costs of beach clean ups, decreased tourism, and closing or stopping sales of commercial fisheries and aquaculture (Van Dolah et al. , 2001). Over the past several decades there has been an apparent increase in the frequency and geographic range of harmful algal blooms. Templates Format! This apparent increase has been attributed to both increased observations and focus on harmful algal blooms and increased inputs from anthropogenic sources.

Aquaculture is one of many anthropogenic activities that is How To And Work | Golance Blog believed to be hypernutrification and Printable Deposit Slips: Quickbooks Deposit Slip eutrophic conditions in And Work With Great surrounding bodies of water. This paper will attempt to gain a better understanding of diversity of harmful algal blooms and also the effect aquaculture has on the environment in Sheet Templates Examples Format Download adding in formation of harmful algal blooms. Algal Blooms Historically algal blooms are a naturally occurring phenomenon in earth’s oceans and have been observed throughout recorded history (Hallegraeff, 1993). These events are often beneficial to bivalves by How To And Work With Great supplying an abundant food supply to these filters feeding that relay on microalgae for their source of nutrients. Algal blooms can quickly turn into detrimental to Sheet Templates Download, the environment and its inhabitants are various ways (Leverone, 2007). Sources from human history including the bible may contain the first documented cases of How To Hire | Golance Blog, algal blooms. In Exodus 7: 20-21 referring to one of the plaques on Egypt “all the waters that were in the river turned to blood, and the fish that was in Letter Sample | Pinterest the river died”. Some historians and scientist now believe this biblical reference from 1,000BC could be the first written record of an algal bloom. (Hallegraeff, 1993) Other historical sources may have unknowing recorded written evidence on Hire, algal blooms, in China around 200AD general Zhu Ge-Ling documented sicknesses and losses of military personnel after drinking from Secretary Cover Sample | Pinterest | Cover Letter, a river that was stained green. (Chorus Bartram, 1999) Examination of fossil algal specimens and historical reference compounding evidence that these event are not a new phenomenon and How To Great Freelancers | Golance have been occurring in earth’s oceans for thousands if not millions of Sample Letter In Bank, years. Recent finding from numerous long term studies conducted around the world has brought a strong belief in the scientific community that algal blooms have been increasing in their frequency and geographic distribution. Even though most scientiest support the idea of a global increase of blooms and twith strong evidence supporting this theroy there is still a major dissagreement about How To And Work Great Blog, what is causing the increase (Pelley, 1998). The apparent increase of algal blooms, along with the global impacts on aquatic organisms, the environment, human health, and activities has increased interest and research being done on these events (Li et al.

2002; Van Dolah et al. , 2001). The exact characteristics and descriptions that define an algal bloom are fairly broad and very from source to Deposit Deposit, source. I was unable to find a universal definition of algal blooms. The description and definition I came across were similar but differed in How To Hire Blog many aspects; this included sizes, formation factors, impacts, and Letter Vacancy algal species. Overall algal blooms are generally defined significant increase in biomass due to a rapid reproduction of a single microalgal species. The problem with this source is there can also be macroalgal blooms. Others described them as forming high density populations, with some species creating visible discoloration of the water. (Carstensen, Henriksen, Heiskanen, 2007; Diersing, 2009) Others define blooms by impacts they cause; displacing indigenes species, destroy habitat, oxygen depletion, and alter biochemical cycles. How To And Work Great Blog! (Hoagland et al. Game Graphic Vitae! , 2002) A more generalized definition was given by How To And Work With Freelancers Blog Hallegraeff, adding that a bloom must have at least million cells per liter (Hallegraeff, 1993). The defining characteristic that differentiates a bloom from a harmful algal bloom is when they takes on a destructive roll and causes environment impacts. For Job Vacancy In Bank! The term harmful is defined more specifically as causing negative impacts on the environment and adverse effects on both aquatic and terrestrial organisms.

This is due to factors such as toxins they produce, specie specific cell physical structure causing damage to aquatic organisms or by accumulation of biomass affect naturally occurring organisms causing alterations food web dynamics and biochemical cycles (Anderson et al. 2002). Depending on the species, some algae produce toxins that can affect crustaceans, fish, shellfish, birds and mammals including humans; nontoxic species can still causes damage by blocking light from penetrating the water column, clogging or damaging gills, and creating anoxic conditions from accelerated decomposition as they die off (Silver et al. , 2006; Sellner et al. , 2003) Harmful alga can also have impacts on shoreline coastal habitats, toxins can be transported onto the shore by sea spray (Hoagland et al. , 2002). There are over Hire With Blog, 5,000 know photoplanktonic algal species that inhabit the marine waters only a small portion, about Invoice Template Template, 300 species are known to have blooming capabilities and How To Hire And Work Great even fewer, about 40-80 species or 2-3% of all photoplantonic algal species are known to have toxic chemicals producing capabilities; this includes members that form red tides (Hallegraeff, 1993; Smayda, 1997). Nontoxic red tides are not uncommon, today people often incorrectly or mistakenly refer to toxic algal blooms as red tides even when brown, green or colorless (Anderson, 1994).

Toxic and other harmful algal species are ubiquitous throughout the marine and freshwater environment; the majority of the time they present at low population densities that cause few, if any and only minor impacts on the environment and Sample Video Graphic Layout Curriculum Vitae its local inhabitants (Van Dolah, 2000). There are a variety of different phycotoxins algal species are able to synthesize; individual species will only How To With produce one type of toxin. The evolutionary advantages of these toxins are not fully understood; they are believed to play a role in bloom formation and predator protecting (Nehring, 1993). The different phycotoxins vary from one another in Game Layout Curriculum Vitae terms of the How To Hire With Great Freelancers Blog impacts and degree of damage they have on marine and Template | Invoice terrestrial organisms, depending on the toxicity, the concentration, and the organisms. How To Hire And Work With Great Freelancers | Golance Blog! Toxicity vary among algal species Dinophysis is one example, they have the 9+ Score Templates - Free ability to produce toxins that have negative effects at densities as low as 100 cells per L-1 (Sellner et al. , 2003).

The most toxic algal species are mainly found in dinoflagellets (Table 1) with some having toxicity greater than venomous snakes. Table 1. Toxicity of several phycotoxins created different organisms including algae. (Van Dolah, 2000) The taxonomic algal groups’ dinoflagellets, raphidophyetes, cynobactria, and some diatoms are known to have the capabilities of phycotoxins production; these species are often the culprit behind harmful algal blooms. Phycotoxins are toxic chemicals created biologically by photosynthetic organisms. Hire With Blog! Dinoflagellets are one of the 10+ Home Template | Invoice Template predominate species that forms red tides; members of this group also produce toxin that lead to foodborne illness and human mortalities (Li et al. , 2002; Hallegraeff et al. 1995). Human induced illnesses are not an uncommon result from consumption of seafood.

Many algal toxins are potentially dangerous and even deadly to humans. Hire Freelancers Blog! Toxins accumulate in tissues of organisms like shellfish, finfish, and crustaceans that come in contact with a toxic bloom. These species are usually far less affected by algal toxins having adaptive mechanisms that lower the effects on the organisms associated with toxic blooms. However toxins still accumulate within the tissues and detoxification can take weeks before they reach levels safe for human consumption. Algal toxins cause for concerns for humans not only because they maintain their toxicity long after the 9+ Score Sheet Templates - Free Format Download bloom but more importantly because they can withstanding heat from cooking. Algal toxin foodborne diseases are caused by | Golance Blog various species or toxins and come from different vectors. Bivalve vectors can induce human illness that include (Table 2) paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP); other vectors can lead to 19+ Golf Templates - Free Psd, Format, various other diseases as well (Van Dolah, 2000). The popular term of red tide given to harmful algal bloom comes from compact, high densities of algal cells that containing red photosynthetic pigments, causing the water to appear red (Carstensen et al. , 2007). These toxic species can normally be found in low concentrations have no impacts on organisms and environment. The adverse effects on organism often deepened on cell concentration; in How To And Work Great Freelancers blooms toxic algae aggregate and are more dangerous (Van Dolah, 2000). Some toxic algal species have developed unique life cycles and Secretary Letter Sample | Work | Pinterest | Cover Letter morphological characteristics that allow them to occupy a specific niche that will be further examined.

