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ap scoring essays Total Registration has compiled the Debit, following scores from Tweets that the College Board's head of Payroll Using The Wage AP, Trevor Packer, has been making during June. Debit! These are preliminary breakdowns that may change slightly as late exams are scored. Please Follow @totalreg as we Tweet every time this page is updated. Please let others know about these AP Exam Score Distributions Tweet. Nursing Example And Free! In 2017, more than 440,000 students registered themselves online for Request, over 860,000 AP Exams at Project Outline Template – 9+ Free Example, 1030 schools using Total Registration's service. Request a no obligation estimate to Exetel Debit Form, see how cost effective this service is. Schools report saving over Examples Example, 100 hours by simplifying their registration using Total Registration. ATTENTION: The College Board is Direct Request increasing the suggested AP Exam fee for 3+ Formal | Proposal Template, the 2018 exams to $94.00/exam , a $1.00 increase from last year. Direct Debit Request! Schools will continue to The Wage, retain $9.00 of the Direct Request Form, exam fee and The 25+ Letter On Pinterest The, will be billed $85.00/exam (for full priced exams). Many schools will charge more than $94.00 in Direct Form, order to cover additional administration costs. In order to access scores the Best Letter Ideas On Pinterest Couch,, first week in July, students will need to Exetel Request, create a College Board Account.

Students can create accounts NOW at . On Pinterest | Ethan The! This table is sortable by Direct Request Form, clicking on the header. AP Computer Science has expanded from 26,000 to Manager, 61,000 students since 2012, when the Exetel Direct Request Form, most frequent score was a 1. This year: it’s a 5. The most difficult multiple-choice questions for The 25+ Letter | Ethan, AP Computer Science A students seemed to be the Direct Debit, “object-oriented programming” ones. AP Computer Science A students dominated the 2nd free-response question (class design); more than half the The 25+ Best Ideas | Ethan, students earned 8-9 pts out of Direct Debit Form 9. On the Of Resignation Due To Retirement | Docoments, other hand, 30% of Exetel Direct Debit Request Form AP Computer Science A students were stumped by | Resume Example Maker, Q3 (string processing), earning 0 pts:… 105 students, out of 61,000 worldwide, earned all 80 points possible on Direct Debit Request Form this year’s AP Computer Science A Exam. Resume | Resume Example And Free! 2 students, out of Direct Debit Form 509,000 worldwide, earned all 130/130 points possible on this year’s AP US History exam. Multiple-choice performance was opposite of AP World History: APUSH students scored best on 20th century questions.

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kk thesis Frederick Suppe argues that skeptical arguments from Descartes to Feyerabend are based upon the KK thesis, and therefore are not worth worrying about. It seems to me that his argument is unwarranted, and the purpose of this paper is to reconstruct skeptical arguments without the KK thesis. Direct Debit Request! Roughly speaking, these skeptical arguments presuppose a weaker version of the KK thesis which does not require either: (1) the Examples | Resume Example And Free identity of the knower A and the knower of A's knowing, or (2) actual existence of the knowledge of Exetel Direct Form A's knowing. If we refuse this weaker thesis, this will cause a serious problem to the very enterprise of epistemology. Surely Suppe should take skeptical doubts more seriously.

In his forthcoming book, Facts, Theories, and Scientific Observation , Frederick Suppe dismisses traditional skepticism as follows: The collapse of the Cartesian and Empiricist epistemological programs into pervasive skepticism has been one long series of dismal corollaries to the level confusions inherent in Descartes' uncritical acceptance of the Project Outline Sample, Example, Format KK Thesis. Kantian subjectivism and its neo-Kantian successors, including Pragmatism and associated radical relativisms, are attractive alternatives only against the background of those confusions. These level confusions naturally led epistemologists to Direct Form conflate the evidential basis for knowledge with reasons given in justification for knowledge and philosophers of science to conflate the reasoning given in scientific articles with the belief formation process used to obtain scientific knowledge. (Suppe forthcoming, Part II chapter 5, section 5) In short, Suppe claims that the majority of traditional philosophers have kept making level confusions by accepting the 3+ Formal Template | Proposal 2017 KK thesis, and this is the only reason skepticism seemed so forceful to them. If Suppe is right, since the KK thesis is now widely rejected, we have no reason to worry about skepticism. Debit Request! But I think that Suppe's claim is unwarranted. 2. The KK thesis and what is wrong with it. To start with, we should refresh our memory about what the KK thesis is and Project Outline – 9+ Free Sample, Format what is wrong with it.

the KK thesis is is supported by Exetel Direct Request several epistemologists. How To Write A Letter Of Resignation | Docoments! Jaakko Hintikka (1962) is the most famous recent defender, and he formulates the thesis as follows: namely, if a knows that p, then a knows that a knows that p . There are several arguments against Exetel Debit, the KK thesis. First of all, even though Hintikka 'proved' the thesis from Best To Judge Ideas On Pinterest | Ethan several axioms of epistemic logic (Hintikka1962, 104-105), his proof was circular because the axioms used in the proof implicitly presupposed the KK thesis (Chisholm, 1963, 784-787). Of course this circularity does not show that the KK thesis itself is problematic. The First substantial objection is that the KK thesis implies that the knower has self-knowledge, that is, the Exetel Debit Request knower a knows about himself/herself/itself (Carrier 1974, 141). Manager Template {dashboard-Tracking}! This means that according to the KK thesis those who do not have the concept of self (children, dogs etc.) have no knowledge whatsoever. This sounds counterintuitive.

Hilpinen's (1970) argument is also illuminating. Suppose a knows that p implies that a has a justified true belief that p, namely. where Bap means a believes that p and Direct Request Jap means a is justified in believing that p. Assessment! Suppose also that the distribution law about knowledge holds, namely. (2) and (3) are widely admitted among philosophers. Then from (1), (2) and (3), we can infer as follows: There are several dubious conjuncts on the right side of Exetel Direct Form (4), but the most dubious one is the | Resume Example And Free Maker term BaJap, namely a believes that a is justified in believing that p. Does this follow from Exetel Debit Form a knows that p (this is what (4) implies)? Hilpinen thinks that it is imaginable that a fails to recognize the situation (e.g. she has enough evidence for the knowledge claim) that justifies a's believing that p, even when a knows that p. This is an uncomfortable consequence of the KK thesis.[1] Hintikka's reply to Template these challenges is that he is Debit talking about a strong notion of Best To Judge Ideas 'knowing' (Hintikka 1970). From this point of view, the Direct Request above difficulties are not difficulties, but merely show that there are differences between Hintikka's strong sense of knowing and 'knowing' in our ordinary language.

For example, the first difficulty with self knowledge disappears by asserting that children and dogs do not have this strong sense of knowledge. The second problem with the KK thesis by Hilpinen can be dealt with by interpreting Jap quite strongly. For example, read Jap as a has incorrigible evidence for believing that p. This implies that a has a proof for incorrigibility of the evidence, and therefore something like BaJap and JaJap are required. With this strong interpretation, the accepted formula Kap - Bap J ap p does (almost) imply the KK thesis.[2] Suppe (1977) criticizes this move, because the strong sense of knowledge does not help us in understanding scientific knowledge.

He enumerates four features of scientific knowledge which are not suitable for Write | Docoments the KK thesis. First, the KK thesis make a correspondence notion of truth impossible, but this is necessary for scientific knowledge. Direct Request! Second, the standards of rationality in science keep changing, and this together with the KK thesis implies a relativism. Third, science's procedure to assess knowledge claims is fallible, therefore the incorrigibility does not apply to Assessment science. Finally, the Exetel Direct Debit Request KK thesis make sophisticated observational knowledge impossible, because scientific observations depend on background knowledge, which is not incorrigible. I totally agree with Suppe that Hintikka's strong sense of knowing does not help us much in philosophy of science (though I disagree with him in that the rejection of the Resume Examples Maker KK thesis eliminate the skeptical doubt about correspondence notion of truth and the relativism on the scientific rationality). Direct Debit Form! I think that this is Recruitment {dashboard-Tracking} | Template124 a good reason to reject the KK thesis, so if the KK thesis is essential for Direct Debit Request skepticism, we also have a reason to reject skeptical doubts. 3. Suppe's argument against Assessment, skepticism. In chapter 10 of his 1989 book, Suppe argues that skeptical arguments by Berkeley, Hume, Kuhn, Feyerabend and Exetel Debit Request Form others depend essentially on Assessment, the KK thesis (332).

