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Appendix 3: Documenting the search process. The search should be described briefly in the methods section of the Data Tutorials review. The detailed description can be made available as a web document or as an appendix in Colour Theory Worksheet | Color Lesson Plan a report, where space allows. Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive? Describing electronic database searches. The description should include: The name of the Business Plan By Heeding 5 Warning Signs database searched. The name of the database provider/system used. The date when the Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi search was run. The years covered by Brochure Magazine Cover Template And Black Sh the search. The full strategy used.
It is Data Analysis Biointeractive preferable to reproduce the Resume strategy with the Spreadsheet Data Tutorials Biointeractive minimum of Magazine Cover Page Template Layout In Red And Black, editing. Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive? Removing the Report, Explained (with Template) number of hits identified, for example, can introduce errors and hide genuine mistakes. MEDLINE was searched using the Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi OvidSP interface on Theory | Color Wheel Lesson Plan, 06/11/07 for the period 1996 to Spreadsheet October Week 4 2007. Colour Worksheet Lesson Plan? 1 (smoking or antismoking or anti-smoking).ti,ab. | Hhmi Biointeractive? (53347) 2 Smoking/ (39157) 3 (smoker or smokers or tobacco or nicotine or cigar$).ti,ab. (53978) 4 Tobacco/ or Tobacco, Smokeless/ (9039) 5 Tobacco Use Disorder/ (3192) 6 Nicotine/ (6990) 8 exp Mass Media/ or Cellular Phone/ (13165) 9 Electronic Mail/ or Radio/ or Television/ or Telephone/ (6855) 10 Advertising/ or Hotlines/ or Nonverbal Communication/ (6927) 11 Multimedia/ or Communications Media/ or Pamphlets/ (2296) 12 Health Education/ or Internet/ or Health Promotion/ (55884) 13 Telecommunications/ (1517) 14 (mass adj media).ti,ab. An Agile Plan These? (949) 15 ((advert$ or campaign$ or program$) adj3 (tv or television or cable or cinema or cinemas or theatre or theatres or theater or theaters or movies or media or newspaper$ or journal$ or magazine$)).ti,ab. (1466) 16 ((advert$ or campaign$ or program$) adj3 (broadcast$ or televised)).ti,ab. (67) 17 (internet adj3 (advert$ or campaign$ or information or program$)).ti,ab. Spreadsheet Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive? (1349) 18 (sms or text messag$ or texting).ti,ab. (754) 19 ((pod adj cast$) or podcast$).ti,ab. The Daily Template)? (28) 20 (smoking adj day$).ti,ab. Spreadsheet Data | Hhmi Biointeractive? (22) 21 (selfhelp or (self adj help) or (counter adj marketing) or (consumer adj advocacy)).ti,ab. 15 Graduation Speech Ideas | Themes For The Commencement Speeches? (1495) 22 ((quit adj3 win) or smokeout or (smoke adj out)).ti,ab. (54) 23 ((advert$ or campaign$ or program$ or intervention$) adj3 (nationwide or statewide or countrywide or citywide or national or nation wide or state wide or country wide or city wide)).ti,ab. Spreadsheet Data Tutorials Biointeractive? (7031) 25 7 and Resources Manager Human 24 (5364) Describing journal hand searches. Spreadsheet Data | Hhmi? Provide a list of Worksheet | Color, journal full titles in alphabetical order. State the earliest month and year searched, together with the latest month and year searched, and any missing journal issues which were not searched. | Hhmi? Describing searches of Production Explained (with Free Template), conference proceedings. Data Tutorials? Provide details of the Speech Ideas | Themes Best Commencement conference proceedings searched, for Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, example: Proceedings with a title in Google Docs Templates | Resume Sample addition to Tutorials the conference name: Substance use : individual behaviour, social interactions, markets, and 15 Graduation For The Speeches politics.
24th Arne Ryde Symposium; 2004, Aug 13-14; Lund. Proceedings without a separate title: International Meeting on Spreadsheet Tutorials | Hhmi, the Economic, Social, and Editable Card - Editable, Easter, Card Health Issues in Biointeractive Tobacco Control; 2001 Dec 3-4; Kobe City. Colour Theory Wheel Plan? Proceedings in Analysis | Hhmi a language other than English: Arret de la consommation du tabac : Conference de consensus [Consensus conference on smoking cessation]; 1998 Oct 8-9; Charcot. - Editable,? Proceedings also published as part of a journal: Proceedings of the Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi 6th Scientific Conference: Tobacco or health, eternal problem, new challenges; 2005 Nov 17-18; Poznan. (Przeglad Lekarski. 2005;62(10):947-1226) Describing the methods used to search relevant internet sources.
Report the Easter Easter, Card website, the Spreadsheet Data Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive URL, the date searched, any specific sections searched and Build Plan By Heeding 5 Warning the search terms used. For example: The Action for Spreadsheet Data Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, Smoking and Health website (www.ash.org.uk/ ) was searched on Resume. Resume Best Human, 12/10/2006 using the Spreadsheet Data Tutorials | Hhmi on-site search engine with single search terms: ‘mass media’, ‘radio’, ‘television’, ‘film’, ‘advertising’. Power Pdf? The section of the Spreadsheet Data Analysis | Hhmi website labelled ‘Tobacco Industry Documents’ was scanned in Plan Signs detail. Describing other searches. Provide a brief summary of other sources searched. For example: The reference lists of Data Analysis Biointeractive, studies selected for inclusion were scanned for Colour Worksheet | Color Worksheet, relevant studies. Spreadsheet Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive? The manufacturing company United Tobacco Substitutes International was contacted for The Daily Free, further information (15/11/06).
Citation searches in Spreadsheet | Hhmi Biointeractive Science Citation Index (15/11/06) were carried out for Human Manager Resume, papers citing the Spreadsheet recent key paper: Smith P and Jones L. Innovative mass media smoking campaigns. The Daily (with? Journal of Data Analysis | Hhmi, Tobacco Control Innovation, 2004;23:560-569. Easter Insert - Editable, Card? Describing the Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi search process. 15 Graduation Speech | Themes Best Speeches? The following example shows how a search can be described briefly in a final report when it is possible to put the Spreadsheet Analysis | Hhmi full searches in Manager Resume Human an appendix. Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive? The following databases were searched for relevant studies: ASSIA (via CSA 1990 to 06/March/06); CENTRAL (via Cochrane Library issue 2/2006, 12/April/06, 12/April/06); CINAHL (via WebSPIRS 1990 to Resume | Resume 2006 wk 4, 01/April/06); DH-Data (via Datastar 1994 to 14/March/06, 14/March/06); EMBASE (via Dialog 1974 to Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi 2006 week 8, 16/March/06); MEDLINE (via Ovid, 1966 to week 10 2006, 15/March/06); PsycINFO (via Datastar 1806 to - Editable, Easter, 2006 week 2, 17/March/06). The search strategies used text words and relevant indexing to Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi capture the | Themes For The Best Speeches concept of preventing the Spreadsheet Data Tutorials Biointeractive uptake of Build An Agile These 5 Warning, smoking in Analysis young people.
The full strategies are shown in the appendix. The reference lists of Brochure Cover Template Sh, included papers were assessed for additional relevant studies and the journal Tobacco Control was handsearched for the period January 2000-June 2006. The following websites were searched: National Guideline Clearinghouse (www.guideline.gov/ 15/Oct/06) and Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) (www.ash.org.uk/ 16/Oct/06). The following example shows how a search can be described briefly for a journal article where high levels of detail may not be permitted in the body of the 15 Graduation Speech Best Commencement Speeches paper: The following databases were searched from inception to March/April 2006 for Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi, relevant studies: ASSIA, CENTRAL, CINAHL, DH-Data, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO. Easter - Editable, Easter,? The literature search used the following terms (with synonyms and closely related words): smoking combined with prevention and young people. The searches were not limited by Spreadsheet Data Analysis Biointeractive study design or language of publication. Further studies were identified by examining the Build An Agile Plan By Heeding reference lists of Spreadsheet Data | Hhmi Biointeractive, all included articles, handsearching the Cover Template In Red Sh journal Tobacco Control from 2000 to Spreadsheet Data Analysis 2006, and General Power Of Attorney California Form – Adobe Pdf searching relevant websites. Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials? The full list of Cover Page Layout And Black, sources and the search strategy are available from the authors. Data Analysis Biointeractive? A detailed search description included as an Easter Card Template Easter,, appendix to a report, or as a web document, or available from the authors should include the Spreadsheet Analysis | Hhmi detail described above, plus all the search strategies for each database and resource, as shown in Editable - Editable, Q.1 to Q.5 above.
The following are examples of the use of appendices for Data | Hhmi, search strategies in Power California Pdf CRD Reports: Prostate biopsy methods is an example of Spreadsheet | Hhmi Biointeractive, a narrow, well defined topic where brief details of the search strategy are given in Brochure Cover Page Template And Black Sh the report methods section (pages 23-4), then a clear, well set out and very detailed appendix itemises exactly what was done (pages 87-97). Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi? CRD Report 29 - Diagnostic value of Colour | Color Wheel Worksheet Plan, systematic prostate biopsy methods in Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi the investigation for prostate cancer: a systematic review. Report, (with Free Template)? 2005. www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/pdf/report29.pdf. Fuller information about the Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive searches is given in the methods section of Page Layout And Black Sh, this report (pages 4-5) with additional detail in Tutorials Biointeractive the appendix (pages 25-30). 15 Graduation Speeches? CRD Report 32 - Systematic review of interventions to increase participation of Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, cancer patients in randomised controlled trials. 2006. www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/pdf/report32.pdf. 15 Graduation Speech Ideas Commencement? This is an example of how an updated search looking at Spreadsheet Biointeractive a broad subject area has been presented. Brief details are given in the review methods section (page 1) and Report, Explained readers are referred to the full details in the appendix (pages 41-50). Data | Hhmi? CRD Report 35 - The treatment and General Pdf management of Tutorials | Hhmi, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) / myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) in adults and children: update of CRD Report 22.
2007. Production Report, Template)? www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/pdf/report35.pdf. Please note that in the three examples above the Spreadsheet Tutorials Biointeractive search strategies have been reported without including the numbers of records identified by Production Free Template) individual search statements. As stated earlier in this section, CRD would now recommend the Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive strategies being reproduced with a minimum of editing so there is less opportunity for Ideas For The Speeches, errors to Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive be introduced.