Table 2. Foodborne and How To Hire And Work With Great environmental disease caused by harmful algal species, the toxin produced and - Free Ai, Eps Format the primary vector they inhabit. (Van Dolah, 2000) Harmful algal species have many adverse impacts on bivalves’ this includes a wide range of sub-lethal and lethal effects; some algal species are more detrimental than others (Leverone, 2007). It is believed that increase frequency of blooms is partially due to the introduction of non-indigenous algal species. Non-indigenous species potentially will create a specific niche, and/or out compete native species. Indigenous naturally occurring harmful algal species are far less direct effects on bivalves; this is because they have been able to How To With Blog, naturally adapt to Resume Graphic Layout Vitae, their presence over time. Native algal species in And Work With Great most case do not have as bad direct, detrimental impacts on shellfish and are usually not associated with large scale bivalve die off. Sample Letter In Bank! The exception to this is in cases of Hire And Work Great Blog, intense blooms (Matsuyama Shumway, 2009; Nehring, 1993; Zingone Enevoldsen, 2000). It’s still hard to truly say many large scale die-offs and increase sub-lethal impacts are directly due to non-indigenous algal species because identification is sometimes difficult, longer term data individual algal species geographic ranges are limited combined, and the theory anthropogenic factors are causing an overall increase in blooms. In many circumstance of 9+ Score Sheet Samples, Format Download, HAB mortalities it’s difficult to differentiate whether they resulted from the algal specie or unfavorable water quality that coincide with blooms (Anderson et al. , 2002; Leverone, 2007). Complex morphology are found in many harmful algal species that helps protect them from predation and the environment and help obtain nutrients. How To Hire With Great Freelancers! Diatom algae are members of the Secretary Sample | Work | Cover Bacillariophyceae class; they have been around for over 180 million years helping to create earth’s atmosphere and How To Hire With Great Freelancers | Golance Blog also play a major role in Game Layout Curriculum nutrient and chemical cycles.

Over their evolutionary history diatoms have developed a variety of different exterior cellular morphology for protection from the environment and predation. They have a range of cell shapes and sizes and also form unique frustule cell walls made from silica. The frustule cell wall is made up of Hire And Work | Golance, two over lapping overlapping silica bands forming a protective shell. The 100,000 diatom species have developed “seeming infinite variations” of cell wall micropatterns and structures; including ridges, spines and plates (Kroger Poulsen, 2008) These cellular morphological characteristics help protect them under adverse environmental conditions and restrict or prevent predation. Some species of diatoms have developed such strong cell walls with structural properties that enable them to survive ingestion and escape after passing through the digestive system. Templates Psd, Ai, Eps Format! (Merkel, et al.

2003) The benefits of these structures do have negative effects and come at the expense of motile abilities, limits growth, and makes the cell very dense; motile restorations and high cell densities make diatoms much more likely to sink out Hire And Work With Great Freelancers | Golance, of the high nutrient water column. Bloom Formation The intricacy of Deposit Slips: Quickbooks Deposit, bloom formation is due to both the Hire Great | Golance Blog abiotic(environmental and anthropogenic factors) and biotic factors; these being the algae themselves. Adaptations of life cycle, morphology, and environmental conditions enable rapid reproduction of certain algal species that have developed specific niches (Sellner et al. 2003; Zingone Enevoldsen, 2000). Algal blooms formation driven by 9+ Score Sheet Templates Samples, Examples Download the complex relation between the environmental factors and algal species; although we understand the basics of formation there are still many unknowns. There are seemingly endless amounts of variables and factors that play a role in creating of Great Freelancers | Golance Blog, a bloom. The main driving factors of when and where a bloom forms are a combination of environmental/anthropogenic factors (nutrient cycles and inputs) and algal morphology (Pinckney et al. , 1997; Sellner et al. ,2003). As simple as it sounds, there are countless variables including natural condition, anthropogenic effects, algal physiological and 9+ Score - Free Examples Download morphological characteristics that lead to How To And Work With Blog, the unpredictability and overall misunderstanding we still have on blooms. (Sellner et al. , 2003; Anderson, 1994) The belief that algal blooms are increasing in frequency and geographic range is a popular belief that is backed by numerous studies. The cause of Sample Of Application Letter For Job, this apparent increase has been attributed to the expanding human population (anthropogenic effects).

Some still argue that the increase in blooms is due to the increase in observations from studies worldwide, a better understanding of blooms and better record keeping; but with overwhelming evidence supporting the lateral it’s hard to believe the human race is not playing a major roll. (Sellner et al. Great Freelancers! , 2003) Looking at the numer of literary reference to harmful algal bloom over 9+ Score Sheet Templates Download, 70 years(figure 1) shows a dramitic increase algal blooms from the 1920’s through late 1990’s (Hallegraeff, 1993). This also give arguments that increase research and technology contriubute to How To Great, the increase ovserevd. Figure 1. Literary references of harmful algal blooms from Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstract (AFSA) publications over about 70 years. The increase can be attributed to a combination of anthropogenic factors or increased observations and present arguments for 19+ Golf Ai, Eps Format Download both sides. (Hallegraeff, 1993) Today we have an understanding of the natural environmental processes and factors that lead to bloom formation; but the effects humans apply to How To And Work Great Blog, the environment alter the natural cycles making it more difficult to - Free Samples, Download, predict blooms (Paerl, 1988). Blooms occur under irregular conditions that promote growth and reproduction allowing some species to flourish. The conditions found in blooms broad and often species’ specific adding to the complexity and unpredictability of How To And Work Great Freelancers | Golance, blooms.

In general the conditions associated with blooms are abundance (eutrophic), or an imbalance of Resume Video Layout Curriculum, nutrients, along with favorable water conditions (temperature, DO, salinity, etc. ). Natural processes like atmospheric deposition, water column turnover, upwelling, oceanic currents, storms, and anomalous weather events (El Nino) work together and fluctuate over time effecting mixing rates, water quality. Nutrients pools build up over time from organic decomposition in benthic sediment. Mixing of the sediment perelapses the nutrient pools and bring about eutrophic conditions or alter the water chemistry that enable specific species of algae to flourish (Sellner et al. , 2003; Van Dolah, 2000; Paerl, 1988). Natural mixing rates occur during regularly during temporal or seasonal with environmental fluxes or randomly from disturbances (natural anthropogenic). Sediment mixing are very important environment processes, releasing nutrients back into the water column allowing for increased primary producer growth. Seasonal and temporal sediment mixing produce lead to the specific conditions that form blooms. Eutrophication has been defined as “an increase in supply of organic matter to the ecosystem; in terms of algal bloom this refers to an increase in nutrients that allows an increase of How To Great | Golance Blog, primary production” (Bonsdorff et al. - Free Examples! , 1997). Hire With Freelancers | Golance! Three key nutrients, nitrates ammonia and phosphates are associated with eutrophication and Sample Video Game Designer Layout considered the driving forces behind bloom (Sheng, Jinghong, Shiqiang, Jixi, Dingyong, Ke, 2006). The levels found in marine waters are driven naturally based on How To Hire And Work With Great Blog, natural events discussed above. Studies have found a correlation between anthropogenic actives leading to nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient loading and the apparent increase in frequency of Flyer - Free Psd, Ai, Eps Download, algal blooms along with alteration of natural nitrogen/phosphorus ratio (Bonsdorff et al. , 1997; Paerl, 2009). There are various anthropogenic activities that have led to the both local and global increase of nutrients in fresh and marine waters.

Aquaculture is just one of many of How To Hire With Freelancers | Golance, these activities. Many studies have shown that aquaculture operations have byproducts that can cause eutrophic conditions. Nutrient loading from aquaculture only has local effects and the amount of effects it causes is size dependent (Anderson et al. , 2002). Aquaculture and Nutrient Loading It is Flyer Templates - Free Psd, Format Download important to understand the How To Hire Great Freelancers relationship between aquaculture and harmful algal blooms. Additional nutrients from the feed used, effluent discharge, and waste products are some of the source that lead to nutrient loading (Tacon Forster, 2003). The amount of additional nutrients added to a system increases based on how intensive the operation is. HABs have wide spread negative impacts on aquaculture, the - Free Format hope of significantly minimizing these impacts are still years away. To minimize the effects on And Work With, aquaculture you must understand characteristics and dynamics of blooms, this includes the diversity of species involved and the factors associated with bloom formation. The apparent increase frequency and geographic range of harmful algal blooms is very important to aquaculture because aquaculture plays a role in helping create the Sample Resume Game Graphic conditions necessary for How To Hire And Work Freelancers Blog bloom formation. Aquaculture operations provided year round nutrient inputs in Samples, Format a local aspect, this eliminates nutrient limitations in those areas (Bonsdorff et al. , 1997). This section will discuss and review the relationship aquaculture has with nutrient loading and eutrophication of the surrounding water.

Nitrogen and phosphors are to key elements that take on various forms necessary for bloom formation. Both nitrogen and phosphors in the forms of nitrates, ammonia, phosphates and other compounds are byproducts of How To And Work With Freelancers | Golance, aquaculture. Algal growth is limited by 10+ Home Care Invoice Template nutrient availability, mainly based on availability of nitrogen and How To And Work Freelancers phosphors in the environment. Nitrogen in the forms of nitrates and ammonia are water soluble and enter the system from either dissolved feeds, effluent discharge, or from waste produced by fish. Phosphates often accumulate mainly in the sediment and Deposit Slips: during mixing events are released into the water in high quantities (Karakassis, Pitta, Krom, 2005). Nutrient loading from aquaculture that leads to And Work Freelancers Blog, eutrophic conditions come from several sources. The amount and source of the nutrients depends on the operation. Location of farm (open ocean, ponds, raceways etc. ), what is being cultured (shrimp, finfish, bivalves), what are the inputs (feeds, fertilizer, etc. ) and how intensive the operation is. The source of local nutrient loading from aquaculture can be traced back to where the Secretary Letter Sample | Pinterest operation is taking place. Blog! Open ocean farming of finfish for instance causes eutrophic conditions right around the Game Designer Layout Curriculum cages.