What is the argument for this claim? In the first section of this chapter Suppe provides an overview of the history of skeptical arguments by empiricists up to the logical positivism, but Suppe does not mention the KK thesis here. In the next section Suppe summarizes Feyerabend's (1958) relativistic argument, and here Suppe tries to connect Feyerabend with the KK thesis. Feyerabend claims that phenomena cannot determine interpretations of sentences. Feyerabend's argument goes as follows.

If an observer O utters a sentence S because he observes a phenomenon P and recognizes that S 'fits' P, this relation of phenomenological adequacy between P and S is another phenomenon, P'. Exetel Direct Debit Request! But O can recognize P' by relating it to S', and Assessment this calls for P'', S'', and so on infinitely. Therefore phenomena P cannot determine the interpretation of the sentence S. Rather, we need somewhat arbitrary assignments of interpretations. (Feyerabend 1958, 155; see also Suppe 1989, 312). Suppe also attributes to Feyerabend following position: experience is incapable of playing any significant role in ascertaining the truth of either theoretical or observation assertions (Suppe 1989, 312). This position seems to be derived from the above-mentioned infinite regress argument, but this derivation is Direct Debit possible only Nursing Resume Examples Example if one accepts the K-K Thesis (Suppe 1989, 313).

His argument for this claim is worth quoting: For if this thesis is accepted, then from the fact that experience cannot show that such a correspondence holds and from the vaguely plausible assumption (tacit in his discussion) that such a correspondence could not be known except if displayed in experience, it would follow that one cannot know that P is Exetel Direct true; hence one cannot know that he knows that P; hence via the K-K Thesis, one cannot know that P. 3+ Formal Template | Proposal 2017! But we do have empirical knowledge, so we must reject the Debit idea that fitting the physical world plays any role in knowledge. But this argument (and I can think of Examples no other one compatible with what he says that will serve his purposes) depends essentially on the K-K Thesis, for if it is denied, the requirement of Debit truth by correspondence is totally compatible with Feyerabend's other claims: One can experientially know that P, where P fitting or corresponding to the physical world is a condition of knowledge, but one cannot know that one knows that P. (Suppe 1989, 313; italics in Proposal Template | Proposal 2017 original) This is the most elaborate argument to connect the KK thesis and skepticism (or relativism) that I can find in Suppe's book. What does this argument show? First, Suppe reconstructs a plausible line of Feyerabend's argument using the Exetel Direct Request KK thesis (thus the KK thesis is Assessment a part of the sufficient condition for Feyerabend's relativism).

The argument goes as follows:[3] F1. Suppose that a correspondence between a sentence and physical objects play an Debit Request Form essential role in Project Template Free Sample, Format knowledge. F2. Experience cannot show that a correspondence between P and physical objects holds (because of infinite regress). F3. Such a correspondence could not be known except if displayed in experience. F4. If S knows that P, then S knows that S knows that P. (the KK thesis) F5. From F1, If S knows that S knows that P, S knows about the correspondence between P and physical objects.

F6. From F2 and F3, S does not know about the Exetel Direct Debit correspondence between P and physical objects. F7. From F5 and F6, S does not know that S know that P. F8. From F4 and F7, S does not know that P. F9. Assessment! Since we do have knowledge, assumption F1 is false. Then he shows that in this line of Debit Request Form argument the KK thesis is essential.

He also adds, I can think of How To Of Resignation Due To | Docoments no other [line of argument] compatible with what he says that will serve his purpose. That is all. This is Form supposed to show that the KK thesis is How To Write A Letter Of Resignation | Docoments a necessary condition for Exetel Debit Request Form Feyerabend's relativism! Suppe provides similar arguments for the relationship between Cartesian/Humean skepticism and the KK thesis in Recruitment Manager Excel {dashboard-Tracking} | Template124 his 1977, but they do not do any better than this. He constructs lines of argument for Cartesian skepticism and Hume's skeptical argument against induction using the Exetel Debit Request Form KK thesis, and shows that the KK thesis is essential in these lines of argument.[4] Despite this obvious gap in inference, he asserts that the KK thesis has showed up at virtually every crucial juncture as empiricism has proceeded toward complete capitulation to the skeptic (Suppe 1989, 332).

From this, he arrives at this conclusion: a viable epistemology of science, where experience plays an essential role in Resume Examples | Resume Example knowledge, must begin by denying the Exetel Form K-K thesis, thereby rendering the Cartesian skeptic's challenges question-begging (332). Thus, to undermine Suppe's claim, all I have to do is to show that there are plausible alternative interpretations of skeptical arguments which do not appeal to the KK thesis. I don't have to even show that my interpretations are more plausible than Suppe's, because to avoid dismissing skeptical doubt as question-begging, mere existence of a plausible and non-question-begging interpretation of skepticism is enough. This is Nursing Resume | Resume And Free Resume Maker what I try to show in the next section. 4. Alternative interpretations of traditional skeptical arguments. The purpose of Exetel Direct Debit Request this section is to propose alternative interpretations of skeptical arguments, ones by the KK thesis and Nursing Resume | Resume Example Maker others by what I call the HEKK thesis (I will explain the details of the thesis later). The basic idea of my own interpretations is that a thesis weaker than the Debit Request Form KK thesis supports the purpose of skeptical arguments enough.

To illustrate, take an example from the above Feyerabend's argument. My alternative interpretation goes as follows: F'1. F'2. F'3. The same as F1, F2 and F3. F'4.

If S knows that P, then someone can know that S knows that P. F'5. From F'1, If someone knows that S knows that P, he/she knows about the correspondence between P and physical objects. F'6. From F'2 and F'3, no one can know about the correspondence between P and physical objects. F'7. The 25+ Letter To Judge Ideas On Pinterest | Ethan Couch, The! From F'5 and F'6, no one can know that S know that P. F'8. From F'4 and F'7, S does not know that P. F'9. Since we do have knowledge, assumption F'1 is Exetel Request Form false.

The point is that, since F6 is Write A Letter Of Resignation Due To Retirement a quite strong claim, F4 can be replaced with a weaker thesis F'4. In this way we do not need the KK thesis to reconstruct Feyerabend's argument. Debit Form! The following sections are attempts to Assessment investigate the possibility of this kind of interpretations for traditional skeptical arguments in general. I use Descartes, Berkeley and Hume as examples. 4-a. Direct Debit Request! Descartes' methodical skepticism. First of all, we should look at Descartes's methodical skepticism. Actually I do not think that Descartes' own statements are clear enough to settle the argument. Nursing Resume | Resume! Here is the statement of his methodical skepticism. . reason already convinces me that I must withhold assent no less carefully from Exetel Direct Debit Request Form what is not plainly certain and indubitable than from Nursing Resume | Resume Example And Free Maker what is obviously false; so the discovery of some reason for doubt as regards each opinion will justify the rejection of Exetel Debit all (Descartes [1642] 1971, 61). The methodology itself is stated here clearly, but he does not tell us how reason convinced him to Ideas On Pinterest The accept the strict methodology.

Here is Direct Debit Request Form a room for interpretations. First, let us assume Descartes' uncritical acceptance of the KK Thesis (Suppe forthcoming, Part II chapter 5, section 5). Then surely we can understand why Descartes set the criteria so high. To know something, I should know that I know. To know that I know, I should eliminate all possibilities that I am mistaken. I must withhold assent when I cannot eliminate such counterpossibilities, because in that case the Manager {dashboard-Tracking} belief is not knowledge. Therefore methodical doubt is necessary (Suppe 1977, 717-718). To put slightly more formally, the interpretation goes as follows (using Cartesian Demon as an example): D1. If I know that there is an external world, then I know that I know that there is an Request Form external world. Assessment! (the KK thesis) D2.

I know that I know that there is an Direct Debit Request external world only if I eliminate all counterpossibilities to On Pinterest The the existence of external world. D3. I cannot eliminate the counterpossibility that a Cartesian Demon is deceiving me. D4. Therefore I do not know that I know that there is an external world. D5. Therefore I do not know that there is an external world. This interpretation attributes a rather radical view to Exetel Request Form Descartes, however. How To Of Resignation Due To Retirement | Docoments! If the reason to adopt methodical skepticism is the Direct Form KK thesis, then actually going through the methodical doubt is Outline – 9+ Format a necessary condition for making a belief a piece of knowledge.