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oedipus theme essay We exist/experience in a holographic universe replete with creation myths about gods/aliens who came from the sky to create the human experience/experiment for Spreadsheet | Hhmi Biointeractive, any number of reasons - saying they would return return at Colour | Color Worksheet Lesson the end of the Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive illusion of time. Creation myths following the same algorithm in each civilization - good vs. Colour Theory Worksheet | Color Lesson? evil. Mythology can refer to the collected myths of a group of peopletheir collection of stories they tell to explain nature, history, and customs - or to the study of such myths. As a collection of explanatory stories, mythology is a vital feature of every culture. Many sources for myths have been proposed, ranging from personification of nature or personification of natural phenomena, to truthful or hyperbolic accounts of Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive, historical events to California Form, explanations of Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive, existing rituals.
Although the term is complicated by its implicit condescension, mythologizing is not just an ancient or primitive practice, as shown by contemporary mythopoeia such as urban legends and Report,, the expansive fictional mythoi created by fantasy novels and comics. A culture's collective mythology helps convey belonging, shared and religious experiences, behavioral models, and moral and practical lessons. The study of Spreadsheet Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive, myth dates back to Speech For The Best Speeches, ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Data Tutorials | Hhmi, Euhemerus, Plato, and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and later revived by Renaissance mythographers. The Daily Production Report, Free? The nineteenth-century comparative mythology reinterpreted myth as a primitive and failed counterpart of science (E. B. Tylor), a disease of Spreadsheet Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, language (Max Muller), or a misinterpretation of magical ritual (James Frazer). Recent approaches have rejected conflict between the value of myth and rational thought, often viewing myths as expressions to understand general psychological, cultural, or societal truths, rather than as inaccurate historical accounts.
Read more. Relation of Myths to Other Narrative Forms. In Western culture there are a number of literary or narrative genres that scholars have related in different ways to myths. Examples are fables, fairy tales, folktales, sagas, epics, legends, and etiologic tales (which refer to causes or explain why a thing is the way it is). Another form of tale, the Human Resources Manager parable, differs from Tutorials | Hhmi, myth in its purpose and character. Even in the West, however, there is no agreed definition of any of these genres, and some scholars question whether multiplying categories of Colour Worksheet | Color Lesson, narrative is helpful at all, as opposed to working with a very general concept such as the traditional tale. Non-Western cultures apply classifications that are different both from the Data Analysis Tutorials Western categories and from one another.
Most, however, make a basic distinction between true and fictitious narratives, with true ones corresponding to what in the West would be called myths. If it is accepted that the category of traditional tale should be subdivided, one way of doing so is to regard the various subdivisions as comparable to bands of color in a spectrum. Within this figurative spectrum, there will be similarities and analogies between myth and Editable - Editable, Easter,, folktale or between myth and legend or between fairy tale and folktale. In the section that follows, it is assumed that useful distinctions can be drawn between different categories. It should, however, be remembered throughout that these classifications are far from rigid and that, in many cases, a given tale might be plausibly assigned to more than one category. As a literary device, an allegory in Spreadsheet Data, its most general sense is an extended metaphor. Allegory has been used widely throughout history in General Power California Form – Adobe Pdf, all forms of art, largely because it can readily illustrate complex ideas and concepts in ways that are comprehensible or striking to its viewers, readers, or listeners. Writers or speakers typically use allegories as literary devices or as rhetorical devices that convey hidden meanings through symbolic figures, actions, imagery, and/or events, which together create the moral, spiritual, or political meaning the Biointeractive author wishes to convey. One of the best-known examples of allegory, Plato's Allegory of the Free Power Of Attorney California Form – Adobe Cave, forms a part of his larger work The Republic. In this allegory, Plato describes a group of Data Tutorials, people who have lived chained in a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall (514ab). The people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire behind them and begin to ascribe forms to these shadows, using language to Form Pdf, identify their world (514c515a). According to the allegory, the shadows are as close as the prisoners get to viewing reality, until one of them finds his way into the outside world where he sees the actual objects that produced the shadows.
He tries to tell the people in the cave of his discovery, but they do not believe him and vehemently resist his efforts to free them so they can see for themselves (516e518a). This allegory is, on a basic level, about a philosopher who upon finding greater knowledge outside the cave of human understanding, seeks to share it as is his duty, and Data Analysis Tutorials, the foolishness of those who would ignore him because they think themselves educated enough. The word fable derives from the Latin word fabula , which originally meant about the same as the Greek mythos; like mythos, it came to mean a fictitious or untrue story. Myths, in contrast, are not presented as fictitious or untrue. Fables, like some myths, feature personified animals or natural objects as characters. 15 Graduation Ideas | Themes For The Commencement? Unlike myths, however, fables almost always end with an explicit moral message, and this highlights the characteristic feature of fables--namely, that they are instructive tales that teach morals about human social behavior. Myths, by contrast, tend to lack this directly didactic aspect, and Tutorials, the sacred narratives that they embody are often hard to translate into direct prescriptions for action in everyday human terms. Another difference between fables and myths relates to a feature of the narratives that they present.
The context of a typical fable will be unspecific as to time and space; e.g., A fox and a goose met at a pool. A typical myth, on the other hand, will be likely to identify by name the Template) god or hero concerned in a given exploit and to specify details of geography and genealogy; e.g., Oedipus was the son of Spreadsheet Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive, Laius, the king of Thebes. The term fairy tale, if taken literally, should refer only to stories about fairies, a class of supernatural and sometimes malevolent beings--often believed to be of diminutive size -- who were thought by people in The Daily Production Free Template), medieval and post medieval Europe to inhabit a kingdom of their own; a literary expression of this belief can be found in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. The term fairy tale, however, is normally used to refer to a much wider class of narrative, namely stories (directed above all at an audience of children) about an individual, almost always young, who confronts strange or magical events: examples are Jack and the Beanstalk, Cinderella, and Data Tutorials Biointeractive, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Free General Of Attorney Form – Adobe Pdf? The modern concept of the fairy tale seems not to be found earlier than the 18th century in Data Tutorials | Hhmi, Europe, but the narratives themselves have earlier analogues much farther afield, notably in the Indian Katha-saritsagara (The Ocean of Story) and in The Thousand and One Nights. Like myths, fairy tales present extraordinary beings and events. Unlike myths - but like fables - fairy tales tend to be placed in a setting that is geographically and temporally vague and might begin with the words Once upon a time there was a handsome prince . A myth about a prince, by contrast, would be likely to name him and to specify his lineage, since such details might be of collective importance (for example, with reference to issues of property inheritance or the relative status of different families) to the social group among which the myth was told.
There is much disagreement among scholars as to how to define the folktale; consequently, there is Hr Manager Resume. Resources Manager Human disagreement about the relation between folktale and Spreadsheet Data | Hhmi, myth. One view of the problem is that of the American folklorist Stith Thompson, who regarded myths as one type of folktale; according to this approach, the particular characteristic of Editable Insert Template Card, myth is that its narratives deal with sacred events that happened in the beginning. Other scholars either consider folktale a subdivision of myth or regard the Data Tutorials | Hhmi two categories as distinct but overlapping. The latter view is taken by the British classicist Geoffrey S. Kirk, who in Myth: Its Meaning and Functions in Resume. Human Manager Resume Best Human, Ancient and Spreadsheet Tutorials, Other Cultures (1970) uses the term myth to denote stories with an Build An Agile Plan These, underlying purpose beyond that of simple story-telling and the term folktale to | Hhmi Biointeractive, denote stories that reflect simple social situations and Theory Worksheet Lesson, play on ordinary fears and Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials, desires. Examples of folktale motifs are encounters between ordinary, often humble, human beings and The Daily Report, Free Template), supernatural adversaries such as witches, giants, or ogres; contests to win a bride; and attempts to overcome a wicked stepmother or jealous sisters. But these typical folktale themes occur also in stories normally classified as myths, and | Hhmi, there must always be a strong element of arbitrariness in assigning a motif to a particular category.
A different and important aspect of the The Daily Production Explained Free problem of defining a folktale relates to the historical origin of the concept. As with the notion of folklore, the notion of folktale has its roots in Biointeractive, the late 18th century. From that period until the middle of the 19th century, many European thinkers of a nationalist persuasion argued that stories told by ordinary people constituted a continuous tradition reaching back into Report, (with Template) the nation's past. Thus, stories such as the Marchen (Tales) collected by the Grimm brothers in Germany are folktales because they were told by the people rather than by an aristocratic elite. Data Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive? This definition of folktale introduces a new criterion for distinguishing between myth and folktale--namely, what class of person tells the story--but it by no means removes all the Ideas Commencement Speeches problems of classification. Just as the distinction between folk and aristocracy cannot be transferred from medieval Europe to tribal Africa or classical Greece without risk of distortion, so the importing of a distinction between myth and folktale on Data Biointeractive, the later European model is extremely problematic. Sagas and Editable Easter Card Insert Template - Editable, Easter,, Epics. The word saga is often used in a generalized and loose way to Spreadsheet Data Tutorials Biointeractive, refer to Speech Commencement, any extended narrative re-creation of Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive, historical events.
A distinction is thus sometimes drawn between myths (set in a semi divine world) and sagas (more realistic and more firmly grounded in Resume. Resume Human, a specific historical setting). This rather vague use of Spreadsheet Analysis Biointeractive, saga is best avoided, however, since the word can more usefully retain the precise connotation of its original context. The word saga is Old Norse and General Power Of Attorney California Form, means what is said. The sagas are a group of medieval Icelandic prose narratives; the principal sagas date from the Spreadsheet Data Analysis | Hhmi 13th century and relate the deeds of Easter Insert Template - Editable, Easter,, Icelandic heroes who lived during the Spreadsheet Data | Hhmi 10th and 11th centuries. If the word saga is restricted to this Icelandic context, at least one of the possible terminological confusions over words for traditional tales is avoided. While saga in its original sense is a narrative type confined to a particular time and Easter Template - Editable, Easter, Card, place, epics are found worldwide. Examples can be found in the ancient world (the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer), in Spreadsheet | Hhmi Biointeractive, medieval Europe (the Nibelungenlied), and in modern times (the Serbo-Croatian epic poetry recorded in General Power Of Attorney Pdf, the 1930s). Among the many non-European examples are the Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive Indian Mahabharata and the Tibetan Gesar epic. Epic is Worksheet Lesson similar to saga in that both narrative forms look back to Spreadsheet Analysis | Hhmi, an age of heroic endeavor, but it differs from Free General Form – Adobe Pdf, saga in that epics are almost always composed in poetry (with a few exceptions such as Kazak epic and the Turkish Book of Dede Korkut). The relation between epic and myth is not easy to pin down, but it is in general true that epics characteristically incorporate mythical events and Data Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, persons. An example is the ancient Mesopotamian epic of Gilgamesh, which includes, among many mythical episodes, an account of the meeting between the hero Gilgamesh and Utnapishtim, the only man to have attained immortality and sole survivor (with his wife) of the flood sent by the gods.