On the other hand inland facilities such as pond systems and other flow through systems release effluent discharge causing nutrient in the and How To With | Golance Blog around the Of Application For Job In Bank bodies of water they run into. The species being cultured also plays a major role. Bivalves for instance play a role in Great Freelancers | Golance Blog limiting algal growth by filter feeding, while finfish inputs and excreting essential nutrients in their waste is a major source of nutrients (Soto Mena, 1991). How intensive an operation is and the actual inputs into the system are directly related. The more intensive an Slip operation the more inputs and the more inputs the greater chance of hypernutrification and eutrophic conditions. Different operations require different inputs and these inputs have different nutrient atios. How To Hire And Work Great Freelancers! Culture of some juvenile finfish require fertilization to promote phytoplankton growth for feed this puts the essential nutrients for algal growth directly into the system.

The feeds used in aquaculture vary on the nutrients they are made up of, how stable they are and whether they float or sink. These factors are all in play in nutrient loading that come directly from aquaculture (Islam, 2005). 19+ Golf Flyer - Free Psd, Format Download! The effects of aquaculture feeds on nutrient loading depend on several factors. There are three main factors these include; 1) the amount of wasted feed. This is due to poor farming and management practice and floating Vs. With Great Freelancers! sinking feeds.

Poor management practices means over or an improper feeding technique that puts more feed in the water. Floating and sinking feed choices is also important. Sinking feeds may not be eaten by Resume Video Game Layout Curriculum finfish if they go through the bottom of a net or cage, or if they sit on the bottom. On the other hand floating feeds may be less stable or uneaten if they are transported out of a system or to a place where they are unable to be eaten. 2) The actual quality of the feed. This poor stability and high solubility of How To Hire Great Freelancers Blog, feed pellets in water mean that once they are in the water they will be broken down and release more and nutrients and in less time.

The final factor is deals is loosely related to the previous two. 3) Once the feed is ingested factors such as limitations of absorption and retention of the nutrients from the feed. This factor deals mainly with poor digestibility or metabolism of the species being culture to the feed they are given. The nutrients in the feeds many not be utilized to their full potential once ingested fish will excrete the excess nutrients (Soto Mena, 1991). Feed and Sample Resume Video Graphic Vitae nutrient inputs play a major role in nutrient loading and creating the conditions that promote algal growth either directly in the form of uneaten feeds or nutrients leaching or dissolving from the How To Hire Great | Golance feeds, or indirectly from the digestion, metabolism and waste products from the species being cultured (Tacon Forster, 2003).

The important of feeds in nutrient loading must not be overlooked one study estimated that 70% of phosphorus and 30-50% of nitrogen in feeds is 9+ Score - Free Samples, Download not utilized by Hire And Work Freelancers | Golance fish and is released into the environment (Soto Mena, 1991). This only shows two of the most essential nutrients associated with bloom formation and not the Secretary Cover Letter | Work | Cover various other nutrients that are also released and are important for algal growth. This also shows the significance of feeds based on the large amount of nutrients that are not utilized and instead entering the environment, promoting algal growth. Over all aquaculture farm operations lead to excessive amounts of inorganic and Hire With Freelancers | Golance organic fertilizer, feeds, and Care | Invoice Template wastes that are put into local water bodies with high concentrations nutrient, that lead to nutrient loading and eutrophic conditions. Discussion and Conclusions Aquaculture over the last several decades has grown globally in both its production and popularity. In the future aquaculture will continue to grow in How To Great Freelancers its importance to Resume Video Layout Curriculum, the human population as alternative food source to agriculture and wild fisheries, as well as helping with the depleted ocean stocks. As of How To And Work Freelancers Blog, now it appear that we will be seeing an increase in aquaculture around the world in Of Application Letter the years to come. How To Freelancers! Although there are many benefits to Letter | Work | Cover Letter, aquaculture and the potential of increased production may have we must measure the benefits against How To Hire And Work | Golance Blog, the environment impacts they cause. Nutrient loading is just one of the environmental impacts associated with aquaculture and the effects of nutrient loading go beyond promotion of algal blooms. The global increase in aquaculture coincides with the apparent increase in harmful algal.

Although there are many other anthropogenic factors that are at play in global nutrient loading aquaculture is a major local point-source form. We must understand the specific conditions that are associated blooms and the role aquaculture plays along with how complex and diverse blooms can if we hope to develop mechanisms that can significantly reduce the impacts on aquaculture. I choose the topic of harmful algal blooms and aquaculture effects of nutrient loading because it fits in perfect with our class: aquaculture and the environment. The purpose of this paper was to 19+ Golf Flyer - Free Psd, Ai, Eps, gain a general understanding of harmful algal blooms, and also to review the factors of aquaculture that lead to nutrient loading, eutrophic conditions, and the aid in bloom formation. This topic caught my attention because of similar topics I’ve cover and work I’ve done this semester in this class and How To With others classes.

Harmful algal blooms in Templates Samples, Format general are very interesting because of the diversity of blooms, the range of effects they have, how unique the species involved are, and because of the complexity and over all lack of understanding have in Hire Great Freelancers factors of bloom formation. The purpose of this class included reviewing the impact of aquaculture on the environment and Letter In Bank methods of reducing or eliminating those impacts. This paper focuses on harmful algal blooms and how aquaculture creates conditions that promoted bloom formation. I focused a great deal of this paper on harmful algal blooms because if you hope to minimize the impacts they cause you must appreciate and understand their complexity and also understand the relation they have with aquaculture. The purpose of this paper was not to examine direct ways in which to minimize nutrient inputs of harmful algal blooms but the information given on harmful algal blooms and the role aquaculture plays in promoting bloom formation is useful to future studies and reviews focusing on ways to minimize the impacts of HABs on aquaculture and How To And Work With Great | Golance Blog help reduce the factors of aquaculture that promote harmful bloom formation. Bibliography Anderson, D. 9+ Score Sheet Samples, Examples Format Download! M. How To Hire And Work With Blog! (1994).

Red Tides. Scientific American Vol. Letter | Pinterest! 271, No. How To Hire And Work With | Golance Blog! 2, 52-58. Anderson, D. M. , Glibert, P. M. , Burkholder, J. M. (2002). Harmful Algal Blooms and Eutrophication: Nutrient Sources, Composition, and Consequences . Estuaries Vol.

25, No. 4b, 704-726. Anderson, D. , Andersen , P. , Bricelj, V. , Cullen, J. , Rensel, J. Care Invoice Template | Invoice! (2001). Monitoring and Management Strategies for Harmful Algal Blooms in Coastal Waters. Paris: UNESCO. Bonsdorff, E. , Blomqvist, E. Hire With Great Freelancers | Golance Blog! M. , Mattila, J. , Norkko, A. (1997). Coastal Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences and Perspectives in the Archipelago Areas of the Northern Baltic Sea.

Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Vol. 44, Sup. A, 63-72. Deposit Slips: Deposit! Bonsdorff, E. , Blomqvist, E. How To And Work With Great Freelancers | Golance! , Mattila, J. Printable Deposit Deposit! , Norkko, A. (1997). Coastal Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences and Perspectives in the Archipelago Areas of the Northern Baltic Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Vol. 44. How To And Work With Blog! Burkholder, J. , Glasgow, H. Care Invoice Template! (1997). Trophic Controls on Stage Transformation of a Toxic Ambush-Predatior Dinoflagellate. Journal of Eukaryotic and Microbiology Vol. 44, Issue 3, 200-205.

Carstensen, J. , Henriksen, P. , Heiskanen, A. -S. (2007). Algal Blooms in Shallow Estuaries: Definition, Mechanisms, and Link to Eutrophication. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 52, No. 1, 370-384. Chorus , I. , Bartram, J. (1999).

Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: A guide to And Work Great Freelancers Blog, their public health consequences, . London: E FN spon . Flyer Ai, Eps Format! Diersing, N. (2009). How To Hire Freelancers | Golance Blog! Phytoplankton Blooms: The Basics. Florida keys: NOAA. Sample Video Designer Layout Curriculum Vitae! Gerssen, A. , Pol-Hofstad, I. E. , Poelman, M. , Mulder, P. P. , Van Den Top, H. J. , Boer, J. (2010). Marine Toxins: Chemistry, Toxicity, Occurrence and Detection,.

Toxins Vol. 2, 878-904. Gilbert , P. How To Hire With Great Freelancers | Golance! M. , Burkholder, J. M. (2006). The Complex Relationships Between Increases in 10+ Home Care Template Template Fertilization of the Earth, Coastal Eutrophication and Proliferation of Harmful Algal Blooms. Ecological Studies Vol. 189, 331-354. Hallegraeff, G. M. (1993).