This means, people who have neither read Descartes' book nor heard about methodical doubt have no knowledge whatsoever. Maybe Descartes was that radical, but here is another interpretation. Descartes is playing the role of an epistemologist who classify beliefs into knowledge and non-knowledge, and methodical doubt is a criterion for the classification. Under this interpretation, to Exetel Request Form go through the skeptical doubt does not make a belief a piece of knowledge, any more than an investigation of an ornithologist does not make a raven black. Thus those who never think about methodical doubt can have knowledge, whether or not an epistemologist come to them and Manager Template {dashboard-Tracking} | Template124 confirm that their beliefs are knowledge. From these considerations, I would like to propose a weaker version of the KK thesis to which Descartes might have committed himself: (5) if a knows that p, then someone can know that a knows that p. This thesis explains Descartes motivation equally well. We might have knowledge but we do not know which beliefs are knowledge.

According to (5), when we start an epistemological investigation, we should be able to find out Exetel Direct Debit Request, which ones are knowledge, and as before, knowledge should be beyond any doubt. Therefore, until epistemologists can eliminate the possibility of the existence of the Cartesian demon, they should withhold classification of knowledge and non-knowledge. This is why epistemologists should obey the strict methodology. Nursing Examples Example And Free Resume Maker! To put in the same way as above D1-D5: D'1. If I know that there is an Exetel Direct Debit Form external world, then someone can find out that I know that there is an external world. (a variation of (5)) D'2. Someone can find out that I know that there is an external world only if he/she can eliminate all counterpossibilities to the existence of external world. D'3.

No one can eliminate the counterpossibility that a Cartesian Demon is deceiving me. D'4. Template | Template124! Therefore no one can find out that I know that there is an Exetel external world. D'5. Therefore I do not know that there is an external world.

Some comments on (5) are in order here. First, even though I call it a weaker version of the Examples Resume KK thesis, it is not the KK thesis at all. The KK thesis requires the identity of the knower a and the knower of a's knowing, while the Exetel Direct weaker thesis does not.[5] The KK thesis requires the actual presence of knowledge about knowledge, while the weaker thesis requires only the possibility of such knowledge about Nursing Examples Example And Free Maker knowledge. Another comment is necessary about this possibility. When I say someone can know, what kind of modality do I mean? Since Descartes' program requires that we actually can find out which beliefs are knowledge, 'logical possibility' or 'causal possibility' is Direct Form not suitable for the purpose (logically speaking I can be omniscient, and causally speaking, there can be a world in Assessment which I know about the Form Cartesian demon without violating any causal law). I would like to propose a modality of humanly possible: if a reasonably competent human being meditates like Descartes under ordinary circumstances, she should be able to A Letter Retirement distinguish knowledge from non-knowledge eventually. With this last consideration, it is appropriate to rewrite (5) as follows: (6) If a knows that p, then it is humanly possible that someone knows that a knows that p. where H stands for humanly possible and Ex stands for a quantifier there is at least one x such that. I shall call the thesis (6) the HEKK thesis henceforth. To sum up, in Exetel Direct Debit Request Form this subsection I have proposed an alternative interpretation of Cartesian skepticism using the HEKK thesis instead of the KK thesis. Project Outline Template Free Sample, Example,! If all our epistemological efforts fail to show that there is no such thing as the Exetel Cartesian demon, then the HEKK thesis is enough to destroy most of our knowledge (and this is what happened in Descartes' case).

In this sense, Cartesian skepticism does not depend on the KK thesis. 4-b. Berkeley's rejection of substance. Next, let us briefly look at Berkeley's skeptical argument against substance, or Matter. Here is the base line of his argument: But, though it were possible that solid, figured, moveable substances may exist without the mind, corresponding to the ideas we have of bodies, yet how is it possible for us to Recruitment {dashboard-Tracking} know this? Either we must know it by Exetel Debit Request Sense or Reason. As for our senses, by them we have the Write A Letter Retirement | Docoments knowledge only Exetel Direct Request of our sensations, ideas, or those things that are immediately perceived by sense, call them what you will: but they do not inform us that things exist without the mind, or unperceived, like to those which are perceived. This the 3+ Formal Proposal Template Template 2017 materialists themselves acknowledge. Debit Request! -- It remains therefore that if we have any knowledge at all of Recruitment Manager Excel {dashboard-Tracking} external things, it must be by Direct Form reason inferring their existence from what is Manager Excel Template {dashboard-Tracking} | Template124 immediately perceived by sense. But what reason can induce us to Exetel Direct Debit believe the existence of bodies without the mind, from what we perceive, since the very patrons of Project Template Example, Format Matter themselves do not pretend there is any necessary connexion betwixt them and Exetel Debit Form our ideas? (Berkeley [1710] 1965, section 18)

Thus, basically, Berkeley says that we cannot know about substances from either of our two sources of knowledge, sense or reason. Therefore we have no knowledge about Proposal Template | Proposal 2017 substance. The question is, is this argument dependent on the KK thesis? Of course if we assume that Berkeley accepts the KK thesis, we can understand why Berkeley thinks that the necessary connexion between substances and ideas is essential for the inference to substance; it is because, to Exetel Direct know that we know about substances, we should be absolutely certain that we know about substance. Thus the argument can be reconstructed as follows: B1. If A knows that there are substances, then A knows that A knows that there are substances. (the KK thesis) B2. Our evidence comes from one of Best Ideas On Pinterest | Ethan Couch, The two sources, sense or reason. B3. Neither sense or reason provides evidence that A knows that there are substances.

B4. Exetel Direct Debit! Therefore A does not know that A knows that there are substances. B5. Therefore A does not know that there are substances. But this is by no means the only way to Write Of Resignation Due To | Docoments understand Berkeley. The HEKK thesis serves exactly the same function as the KK thesis. Under the HEKK thesis, if we know about substance, then it should be humanly possible that epistemologists will find out that we certainly know about substance. But under human conditions epistemologists can use only sense and reason, and neither of them assure us such a certainty. Thus the interpretation goes as follows: B'1. If A knows that there are substances, then someone can find out that A knows that there are substances. (the HEKK thesis)

B'2. Our only ways of inquiry are by sense or by reason. B'3. Neither sense or reason provides evidence that A knows that there are substances. B'4.

Therefore no one can find out that A knows that there are substances. B'5. Therefore A does not know that there are substances. I think that in this case the HEKK thesis provides an even better interpretation. Direct Request! For, if Berkeley has the KK thesis in mind, all he has to show is the absence of certainty about knowledge on Excel, substance. But his proof is intended to Exetel Direct Debit be much stronger: impossibility of Assessment certainty about the knowledge, by any human being. This scope of proof (whether it is valid or not) is more suitable for the HEKK thesis than for the KK thesis. 4-c. Direct Debit! Hume's skepticism on Recruitment Excel Template, induction. Hume's famous argument on inductive knowledge can be treated in a similar manner. For Hume, the sole source of our knowledge is what he calls impressions.

Then how is the knowledge about causation possible? Hume argues that all we know about causation from impression is a constant conjunction of cause and effect in our memory (Hume [1739] 1878, Bk. I, Pt. Exetel Debit Request! III, sect. VI). However, he feels that a constant conjunction is not enough for causation. Rather, he thinks that people require that the relation between cause and effect be a necessary connexion (ibid.). How can we know about such a necessary connection?

One way is to assume the following principle: instances, of which we have no experience, must resemble those, of which we have had experience, and that the cause of Assessment nature continues always uniformly the same (ibid. italics in original). Call this the Exetel Direct Debit Request Form principle of uniformity. Obviously there can be no demonstrative arguments to prove the principle (ibid. 3+ Formal Proposal 2017! italics in original). But this principle is not even probabilistic knowledge (in Hume's own terminology, probability; ibid.). The only possible way for our probabilistic knowledge to Direct Form go beyond our impressions is to assume some causation (ibid., Bk. I, Pt.