Myth is thus a prime source of the material on which epic draws. In common usage the word legend usually characterizes a traditional tale thought to have a historical basis, as in the legends of King Arthur or Robin Hood. In this view, a distinction may be drawn between myth (which refers to the supernatural and the sacred) and legend (which is grounded in historical fact). Thus, some writers on the Iliad would distinguish between the legendary aspects (e.g., heroes performing actions possible for ordinary humans) and the mythical aspects (e.g., episodes involving the gods). But the distinction between myth and legend must be used with care. In particular, because of the assumed link between legend and historical fact, there may be a tendency to refer to narratives that correspond to one's own beliefs as legends, while exactly comparable stories from other traditions may be classified as myths; hence a Christian might refer to stories about the 15 Graduation | Themes For The miraculous deeds of a saint as legends, while similar stories about a pagan healer might be called myths. As in other cases, it must be remembered that the boundaries between terms for Spreadsheet Data, traditional narratives are fluid, and Speech Ideas Best, that different writers employ them in quite different ways. Functionalism is primarily associated with the anthropologists Bronislaw Malinowski and Spreadsheet Tutorials Biointeractive, A.R. Radcliffe-Brown, however. Both ask not what the origin of 15 Graduation Ideas | Themes For The Commencement Speeches, any given social behavior may be but how it contributes to maintaining the system of which it is a part. In this view, in Spreadsheet Analysis | Hhmi, all types of society, every aspect of life--every custom, belief, or idea--makes its own special contribution to Explained Free Template), the continued effective working of the whole society.
Functionalism has had a wide appeal to Spreadsheet, anthropologists in Britain and the United States, especially as an interpretation of myth as integrated with other aspects of Human Resume, society and as supporting existing social relationships. The term myth is not normally applied to narratives that have as their explicit purpose the illustration of Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive, a doctrine or standard of conduct. Hr Manager Resume. Manager Human? Instead, the term parable, or illustrative tale, is used. Familiar examples of such narratives are the parables of the New Testament. Analysis | Hhmi? Parables have a considerable role also in Sufism (Islamic mysticism), rabbinic (Jewish biblical interpretive) literature, Hasidism (Jewish pietism), and Zen Buddhism. That parables are essentially non-mythological is clear because the point made by the parable is known or supposed to be known from Editable Card Insert - Editable,, another source. Parables have a more subservient function than myths. They may clarify something to an individual or a group but do not take on the revelatory character of myth.
Etiologic tales are very close to myth, and some scholars regard them as a particular type of myth rather than as a separate category. In modern usage the term etiology is used to refer to the description or assignment of causes (Greek aitia). Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi? Accordingly, an etiologic tale explains the origin of a custom, state of affairs, or natural feature in the human or divine world. Many tales explain the origin of a particular rock or mountain. Others explain iconographic features, such as the Hindu narrative ascribing the blue neck of the god Siva to a poison he drank in primordial times.
The etiologic theme often seems to be added to a mythical narrative as an afterthought. In other words, the etiology is not the distinctive characteristic of myth. Approaches to the Study of Myth and Mythology. The importance of studying myth to provide a key to Free General Power, a human society is a matter of Data Analysis, historical record. In the middle of the 19th century, for instance, a newly appointed British governor of New Zealand, Sir George Grey, was confronted by the problem of how to come to terms with the Maori, who were hostile to the British. He learned their language, but that proved insufficient for an understanding of the way in which they reasoned and argued. In order to be able to conduct negotiations satisfactorily, he found it necessary to study the Maori's mythology, to which they made frequent reference.
Other government officials and Christian missionaries of the 19th and 20th centuries made similar efforts to understand the mythologies of nations or tribes so as to Manager Resume Best, facilitate communication. Such studies were more than a means to an end, whether efficient administration or conversion; they amounted to the discovery that myths present a model or charter for man's behavior and that the world of myth provides guidance for crucial elements in human existence--war and peace, life and death, truth and falsehood, good and evil. In addition to such practically motivated attempts to understand myth, theorists and scholars from many disciplines have interested themselves in the study of the subject. A close study of myth has developed in the West, especially since the 18th century. Much of its material has come from the study of the Greek and Roman classics, from which it has also derived some of its methods of interpretation. The growth of philosophy in ancient Greece furthered allegorical interpretations of myth--i.e., finding other or supposedly deeper meanings hidden below the surface of Tutorials, mythical texts. Such meanings were usually seen as involving natural phenomena or human values. Related to this was a tendency toward rationalism, especially when those who studied myths employed false etymologies. Rationalism in this context connotes the Resume. Human Resources Resume Best scrutiny of myths in Analysis, such a way as to make sense of the statements contained in them without taking literally their references to gods, monsters, or the supernatural.
Thus, the ancient writer Palaiphatos interpreted the story of Europa (carried off to Crete on the back of a handsome bull, which was actually Zeus in (with Template), disguise) as that of a woman abducted by a Cretan called Tauros, the Greek word for bull; and Skylla, the bestial and cannibalistic creature who attacked Odysseus' ship according to Homer's Odyssey, was by the same process of rationalizing interpreted as simply the name of Data Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive, a pirate ship. Of special and long-lasting influence in the history of the interpretation of myth was Euhemerism (named after Euhemerus, a Greek writer who flourished about 300 BC), according to which certain gods were originally great people venerated because of their benefactions to Card - Editable, Easter,, mankind. The early Church Fathers adopted an attitude of modified Euhemerism, according to Data Tutorials, which classical mythology was to be explained in terms of mere men who had been raised to superhuman, demonic status because of their deeds. By this means, Christians were able to incorporate myths from the | Color Wheel Lesson culturally authoritative pagan past into a Christian framework while defusing their religious significance--the gods became ordinary humans. The Middle Ages did not develop new theoretical perspectives on myth, nor, despite some elaborate works of historical and Tutorials | Hhmi, etymological erudition, did the Renaissance. In both periods, interpretations in terms of allegory and Euhemerism tended to Editable Easter Card Insert - Editable,, predominate. In early 18th-century Italy, Giambattista Vico, a thinker now considered the forerunner of all writers on ethnology, or the study of culture in human societies, built on traditional scholarship--especially in law and philosophy--to make the first clear case for the role of man's creative imagination in the formation of distinct myths at successive cultural stages. His work, which was most notably expressed in his Scienza Nuova (1725; The New Science of Giambattista Vico ), had no influence in his own century. Instead, the notion that pagan myths were distortions of the biblical revelation (first expressed in Spreadsheet Tutorials, the Renaissance) continued to find favor.
Nevertheless, Enlightenment philosophy, reports from voyages of discovery, and Editable Easter Card Template - Editable, Easter,, missionary reports (especially the Jesuits' accounts of North American Indians) contributed to scholarship and fostered greater objectivity. Bernhard Le Bovier de Fontenelle, a French scholar, compared Greek and American Indian myths and suggested that there was a universal human predisposition toward mythology. In De l'origine des fables (1724; On the Origin of Fables) he attributed the absurdities (as he saw them) of myths to Spreadsheet Analysis Biointeractive, the fact that the stories grew up among an Resume. Human Resources Manager, earlier, more primitive human society. About 1800 the Romantics' growing fascination with language, the postulation of an Indo-European language family, the study of Sanskrit, and the growth of comparative studies, especially in history and philology, were all part of a trend that included the study of myth. The relevance of Indo-European studies to an understanding of Greek and Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive, Roman mythology was carried to - Editable, Easter, Card, an extreme in the work of Friedrich Max Muller, a German Orientalist who moved to Britain and undertook important research on comparative linguistics. In his view, expressed in such works as Comparative Mythology (1856), the Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi mythology of the Resources Human original Indo-European peoples had consisted of allegorical stories about the workings of nature, in Data Analysis Biointeractive, particular such features as the sky, the Sun, and the dawn. In the course of time, though, these original meanings had been lost (through, in Muller's notorious phrasing, a disease of language), so that the myths no longer told in a rationally intelligible way of phenomena in the natural world but instead appeared to Editable Easter Insert Template Card, describe the irrational activities of Analysis, gods, heroes, nymphs, and others.
For instance, one Greek myth related the pursuit of the nymph Daphne by the god Phoebus Apollo. Since--in Muller's interpretation of the evidence of Build Plan These, comparative linguistics--Daphne originally meant dawn, and Phoibos meant morning sun, the original story was rationally intelligible as the Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive dawn is put to flight by the morning sun. One of the problems with this view is, of course, that it fails to account for the fact that the Greeks continued to tell this and similar stories long after their supposed meanings had been forgotten; and they did so, moreover, in the manifest belief that the stories referred, not to nature, but precisely to gods, heroes, and other mythical beings. Interest in myth was greatly stimulated in Germany by Friedrich von Schelling's philosophy of mythology, which argued that myth was a form of expression, characteristic of a particular stage in human development, through which men imagine the Absolute (for Schelling an all-embracing unity in which all differences are reconciled). Scholarly interest in myth has continued into the 20th century. Production (with Free Template)? Many scholars have adopted a psychological approach because of interest aroused by the theories of Sigmund Freud. Subsequently, new approaches in sociology and anthropology have continued to encourage the study of myth.
In the late 18th century artists and intellectuals came increasingly to Spreadsheet Tutorials Biointeractive, emphasize the role of the emotions in Editable Easter Card Insert Template Easter,, human life and, correspondingly, to Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, play down the importance of reason (which had been regarded as supremely important by thinkers of the Enlightenment). Those involved in the new movement were known as Romantics. The Romantic movement had profound implications for the study of myth. Myths--both the stories from Greek and Roman antiquity and contemporary folktales--were regarded by the Romantics as repositories of experience far more vital and Resume. Resources Manager Resume Best, powerful than those obtainable from what was felt to be the artificial art and poetry of the aristocratic civilization of contemporary Europe. This new attitude is Data Analysis Biointeractive illustrated in a work of the German critic and philosopher Johann Gottfried von Herder entitled Auszug aus einem Briefwechsel uber Ossian und die Lieder alter Volker (1773; Extract from a Correspondence on Ossian and the Songs of Build An Agile Business By Heeding 5 Warning Signs, Ancient Peoples). Ossian is the name of an Irish warrior-poet whose Gaelic songs were supposedly translated and presented to Spreadsheet | Hhmi Biointeractive, the world by The Daily Production Report, (with Template), James Macpherson in the 1760s. Although largely the work of Macpherson himself, these songs made a colossal impact when they were published.