A Review of Harmful Algal Blooms and their Apparent Global Increase*. Phycologia Vol. With Freelancers! 32 No. 2, 79-99. Hallegraeff, G. M. (1993). Secretary Cover Sample | Pinterest Letter! Global Increase of Harmful Algal Blooms. Phycologia 32(2). Hallegraeff, G. M. , Anderson, D. How To With Great! M. , Cembella, A. D. (1995). Manual on Harmful Marnie. Paris: UNESCO.

Hallengraeff, G. M. (1995). Harmful Algal Blooms: A Global Overview. In G. M. Flyer Templates Psd, Ai, Eps Format! Hallegraeff , D. M. Anderson , A. D. Cembella, Manual on Hire Great Freelancers Blog, Harmful Marine Microalgae. Paris: UNESCO. Hegaret, H. , Mirella da Silva, P. , Wikfors, G. H. , Haberkorn, H. Printable Slips: Quickbooks Deposit! , Shumway, S. E. , Soudant, P. (2011). In Vitro Interatction Between Several Species of Harmful Algae and Haemocytes of Bivalve Molluscs. Cell Biology and Toxicology Vol. 27 No. 4, 249-266.

Hegaret, H. With Blog! , Shumway, S. , Wikfors, G. , Pate, S. , Burkholder, J. (2008). Potential Transport of Slips: Quickbooks, Harmful Algae via Relocation of Bivavle Molluscs. Marine Ecology Progress Series Vol. 361 , 169-179. Hoagland, P. , Anderson, D. Hire And Work With Great Freelancers | Golance Blog! M. , Kaoru, Y. , White, A. M. (2002). The Economic Effects of Harmful Algal Blooms in the United . Estuaries Vol. 25, No.

4b, 819-837. Islam, S. (2005). Resume Video! Nitrogen and Phosphorus Budget in Coastal and Marine Cage Aquaculture and How To Hire With Freelancers Impacts of Efflent Loading on Ecosytem: Review and Analysis towards Model Development. Marine Pollution Bulletin Vol. 50. Karakassis, I. , Pitta, P. , Krom, M. (2005). Contribution of Fish Farming to the Nutrient Loading of the Mediterranean. Science Maria Vol. 19+ Golf Flyer Psd, Format Download! 9. Keyhani, N. , Roseman, S. (1998). Physiological Aspects of How To Hire Great Freelancers, Chitin Catabolism in Sample Of Application For Job In Bank Marine Bactria.

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) General Subjects Vol. 1473 Issue 1, 108-122. Kroger, N. , Poulsen, N. (2008). Diatoms—From Cell Wall Biogenesis to Nanotechnology. Annual Review of Genetics Vol. Hire And Work With Freelancers | Golance! 42, 83-107. Lansberg, J. (2002). The Effects of Harmful Algal Blooms on Aquatic Organisms . Reviews in Fisheries Science Vol. 10, No. 2, 113-390.

Leverone, J. Examples Format! R. (2007). Comparative Effects of the Toxic Dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, on Bivalve Molluscs from Florida. Graduate School These and Dissertation , University of South Florida, Biological and Oceanography. Lewitus, A. , Horner, R. , Caron, D. , Garcia-Mendoza, E. , Hickey, B. , Hunter, M. How To Hire Great Freelancers Blog! , et al. (2012). Harmful algal blooms along the North American west coast region:. Harmful Algae 19, 133-159. Li, S. -C. , Wang, W. -X. , Hsieh, D. P. (2002). E? ects of toxic dino? agellate Alexandrium. Marine Environmental Research Vo. 53, 145-160.

Matsuyama, Y. , Shumway, S. (2009). Impacts of Harmful Algal Blooms on Resume Video Layout Curriculum Vitae, Shellfish Aquaculture. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing . Merkel, R. Hamm, C. E. , Springer, O. Hire With Blog! , Jurkojc, P. , Maire, C. , Prechtel, K. , et al. (2003). Architecture and Material Properties of Diatom Shells Provide Effective Mechanical Protection. Nature Vol 421, 841-843. Quickbooks! Nehring, S. (1993). Mechanisms for Recurrent Nuisance Algal Blooms in How To Hire With Freelancers Coastal Zones: Resting Cycst Formation as Life-Strategy of Dinoflagellates. Proceedings of the International Coastal Congress ICC Kiel 192. (pp. 454-467). Berlin: Peter Lang Publishing. Paerl, H. W. (1988).

Nuisance Phytoplankton Blooms in 10+ Home | Invoice Template Coastal, estuarine, and Inland Waters. Hire And Work With Great Freelancers | Golance Blog! Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 3, No. 4, Part 2, 823-847. Paerl, H. W. (2009). Controlling Eutrophication alng the Freshwater-Marine Continuum: Dual Nutrient (N and 19+ Golf - Free P) Reduction are Essential. Estuaries and Coasts Vol.

32, 593-601. Pelley, J. (1998). What is causing Toxic Algal Bloom? Anvironmental Science technology Vol. 32, No. 1, 26-30. Pinckney, J. L. , Millie, D. F. And Work With Great! , Vinyard, B. T. , Paerl, H. W. Flyer Templates - Free Ai, Eps Format! (1997). Environmental Controls of Phytoplankton Bloom Dynamics in the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, U. And Work Freelancers | Golance Blog! S. A. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Vol. Printable Quickbooks Deposit Slip! 54, 2491-2501.

Sellner, K. G. Doucette, G. J. , Kirkpatrick, G. J. (2003). Harmful Algal Blooms: Causes, Impacts and And Work Great | Golance Blog Detection. Letter Sample | Work | Pinterest! J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol Vol. 30, 383-406. Sheng, Z. How To Hire And Work Freelancers Blog! , Jinghong, L. , Shiqiang, W. , Jixi, G. , Dingyong, W. , Ke, Z. (2006). Impact of Aquaculture on Eutrophication in Changshou Reservoir. Chinese Journal of Geochemistry.

Silver, M. , Kudela, R. , Roberts, K. (2006). Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Printable Deposit! California: Center for Integrated Marine Technologies (CeNCOOS). How To And Work Great | Golance Blog! Smayda, T. J. (1997). Harmful Algal Blooms: Their Ecophysiology and General Relevance to Phytoplankton Blooms. Limnology and Oceanography Vol. 42 No. 5, 1136-1153. Sheet Templates Format! Smayda, T. How To Freelancers Blog! J. , Reynolds, C. S. (2001).

Community Assmbly in Marine Phytoplankto: Application of Recent Models to Harmful Dinoflagellate Blooms. Letter | Work | Cover Letter! Journal of Plankton Research Vol. 23, No. Great | Golance! 5, 447-461. Flyer - Free Ai, Eps Download! Soto, D. How To Hire And Work Great | Golance! , Mena, G. (1991). Filter Feeding by Freshwater Mussel, Diplodon Chilensis, as a Biocontrol of Salmon Farming Eutrophication. Aquaculture Vol. 171, 65-81.

Tacon, A. , Forster, I. Secretary Cover | Cover Letter! (2003). How To Hire With Great Blog! Aquafeeds and the Environment: Policy Implications. Aquaculture Vol. 226. Thouzeau, G. Chauvaud, L. , Paulet, Y. -M. (1998). Printable Deposit Deposit Slip! Effects of Environmental Factors on the Daily Growthrate of Pecten maximus Juveniles in the Bay of Brest (France). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology Vol. 227 Isu. 1, 83-111. Tran, D. , Haberkorn, H. , Soudant, P. , Ciret, P. , Massabuau, J. -C. (2010).

Behavioral Responses of Crassostrea gigas Exposed to the Harmful Algal Alexandrium minutum. Aquaculture Vol. 298 Issues 3-4, 338-345. Van Dolah, F. M. , RoeIke, D. , Greene, R. How To Hire With Great Blog! M. 19+ Golf Flyer Templates Psd, Ai, Eps! (2001). And Work Great Blog! Health and Game Designer Graphic Ecological Impacts of Harmful Algal.

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1); if you aren#8217;t going to get invited, then you#8217;ll be hearing that on the second batch release day. Yes, we do recommend a Round 1 application to Harvard. Definitely. It#8217;s still possible to Care | Invoice make it in during Round 2 but you have a LOT more competition against How To Hire And Work | Golance Blog you then. Sheet - Free Samples, Examples Format Download. Two recommendations Two questions for them to answer. We explain the concept of How To With Great Freelancers #8220;standardized#8221; recommender questions and Deposit Slips: Quickbooks Deposit, offer an important resource for you to give to your recommenders, to make their job easier. In 2016, there was a small group including Harvard that used one version of #8220;standardized#8221; questions, and there was a larger group of schools using a different set of NEWLY standardized questions. (are you confused yet? yeah). No idea how things will evolve for 2017 in terms of what those other schools will do. We can say that Harvard is Hire And Work | Golance Blog, sticking to Secretary Cover Sample | Work | Pinterest | Cover what it#8217;s done for the last several years, so there#8217;s consistency on their side.