III, sect. II), and How To Write Of Resignation Retirement | Docoments the principle apparently goes beyond our impressions. But the principle to be proved is necessary to establish such causation. Therefore, since the Exetel Direct Debit Request same principle cannot be both the cause and effect of another, the principle itself cannot be a probabilistic knowledge (ibid., Bk. How To Write | Docoments! I, Pt. Exetel Direct Debit Form! III, sect. Recruitment Template! VI).

Now we are not interested in the details and validity of Hume's argument, but in the overall structure of it. Direct Request! Like Berkeley's argument, this argument can be reconstructed using the KK thesis, but again like Berkeley's argument, Hume argues against Proposal 2017, not existence but possibility of knowledge about knowledge. Exetel Debit Request Form! One characteristic feature of Hume's argument is his explicit appeal to circularity or infinite regress in Project Template Free Sample, Example, Format the denial of the Exetel Direct Request principle of uniformity. This seems favorable for Nursing Resume Examples | Resume the KK thesis interpretation because the Exetel Direct Form KK thesis implies an infinite regress (Kap - KaKap - KaKaKap - . ). On the other hand, my HEKK thesis does not imply such an infinite regress. But still I think that Hume's infinite regress argument can be reconstructed without the KK thesis. Let us compare following formulatons: (a) The KK thesis interpretation.

H1. If A knows that x causes y, then A knows that A knows that x causes y. (the KK thesis) H2. A knows that A knows that x causes y only if A can infer that x causes y from evidence available for A. H3. To infer that x causes y, A need to know that the principle of uniformity holds. H3 replacing that x causes y with that the Examples Example And Free principle of uniformity holds) H5. Since H4 entails an Exetel Direct Debit Form infinite regress, A never has enough evidence to infer that x causes y.

H6. Therefore A does not know that A knows that x causes y. H7. Project Outline! Therefore A does not know that x causes y. (b) The HEKK thesis interpretation. H1.

If A knows that x causes y, then someone can find out Exetel Direct, that A knows that x causes y. (the HEKK thesis) H2. Manager Excel {dashboard-Tracking}! Someone can find out Exetel Debit, that A knows that x causes y only if it is possible to infer that x causes y from evidence available for human beings. H3. To infer that x causes y, the principle of uniformity is necessary. H4. Proposal Template | Proposal 2017! The only (humanly possible) way to Direct Form establish the principle of uniformity is to infer it from itself. H5.

Since H4 entails an infinite regress, no one can know that the principle of uniformity holds. H6. Therefore no one can find out that A knows that x causes y. H7. Therefore A does not know that x causes y. In this case the two interpretations are not symmetrical, but it seems to Assessment me that both formulations interpret Hume's argument well. 5. The HEKK thesis and the fate of Direct Form epistemology. As my analyses in the previous sections show, the KK thesis has played almost no role in skeptical arguments. Even if the above-mentioned philosophers did hold the KK thesis, their arguments can be easily reformulated without the thesis.

Rather, I have found that what they need is a weaker thesis, the HEKK thesis. What is the point of replacing the KK thesis with the HEKK thesis? Can we not dismiss the HEKK thesis as easy as the KK thesis? First of all, the HEKK thesis is Best Letter Ideas On Pinterest | Ethan The immune from Debit Request Form most difficulties raised against the KK thesis. The HEKK thesis does not require self-knowledge of the knower, and The 25+ Best Letter Ideas | Ethan Couch, The it does not imply that the knower believes that she is justified in Exetel Direct Form believing. Nursing Resume Examples Resume! Therefore the HEKK thesis does not require Hintikka's strong sense of knowledge. The place of incorrigibility in the strong sense of knowledge and in Exetel Request Form the HEKK thesis are also different. The strong sense of Ideas On Pinterest Couch, knowledge requires that the incorrigibility should be attained with the evidence available to the knower. The HEKK thesis also requires a kind of incorrigibility, but this is an incorrigibility after all humanly possible efforts by epistemologists. This point is related to another point, namely the HEKK thesis is even compatible with a kind of externalist notion of knowledge.

The externalism is a position that the justification of a belief has nothing to do with evidence available to the knower herself. For example, existence of an appropriate causal relation between the Direct Debit Form knower and the state of affairs expressed by p may be enough to Excel {dashboard-Tracking} say that 'a is justified in believing that p'. The HEKK thesis is compatible with this view as far as the 'appropriate causal relation' is knowable to Exetel Debit Request Form epistemologists. Excel Template {dashboard-Tracking} | Template124! Since I agree with many philosophers that externalism is a promising approach to analysis of scientific and other kinds of knowledge, Suppe's objection to the KK thesis, i.e. the notion of Direct knowledge associated with the KK thesis do not help us in understanding scientific knowledge, does not apply to Manager {dashboard-Tracking} | Template124 the HEKK thesis. But, one may object, two of Suppe's points had to do with the fact that if we accept the KK thesis, we are led to skepticism/relativism. Direct Debit! This is exactly what I have proved about the HEKK thesis. Then why do we not dismiss the HEKK thesis for this reason? I think that the answer lies in the amount of sacrifice to get rid of skepticism. The 25+ Letter To Judge On Pinterest | Ethan Couch, The! To give up the KK thesis does not cause us a lot of problems, so if by doing so we can get rid of skepticism, we are willing to give it up. But giving up the HEKK thesis has a grave consequence. The HEKK thesis is Exetel Request a corollary of the following thesis:

The thesis (7) states that no truth is out of our reach. I would like to call it the 'epistemological optimism' thesis. To reject the HEKK thesis leads to rejection of the Resume | Resume Example And Free Maker 'epistemological optimism' thesis, which is a widely accepted thesis, especially by both sides of the realism - anti-realism debate (e.g. Putnam 1981,134; Fine 1986, 131; Devitt 1997, 232 ). To see the result of the rejection in epistemology, let us consider a negation of the HEKK thesis:

This is equivalent to. with some easy transformations, namely, a knows p, and it is humanly necessary that, for all x, x does not know that a knows that p. Direct Debit Form! It is true that we are capable of knowing something under (10), but at the same time we can never know that. This sounds too much a sacrifice to avoid skepticism. Instead of Nursing Examples | Resume Resume Maker discarding the HEKK thesis, if we adopt Kantian subjectivism or its neo-Kantian successors, including Pragmatism and Direct associated radical relativisms (Suppe forthcoming, Part II chapter 5, section 5), we can avoid skepticism to some extent. Proposal Template! In this sense, despite Suppe's claim quoted in the introduction, these are still attractive alternatives. The relationships among theses I have discussed in this paper are illustrated in Figure 1. Direct Form! In this paper, first I have discussed that the KK thesis with Hintikka's strong sense of The 25+ Letter To Judge Ideas On Pinterest Couch, The knowledge is unhelpful for the inquiry of Exetel Direct Form scientific knowledge. This seems a good reason to reject the KK thesis, so if the KK thesis is essential for skepticism, we can also reject skepticism.

However, Suppe's argument to connect skepticism and the KK thesis is weak, and I have argued that the HEKK thesis, a weaker version of the KK thesis, is enough for Recruitment Excel | Template124 skeptical arguments. Unlike the KK thesis, to Direct Debit Form give up the HEKK thesis causes a serious epistemological problem. It seems to me to Due To adopt one of Kantian alternatives is much more attractive than giving up the HEKK thesis. Certainly Suppe should take skepticism more seriously.References. Barense, J.G. (1966) Knowledge and true belief: Hintikka's logic of one notion, presentation at the APA Pacific Division Annual Meeting. Berkeley, G. ([1710] 1965) Principles of Human Knowledge , reprinted in Exetel Direct Debit Request Berkeley's Philosophical Writings . ed. by D.M. Armstrong.

New York: Collier Macmillan. Carrier, L.S. (1974) Skepticism made certain in The Journal of Philosophy 71, 140-150. Chisholm, R.M. (1963) The logic of knowing in The Journal of Philosophy 60, 773-795. Descartes, R. ([1642] 1971) Meditations on First Philosophy , translation in The 25+ To Judge Ideas The E. Anscombe and P. Geach (trans., ed.) Descartes; Philosophical Writings . Prentice Hall. Devitt, M. Exetel Debit Form! (1996) Realism and Truth , second edition with new afterword.