Herder believed that the more savage, that is, the more alive and Spreadsheet Data Tutorials | Hhmi, freedom-loving a people (ein Volk) was, the Template Card more alive and free its songs would be. In opposition to Data | Hhmi Biointeractive, the culture of the educated, Herder exalted the Kultur des Volkes (culture of the people). In 1769 Herder abandoned his job as a schoolteacher and took a boat from Hr Manager Resume. Human Resources Resume, Riga, on the Baltic, to Nantes, on the Atlantic coast of France. In Journal meiner Reise im Jahre 1769 (1769; Journal of My Travels in the Year 1769), a description of the Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi experience, he wrote: In everything [on board ship] there is experience to illuminate the original era of the myths. Then [i.e., in antiquity] every man, ignorant of nature, listened for signs and had to listen for them. 15 Graduation Ideas | Themes For The Speeches? Then, Jupiter's lightning was terrifying--as indeed it is [i.e., now] on the Ocean. There are a thousand new and more natural explanations of Biointeractive, mythology if one reads, say, Orpheus, Homer, Pindar on board ship. In other words, for Herder ancient myths were the natural expressions of the The Daily (with Free Template) concerns that would have confronted the ancients; and those concerns were the very ones that, according to Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, Herder, still confronted the Volk--e.g., ordinary sailors--in Herder's own day.
Since the Romantic movement, all study of myth has been comparative, although comparative attempts were made earlier. The prevalence of the comparative approach has meant that since the Card Insert Template - Editable, Card 19th century even the most specialized studies have made generalizations about more than one tradition or at Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi the very least have had to take comparative works by others into account. Indeed, for there to Hr Manager Human, be any philosophical inquiry into the nature and function of Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive, myth at all, there must exist a body of data about By Heeding myths across a range of societies. Such data would not exist without a comparative approach. The classic folklore approach is that of Wilhelm Mannhardt, a German scholar, who attempted to Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, collect data on the lower mythology, which he considered to be more or less homogeneous in ancient and The Daily Production Report, (with Free, popular peasant traditions and Spreadsheet Data | Hhmi Biointeractive, basic to all formation of myth. Production Report, Free? Mannhardt saw sufficient analogies and similarities between the ancient and modern data to permit use of the latter in interpreting the former. Like Herder, he saw the Spreadsheet Data Analysis | Hhmi source of mythology in the traditions passed on among the Volk. He collected information not only Resources Manager Resume Human about popular stories but also about popular customs. He interpreted ancient Greek rituals by relating them to customs of the agricultural peoples of northern Europe, proposing this link in his book Antike Wald- und Feldkulte (1877; Ancient Wood and Field Cults). Other people who examined myth from the folklore standpoint included Sir James Frazer, the British anthropologist, the Spreadsheet Data Biointeractive brothers Grimm (Jacob, who influenced Mannhardt, and Wilhelm), who are well-known for their collections of folklore, and Stith Thompson, who is notable for his classification of folk literature, particularly his massive Motif-Index of Folk-Literature (1955). Human Best Human? The Grimms shared Herder's passion for the poetry and stories of the Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials Volk.
Their importance stems in part from the academic diligence and The Daily Production Report, Explained, meticulousness that they brought to the recording and study of popular tradition. In addition to Data Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, their collection of Marchen (Tales), they published volumes of Deutsche Sagen (German Legends). These were tales that purported to record actual events and that were ostensibly set in a specific place and period, as opposed to the once-upon-a-time-in-the-forest setting characteristic of the Marchen. Collecting and classifying mythological themes have remained the principal activities of the folklore approach. One of the leading exponents of the functionalist approach to Free Of Attorney California Form Pdf, myth was the French sociologist Marcel Mauss, who used the phrase total social facts in reference to Spreadsheet | Hhmi Biointeractive, religious symbols and myths and their irreducibility in terms of other functions. 15 Graduation Ideas Commencement Speeches? In his Essai sur le don (1925; The Gift), Mauss referred to a system of gift giving to be found in traditional, preindustrial societies. Observing that there was a mass of complex data on the subject, Mauss continued: in Data Tutorials, these early societies, social phenomena are not discrete; each phenomenon contains all the threads of which the social fabric is composed. Theory | Color Wheel Worksheet Lesson Plan? In these total social phenomena, as we propose to call them, all kinds of institutions find simultaneous expression: religious, legal, moral, and economic. In his introduction to Analysis Biointeractive, the English edition Edward Evans-Pritchard commented on that passage: Total is the key word of the Essay. The exchanges of archaic societies which he examines are total social movements or activities.
They are at the same time economic, juridical, moral, aesthetic, religious, mythological phenomena. Colour | Color Wheel Worksheet Lesson? Their meaning can therefore only be grasped if they are viewed as a complex concrete reality. Functionalism is primarily associated with the anthropologists Bronislaw Malinowski and A.R. Radcliffe-Brown, however. Both ask not what the origin of any given social behavior may be but how it contributes to Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive, maintaining the system of which it is a part. In this view, in The Daily Production Explained Free, all types of society, every aspect of life--every custom, belief, or idea--makes its own special contribution to Data Biointeractive, the continued effective working of the whole society. Functionalism has had a wide appeal to anthropologists in Britain and the United States, especially as an The Daily Report, Explained (with Free, interpretation of myth as integrated with other aspects of society and as supporting existing social relationships.
Structuralist approaches to myth are based on the analogy of myth to Data Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, language. Just as a language is composed of significant oppositions (e.g., between phonemes, the constituent sounds of the language), so myths are formed out of significant oppositions between certain terms and categories. Structuralist analysis aims at uncovering what it sees as the Resume. Resources Manager logic of myth. It is argued that supposedly primitive thought is Data Tutorials Biointeractive logically consistent but that the terms of this logic are not those with which modern Western culture is familiar. Instead they are terms related to items of the Easter Card Template everyday world in which the primitive culture exists. This logic is Data | Hhmi usually based on empirical categories (e.g., raw/cooked, upstream/downstream, bush/village) or empirical objects (e.g., buffalo, river, gold, eagle). Some structuralists, such as the French anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss, have emphasized the Card Insert - Editable, Easter, Card presence of the same logical patterns in myths throughout the world. In earlier anthropology, primitive mentality was characterized by Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi, the inability to The Daily Production Report, Free, make distinctions, by a sense of mystic participation or identity between man, his cosmos, and all other beings. Beginning with complex kinship systems and later exploring other taxonomies, structuralists argue to the opposite conclusion: the supposedly primitive man is, if anything, obsessed with the making of Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi, distinctions; his taxonomies reveal a complexity and sophistication that rival those of modern man. In contrast to the structuralists' search for the underlying structure of myths, the 20th-century Russian folklorist Vladimir Propp investigated folktales by dividing the surface of their narratives into a number of basic elements. These elements correspond to different types of action that, in Colour Theory, Propp's analysis, always occur in the same sequence.
Examples of the types of action isolated by Propp are An interdiction is to the hero; The interdiction is violated; The false hero or villain is exposed; and The hero is Data Tutorials married and ascends the throne. An important development of Propp's approach was made in Form – Adobe, the late 20th century by the German historian of religion Walter Burkert. Burkert detected certain recurrent patterns in the actions described in Greek myths, and he related these patterns (and their counterparts in Greek ritual) to basic biologic or cultural programs of action. An example of this relation is given in Burkert's Structure and History in Greek Mythology and Ritual (1979). Burkert shows how certain Greek myths have a recurring pattern that he calls the girl's tragedy. According to this pattern, a girl first leaves home; after a period of seclusion, she is raped by Spreadsheet, a god; there follows a time of tribulation, during which she is threatened by parents or relatives; eventually, having given birth to a baby boy, the girl is rescued, and the boy's glorious future is assured. The reason for the frequency and Production Report, Template), persistence of this pattern is, in Burkert's view, the fact that it reflects a basic biologic sequence or program of action; puberty, defloration, pregnancy, delivery. Analysis? Another pattern Burkert explains in a similar way is found in myths about the driving out of the 15 Graduation Best scapegoat. This pattern, Burkert argues, stems from a real situation that must often have occurred in early human or primate history; a group of men, or a group of Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, apes, when pursued by Build An Agile These 5 Warning, carnivores, were able to Data Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, save themselves through the sacrifice of one member of the group.
The persistence of these patterns through time is explained, according to Burkert, by the fact that they are grounded in basic human needs--above all, the Colour Theory Worksheet | Color Lesson need to survive. The most obvious function of myths is the explanation of facts, whether natural or cultural. One North American Indian (Abnaki [Wabanaki]) myth, for example, explains the Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive origin of corn (maize): a lonely man meets a beautiful woman with long, fair hair; she promises to remain with him if he follows her instructions; she tells him in Business By Heeding These 5 Warning, detail how to make a fire and, after he has done so, she orders him to | Hhmi, drag her over the burned ground; as a result of these actions, he will see her silken hair (viz., the cornstalk) reappear, and thereafter he will have corn seeds for his use. Henceforth, whenever Abnaki Indians see corn (the woman's hair), they know that she remembers them. Obviously, a myth such as this one functions as an explanation, but the narrative form distinguishes it from a straightforward answer to an intellectual question about causes. The function of explanation and the narrative form go together, since the imaginative power of the myth lends credibility to the explanation and crystallizes it into a memorable and enduring form.
Hence myths play an important part in many traditional systems of education. Many myths explain ritual and cultic customs. According to myths from the island of Build Plan By Heeding These, Ceram (in Indonesia), in the beginning life was not complete, or not yet human: vegetation and animals did not exist, and there was neither death nor sexuality. In a mysterious manner Hainuwele, a girl with extraordinary gift-bestowing powers, appeared. The people killed her at Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive the end of their great annual celebration, and Colour Theory Worksheet Plan, her dismembered body was planted in the earth. Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi? Among the species that sprang up after this act of planting were tubers--the staple diet of the people telling the myth.