The first issue of And Work With course is, who do you choose to write for you? We have a number of posts about recommenders here on 9+ Score Sheet - Free Format, the blahg (on the first page of the site, use the dropdown menu in With | Golance Blog the righthand panel to choose Recommendations to get a list of all of Sheet Templates Format them). If you want more help, our Letters of Recommendation App Accelerator walks through the How To Hire Great Freelancers Blog specifics and lets you submit your recommenders#8217; strategy for feedback from EssaySnark. A summary of the 9+ Score Sheet Samples, Examples 2015 HBS invite process was posted on 9/22/15 and we expect it to be directionally accurate this year, too. HBS works like this: You submit your app, the Admissions Board reads all of them (in no particular order it doesn#8217;t matter what time you submitted or if it went in earlier or later than someone else#8217;s, or what geography or career you#8217;re in), then about And Work With Great Freelancers Blog, a month-ish later, they will issue interview invites. When they implemented this process originally, those invites came out in three waves over the course of two weeks (three Wednesdays in a row), then it went down to two; for Rd 1 2015 it was three waves of 9+ Score Sheet Templates Download invitations scattered over only about a week. Hire With Freelancers. Round 2 in Deposit January 2017 is now confirmed as two Wednesdays in a row, so just one week total. How To Hire And Work With Great | Golance. The first wave has tended to be significantly bigger than the second one (the bulk of the invites will go out on that first day).

The day of the last wave of invites is when everyone not being invited to Secretary Cover | Work | Pinterest Letter interview is told that they didn#8217;t make it; they call that the #8220;release.#8221; Instead of getting an invite or release on Hire With, that final day, it#8217;s also possible to be put in the #8220;further consideration#8221; bucket, which is sort of 19+ Golf Flyer - Free Download like a waitlist but you#8217;re not accepted, you#8217;re just someone they#8217;re hanging onto because they#8217;re still interested in you. The invitations are issued in How To And Work Great | Golance Blog batch mode, all at once, at noon Eastern time on the scheduled day. If they want to Printable Slips: Deposit meet you, you#8217;ll get an email which says to check your app for status. If you don#8217;t get an email on either of the first two days, you didn#8217;t get an Hire Freelancers | Golance interview (yet but it could still come on 10+ Home, the last day). Everyone who wasn#8217;t already invited to interview gets an email on the last day of the How To Hire With Great | Golance Blog sequence. If you haven#8217;t received any email by, say, 12:05pm Eastern time then it#8217;s not gonna come that day. Secretary Cover | Pinterest | Cover. In 2013, HBS invited 1,887 people to interview across the whole season. That#8217;s 20% of the 9,543 applications they received. Hire | Golance. (We don#8217;t recall seeing this data from HBS for 9+ Score Templates - Free Samples, Examples, 2014 but it#8217;s comparable, they tend to invite similar numbers every year regardless of app volumes.) Generally speaking they invite more of their applicants in And Work With Great Freelancers | Golance Blog Round 1 something like 1,000 yet most schools including Harvard tend to get more applications submitted in Round 2 so right there tells you that Round 1 is an Letter Sample | Work advantage. It appears that in And Work Freelancers Round 1 2015 HBS got enough apps that they decided to issue interviews to.

50 more candidates. Here#8217;s more details on the data as of the Templates Psd, 2012-#8217;13 season if you want to see how it broke down in past years. Hire With Great Blog. Remember that getting invited to interview in one wave versus another within the invite-day sequence means nothing in terms of the strength of your candidacy. Dee Leopold says this every year. We did a post on the blahg about it on 10/9/13 (but nobody seems to believe us#8230; so we wrote another post on 10/11/13 to explain it all again). HOWEVER: There are greater chances that you#8217;ll be invited in the first wave, if you#8217;re going to be invited at Psd, Ai, Eps all, simply because in past years, they have invited the bulk of applicants in the first chunk.

If you#8217;re placed on the pre-interview waitlist in Round 1 what they call #8220;Further Consideration#8221; (other schools just call it a #8220;waitlist#8221;) then you#8217;ll either get invited to interview, or released, on the Round 2 interview dates, usually in And Work Great Freelancers | Golance the first wave. If you#8217;re on Secretary Cover Sample | Pinterest Letter, the post-interview Round 1 waitlist, you#8217;ll probably get the final answer (admit or deny) on And Work Freelancers | Golance, the Round 2 decision date. Sheet Templates Examples Format. If you get an invite, you need to be prepared to travel, since these are adcom-interviews conducted in hub cities around the How To Hire With Freelancers Blog world. They won#8217;t be flying to Sample Resume Video Designer Graphic Layout Curriculum Vitae your doorstep to meet you. You#8217;ll need to Hire Great Freelancers | Golance Blog make some arrangements, and Deposit Slips: Quickbooks Deposit, yeah it#8217;ll likely require taking some time off of work. But don#8217;t freak out about that part; if you end up getting the invite, you will make it happen, we#8217;re confident (and Harvard is flexible with extreme situations like deployed military). Harvard#8217;s Post-Interview Reflection. The gist of it is, within 24 hours after your interview, you#8217;ll need to How To And Work With Great Blog submit something (an essay that#8217;s not an essay but it#8217;s basically an essay even if the admissions people claim it#8217;s not an 10+ Home Template | Invoice Template essay) that is, again, totally open-ended. Can you see how much Harvard wants to see how you deal with ambiguity?

That#8217;s kind of what leaders have to do all the Great Freelancers Blog time, right? The Post Interview Reflection is a chance for you to tell the Harvard Admissions Board that thing that occurred to you, that you realized you should#8217;ve said the moment you walked out of the interview room. Printable Deposit Slips: Quickbooks. Or it#8217;s an How To Hire And Work Blog opportunity or try to fix your answer to Sheet Templates Samples, Examples Format Download that one question you completely flubbed. Or if you can#8217;t think of anything else, maybe reiterate your application #8220;theme#8221; (though honestly we don#8217;t think that#8217;s such a great idea, that#8217;s just our personal Snark opinion). If you#8217;ve been invited to interview at Harvard GREAT! CONGRATULATIONS!! Now you really should pick up our HBS Application Guide if you don#8217;t already have it. We also have some important advice specific to Harvard in our MBA Interviewing Guide. Yes we#8217;re telling you to And Work With Blog buy two guides. (In fact you#8217;d also benefit greatly from our Custom Interview Questions service.) Do you want to make the most of this opportunity or not? Harvard posted a preliminary Class of 2017 profile on 6-8-15 but then later we saw the 19+ Golf Psd, Ai, Eps Format Download full profile including GMAT scores and Hire Great Blog, we blinked.

An 80% range of scores of 19+ Golf Psd, Ai, Eps 700 to 760. Really?? OUCH! It#8217;s still possible to get in with a score outside that range but boy is With Great | Golance, it going to be tough. Slips: Quickbooks Deposit Slip. For reference, here#8217;s the Class of 2016 profile posted at the same point in time the prior year (6-3-14) #8212; which looked very similar to And Work Great Freelancers | Golance the Class of 2015. So, same GMAT (median 730, full range 510 790 but you know there#8217;s only one or two in the 510 range); same GPA (3.67 ouch!) and same age (27 years old). The only difference is there#8217;s more apps than ever a 1.5% increase and they marginally bumped up the class size, to 948. Takeaways?

That it#8217;s just as hard as ever to get into Harvard Business School. Direct from Harvard. Snarkety snark snark. In September 2013, The New York Times ran a pretty important feature on Harvard about Flyer Templates Ai, Eps Format, gender dynamics. A few days later, a follow-up article was published on class at And Work Freelancers | Golance Blog HBS (not the kind of #8220;class#8221; with teachers). This resulted in lots of media coverage and big conversations across all the business schools. EssaySnark#8217;s reaction is here. For Reference: Harvard#8217;s Past-Season Questions.

Provided for posterity. Cover Sample | Pinterest Letter. And because it helps you to understand this school. One essay, unlimited length: “As we review your application, what more would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy for the Harvard Business School MBA Program?” They first asked a version of How To And Work Freelancers | Golance this question in 2013, for Template | Invoice Template, the Class of How To Great Freelancers 2016. This year#8217;s incarnation is really the Sample Resume Video Game Designer Graphic Curriculum epitome of a perfect essay question. They#8217;re basically saying, #8220;Tell us what you think is important.#8221; Here#8217;s advice from the #8216;Snarchives which offers a very good place to And Work Great Blog start thinking about that: The most important thing to remember with your Harvard essay.

Every year, EssaySnark provides insights and recommendations for how to handle the HBS application and we have now done that for all you Class of 2019 prospects! Expanded and revised to give you the greatest advantage in setting your strategy. [end discussion of 2016 HBS app] Click to view the 2015 question. Here#8217;s the question: It#8217;s the first day of class at HBS. Psd, Ai, Eps Format Download. You are in Aldrich Hall meeting your #8220;section.#8221; This is the group of Hire With Freelancers | Golance Blog 90 classmates who will become your close companions in the first-year MBA classroom. Our signature case method participant-based learning model ensures that you will get to Printable Deposit Deposit know each other very well. With | Golance. The bonds you collectively create throughout this shared experience will be lasting. Note: Should you enroll at HBS, there will be an opportunity for Deposit Quickbooks Slip, you to share this with them. We suggest you view this video before beginning to write.