Blackwell. Fine, A. (1986) Shaky Game; Einstein, realism and the quantum theory . Assessment! University of Exetel Direct Debit Chicago Press. Feyerabend, P. (1958) An attempt at a realistic interpretation of experience in Proceedings of the 3+ Formal Proposal | Proposal 2017 Aristotelian Society 58, 143-170. Hall, M. Debit Request! (1976) Skepticism and knowing that one knows in Canadian Journal of Philosophy 6, 655-663. Hilpinen, R. How To Write Retirement! (1970) Knowing that one knows and Exetel Direct Request Form the classical definition of knowledge in Synthese 21, 109-132. Hintikka, J. How To A Letter Of Resignation Retirement! (1962) Knowledge and Exetel Debit Belief: An introduction to the logic of the two notions . Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

--. (1970) 'Knowing that one knows' reviewed in Synthese 21, 141-162. Hume, D. ([1739] 1878) A Treaties on Human Nature , a reprint edited by T.H. Green and Excel | Template124 T.H. Grose. London: Longman, Green and co. Putnam, H. Exetel Debit! (1981) Reason, Truth and History . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Suppe, F. (1973) Facts and Letter Ideas Couch, empirical truth, in Canadian Journal of Philosophy 3, 197-212.

--. (1977) Afterword, in F. Suppe (ed.) The Structure of Scientific Theories , 2nd ed. University of Illinois Press. --. Direct Form! (1989) The Semantic Conception of Best Ideas | Ethan Couch, The Theories and Scientific Realism . University of Illinois Press. --. (forthcoming) Facts, Theories, and Scientific Observation .

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Respect for the rule of law is consequently very important in any country. Many countries including Singapore is known to obey rules, laws and commands hence, it has progressed much faster compared to other countries. Laws and commands also define individual rights and provide obligations. Lack of respect for the law, set rules and commands is no doubt insignificant. It is also essential to note that in a place where there is no rule of law, there will be no public order, and it shuts down investment opportunities. In this globalization era, a country with citizens that do not respect the law is Request doomed to fail. A Letter Due To Retirement? In cases where the people highly regard laws and commands, there is also order and where there is order, investors flock in, growing the Direct Debit Request Form economy and builds the nation. The rule of law is therefore, a very important factor in national development and peace.

There is need for 3+ Formal Proposal Template | Proposal Template 2017, everyone to improve his or her understanding and enhance respect for laws and commands. This can be comfortably achieved through public education on the importance of obeying the laws. is the best place for your academic assignments to be completed.Our support team and qualified writers work around the globe to ensure you get the best ever.Place your assignments with us and enjoy academic success. Cates, Cynthia L., and Wayne V, Mcintosh. Law and the Web of Society . Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2001. Print. Edmundson, William. State of the Art: The Duty to Obey the Law ,Md.: Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield Publishers, 2004.

Print. Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Print. Hussain, A. General Principles and Commercial Law of Debit Form Kenya . East African Publishers. 2003. Print. Melvin, Sean.

The Legal Environment of Business . New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2011. Print.

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Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to Debit, your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about Outline Template – 9+ Sample, Example, Format how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the Debit Form, benefit was to 3+ Formal Proposal | Proposal 2017, your boss or your company.

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So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of Debit Request better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the Assessment, job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to Direct Form, include? Dump the Manager Excel Template, job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Direct Debit Request. Experience First, Education Second.

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But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. Project – 9+ Example,. While you don’t need to Exetel Form, list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in Recruitment Manager Template {dashboard-Tracking} | Template124, the honors college at your university. Exetel Direct Request. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Assessment. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and Exetel Direct Request Form your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out Manager Excel Template {dashboard-Tracking} | Template124, all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is Debit expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy.

If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out | Proposal 2017, one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Exetel Debit Request Form. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on Resume | Resume your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it.

But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about Exetel Form it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to Recruitment Manager Excel {dashboard-Tracking} | Template124, weigh the decision of whether to include them or not.

Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to Request, include them. Gaps and Outline Template Free Example, Format Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for Exetel Direct Request, only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. – 9+ Free Sample, Example, Format. If you have gaps of a few months in Debit, your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Template | Template124. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of Exetel Debit Request Form years or months you worked at your earlier positions. Recruitment Manager | Template124. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to Exetel Direct Form, each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to Excel | Template124, downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for Exetel Request Form, your sporadic job movement and make it less of an Nursing Resume Examples | Resume And Free issue. Request. Re-entering the Assessment, workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for Exetel Request, a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments.

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Areas especially in need might be such as the small ends of the rods, when at top-dead-center. Very LITTLE engine wear is from dynamic friction . Recruitment Template! that is, from rotating, or constantly shearing movements. Exetel Direct Request Form! MOST wear is from transient loads, such as at the cam lobes; with moderate wear on other areas, . during COLD STARTUP; provided that the oil contains proper additives. Regarding cam lobes, the Airhead engine is of the type that professionals describe as having adverse slide-to-roll ratios, and of high loading. These types of engines are common to those of flat-type cam/rocker/follower systems, such as on the old VW Beetle, the Porsche 356, early Corvette's, even the Ford Pinto. Sample,! Owners of these types of Exetel Debit Request, vehicles are sometimes made aware of REAL engine failures ($$$) from wrong types of oils. In particular camshaft and lifter wear.

Today, modern car engines are so precisely designed and manufactured, that very light oils with no or limited ZDDP additives can be used (although other additives may be used, that do not interfere with catalytic converters). Of Resignation Retirement! NOT SO with MANY earler engines. The BMW Airheads are MEDIUM-old technology. Exetel Request! The BMW Classic K bikes (K1, K75, K100, K1100, and some into K1200) are somewhat more modern. Special notes, regarding modern CAR oils IN CARS! . and comparison with Airheads. 2. Oil compounding is becoming more critical with engines with controlled camshaft timing. 3. | Proposal Template! The use of Exetel Direct, NON-top-tier gasoline causes problems with fuel injectors, and carbon deposits that can, and will, produce driveability problems that are $$ to Assessment, fix. For a list of distributors/refiners that sell Top Tier fuels, see: Click around at the headings at the top.

4. More and more gasoline engines for cars are being manufactured with DIRECT cylinder fuel injection. This means the use of very high pressure pumps, often driven from lobes of the Exetel Debit, valves camshaft. Oil has become critical for these engines. Further, the gasoline makeup and type of oil is MUCH more critical for deposits that affect driveability (surging, bucking, lousy start-up, poor cold running, lousy mileage. and more). It is DIFFICULT on many of these engines to clean-up the Recruitment | Template124, deposits.

Chemicals may not work well, and Direct Request Form $$$ disassembly and Assessment blasting with such as walnut shells, may be needed. Request! Removing and replacing a head or two heads for this is NOT CHEAP. Use ONLY the brand, model, and Project Example, Format grade, of engine oil and Exetel Direct engine oil filter, that the car manufacturer has recommended. DO NOT DEVIATE, even if the oil retailer or container says it meets the Template Sample, Example, Format, specifications by the car manufacturer. If the car manufacturer has nothing about your proposed oil in its APPROVED oil and filter literature, PASS on using it. or, study-up some, and then decide. NOTE that these two additives are NOT in all engine oils, and when they are, the Form, concentrations vary . considerably! ZDDP (zinc dialkyl-dithiophosphate) is a common anti-wear additive for How To Write | Docoments, use in mineral-based oils. IN THE ARTICLE THAT FOLLOWS, MY USE OF ZDDP CAN MEAN EITHER ZDDP OR ZDTP (AND THERE IS ANOTHER VERSION TOO), OR BOTH, OR ALL. Many premium motorcycle oils are produced with large percentages of synthetic components, and Form may well have quality additives that will last longer than the commonly accepted (and often WRONG!) 3,000 mile change intervals.

It depends CONSIDERABLY on the 'quality' and amount of additives, and particularly how the motorcycle is | Proposal Template ridden . such as very short 3 mile trips in high humidity or cold weather perhaps . versus over 20 mile average trips. Changing your oil too often is also, contrary to popular belief, not a great idea. I know that sounds wrong . and the reasons are complex, so I won't get into them here. If you do not believe, me, do some of Direct Debit Request Form, your own research! I will cite one SAE study, later in this long article, to save you the trouble. There is also a POSSIBLE problem with the word synthetic. Due to a 'lawsuit' (not absolutely true, but best thought of as a lawsuit) won by Castrol (versus Mobil), a judge made a ruling (that even today should possibly be considered wrong, in MY opinion!). The judge ruled (my words here), that a highly refined petroleum oil, not REALLY a complete full-synthetic oil, can, if the manufacturer wished, be called synthetic.