With a certain circularity frequent in Editable Easter Insert Template - Editable,, mythology, the myth validates the very cultic celebration mentioned in the myth. Spreadsheet | Hhmi? The cult can be understood as a commemoration of An Agile Business These 5 Warning Signs, those first events. Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive? Hence, the myth can be said to validate life itself together with the cultic celebration. Comparable myths are told in a number of societies where the main means of General Power California Pdf, food production is the cultivation of root crops; the myths reflect the fact that tubers must be cut up and buried in the earth for propagation to take place. Ritual sacrifices are typical of traditional peasant cultures. In most cases such customs are related to Spreadsheet Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive, mythical events. Among important themes are the necessity of death (e.g., the grain dies and is buried, only to yield a subsequent harvest), a society's cyclic renewal of itself (e.g., New Year's celebrations), and the significance of women and sexuality. New Year's celebrations, often accompanied by a temporary abandonment of all rules, may be related to or justified by 5 Warning, mythical themes concerning a return to Spreadsheet Data | Hhmi, chaos and a return of the Colour Worksheet | Color Worksheet dead. In every mythological tradition one myth or cluster of myths tends to be central.
The subject of the Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive central mythology is often cosmogony (origin of the cosmos). In many of those ceremonies that each society has developed as a symbol of what is necessary to its well-being, references are made to the beginning of the world. Examples include the enthronements of kings, which in some traditions (as in Fiji or ancient India) are associated with a creation or re-creation of the The Daily (with Template) world. Analogously, in ancient Mesopotamia the creation epic Enuma elish, which was read each New Year at Babylon, celebrated the progress of the cosmos from initial anarchy to government by the kingship of Marduk; hence the Tutorials Biointeractive authority of earthly rulers, and of earthly monarchy in general, was implicitly supported and justified. Ruling families in ancient civilizations frequently justified their position by invoking myths--for example, that they had divine origins. Examples are known from Report,, Imperial China, pharaonic Egypt, the Hittite Empire, Polynesia, the Inca Empire, and India. Elites have also based their claims to privilege on myths.
The French historian of Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, ancient religion Georges Dum*zil was the pioneer in An Agile Plan By Heeding These 5 Warning Signs, suggesting that the priestly, warrior, and producing classes in ancient Indo-European societies regarded themselves as having been ordained to particular tasks by virtue of their mythological origins. Spreadsheet Biointeractive? And in every known cultural tradition there exists some mythological foundation that is referred to when defending marriage and funerary customs. Inasmuch as myths deal with the Free General Power Of Attorney – Adobe origin of the world, the Analysis Tutorials end of the world, or a paradisiacal state, they are capable of describing what people can never see for themselves however rational and observant they are. It may be that the educational value of myths is even more bound up with the descriptions they provide than with the explanations. In traditional, preindustrial societies myths form perhaps the most important available model of instruction, since no separate philosophical system of inquiry exists. Healing, Renewal, and Inspiration. Creation myths play a significant role in healing the sick; they are recited (e.g., among the Navajo Indians of North America) when an individual's world--that is to Build Business Plan These Signs, say, his life--is in jeopardy. Thus, healing through recitation of a cosmogony is one example of the use of myth as a magical incantation. Another example is the Data | Hhmi Biointeractive case of Icelandic poets, who, in singing of the episode in old Norse mythology in which the god Odin wins for gods and men the mead of song (a drink containing the power of poetic inspiration), can be said to be celebrating the origins of their own art and hence renewing it. The poetic aspect of myths in archaic and primitive traditions is considerable.
Societies in Editable Card Template Card, which artistic endeavor is not yet specialized tend to rely on mythical themes and images as a source of all self-expression. Mythology has also exerted an aesthetic influence in Spreadsheet Analysis Biointeractive, more modern societies. An example is the prevalence of themes from Greek and Roman classical mythology in Western painting, sculpture, and Easter Card Template Card, literature. Myth in Culture. Myth and Psychology.
One of the most celebrated writers about Spreadsheet Data myth from a psychological standpoint was Sigmund Freud. In his Die Traumdeutung (1899; The Interpretation of Dreams) he posited a phenomenon called the Oedipus complex, that is, the male child's repressed desire for his mother and a corresponding wish to supplant his father. (The equivalent for girls was the Electra complex.) According to Freud, this phenomenon was detectable in dreams and myths, fairy tales, folktales--even jokes. Later, in Totem und Tabu (1913; Totem and (with, Taboo ), Freud suggested that myth was the distorted wish-dreams of entire peoples. More than that, however, he saw the Oedipus complex as a memory of a real episode that had occurred in what he termed the primal horde, when sons oppressed by their father had revolted, had driven out Data Biointeractive, or killed him, and had taken his wives for themselves. That subsequent generations refrained from doing so was, Freud suggested, due to a collective bad conscience.
The relevance of Freud's investigations to the study of myth lies in his view that the formation of mythic concepts does not depend on cultural history. | Themes Best Commencement Speeches? Instead, Freud's analysis of the Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi psyche posited an independent, trans-historical mechanism, based on a highly personal biologic conception of man. His anthropological theories have since been refuted (e.g., totemic [symbolic animal] sacrifice as the earliest ritual custom, which he related to the first parricide), but his analysis is still regarded with interest by some reputable social scientists. Criticism, however, has been leveled against Human Manager Resume the explanation of myths in Spreadsheet Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive, terms of only one theme and in terms of the repression of conscious ideas. Another theorist preoccupied with psychological aspects of myth was the Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung, who, like Freud, was stimulated by a theory that no longer has much support--i.e., the Colour Worksheet Wheel Worksheet Plan theory of Lucien Levy-Bruhl, a French philosopher, associating myth with prelogical mentality. This, according to L*vy-Bruhl, was a type of thought that had been common to archaic mankind, that was still common to primitives, and in which people supposedly experienced some form of mystical participation with the objects of their thought, rather than a separation of Spreadsheet | Hhmi, subject and object. Jung's theory of the collective unconscious, which bears a certain resemblance to Production Free Template), Levy-Bruhl's theory, enabled him to Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi, regard the foundation of mythical images as positive and creative, in Theory Worksheet Worksheet Plan, contrast with Freud's more negative view of mythology. Jung evolved a theory of archetypes. Broadly similar images and symbols occur in myths, fairy tales, and dreams because the human psyche has an inbuilt tendency to dwell on certain inherited motifs (archetypes), the basic pattern of which persists, however much details may vary.
But critics of Jung have hesitated to accept his theory of archetypes as an account of mythology. Among objections raised, two may be mentioned. First, the archetypal symbols identified by Jung are static, representing personal types that conflate aspects of the personality: they do not help to illuminate--in the way that the analyses of Propp and Burkert do--the patterns of action that myths narrate. Second, Jungian analysis is Spreadsheet Data Analysis Biointeractive essentially aimed at relating myth to the individual psyche, whereas myth is above all a social phenomenon, embedded in society and Resume. Human Resume, requiring explanation with reference to social structures and social functions. Myth and Science. Attention has sometimes focused on changes occurring in the way the real world is apprehended by different peoples and how these changes in reality are reflected in myths.
This reality changes continually throughout history, and these changes have especially occupied philosophers and historians of science, for Spreadsheet Data Tutorials, a sense of reality in a culture is basic to Colour Theory Wheel Lesson Plan, any scientific pursuit by that culture, beginning with the earliest philosophical inquiries into the nature of the world. Though it would perhaps be going too far to identify the images and Data Analysis Biointeractive, concepts that make up a culture's scientific sense of reality with myth, parallels between science and myth, as well as the presence of Theory Worksheet Wheel, a mythological dimension to science, are generally reckoned to exist. The function of Spreadsheet, models in physics, biology, medicine, and other sciences resembles that of myths as paradigms, or patterns, of the human world. In medicine, for instance, the human body is sometimes likened to a machine or the Plan By Heeding These Signs human brain to a computer, and such models are easily understood. Data Biointeractive? Once a model has gained acceptance, it is difficult to replace, and in this respect it resembles myth, while at Free Power California – Adobe the same time, just as in myth, there may be a great variety of interpretations. In the 17th century it was assumed that the universe could be explained entirely in terms of minute corpuscles, their motion and interaction, and that no entities of any other sort existed. To the extent that many models in the history of science have partaken of this somewhat absolutist character, science can be said to resemble myth. There are, however, important differences. Despite the relative infrequency with which models in science have been replaced, replacement does occur, and a strong awareness of the limitations of models has developed in modern science. In contrast, a myth is not as a rule regarded by the community in which it functions as open to Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive, replacement, although an outside observer might record changes and even the substitution of a new myth for Ideas | Themes, an old one. Moreover, in spite of the broad cultural impact of Analysis, theories and models such as those of Newton and Einstein, it is in general true to say that models in science have their principal value for Hr Manager Resume. Human Resources Best Human, the scientists concerned.
Hence, they function most strongly for a relatively small segment of society, even though, for instance, a medical theory held in academic circles in Analysis Biointeractive, one century can filter down into folk medicine in the next. As a rule, myth has a much wider impact. Modern science did not evolve in its entirety as a rebellion against myth, nor at its birth did it suddenly throw off the shackles of myth. In ancient Greece the naturalists of Ionia (western Asia Minor), long regarded as the originators of science, developed views of the universe that were in fact very close to the creation myths of their time. Those who laid the foundations of modern science, such as Nicholas of Cusa, Johannes Kepler, Sir Isaac Newton, and Gottfried Leibniz, were absorbed by 15 Graduation Speech Ideas Commencement, metaphysical problems of which the traditional, indeed mythological, character is evident. Data Analysis Biointeractive? Among these problems were the nature of infinity and the question of the omnipotence of Wheel, God. The influence of Data Biointeractive, mythological views is Easter seen in Data Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, the English physician William Harvey's association of the circulation of the blood with the planetary movements and Darwin's explanation of woman's menstrual cycles by the tides of the ocean.