First step: Review that video and review it again! You should also check out their HBS MBA Voices student-focused blog , which should serve as a real goldmine of insights about the school (though PLEASE do not simply parrot the How To With Blog information you view/read/hear from any of these sources into your essays. that#8217;s like such a rookie mistake and yeah, we see it all the time). As a reminder, this is what they asked for the two years previous: #8220;You#8217;re applying to Harvard Business School. We can see your resume, academic transcripts, extracurricular activities, awards, post-MBA career intentions, test scores, and Flyer - Free Psd, Format Download, what your recommenders have to Hire With Great Freelancers | Golance say about you. What else would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy?” Advice from Video Game Graphic, Harvard: Be sure to read their Direct from the Director post dated 15 May 2015 (you may have to scroll down on How To And Work Freelancers Blog, that page to find it) Admissions Director Dee Leopold gives some useful guidelines to use as an important starting point. [end discussion of Of Application For Job In Bank last year#8217;s HBS app] Yes, we do recommend a Round 1 application to Harvard. How To Hire And Work Great Freelancers | Golance. Definitely. It#8217;s still possible to make it in during Round 2 but you have a LOT more competition against Slips: Quickbooks Slip you then (and it sounds like this year#8217;s Round 1 was as full as ever). Regardless, a great app is needed in How To And Work Freelancers Blog any round for Designer Layout Curriculum Vitae, Harvard Business School. And Work Freelancers | Golance Blog. [end discussion of 2015 HBS app] Click to view the 2014 question.

You’re applying to Harvard Business School. We can see your resume, school transcripts, extra-curricular activities, awards, post-MBA career goals, test scores and 10+ Home | Invoice, what your recommenders have to say about you. What else would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy? We#8217;ll say it again: Our HBS MBA application guide is very detailed, and it gives you important insights into how the How To And Work Great Freelancers Blog HBS Admissions Board thinks about stuff. It#8217;s been revised to reflect the new #8220;Introduce yourself#8221; question, with additional checklists and tests you can perform on your essay to make sure it#8217;s presenting you as it should. Don#8217;t apply to Harvard just because it#8217;s Harvard; you#8217;re likely to end up heartbroken. Read that guide, and study this blahg, and then make an informed decision and create an Secretary Letter | Work | Pinterest | Cover Letter infinitely stronger strategy with your approach. How To Hire | Golance. How interviews worked in 2014#8217;s Round 1 deadline was 9/9/14. First wave interview invites: October 8 an Resume Vitae estimated 800 candidates received one (for 2015 Dee Leopold said they#8217;d issue 900 invites that first day) Second wave invites (another 150 candidates got one), #8220;further consideration#8221; invitations (a variation on the waitlist but essentially the same; about Hire And Work With Freelancers, 200 of Care Invoice Template these went out), and release of How To And Work With Freelancers | Golance Blog all others: October 15 (for 2015 there were two more waves, with. 350 total invites between them, and another. 100 FC invites) Interviews held from October 20 to November 21.

The adcom travels to multiple cities around the world or you can go to HBS. How it worked in 2014#8217;s Round 2 deadline was 1/6/15 sorry that we don#8217;t have data, only dates. First wave interview invites: January 28 Second wave invites, waitlist invitations, and release of In Bank all others: February 4. Hire And Work With. [end discussion of Care Template Template 2014 HBS app] You’re applying to Harvard Business School. We can see your resume, school transcripts, extra-curricular activities, awards, post-MBA career goals, test scores and Freelancers | Golance Blog, what your recommenders have to say about you. What else would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy? They#8217;ve also reduced the number of recommendations to Sample Of Application Vacancy In Bank just two, from three. [end discussion of 2013 HBS app] In case you#8217;re curious about what they#8217;ve asked before: Tell us about something you did well. Tell us about something you wish you#8217;d done better. How To And Work Great Freelancers | Golance. [end discussion of 2012 HBS app] Highlights from HBS Admissions Webinar July 2, 2014. In 2013, HBS invited 1,887 people to interview. [That#8217;s almost 20% of the 9,543 applications they received. The Class of 9+ Score Sheet Format 2016 is 940 936 students. -ES] A new section of the app this year asks about non-degree coursework; you can include MOOCs and other online (non-credit) work you#8217;ve done. [This is to help you demonstrate analytical abilities. -ES] Everybody needs to take the GMAT or GRE (they are agnostic as to which one); no exceptions. The resume you upload can be more than one page, but you should ask yourself, #8220;Does it need to be?#8221; [No. How To Hire Great | Golance. -ES] In the Of Application For Job app, they ask about With Freelancers Blog, your intended post-MBA industry and Sample Resume Video Game Designer Graphic Vitae, function.

HBS does not want a #8220;laminated life plan#8221; but they do want to know your general direction. There#8217;s a separate app question to How To Hire And Work Great Blog cover additional information; this is not an Cover Sample | Pinterest essay. [You can use this to explain gaps in employment or circumstances surrounding a low GPA, as you would with other schools#8217; #8220;optional essays#8221; but again, with HBS, this is not an How To Hire And Work Great Freelancers essay and also, you should be able to Secretary Letter | Cover cover that in your actual Harvard essay, probably. -ES] All financial aid awards are need-based; they don#8217;t do merit-based fellowships. This means you don#8217;t get news of How To Hire And Work With | Golance scholarship money at the time of admission, like other schools do. [Basically you should be happy with the admit itself! They don#8217;t feel the need to bribe you to attend. Sample Letter. -ES] Of course, Dee talked about the #8220;optional#8221; essay and what they saw in successful applicants last year. EssaySnark covered many of With Freelancers | Golance these points in detail in the 2016 Harvard Guide. Invoice | Invoice Template. Something else you should know: Dee is How To With Great Freelancers | Golance Blog, typically the 19+ Golf Templates - Free Psd, Format Download first person who reads the incoming emails sent to the general HBS inquiry account (!). The most common question they get is, #8220;Do I have to take the TOEFL?#8221; The next most common: #8220;Do I need to take the GMAT?#8221; (Hint: Their requirements are pretty darned clear on their website .) Takeaway message: Don#8217;t write a stupid email to Harvard admissions.

Do your research first, and How To Hire Great Freelancers, then and only then ask the question if you cannot find the answer elsewhere. Resume Game Designer Graphic Layout Curriculum Vitae. EssaySnark reviews of Harvard#8217;s 2014 essays. EssaySnark reviews of Harvard#8217;s 2013 essays. We did a bunch of reviews of Harvard essays on GMAT Club in How To Hire And Work Great | Golance September 2013; the question hasn#8217;t really changed even with the Care | Invoice #8220;Introduce yourself#8221; thing, so you may want to check those out. Alas, our contract with GMATClub was not extended so we#8217;re not doing reviews over Hire And Work Great Freelancers Blog there any more. EssaySnark reviews of Harvard#8217;s 2012 essays. And even older than that (2011 and later) these are still relevant because Harvard is still Harvard they#8217;ve been looking for the same qualities in a Brave Supplicant year after year: Our Essay Ideas App Accelerator includes a free BONUS: a sample essay that won! Review the original draft and EssaySnark#8217;s complete Essay Decimator critique for the 2011 HBS Essay 1, on #8220;three accomplishments#8221; study it for free and make your Harvard essay that much stronger. And we#8217;ll say it again: Our HBS MBA application guide is very detailed, and it gives you important insights into Printable Deposit Slips: Deposit Slip how the HBS Admissions Board thinks about stuff. Don#8217;t apply to Harvard just because it#8217;s Harvard; you#8217;re likely to end up heartbroken. And Work With | Golance Blog. Read that guide, and study this blahg, and then make an informed decision and create an infinitely stronger strategy (with a professional#8217;s opinion on Flyer, your HBS essay, even).

2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from scratch to help you with the 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to help you with the How To Freelancers nine short-answer options and your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and all the rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and strategies for your Class of 2020 app.

Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark. I think that the Slips: Deposit Slip reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of feedback on a 250 word . As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to How To Hire With Great my pitch in order to maximize my . Thanks so much for the additional feedback ES. I really appreciate it. I just submitted my HBS app, . What were we snarking about at this time in past years? 2016 : ($) If you get fired, do you need to Sheet Examples Format Download tell the adcom? 2016 : Good luck for HBS applicants! 2016 : No, you don't have to actually do the thing you say you will do in How To Freelancers | Golance the career goals essay. 2014 : Did you just discover EssaySnark? 2014 : The disturbing trend of decreasing transparency 2013 : More on visiting schools 2013 : ($) Being a thought leader is not a career goal. 2012 : ($) Duke's main essay: What do you tell your family, friends, and colleagues? 2012 : About Deadlines.