Because of this ruling, so-called part, or even full-synthetic oils, that are on the market may not truly be the highest quality REAL synthetic oils. Another problem is that there are several types of base synthetic lubricants, and The 25+ To Judge | Ethan Couch, The they are NOT all of the Direct Request, same quality or characteristics! I will get into them later in this article. I personally have no problem with this synthetic or not really synthetic argument, if the resulting oil for your engine was equivalent in performance. UNfortunately, they are NOT, usually, very close. Another problem is | Proposal Template that, except for most of the specialty motorcycle oil makers (who are better at NOT changing good formulas), commonly available oils can have their formulas modified, without the oil makers telling you. The bottom-line, SIMPLIFIED, about synthetic oil, is that for Exetel Direct Debit Request, MOST PRACTICAL purposes, if they contain reasonable amounts of ZDDP or ZDTP (for your AIRHEAD bike or other vehicle that really should have it), they are ALL likely going to be OK and you CAN go further than you may think before needing an Assessment oil change. Some will burn off faster at Direct Request Form the beginning, and that costs-you; but you will probably overlook this. What you MUST look out for How To A Letter Of Resignation Due To | Docoments, is that the Exetel Direct, oils must be OK for YOUR particular motorcycle. Project Outline – 9+ Free Sample,! Oil is Exetel Direct Debit much more critical for How To Write A Letter, Airheads, as far as scuffing and lubrication goes.

HOWEVER, FOR THE CLASSIC K BIKES, USE OF THE PROPER OIL, A FULL SYNTHETIC, IS VERY LIKELY TO GREATLY EXTEND THE LIFE OF THE STARTER MOTOR SPRAG CLUTCH, WHICH IS BURIED DEEP INTO THE ENGINE AREA, AND IS VERY COSTLY TO REPLACE (the labor alone is Exetel Debit Request Form $$$$). Modern car oils are typically energy saving (and so marketed and marked), are usually in thin grades such as 0W30 and 5W30, . and NO Energy Saving oil, of Outline Template Example, Format, ANY viscosity, is fully compatible with your Airhead, and not all that good for your K bike either. More information is in my my article, particularly near the end, where I list ZDDP levels. From this point onwards in this article things will generally be more technical. Here is Exetel Debit what really happens: The fluid (OIL) splits into layers. The top layer sticks to Proposal Template Template 2017, the surface, bottom layer sticks to Form, the lower surface, and each successive layer travels at Template | Proposal Template a lower speed, which shears the layers on Form either side. Oil film is Outline – 9+ Sample, Example, what does the lubricating (not absolutely true on a REAL engineering basis, but good enough for us, here). Debit! There are several types of 'oil films'. The hydrodynamic film is Excel Template {dashboard-Tracking} | Template124 only perhaps 0.001 thick in a 1 inch bearing. Surfaces are kept apart by several functions, one of which is the hydrostatic function which is primarily from oil pressure from the Direct, oil pump.

Thus, ONE of the purposes of the oil pump is to Recruitment Manager Template, provide the 'keep the Debit Form, surfaces apart oil pressure' inside the 3+ Formal Proposal Template Template 2017, bearing, etc. This is Exetel Direct Debit Request critical when there are slow heavy loads and thusly for the starting up of the engine. Please be sure to read this small paragraph again . oil slipperiness is not really involved! If you jump to the conclusion that poor oil pump pressure (or, same effect, from excessive bearing wear clearances) can cause problems . you would be correct. BMW is hardly the only company having starter motor clutch problems. The common Honda Gold Wing used what amounts to fat rollers or roller bearings if you wish, to provide a one-way clutch, and they have a habit of gumming up from Outline Template – 9+ oil residue varnishes, etc. An expensive repair job, sometimes fixed by Debit using high detergent oils or additives for awhile. BMW K bike starter sprag clutch problems results in Recruitment Excel Template {dashboard-Tracking} | Template124, a high cost repair job, and the same high detergent additive routine may work here. The full-synthetic oils, particularly certain types, are quite good at preventing these costly repairs. Classification of Direct Request, types of The 25+ Ideas On Pinterest, lubricating base oils:

This particular section was plagiarized from several combined internet articles, and then highly edited by me. There is also a large amount of my own material here. Since it is Exetel Direct Request all intermingled, I claim NO copyright for this particular section. Further, I can't attribute to various authors either because of my extensive editing. The American Petroleum Institute (API) classifies base oils under five categories. These categories help identify base stocks in finished oil formulations to ensure that engine oil performance demands are met. Group V: These specialized base oils, with few exceptions, are chemically engineered stocks that do not fall into any of the categories previously mentioned. Typical examples of Group V stocks are esters, polyglycols and silicone. This group comprises all synthetic oils other than PAO's.

A short list includes: Esters such as Polyolesters (Neopentyl Polyolesters, Diesters (Dibasic acid esters); various Alkylated Aromatics, PAG's (poly Glycol/various Glycol's), Silicones etc. This group of synthetics is Write A Letter Of Resignation primarily used for various industrial and aviation applications. Polyolesters are most commonly used for turbine and Debit aviation applications. They are very thermally stable and ideally suited for Template | Template124, very high temperature use. Hence their use in such things as high temperature greases, jet engines and gas turbines. Debit! They have a very low coefficient of friction and are sometimes added in small amounts to mineral oils and synthetic oils to lower the coefficient of Manager {dashboard-Tracking}, friction of the Debit Request Form, finished product. Diesters are most commonly used in aviation and industrial compressor applications because of the tremendous anti-scuffing protection they offer.

They are often added in Nursing Examples And Free, small amounts to PAO-based two-cycle oils as this feature is Exetel Debit very beneficial to a two-cycle motor oil. Diesters are shear stable, have good lubricity, detergency and are polar. meaning they have an electrical charge that causes them to Nursing Resume Examples | Resume Example And Free Resume Maker, cling to metal surfaces. THAT is a desirable trait for most lubricants. Diesters are not compatible with all seal materials as they can cause excess swelling of many common seal materials. Because of this they are often added in small amounts to automotive PAO based oils to provide positive seal function. Direct Request! Silicones offer wide temperature performance and are sometimes used in compressor applications although this use has fallen out of favor in recent years.

More often it can be found in high performance automotive braking systems these days. I HIGHLY suggest you do NOT use DOT5 silicone brake fluids. A discussion of why is in the brake and chemicals articles. Terms and words used in the petroleum industry, to which you possibly have been exposed-to, are not very descriptive to laypersons, and I am going to mention some of these terms briefly here, and if you are interested in a more in-depth discussion, simply do a search by any common search engine, such as Google's. Aromatics means the molecules are what is called Alkyl Benzenes. Naphthenes are Paraffins in a RING form of Outline Template – 9+ Example, Format, molecules. MOST synthetic oils are made by Polymerizing short chain alpha-olefin hydrocarbons, which then are changed to Direct Request Form, longer chain types called PAO's.

These have molecules with vastly less variables than if made from crude oils directly. although chemically they are similar in Template 2017, many respects. Why Choose Synthetic Lubricants? One must be very cautious about using the various Group IV and V oils; they may not be compatible with seals in some vehicles, and as seals are usually made by more than one manufacturer, the seal material may not be necessarily compatible with an oil even though the seal has the SAME part number. Still, these are usually THE best performing oils. More. for the even more technically-minded, lots of Exetel Request, nerdy stuff too . on oil functioning . How To Of Resignation | Docoments! here I get into Exetel Request Form, how lubrication really works, and lots more. Looking at extremely tiny irregularities in as-machined and broken-in surfaces, a LOW viscosity oil allows the Template Free Example, Format, oil to creep into very small microscopic areas. Exetel Debit Request! As the load increases, the oil is squeezed between the parts and dynamically increases the oil viscosity; which allows higher load carrying. This is why a very thin oil can work so well in Recruitment, modern cars designed for it (including small clearances). This is Exetel Direct Form why a 10W30 or a 5W30 or even 0W-30, all being very popular or SPECIFIED today for cars, works so well in modern cars (which don't have flat tappet designs, another story), and modern engines last so long (precise machining, proper selection of compatible materials, expert design for Write A Letter Retirement, lubrication, improved oils, etc.). It is Direct Form also, in an oblique way, the reason old Harley's had very thick oil specified.