Several thinkers (e.g., the theologian Paul Tillich and the philosopher Karl Jaspers) have argued convincingly for a mythological dimension to all science. Myth, in this view, is that which is taken for granted when thought begins. It is at the same time the limit reached in the course of scientific analysis, when it is found that no further progress in definition can be made after certain fundamental principles have been reached. In recent scientific researches, especially in Build By Heeding These Signs, astronomy and biology, questions of teleology (final ends) have gained in importance, as distinct from earlier concerns with questions of origin. These recent concerns stimulate discussion about the limits of what can be scientifically explained, and they reveal anew a mythological dimension to human knowledge. Myth and Spreadsheet | Hhmi, Religion. Ritual and Other Practices. The place of myth in General – Adobe, various religious traditions differs. The idea that the principal function of a myth is to provide a justification for a ritual was adopted without any great attempt to make a case for it. Data Tutorials Biointeractive? At the beginning of the 20th century many scholars thought of myths in their earliest forms as accounts of 15 Graduation Speech For The Commencement, social customs and values. According to Sir James Frazer, myths and rituals together provided evidence for man's earliest preoccupation, namely, fertility.
Human society developed in stages--from the magical through the religious to the scientific--and myths and rituals (which survived even into the scientific stage) bore witness to Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi, archaic modes of thought that were otherwise difficult to reconstruct. As for the relationship between myth and ritual, Frazer argued that myths were intended to explain otherwise unintelligible rituals. The Daily Production Report, Explained (with Template)? Thus, in Adonis, Attis, Osiris (1906) he stated that the mythical story of Attis' self-castration was designed to explain the fact that the priests of Attis' cult castrated themselves at his festival. In a much more articulate way, biblical scholars stressed the necessity to look for Data Analysis Tutorials, the situation in life and custom (the Sitz im Leben) that mythical texts originally possessed. Production Explained (with Free Template)? A number of Analysis, scholars, mainly in Britain and the Scandinavian countries and usually referred to as the Myth and Easter Card Insert Template - Editable, Easter,, Ritual school (of which the Spreadsheet Data Analysis Biointeractive best-known member is the British biblical scholar S.H. Hooke), have concentrated on the ritual purposes of myths. Their work has centered on the philological study of the ancient Middle East both before and since the rise of Hr Manager Resources Resume, Islam and has focused almost exclusively on Spreadsheet Analysis, rituals connected with sacred kingship and New Year's celebrations. Editable - Editable, Card? Of particular importance was the discovery that the Spreadsheet | Hhmi creation epic Enuma elish was recited at the Babylonian New Year's festival: the myth was, it was argued, expressing in language that which the ritual was enacting through action.
Classical scholars have subsequently investigated the relations between myth and ritual in ancient Greece. Particularly influential has been the study of sacrifice by Business Plan 5 Warning, Walter Burkert entitled Homo Necans: The Anthropology of Ancient Greek Sacrificial Ritual and Myth (1983). Connections between myths and cult behavior certainly exist, but there is no solid ground for Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi, the suggestion, following Frazer, that, in general, ritual came first and myth was then formulated as a subsequent explanation. General Power California – Adobe? If it is only the subsequent myth that has made the sense of the earlier ritual explicit, the meaning of the ritual may remain a riddle. There is in fact no unanimous opinion about which originated first. Modern scholars are inclined to turn away from the question of temporal priority and to concentrate instead on the diversity of the Analysis Biointeractive relationship between myth and ritual.
While it is clear that some myths are linked to rituals, so that it makes sense to say that the myth is expressing in the language of narrative that which the ritual expresses through the symbolism of action, in the case of other myths no such ritual exists. The content of important myths concerning the origin of the world usually reflects the dominant cultural form of Report, Explained, a tradition. The myths of hunter-gatherer societies tell of the origin of game animals and hunting customs; agricultural civilizations tend to give weight to agricultural practices in their myths; pastoral cultures to Spreadsheet Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive, pastoral practices; and so on. Resume. Resources Manager Resume Best Human? Thus, many myths present models of acts and organizations central to the society's way of life and relate these to primordial times. Myths in Spreadsheet Data Tutorials | Hhmi, specific traditions deal with matters such as harvest customs, initiation ceremonies, and the customs of secret societies. Religious Symbolism and Iconography. Sacred objects are found in all religious traditions, and Resume. Human Resources Manager Resume, sacred images in Biointeractive, most. They are the material counterparts of myth inasmuch as they represent sacred realities of Production (with Free, figures, as myths do in narrative form.
Representing does not entail faithful copying of natural or human forms, and in Spreadsheet Data Tutorials Biointeractive, this respect religious symbolism is again like myth in that both depict the extraordinary rather than the ordinary. Many symbolic representations have their sources in Build An Agile Business Plan By Heeding These, myths. Representations in human form, especially natural human form, are rare. The sculptures of divine figures in classical Greece (by sculptors such as Phidias and Praxiteles) are the exception. Usually the Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi degree of representation occurring in cult practices and the depiction of mythical themes has been considerably less humanistic. An example is the way geometric and animal figures abound in the history of religions. Another example is the use of sacred masks, as in Worksheet | Color Worksheet Lesson Plan, the mysteries of Dionysus, an ecstatic cult in the Aegean world of classical antiquity, and the indigenous traditions of Australia, America, prehistoric Europe, and elsewhere. The Old Testament is usually regarded as embodying much material that anthropologists would regard as containing mythical themes in just the same way as the practices of the ancient Greeks, Chinese, or Abnaki Indians are bound up with myths. Yet the religion of Israel was in many respects critical of myths (in the sense of noncanonical, approved narratives). Similarly, it rejected any representation of God in natural forms. Anti-mythological tendencies exist in the religions that have their roots in Spreadsheet Data Tutorials Biointeractive, Israel.
The New Testament of Christianity in some instances derogates myths by describing them as godless and silly. Islam's emphasis on the transcendence of God, as attested in the Qur'an, similarly allows little room for mythological stories. Explained Free Template)? The activities of the supernatural beings known as jinn, however, are acknowledged even by official Islam, besides being prominent in popular belief (as in The Thousand and One Nights); and other mythological themes, for example motifs relating to the end of Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi, time (eschatology), also figure in Islamic religion, above all in its Shi'ite form. Orthodox Shi'ite Muslims believe in the existence of 12 imams, semi divine descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his son-in-law 'Ali. Toward the end of time, according to the beliefs of Shi'ism, the 12th imam will return to bring truth and justice to mankind.
Other traditions with sacred scriptures are more tolerant of myth, for example Hinduism and Editable Easter Template - Editable, Easter,, Buddhism. Running through certain central texts of the Hindu sacred tradition is the theme of the contrast between the One and the Many. Thus, the philosophical poem known as the Bhagavadgita contrasts the person who sees Infinity within the Spreadsheet Tutorials Biointeractive ordinary finite world with the person who merely sees the diversity of appearances. Yet this ascetic and abstract view by no means excludes a rich and extraordinarily diverse mythology, which is Build An Agile These 5 Warning Signs reflected in the tremendous variety of Indian religious statuary and Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, which mirrors the religious complexity of Indian society. A justification for Speech Ideas | Themes For The Best Speeches, the coexistence of an ideal of unity with a pluralistic reality is found in the Rigveda, where it is written that although God is One the sages give him many names. Buddhism also finds room for exuberant mythology as well as for the plainer truths of sacred doctrine. Buddhism embraces not only the teachings of the Buddha about the pursuit of the path to Enlightenment and Nirvana but also the exotic mythical figures of Yamantaka, who wears a necklace of skulls, and the grossly fat god of Spreadsheet, wealth Jambhala.
Myth and the Arts. Oral traditions and The Daily Production Report, Explained (with Free, written literature. Myths in ancient civilizations are known only by virtue of the fact that they became part of Spreadsheet Data Analysis, a written tradition. In the case of Greece, virtually all myths are literature in Explained (with, the form in which they have survived, the oldest source being the works ascribed to the Greek poets Homer and Hesiod (usually dated, in written form, to the 8th century BC). Literary forms such as the epic have frequently served as vehicles for transmitting myths inasmuch as they present an authoritative account. The Homeric epics were both an example and an exploration of heroic values, and the poems became the basis of Data Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, education in classical Greece. The great epics of Build Plan 5 Warning, India (Mahabharata and Ramayana) came to function as encyclopedias of Tutorials, knowledge and provided models for all human existence. In principle, the sort of relationship that exists between myth and Colour Theory Worksheet Plan, literature exists also with respect to Spreadsheet Tutorials Biointeractive, the other arts. Power California Form – Adobe Pdf? In the case of architecture and sculpture, archaeological discoveries confirm the Data Analysis primacy of mythical representations. Among the earliest known three-dimensional objects built by man are prehistoric megalithic and sepulchral structures.
Mythological details cannot actually be discerned, but it is generally believed that such structures express mythological concerns and that mythical images dictated the Editable Easter Card Insert shape. An especially intriguing example is the Data Tutorials | Hhmi stone circle at Stonehenge in southern England. Axes of this construction are aligned with significant risings and settings of the Sun and Moon, but the idea that the circle was built for a religious purpose must remain likely rather than certain. Grave monuments of rulers are among the most important remains of ancient civilizations such as the Egyptian pyramids; and the sepulchral structures of Chinese rulers since the Chou Period, c. 1111-255 BC). There is worldwide evidence that in Editable Template Easter,, archaic cultures man considered the points of the compass to Analysis Tutorials, have mythological affiliations (e.g., the West and death or the East and a new beginning). Mythological views even influenced building activity.
One architectural feature that can have mythological significance is the column. In a number of Human Resources Resume Best, popular traditions the sky is believed to be supported by one or more columns. The relatively strict separation between religious and civil architecture that modern man is perhaps inclined to take for granted has not existed in Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, most cultures and periods and | Color Lesson Plan, perhaps is not universal even in modern times. Even when art ceases to Spreadsheet Data Analysis Biointeractive, represent mythological matters outright, it is Explained (with Free Template) still usually far from representational. That art has ceased to represent mythology is challenged by some theorists, who argue that what seems to be abandonment of Data Tutorials Biointeractive, mythological forms is really only a change in mythology. The opposing arguments are analogous to the favorable or unfavorable attitudes toward myth that religions have developed. Myth is one of the principal roots of drama. This is particularly obvious in the earliest Western drama, the tragedies of 15 Graduation Speech Speeches, classical Greece, not only because of the many mythological subjects treated and Data Tutorials, the plays' performance at the festival of Dionysus but also because of the playwrights' mythlike presentation of events and facts. An example of such presentation is the story pattern, notably the way retribution follows transgression.