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Essay:Arguments against nuclear power. It does not necessarily reflect the How To Hire And Work With Freelancers views expressed in RationalWiki's Mission Statement, but we welcome discussion of a broad range of 10+ Home Care Template ideas. Unless otherwise stated, this is original content, released under CC-BY-SA 3.0 or any later version. See RationalWiki:Copyrights. Feel free to make comments on the talk page, which will probably be far more interesting, and might reflect a broader range of Great | Golance Blog RationalWiki editors' thoughts. The anti-nuclear movement is preoccupied with the problem of nuclear waste and its possible impact on Deposit, the environment and How To Hire Great Freelancers health. Generation of nuclear waste, which is 19+ Golf Flyer Psd, Ai, Eps Format, dangerous to all known forms of life, is a valid concern about nuclear power, and the problem must be addressed in an environmentally sound way. With Freelancers | Golance Blog. However, there is no reason to believe this problem is insoluble. Here are some claims made by 19+ Golf Psd, Ai, Eps Format the anti-nuclear movement in reference to the waste issue. The validity of this claim is highly dependent on your definition of solution.

If the solution is for Hire And Work | Golance Blog, the waste to magically disappear with no trace at zero cost, then that is Deposit, indeed impossible, but that's also an unreasonable definition of a solution. If we define solution as something that lets humanity forget about the With Great | Golance waste without adverse consequences at a cost that is a small portion of the price of generated electricity, then there are a few options. The most popular of Printable them is deep geological disposal, which is currently the best researched method. The method puts the waste deep underground in Hire And Work Freelancers | Golance Blog a geologically stable rock formation, with several layers of defence against water intrusion. Several such repositories have been built, but the Invoice | Invoice results have been a decidedly mixed bag: out of How To And Work Freelancers six such repositories that went into operation, two have since turned out as failures. These were the two repositories for 9+ Score Templates - Free Examples Format, intermediate and With low-level nuclear waste (e.g. Templates. not spent fuel) that were built in Germany: Asse II and How To Hire With Freelancers Blog Morsleben. They reused the sites of former salt mines, and previous mining work led to structural stability problems in the salt domes. Printable Slips: Quickbooks Deposit. Both are in Hire With Great Freelancers | Golance poor condition and leaking contaminated brine.

Four projects seem to have succeeded, for Letter | Work Letter, example, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in USA is already operating and began accepting military transuranic waste in 1998. So far no issues have been identified. [1] Two other projects, the planned final storage facilities at Gorleben in Germany and Yucca Mountain in the USA, were cancelled or put on hold indefinitely. It will remain toxic for millions of years [ edit ] The extremely long lifes of waste are usually obtained due to a misapplication of a rule of thumb for short-lived isotopes, which says that a sample is How To And Work, no longer radioactive after 10 half-lifes. However, this is not applicable to long-lived nuclides, which cease to be dangerous once their radioactivity approaches ambient levels. The correct answer is Templates, 10 000 years. And Work With | Golance. After this period, the waste is less radioactive than the Templates Samples, Format Download uranium ore it was ultimately produced from. [2] Since the 65 trillion tons of uranium in How To Hire And Work With | Golance Blog the Earth's crust are not a big concern for public health, neither would be such decayed waste. Reprocessing can dramatically reduce the lifetime of 9+ Score Sheet Samples, Format nuclear waste - from 10 000 years to about 300. How To Hire Great. [2] Additionally, it extracts unused uranium and plutonium for reuse. Currently it's uneconomical on its own as means of producing more nuclear fuel, but makes sense from a long-term waste management perspective. The anti-nuclear movement opposes reprocessing, [3] because it believes it could lead to more nuclear proliferation (see further below) and that it pollutes the Slips: environment with radioactivity (wrong).

Certain designs of reactors that are not cost effective yet, but known to be practical, can reuse high level waste as fuel, because it still contains around 95% of its energy. Two of them are already operating in Russia and Japan. This option is also unpopular with the anti-nuclear movement. This might be due to teething problems of the technology, such as sodium leaks and fires (altrough not all waste burning reactors use sodium coolant). According to the Department of Energy, the total amount of And Work With Great | Golance spent fuel produced by nuclear power stations in the U.S. between 1968 and 2002 was 47 023.4 metric tons. [4] Most of that total is stored at reactor sites. It would cover a football field to a depth of 6.5 meters. [5] At first this might sound like a lot, but compare this to Care | Invoice, e.g. 71 100 000 tons of fly ash produced every year at U.S. coal plants. [6] It is a burden on And Work Freelancers Blog, future generations [ edit ] This claim is a popular soundbite, [7] but it actually requires quite a lot of assumptions. Detecting radioactive contamination is far easier and Quickbooks Deposit cheaper than, for example, detecting chemical contamination. [8] Nuclear waste would become a problem to our descendants only if: They lived in a sufficiently close future in which the waste has not decayed yet (10 000 years). They did not understand any of the How To Hire And Work Freelancers Blog warning signs we might put up.

They did not have any means of detecting radioactivity. They had enough technical sophistication to intrude into a geological repository. The last point assumes that waste will be put into underground repositories before we fall off the radar. An interesting subversion of the argument is that since most high-grade deposits of uranium would not be available to 9+ Score Templates - Free Samples, Examples, our descendants, as we have already mined them, discovering a nuclear waste repository could lead them to rediscover radioactivity and How To And Work Freelancers nuclear technology. The public will pay for Secretary Cover | Cover Letter, its disposal [ edit ] The situation differs between countries.

In the U.S. there is a 0.1c/kWh levy on nuclear generated electricity that goes into the Nuclear Waste Fund. So far the fund has accumulated $31 billion. The federal government has not yet managed to create a permanent waste disposal facility using this money. [9] In the United Kingdom, the situation is different. Decommissioning is paid for by the How To Great | Golance Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, a government-funded entity. Dividing its total budget by the nuclear electricity generation gives a large subsidy of 2.3p/kWh. [10] However, this agency also manages military waste from Sample Letter Vacancy In Bank UK's nuclear weapons program, which is much more noxious and difficult to Hire And Work Freelancers Blog, handle - the actual cost of managing civilian waste is much lower. The public typically pays for protests related to nuclear waste transport, for example the costs of providing security. But it's also the public that stages and participates in Resume Video Graphic Vitae those protests. When you divide world reserves of uranium by the current consumption, you get about 70 years as the time horizon for uranium depletion.

However, this calculation is too simplistic, as it ignores two key facts. Reserves are defined in How To Hire And Work Great Freelancers Blog economical terms: uranium that is worth mining, not all uranium there is. Exploring for uranium costs money. It's pointless to find more if you already have 70 years of backlog. Analyses that take the above into account have considerably longer depletion timelines, usually in Sample Layout Curriculum the vicinity of 200 years. Breeder reactors can utilize uranium-238 as well as uranium-235, effectively expanding the supply of fuel 100-fold.

Uranium depletion can theoretically be avoided by extracting uranium from the sea, which is constantly replenished by erosion (rivers). This technology was experimentally demonstrated in Japan, but no large scale facility was built so far. [11] In addition to uranium, thorium can also be used as a nuclear fuel in future nuclear reactors. There is three times more thorium than uranium on Earth. Outside of the Soviet Union, no member of the public ever died because of nuclear power. In the Soviet Union, Chernobyl was the only exception to this rule. Anti-nuclear activists are highly concerned about the safety of nuclear reactors, as well as the How To And Work With Great Freelancers possible effects of their operation on the health of neighboring populations. Reactors emit deadly radiation! [ edit ] Normally operating nuclear power plants emit small amounts of 9+ Score Sheet - Free Examples Format radioactive gases arising from the How To Hire And Work With Great | Golance fission of fuel into Game Designer Layout Curriculum Vitae, the atmosphere. Anti-nuclear organizations usually maintain that even the lowest dose of Hire With Freelancers | Golance Blog radiation is harmful.

This is a somewhat distorted interpretation of the linear no-threshold hypothesis, which says that health effects of Sheet - Free Format Download ionizing radiation are directly proportional to the dose, and are exactly none only at zero dose. The hypothesis is supported by extensive data for radiation doses above 100 mSv, but using it to quantitatively predict cancer risks for lower doses is discouraged. [12] The problem with this argument is that nearly everything on Earth is slightly naturally radioactive. Even with no nuclear power, people would be exposed to small doses of radiation. This is called background radiation (not to With Great, be confused with cosmic microwave background).

Radiation from natural and artificial sources has the same biological effects. The usual background dose is 3 mSv per year, but there are considerable variations. Many places have higher levels of about 10 mSv/year, and Sample Of Application record spots can have up to 240 mSv/year. These variations do not cause any statistically significant differences in cancer rates or other radiation-related illnesses between low- and How To | Golance high-radiation areas. [13] [14] The dose from normally operating nuclear power plants is many orders of magnitude smaller than the Of Application Letter For Job Vacancy variations in the background, so logically the How To Freelancers | Golance minuscule additional dose is completely harmless. In order to Vacancy, circumvent the above considerations, some fringe anti-nuclear groups attempt to use pseudoscientific theories to prove that low level radiation is more harmful than implied by the LNT hypothesis, or that man-made radioactivity is much worse than natural radioactivity. One of them is the second event theory proposed by Chris Busby. Chernobyl could happen again [ edit ] The Chernobyl disaster was no doubt a very severe accident, with wide reaching consequences. Anti-nuclear groups claim that any reactor can explode just like Chernobyl and render a large area uninhabitable for many centuries. This ignores the following facts: The Chernobyl reactor design, called RBMK, was very different from reactors used in other countries. How To Hire | Golance. For example, it had no concrete containment shell.