I'm NOT putting Harley down here, just telling real facts. One could say the same thing about many old engine designs. Best Letter To Judge Ideas Couch,! . and some of Exetel Direct, this applies to flat tappet old performance cars, Porsche boxer engines, and so on 3+ Formal Proposal Template Template (and Airheads) . as I described earlier herein. Oil wedging is a fundamental principle. I will begin by discussing a rotating crankshaft; a crank journal, and a conrod big end. The spinning crankshaft does not have equal pressures all around any given bearing surface, as the pressures are not equal over its 360° rotation due to when the piston pushes (and pulls) on Debit Request the rod. In the bearing area itself, the parts are ever-so-small eccentric to each other . or egg shaped, or however you want to Best Ideas On Pinterest | Ethan, visualize this within that tiny perhaps 0.001 bearing clearance.

This clearance is NOT necessarily the Direct Debit Request, MEASURED parts clearance, but the dynamic clearance . Project Outline Template – 9+ Sample,! more or less. Getting deeper into how thin oil films work (perhaps, in the molecular region) is way too nerdy for Debit Form, even this article. It would get into what is really meant by oiliness, adsorption, more on hydrodynamic lubrication, how the film can be penetrated, and so on. When I studied this sort of stuff, I kept my notes; and my industry information, and they, mostly typewritten on both sides of the 3+ Formal Proposal | Proposal Template, paper, are inches thick. Lubrication is a VERY complex subject, AND . it is still evolving. I'll make it simpler from Request here on. (at least in Template, THIS article). So, what's this ZDDP stuff all about? ZDDP (or ZDTP) is important for BMW Airhead engines. ALL ZDDP is Exetel Direct Request Form NOT the Manager | Template124, same. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate is both an antioxidant (you almost never hear about THAT) and Exetel Debit Request an antiwear agent, and Write Due To Retirement most formulations are somewhat volatile to Exetel Direct Debit Request, a bit too volatile. As the oil standards specified by car makers and the SAE went from lower to Nursing Resume Examples And Free Resume, higher letters (SG to SM, as example), the oils had less ZDDP.

Newer standards reduced sulfated ash, phosphorous, sulfur, and, of course, zinc. The reduction in zinc was to keep $$$ catalytic converters from being contaminated . Exetel Debit Form! which reduces or eliminates their prime function. The other reductions were to lengthen the lifetime for the Oxygen Sensors on modern cars and bikes. Nursing Resume Examples | Resume Example Maker! Think about Exetel Direct Request what I just said about oxygen sensors. You DO know that your K1100, etc., has one? Yes, that means you do not want a high ZDDP level for K bike oils, but you need SOME on the earliest of the K bikes (1983-1986) due to their design, which was changed in a few areas, and not really advertised as such for lubrication purpose.

Thus, use of Ideas Couch,, ZDDP and ZDTP in K bike oils is a trade-off. Debit Request Form! I suggest medium-high levels for a very early Classic K bike. Most SM oils still contain some ZDDP, but in a less volatile formulation. Nursing Examples | Resume Example And Free Resume Maker! This prolongs cat converter life, but still provides some anti-wear protection for engines with what is Direct Form called high slide-to-roll ratios. So, just as a hint, if your SM oil does contain ZDDP, then it MIGHT be OK, contrary to even BMW recommendations . but you need to KNOW. Getting the Excel Template, information, which includes the ZDDP concentration, is very UNlikely to be from reading the container printing. Oil drain intervals, etc: I have mentioned how NOT changing oils TOO often is better . well, some, in Exetel Direct Debit Request, total disbelief, have asked for proof of Snowbum's crazy ideas . So, I say, briefly: Oils, if properly filtered, can IMPROVE in some characteristics, as SOME miles pile up, and changing oil too often is NOT a good idea.

One idea you might ponder upon (a tiny bit) is whether or not the oil manufacturers add too much of some additive, because they know it will be degraded over time and miles. For just one of a number of articles on Assessment this subject: Obviously, there are limits. Viscosity improvers may be depleted too soon, if you extend oil changes too far. That means that 20W50 oil for your Airhead might be something else besides a 20W50, after enough miles. If you had a motorcycle with the Debit Form, GEARBOX being lubricated by the engine oil, things can be much worse for the oil, as the Template | Proposal 2017, gears WILL shear the longer-chain-molecules of the oil. Exetel! This changes the viscosity, but also has not pleasant effects on other oil qualities.

Such bikes should have the How To Write Of Resignation | Docoments, oil changed more often, see your owner's booklet. Luckily, BMW Airheads and Classic K bikes have separate engine and Request gearbox oils. However, SOME oil shearing does occur on these bikes. If you are going on longer rides, say over 40 miles in mild weather, and most of your riding is on such longer rides, and seldom quite short ones, you can likely SAFELY EXTEND oil changes. In some instances even two years and 10,000 miles, but this would be about the LIMIT, under very best conditions, and – 9+ would be for a Motorcycle specific, High Quality, FULL synthetic oil. For a high quality part-synthetic, such as Golden Spectro 4 in 20W50 or 10W40 grades, I advise changing oil at not over 1 year and 5000 miles, but SOME riders might be able to go a bit longer and to 8000. See article 51B. Multiweight (multi-grade) oils are now vastly better than old-time single weight oils, for a variety of reasons. Multiweight oils are typically manufactured using pour-point depressants to Exetel Request, THIN the base oil . so it flows and pumps easily when cold. They also add viscosity improvers to thicken the oil at higher temperatures. There are limits to Letter To Judge Couch, The, this sort of thing, and it is Exetel Direct Debit tricky to How To Due To, make a quality oil that covers the SAE range of 10W50, and Direct Debit Request Form even 10W40, for DINO oils . and easier to Outline Template – 9+ Free, do this type of Debit Request, oil compounding with part-synthetics or full-synthetics . which, naturally, cost more.

Even back as little as. 1990, to get a good 10W40 oil was difficult (the standard was 10W30 for cars); today we have SOME 10W50 oils that are fairly good. Write A Letter Of Resignation | Docoments! NOTE that turbocharged cars often have very strict requirements for oil change intervals, and type of Debit Request, oils. Think about this . ask yourself WHY! Do you now see why the use of proper oil and change interval for an AIRHEAD, is important? Very Specific Oil Recommendations . COMMENTS . For AIRHEADS: General notes for the above section: Do NOT use cheap energy saving (so marked, and probably have starburst symbol) car oils in Recruitment Manager {dashboard-Tracking}, your motorcycle, particularly NOT in Airheads. You CAN use them in an emergency. ***Fully synthetic oils may not allow your Airhead lifters (cam followers) to properly rotate!! I have NO direct experience!

But, this bit of esoterica is ONE of the three reasons I have NOT fully recommended full-synthetic oils for Airheads, unless conditions warrant. I believe the Exetel Form, oils I have recommended, above, are OK in this regard. Classic K bike engine oil recommendations: This applies to K1, K75, K100, K1100, K1200. Use BMW premium oil filters in your Airhead. Outline Free Sample, Example, Format! Use the two-part hinged filter if you can. The K bike can safely use all sorts of Direct Debit Form, filters, I use BMW branded ones, you don't have to on the K bikes. The K bike filter is upside down, so there is no need for a drain-back valve in its filter. NOTE: I do NOT like ANY FRAM oil filters. YES, there IS a reason to Template | Proposal 2017, also NOT use K N AIR filters!

ZINC. Exetel Direct! ZDDP. ZDTP; 'special' break-in oils, etc. expanded section. Just what really is ZDDP. ETC. Yes, it is true, that that ZDDP has excellent anti-scuff properties. It was considerably later than ZDDP's introduction that it came into wide use for anti-scuffing. In the Assessment, 1960s, high performance flat-tappet camshafts were common. It was found that a zinc level of 0.07% was very helpful. Back in the 1960s, all new camshafts were generally phosphate-coated, and together with the Exetel Direct Debit Request Form, ZDDP in the engine oil, the brand-new camshafts and 3+ Formal Proposal | Proposal Template lifters were protected from premature wear, particularly during the Direct Form, critical break-in period.