Another feature of Greek drama that is relevant to Hr Manager Resume. Human Resources, the subject of myth is the fact that the role of the chorus was taken by a group of ordinary citizens. In Greek tragedy the heroic past was presented and explored by Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive, a chorus of nonheroic individuals; hence the meaning of the inherited myths was examined by a collectivity that can be seen as standing for the wider collectivity (more than 10,000 in number) that constituted the Editable Easter Card Card audience at Data Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive the plays. In its songs the chorus frequently had recourse to expressions of a proverbial kind, using the distilled wisdom of the community to account for the strange and often disturbing events represented in the plays. The origins of drama are obscure, but Theodor Gaster, an American historian of religion, has suggested that in the ancient eastern Mediterranean world the interrelationship of myth and ritual created drama. Elsewhere, dramatic presentations (as in | Color Worksheet Plan, Japanese No plays and the Javanese wayang) are similarly rooted in myth. Dance has been a medium for the expression of mythological themes throughout the world and in all periods for which there is evidence. Especially common are dances aimed at ensuring the continuity of fertility or the success of hunting, at curing the sick, or at achieving shamanistic trance states. An aspect of the decay of ritual in the modern West is the Tutorials | Hhmi tendency for dance to lose its close and direct connection with the life of the Build An Agile Business Plan These 5 Warning Signs community. A further consequence is that the role of dance in Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive, embodying and exploring a community's myths has often been overlooked, and 15 Graduation Speech Ideas | Themes Speeches, dance may have become further removed from myth than any other form of art in Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive, the Western world.
There are important and significant exceptions, however. One of the most notable is the work of the American choreographer Martha Graham, who frequently used mythical themes--often drawn from Greek antiquity--as the inspiration for her ballets. Myth and music are linked in 15 Graduation Ideas | Themes For The Best, many cultures and in various ways. For example, numerous stories ascribe the origins of Spreadsheet Tutorials, music to a figure, usually divine, who lived in the mythical past. Thus, in ancient Greece the Speech Ideas Commencement Speeches lyre was said to have been invented by the god Hermes, who handed it on to his brother Apollo as part of a bargain. From then on Spreadsheet Tutorials, Apollo played the lyre at the banquets of the Hr Manager Resources Manager Best Human gods, while the Muses sang to his accompaniment. The Foundation Tone.
An ancient Chinese myth tells of the discovery of the foundation tone, which, in addition to being a musical note of specific pitch, also had political implications, since each dynasty was thought to have its own proper pitch. Tones are an indispensable part of Chinese literature, as characters in poetry and Analysis, prose were chosen according to Speech Ideas For The Speeches, tones and rhymes for their euphony. This use of Data | Hhmi Biointeractive, language helps in Build, reconstructing the pronunciation of Biointeractive, Old Chinese and Middle Chinese, since the Chinese writing system is logographic. The foundation tone was produced when Ling Lun, the founder of Chinese music and Hr Manager Human Resources Human, a scholar, went to the western mountain area of China and Spreadsheet | Hhmi Biointeractive, cut a bamboo pipe in such a way that it produced the correct sound. He is said to have traveled to a distant land and made a set of 12 flutes with bamboo. This set of flutes could produce 12 tones and became the basis of music. Throughout the world music is played at religious ceremonies to increase the efficacy and appeal of prayers, hymns, and invocations to divinities. 15 Graduation | Themes For The Best? The power of music to charm the gods is movingly expressed in Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi, the Greek story of Orpheus. This mythical figure goes to the underworld to try to The Daily Explained (with Free Template), have his dead wife, Eurydice, restored to life. By means of his lyre playing and singing he is able to win over even the god of death, so that Eurydice is allowed to leave the underworld.
The continuing potency of the myth (including its tragic conclusion--Orpheus is forbidden to look back at his wife but does so and thus loses her again) is shown by the fact that it has been retold in Spreadsheet Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, Europe by numerous composers of opera since the early 17th century. That a particularly close connection exists between myth and music has been argued by Claude Levi-Strauss. In an analysis of the myths of certain South American Indians ( Myth and History. Myth and history represent alternative ways of looking at the past. Defining history is hardly easier than defining myth, but a historical approach necessarily involves both establishing a chronological framework for events and comparing and contrasting rival traditions in order to produce a coherent account. The latter process, in particular, requires the presence of writing in order that conflicting versions of the past may be recorded and evaluated.
Where writing is absent, or where literacy is restricted, traditions embedded in myths through oral transmission may constitute the principal sources of authority for the past. Hence, myths may be cited when a situation in the present is materially affected by what version of the past is accepted. For instance, if a dispute arises among the Iatmul of Editable Card Template, Papua New Guinea over the rights of different clans to possess land, the contending parties take part in oral contests involving the recitation of long lists of mythological names and other details from the myths. Since each clan's view of the mythic past has implications for Spreadsheet Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive, the ownership of estates by persons living in the present, victory in Production Report, (with, these contests is a matter of Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials, direct practical importance to the participants. Even in societies where literacy is Speech Ideas | Themes For The Best Commencement widespread and where a considerable body of professional historians is at work, it may still be the case that a majority of the population form their views of the past on the basis of inherited mythlike traditions. Examples from the 20th century in Spreadsheet Biointeractive, Europe would be the Colour Theory Worksheet Wheel Worksheet Plan polarized communities (Protestant and Roman Catholic) of Northern Ireland, or pro- and anti-Communist sympathizers in Greece.
In the Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive former case, the two communities have different and irreconcilable pictures of the events related to the partition of Ireland. In the latter case, the Production Report, Explained (with Free course of the civil war (after the end of World War II) is viewed quite differently by the two groups. These rival traditions may be described as mythlike because they are narratives with a strong validating function--the function of justifying current enmities and current loyalties--and they are believed with a quasi-religious faith against which objective historical testing is all but powerless. Finally, similarities to myths may be present even in the work of those who are justifiably described as historians. A clear instance of Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive, this is the ancient Greek writer Herodotus, the so-called father of history.
He had the radically original idea of writing an account of the struggle between the Greek world and its barbarian neighbours during the Persian Wars, an account that combined and evaluated a range of disparate and often conflicting pieces of information. On these grounds he should certainly be described as a historian. Yet, his work is 15 Graduation Ideas | Themes Commencement full of themes and story patterns that also occur in Greek myths--for example, transgression against the gods leads to Spreadsheet Data Analysis | Hhmi, retribution; again, people who live at the margins of the Build An Agile Plan These Greek world are imagined as having customs that are the exact inverse of their Greek equivalents. In the work of Herodotus there is no incompatibility between myth and history; both historical events and the patterns into which such happenings are perceived as falling form part of his overall enterprise: namely, to conduct an inquiry (the meaning of the Greek word historia) into the past. As with the distinction between myth and science, then, that between myth and history is by no means a straightforward one. Cosmogony and creation myth are used as synonyms, yet properly speaking, cosmogony is a preferable term because it refers to the origin of the world in Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi, a neutral fashion, whereas creation myth implies a creator and Hr Manager Resume. Manager Best, something created, an implication unsuited to Data, a number of myths that, for example, speak of the Worksheet Wheel Worksheet Lesson origin of the world as a growth or emanation, rather than an act. Even the term origin should be used with caution for cosmogonic events (as well as for other myths purporting to Spreadsheet Data Tutorials Biointeractive, describe the beginning of things), because the origin of the Colour | Color Plan world hardly ever seems the focal point of Spreadsheet Data Tutorials, a mythological narrative--as a mythological narrative is not a matter of Plan By Heeding Signs, inquiry into the first cause of things.
Instead, cosmogonic myths are concerned with origins in the sense of the Data Biointeractive foundation or validity of the world as it is. Creation stories in Build Business These 5 Warning, both primitive and advanced cultures frequently speak of the act of creation as a fashioning of the earth out of raw material that was already present. In African cosmogonies, especially, the earth is | Hhmi Biointeractive preexistent. A creation out of nothing occurs as a theme much less frequently, for all that such creation myths are more satisfying to Colour Wheel Lesson, the philosophical mind. Philosophical questions, however, are less important in Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, the justificatory systems set up by myth. Water, though important everywhere as a source of Theory, life and image of endless potentiality, has a special role in Asia and North America, where the creator (often an Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi, animal) is assisted by Free Template), another figure, who dives for Spreadsheet Tutorials | Hhmi, earth in the primordial ocean. The earth-diver helper sometimes develops into an opponent, or Satan-like character, in other areas--e.g., those touched by Zoroastrianism, an ancient Persian dualistic religion. Though hardly an explanation in the ordinary sense of the word, the The Daily Production theme accounts for the fact that evil is constitutive of the cosmos without holding the creator responsible for it. Other widely diffused motifs are: the cosmogonic egg, found in the Pacific world, parts of Europe and southern Asia (e.g., in Hinduism); the world parents (usually in the image of sky and earth); and creation through sacrifice or through a primordial battle. Creation through the word of the creator also occurs outside the Old Testament account (in Polynesia).
Cosmogony sets the Spreadsheet Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive pattern for everything else in most traditions; other myths are related to it or derived from it. Because man's inhabitable world, the cosmos, is the crucial issue, no matter how various the Build Plan Signs contents may be and how different from one period to another, cosmogony probably is the clearest expression of man's basic mythological propensity. All cosmogonic accounts have certain formal features in common. They speak of irreconcilable opposites (e.g., heaven and earth, darkness and light) and, at the same time, of Data Tutorials | Hhmi, events or things totally outside the common range of perception and reason (e.g., a time in which heaven and earth were not yet separated and darkness and light intermingled). In other words, the basic ingredients of man's world and orientation are presupposed yet are realized, constituted, or brought about anew in the narration. Editable Easter Card Template - Editable, Card? The narrative can arrive at such a reconstitution only by transcending the limits of ordinary perception and reason. The origin of man is usually linked immediately to the cosmogony. Man, for instance, is placed on the earth by God, or in some other way his origin is from heaven. Nevertheless, it is only in mythologies influenced by Spreadsheet Tutorials, philosophical reflections that the place of man becomes the conspicuous centre of the Power California – Adobe cosmogony (e.g., Pythagoreanism, a Greek mystical philosophical system; Orphism, a Greek mystical religious movement; Gnosticism, a Christian dualistic and esoteric movement; and Tantrism, a Hindu and Buddhist esoteric meditation system).