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Health problems in How To And Work the general population were due to intense fear of radiation and psychological trauma rather than radiation itself. [16] In other words, the hype did more damage than the explosion. Chernobyl area is not a dead zone. It is a de facto wildlife preserve. [17] Reactors could be attacked by 9+ Score Sheet Templates Examples Format Download terrorists [ edit ] Some anti-nuclear activists join others in claiming that nuclear power stations are vulnerable to How To Great | Golance Blog, terrorist attack. Armed assault on the plant or a plane crash is the usual scenario. Terrorists assaulting a nuclear power plant would have a tough job, because the guards are armed with automatic weapons and are trained to withstand attack from multiple groups coordinating with each other. Sample Designer Curriculum. Slamming an aircraft into it would probably cause a lot of damage, but would not destroy the reactor, because its containment building is essentially a very sturdy bunker designed to withstand airplane hits, missiles and earthquakes. [18]

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India has manufactured some weapons-grade plutonium in a research reactor called CIRUS, supplied by Canada. Yet another possibility are obsolete dual-use reactors, such as Magnox or RBMK, which have on-line refueling systems. However, none exist outside of states that already have the bomb - the last RBMK outside of Russia (Ignalina in How To Great Lithuania) was closed at the end of Flyer Templates - Free Psd, Ai, Eps 2009. It should be noted that none of the countries that have obtained nuclear weapons so far did it using existing civilian infrastructure. In fact, none of them had any at the time their first weapons were built.

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The criticism of liability limitation laws focuses on 9+ Score Sheet Templates - Free Samples, Format, two issues: If there is a very serious nuclear accident (damage exceed $13 billion), the citizens will have to pay for How To Blog, it. The laws are an indirect subsidy, because otherwise the operators would have to buy full insurance against the worst possible accident. Both of these criticisms assume that other industrial facilities also have to buy mandatory liability insurance. They don't. For example, hydro dams in the U.S. are not required to be insured against catastrophic failure or terrorist attack, and if the owner did not buy insurance, the only compensation available to victims would be from the government. [25] [26] Same goes for chemical processing plants and paper mills, which may cause widespread environmental pollution as a result of Templates - Free Samples, Download their operation, but are not legally required to carry pollution insurance. And Work Freelancers | Golance Blog. [27] Only $151 million (1.2% of the current liability cap) was ever paid out from the Price-Anderson fund, around half of it related to 19+ Golf Flyer Format Download, the Three Mile Island accident. Hire And Work | Golance. It covered the living expenses and lost wages of people who voluntarily evacuated, even though there was no real danger. [24] Climate change mitigation potential [ edit ] These arguments question the feasibility of Printable Deposit Quickbooks Slip using nuclear power to combat climate change. Nuclear can't be built fast enough to make a difference [ edit ] Here the claim is How To Hire With Great Freelancers, that nuclear power plants are slow to build, so they will be late to Sample Resume Video Game Graphic Layout Vitae, the party and How To Freelancers | Golance Blog fail to avert catastrophic climate change.

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Despite the long lull in nuclear construction there are several suppliers for the heaviest components: Japan Steel Works, China First Heavy Industries, and How To Hire And Work With Freelancers OMX Izhora (Russia). New manufacturing capacity is being built in Korea, France and 19+ Golf Flyer Templates Ai, Eps Format India. [29] Some designs of nuclear reactors, such as CANDU, do not require heavy forgings of the size needed for light water reactors. The pressure vessel in CANDUs is composed of a multitude of small tubes, which can be manufactured using more common industrial methods.

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No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced. State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. (Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at the top of the pagenot bold) The introduction of an APA-style paper is the most difficult to write.

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Which ones didn’t? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin (but not the only way) is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Although you won’t go into the details of your study and hypotheses until the end of the intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at the end of the first paragraph by stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the information you will present next. Of Application Letter In Bank? Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to How To Hire Great Freelancers your hypothesis. Sample Resume Video Designer Graphic Vitae? Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when.

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Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is relevant to my study because”). How To And Work Freelancers | Golance? It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the Invoice information in your own words. Be careful about With Freelancers Blog citing your sources (see APA manual). Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and Ai, Eps the articles listed in your reference section. Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. How To Hire And Work? Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of Sample Game Designer, psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. (labeled, centered, bold) The Method section of an How To Hire Great Freelancers APA-style paper is the - Free Samples, Format Download most straightforward to write, but requires precision.

Your goal is to describe the details of your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and How To Freelancers Blog Procedure sections. Sample Letter In Bank? If the design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in a factorial experiment, for Hire With Great Freelancers Blog example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section. Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in which there are many measures to describe but the procedure is brief), it may be more useful to present the Procedure section prior to the. Materials section rather than after it. (labeled, flush left, bold) Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and SD for age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence.

How were the Printable Deposit Slip participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for a broad audience. Thus, do not write, “Students in Psych. 280. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in a psychological statistics and research methods course at a small liberal arts college.” Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. How To Hire With Great? Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. (labeled, flush left, bold)

Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. It is Secretary Cover | Cover Letter, unnecessary to And Work With Great | Golance mention things such as the Of Application For Job paper and How To And Work With Great Blog pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the Sample Game Curriculum Vitae computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and How To With so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the measure had subscales, and so forth. Provide a sample item or two for your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix.

If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. If you are only describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures .” (labeled, flush left, bold) Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study (e.g., the eyetracking machine) and need to describe it in detail. (labeled, flush left, bold) What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the Printable Deposit Quickbooks Deposit experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did. How To Hire With | Golance? In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for?

Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. Printable Quickbooks? Don’t forget to include brief statements about informed consent and And Work Freelancers Blog debriefing. (labeled, centered, bold)

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Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures. And Work Great Freelancers | Golance? For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and 9+ Score Samples, Examples Format standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the How To Hire Freelancers | Golance Blog figure. Do describe the trends shown in the figure. Flyer Templates - Free Format? Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for And Work With Great Freelancers | Golance the Discussion section. (labeled, centered, bold) The goal of the 10+ Home Template discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area.

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What are the limitations of the study? If your findings differ from those of other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and 10+ Home Care Template Template pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. What additional questions were generated from Hire Great Freelancers | Golance Blog this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to | Pinterest Letter explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it? Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on a different college campus or It would be better to run the How To With Great study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and why. Slips: Deposit? What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior?

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The second line of each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and Hire Freelancers | Golance is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word). See the APA manual for how to format references correctly. Examples of references to journal articles start on p. Resume Video Game Layout? 198 of the Hire And Work Freelancers | Golance Blog manual, and Templates - Free Psd, examples of references to books and book chapters start on pp. 202. Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for How To Hire With Great Freelancers | Golance Blog electronic sources (see pp. 187-192 of APA manual to learn more). [Note that only the Quickbooks Deposit Slip first letter of the first word of the article title is capitalized; the journal name and Hire And Work | Golance Blog volume are italicized. Care Invoice Template | Invoice? If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.]

Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Trull, T. J. (2009). How To With Great | Golance Blog? Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. doi:10.1037/a0017075. Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the chapter title and Sample Resume Video Game book title are capitalized.] Stephan, W. How To With Great | Golance Blog? G. (1985). Intergroup relations. In G. Lindzey E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol. 2, pp.

599-658). New York: Random House. Gray, P. (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). Sample For Job? New York: Worth. There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. See the APA manual. Be sure to provide a table number and Hire table title (the latter is italicized). Tables can be single or double-spaced.

If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. 19+ Golf Templates - Free Psd, Ai, Eps Format Download? Be sure to | Golance label your x- and y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the units of Secretary Letter Sample | Work | Pinterest, measurement of the DV. How To And Work With Great Freelancers? Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as. a function of Care Template, applicant attractiveness level?).

The figure caption typically includes the IVs/predictor variables and How To And Work With Great Blog the DV. Include error bars in Invoice Template, your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean. (see pp. How To And Work | Golance? 174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to include the 19+ Golf Flyer Templates Ai, Eps authors’ names and Hire And Work With Freelancers Blog publication date. You should use the following formats: When including the citation as part of the sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and Smith (2003), the” When the citation appears in parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and should be separated by semicolons. If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to include the page number. For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions. For example: “Klein et al. (1999) found that. ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the Cover Letter Sample Letter source is cited.

When a source has six or more authors, the first author’s last name and “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the With Freelancers Blog first time). “Secondary source” is the term used to describe material that is cited in another source. Deposit? If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the Great Freelancers primary source, and Milgram (1963) is the secondary source. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your. papers; in other words, try to find the Sample Video Game Graphic primary source and How To Freelancers read it before citing it in your own work.

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