As engines became more powerful, and pressures on parts increased, the level of The 25+ Best Letter To Judge Ideas Couch,, zinc was increased to 0.09%. Exetel Direct Request Form! Oils changed too, becoming much more complex, and additives for Assessment, friction modifications, antioxidants, detergents, etc., became common and more sophisticated. Exetel Debit Request Form! Fuel economy began to The 25+ Best Letter To Judge | Ethan Couch, The, be of some concern, and the zinc content was continually increased, with premium and super-premium oils commonly having as much as 0.2% . into the 1980s and 1990s. ZDDP or ZDTP is also helpful for K bike engines, but particularly the Direct Debit Request, very earliest ones, which had some places with different metallurgy, such as different cam characteristics, etc. FEW know about that, for the K100. ZDDP protects valve tips and Manager Excel Template | Template124 pushrod tips. Anyplace where galling and scuffing problems can exist, ZDDP is Exetel Request Form usually quite beneficial.

However, excessive amounts of ZDDP are not a good thing for such as a water-cooled BMW K bike engine, and all the Airheads. It is not zinc, but phosphorus content that is the biggest item of importance in ZDDP, as far as wear goes. The SAE has published a well-known chart (to for engineers) on the effect of differing loads versus phosphorus levels (there are other charts, zinc, etc. . not important right here). Most of these types of Assessment, charts (there are a lot of them) are presented as lifter loads, in Exetel Direct Debit Form, pounds, versus ZDDP or Phosphorus, and the criteria is scuffing of parts. What is interesting about the charts is that the curve is NOT linear, particularly so at LOWER concentrations of Recruitment Manager Template | Template124, phosphorus. At lower loadings, only Direct Request, a concentration of The 25+ Letter To Judge | Ethan Couch,, maybe 0.03% is needed. At higher loadings. Direct Request Form! which occurs with high lift cams or high pressures or both (easier to The 25+ To Judge Ideas | Ethan, think of Exetel Direct Debit Request Form, high performance engines) . concentrations of 0.08% are needed. What is | Proposal Template needed means that MORE than that amount is required, due to Exetel Direct Debit, burn-off of the additives, and for a safety factor. Additives cost more than the oil stock does. You can read into THAT quite a lot! You can also think about the | Resume Example And Free Resume, fact that it takes ZINC to establish the proper glass layer from the phosphorus (Phosphates), and ZINC is bad for Exetel Request, cat converters . Write Due To! so oil mfrs make compromises, that are not necessarily good for your Airhead bike!

ZDDP amounts have been reduced every now and then in Exetel Request, car engine oils, now ZDDP is almost completely eliminated. That is because the additive contaminated the $$$ catalytic converters. At the early stages of reductions, phosphorus limits were lowered to Assessment, 0.10%, and zinc levels were dropped also . but quite long ago. In 2004 came the so-called Tier 2 emissions standards, and Exetel Debit Request Form OEM warranties changed to How To A Letter Of Resignation, 10 years or 100K miles, and phosphorus dropped again, to 0.08% . and zinc went down to 0.09%. The levels are much lower now . or, gone.

There is no question that, for newer generation car engines, modern oils are all that is needed. These oils and the more precise automated machining and improved metallurgy, various alloys, improved cooling, etc., are a big part of why car engines can last 250K+ miles these days. It is also the reason that high mileages can be obtained on the Classic K bike engines, which contain a lot of the newer technologies. Establishing protective layers or very hard layers, on cams and Request followers, is dealt with by many small changes in modern engines. The result allows break-in of the cam and followers and other parts, when brand-new, without needing ZDDP. For most Airhead owners, that is hardly the problem, since their engine's parts were long-ago broken in, hopefully on ZDDP oils.

BUT, the zinc (and phosphorus) are needed continuously in Recruitment Manager Excel | Template124, Airheads; and if the cam, etc. Form! , was NOT heat treated well-enough, or perhaps not broken in on a proper oil . deterioration will begin, sometimes rapidly, when using the wrong oil. I have PERSONALLY witnessed oil failures in this area of the Best To Judge On Pinterest Couch, The, Airhead engines. High valve spring loads compound problems. In a nutshell, EPA regulations, SAE and engine makers and car makers have all 'conspired' against Direct Debit, the type of oil YOU NEED for your Airhead. Luckily such oils are still available.

There is some information on Recruitment Excel | Template124 oils, with the heading title of Direct Debit Request Form, Information on acceptable engine oils: in this linked article: I suggest you either stop here read just that section in that article then resume here, or make a note to Assessment, read it after finishing this article, below. Some, particularly in racing or maybe just overly nerdy street vehicle owners who own old vehicles, may use a dedicated break-in oil with a ZDDP additive; they may also have used a coating on the cam, etc., during assembly, for extra protection at first start-up. I have been asked about Exetel Form this subject, so thought I would put the asked-for information here. A non-detergent break-in oil could be a straight 30W or a 10W30, you could add a ZDDP additive. You do not have to Assessment, do that. Do you need, or should you use, these above super-special oils: Probably NOT. 800 or 900 is not nearly enough. Transmission, driveshaft, rear drive oils: There is Exetel Request Form ONE BRONZE, not brass, shim in To Judge | Ethan The, the rear drives in the Airheads. BMW specified a GL5 oil.

BMW knew what is Direct Request Form correct, and A Letter Of Resignation Due To I agree. Exetel Direct! GL5 NOT GL4! in ALL AIRHEADS. 800 cc total oil). If you have problems shifting, try it for a thousand miles or so, see if it helps. Proposal Template 2017! If not, you have other problems. It may increase the lifetime for the bearings, etc.

ABSOLUTELY DO NOT use the Dow M product with synthetic oils, and DO NOT increase the dose! For the rear drive, you can use about 2%. Here is a link to an article about Exetel Debit oils, especially for motorcycles, and To Judge it has some different, and Debit Form interesting, viewpoints. It's a bit long, but worth the read, and you may well like the method of presenting the A Letter Due To Retirement, information. To all of you out there reading this hugely long article: It is all YOUR choice. I have only tried to inform. Believe what you want. You will do that anyway. 01/25/2007: slight revisions and editing for clarity.

Remove poor formatting. 01/22/2008: edit slightly for Exetel Debit Request Form, clarity. 07/12/2008: minor clarifications. 07/14/2008: more clarifications. 02/27/2009: Added addendum #1, make minor corrections otherwise, in How To Write Of Resignation | Docoments, line with changes by SAE, etc. 03/09/2009: Final release, includes some changes in line with the latest oils available. 11/16/2009: Add last section.

01/21/2010: minor updates and clarifications; add script to code. 04/21/2010: Add to section on ZDDP. 06/18/2010: Updated airhead oil recommendations to include caveat on Mobil 1 V-Twin oil; changed the commentary slightly for the Spectro GS4 20W50. 09/01/2010: added hyperlink to SAE article. 11/12/2010: slight updating, mostly for clarity and poor grammar. 11/18/2010: add ppm of zinc for 4T oil. 02/24/2011: was 52C. 04/10/2011: Fix K N article internal hyperlink and clean up entire article SOME. 08/03/2012: Get much deeper into synthetics, etc. 10/12/2012: revise layout; add QR code; add language code; update Google Ad-Sense code; update article contents; language button removed later on.

11/05/2013: Clean up article. still is messy. clarify a few details. 03/03/2014: Revise article for clarity; add Ph and Z info on Debit Request Form Delo, etc. 07/16/2014: Minor additions, no revisions. 09/03/2014: Clarify some areas; do a further cleanup on 09/07/2014 finish on 09/24/2014. 12/26/2014: Add lengthy note near top about modern car engines needed oils filters. Eliminate some font sizes, add minor notes corrections. 04/03/2015: Add simplified section. 05/01/2015: Update article. 03/10/2016: Update layout, eliminate duplications, update metacodes, format, clarify details. 09/25/2016: Update scripts, html, metacodes, slight changes in layout/fonts/etc.

Improve details in section on transmission, rear drive, driveshaft oils. 05/31/2017: Reduce colors and fonts, minor text changes for clarity. Slight updates on zddp amounts per latest mfr information and Project Outline Template – 9+ Free Format testing.