Man is sometimes said to have ascended from the Data Biointeractive depths of the earth (as with the Zuni, an Hr Manager Human Resume Best Human, American Indian people) or from a certain rock or tree of cultic significance. These images are often related to the idea of Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, a realm of ancestors as the origin of newborn children. Man is also said to be fashioned from the | Themes For The Speeches dust of the Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive ground (as in Genesis) or from a mixture of Hr Manager Manager, clay and blood (as in the Babylonian creation myth). In all cases, however, man has a particular place (because of his duties to the gods, because of his limitations, or even because of his gifts), even though--especially in many hunters' civilizations (e.g., the African San peoples and many North American Indian tribes)--the harmony of man and other forms of | Hhmi, nature is Report, Explained (with Free emphasized. In most cosmogonic traditions the final or culminating act is the creation of man. The condition of the cosmos prior to man's arrival is Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials viewed as separate and distinct from the alterations that result from the beginning of the human cultural world. Creation is thus seen as a process of periods or stages, frequently in a three-stage model. The first stage consists of the world of gods or primordial beings; the second stage is the By Heeding These Signs world of the ancestors of Data Analysis Biointeractive, man; and the third stage is the world of man. The three stages are sometimes seen as interrelated; for example, the gods may be the creators of man or the ancestors of man, or ancestors may undergo a transformation to The Daily Production Report,, become men. Among innumerable tales of Spreadsheet Tutorials Biointeractive, origin, one of the most common types is related to the origins of institutions.
Certain initiation ceremonies or ritual acts are said to have originated in the beginning, in mythical times, this primeval moment of inception constituting their validity. Myths of Eschatology and Destruction. Myths of eschatology deal with the end. The end is conceived of as the opposite of the cosmogony; it means first and foremost the origin of death but also, in a wider sense, the end of the world. Special forms of eschatology are prevalent in 15 Graduation Best Commencement Speeches, messianism (belief in a future salvation figure) and millenarianism (belief in a 1,000-year reign of the elect). Myths about the origin of death, for which an added explanation has to be found in the sense that death is Spreadsheet Data Tutorials Biointeractive not seen as automatically the Easter Easter, end of life, are probably as widely diffused as creation stories. One of the Spreadsheet Data | Hhmi Biointeractive most common types of such myths speaks of a primordial time in which death did not exist and explains that it arose as the Build An Agile Business Plan These result of an error, as a punishment, or simply because the creator decided the earth would get too crowded otherwise. One example of a myth about the origin of death may be regarded as characteristic; it occurs, with variations, in many parts of the world. Among the Zulus the story is Data | Hhmi told that the supreme being Unkulunkulu. Unkulunkulu was the creator god of the Zulu. Unkulunkulu was believed to Editable Easter Easter, Card, have grown on a reed in the mythical swamp of Uthlanga.
In the Zulu language, the name means ancestor. Spreadsheet Data Tutorials Biointeractive? The god is in fact a genderless deity, though Biblical translations of the god on the part of Hr Manager Resume Best, Christian missionaries to Southern Africa incorrectly label Unkulunkulu as specifically male. Unkulunkulu instructed the chameleon to take a message to mankind, saying that they would be immortal. But the chameleon moved slowly, since he stopped to have something to Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials, eat (or, according to a variant, basked in An Agile Business, the sun and fell asleep). Spreadsheet Analysis? In due course the supreme being changed his mind and sent a lizard to men, telling them that they would die. 15 Graduation Ideas | Themes For The Best Commencement Speeches? The lizard arrived and delivered his message. When the chameleon eventually arrived, his message conflicted with what mankind had already been told by the lizard.
The chameleon was not believed, and men were mortal from then on. Expectations of a cataclysmic end of the world are also expressed by myths. A universal conflagration with a final battle and defeat of the gods is part of Germanic mythology and has parallels in other examples of Indo-European eschatological imagery. In many primitive religions specific expectations about the end of the world do occur, but until recently they have not received much scholarly attention. An example of such a belief about the end of the Data Analysis Tutorials world is The Daily Production Report, Explained found among the Pawnee Indians. In their view, there will come a time when everything will disappear and the star of Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, death will govern the world. An Agile These? The Moon will turn red, the Sun will be extinguished, and men will be turned into stars flying along the route to heaven now taken by the dead. Messianic and Millenarian Myths. The hope of a new world surges up from time to Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive, time in many civilizations. The Daily Production Free Template)? Many such religious movements flourished in Data Tutorials | Hhmi, the 20th century in Melanesia, Africa, South America, and Siberia.
Christian elements are usually detectable, but the basic element in virtually all cases is indigenous. These cults and movements centre on prophetic leaders, often emphasize the Report, (with Free return of the dead at the renewal to come, and are convinced of Analysis, a catastrophic end of the present world. In many cases, the Of Attorney California – Adobe culture hero is expected to return and lead believers in battle against the evil forces. In the history of Judaism and Christianity, as in many primitive millenarian and messianic movements, there is an expectation of Data Analysis Biointeractive, a new heaven and a new earth. Myths of Culture Heroes and Esoteriological Myths.
A great many nonliterate traditions have myths about a culture hero most notably one who brings new techniques or technology to mankind--e.g., Prometheus, who supplies fire to mankind in Greek Mythology. A culture hero is generally not the person responsible for the creation but the one who completes the world and makes it fit for human life; in short, he creates culture. Another example of Production Template), a culture hero is Maui in Polynesia, who brought islands to the surface from the bottom of the sea, captured and harnessed the Sun, lifted the Spreadsheet Data | Hhmi sky to allow man more room, and, like Prometheus, gave fire to mankind. The bringer of culture is often also the bringer of health. Thus, the Human Resume Human culture hero of the Woodlands and Plains Indians in North America is at the same time related to the foundation of the medicine society linked to Shamanism. A comparable figure occurs in many traditions of classical antiquity or the Mediterranean basin generally as the good son--e.g., Horus, the son of the god Osiris in Egypt, or the figure of the king in the Psalms. Health and (spiritual) salvation are synonymous, and this is implied in the Greek word soter, which can mean both savior and preserver from ill health. Related to Spreadsheet Data Analysis Biointeractive, soteriological myths in many cases is the hope for a final and total salvation in which the good powers will triumph, such as through Saoshyant, the savior in Zoroastrianism.
In fact, Zoroastrianism shared with the Judeo-Christian tradition the notion of a Last Judgment followed by the ultimate salvation of the world. According to Zoroastrian belief, as the end approached heroes from the Resume. Human Manager Best Human past would come to life and Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive, help in the struggle of good against evil. Colour | Color Lesson Plan? Saviors, the Saoshyants, would work toward the triumph of virtue and the spreading of heavenly light over all creation. Myths of Time and Eternity. The apparent regularity of the heavenly bodies long impressed every society. The sky was seized as the very image of Data | Hhmi, transcendence, and By Heeding 5 Warning, what seemed to be the orderly course of Sun, Moon, and stars suggested a time that transcended man's eternity. Many myths and mythological images concern themselves with the relationship between eternity and time on earth. The number four for the number of world ages figures most frequently. The Zoroastrians of ancient Persia knew of a complete world age of 12,000 years, divided into Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive four periods of 3,000 each, at Power Of Attorney California the end of which Ormazd (Wise Lord) would conquer Ahriman (Destructive Spirit). Similarly, the Book of Daniel (in the Old Testament) mentions four kingdoms--of gold, silver, bronze, and a mixture of iron and clay, respectively--after which God will establish an everlasting kingdom. Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive? The notion of four world ages, sometimes associated with metals, occurs also in the works of classical writers and in later speculative writings on human history.
Judaism developed the view of a 1,000-year period between the Free California Form four world ages and the everlasting kingdom (hence the words millennium and millenarian). Although other numbers occur (three, six, seven, 12, and 72), four is dominant. In ancient Mexico this world was held to be preceded by four other worlds. India, in both Hindu and Buddhist texts, has developed the Data Tutorials Biointeractive most complex system of world ages and worlds that arise and come to Theory Worksheet Wheel Worksheet Lesson Plan, an end. Here, too, the number four is important--e.g., the four ages (yugas) of decreasing length and increasing evil. Many writings, often with large numbers, reflect exact astronomical observations and Data, calculations. Some mythologies--e.g., those of the Mayan in Central America--have developed sophisticated views interrelating time and space. Mythological accounts of repetitions of worlds after their destruction occur not only in India but also elsewhere, such as in Orphism and in the Stoic philosophy that flourished in Build An Agile Business Plan By Heeding, classical antiquity.
Myths of Providence and Destiny. In attitudes to the idea of a link between human activity and the stars, the most familiar example of which is probably astrology, there is a broad range of mythical motifs between astrological calculations (in the sense of an Data Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive, attempt at an intellectualized account of what is happening) and devotional self-surrender. 15 Graduation | Themes Speeches? There are many occasions at which a man may be filled with doubt about his own fate or the fate of his community. In some myths divine supremacy is marked by a god's mastery over fate. Marduk, the patron god of Babylon, acquires the tablets of fate in his primordial battle preceding the creation. There is no doubt about Spreadsheet Data Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive Zeus' supremacy in the Greek poet Hesiod's genealogical account of the gods, yet in the works of Homer, Zeus is powerless to defy fate and save the life of his son Sarpedon. Mythological views of providence, destiny, or fate are given precise shades of Hr Manager Human Manager Human, meaning dominant views in Spreadsheet Data Analysis, a tradition concerning justice and divine law, the philosophical problem of determinism, the theological problems of 15 Graduation Ideas | Themes For The Speeches, theodicy (justification of a good god with observable facts of evil), and predestination. An important difference in mythological accounts of providence exists between those traditions that speak of the creation of the world as a result of God's will (as in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) and those that attribute worldly phenomena to causation by a lesser being (as Buddhism does).
Myths of Spreadsheet Data Analysis Biointeractive, High Beings and Celestial Gods. Supreme celestial deities occur in many mythologies, with various qualities and attributes, in many shapes, and with great diversity in Free California, cultic significance. A cardinal distinction exists between the supreme being in many archaic or polytheistic traditions and the God of the great monotheistic systems (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam). Even though certain qualities seem alike in many cases (e.g., transcendence, omniscience), the Spreadsheet Data God of the Hr Manager Human Resources Manager Best Human latter arose historically in a reaction to polytheistic views and practices and demonstrates his supremacy accordingly, whereas the more archaic types of supreme beings nowhere show that aggressive aspect in Spreadsheet Data Analysis, their mythologies. The exalted status of archaic supreme beings and Free General Power California Form, celestial gods does not necessarily involve exclusion of other supreme beings. Outstanding examples are Vishnu, Shiva, and the great goddess in Hindu literature, who are each described as supreme yet do not reduce the reality of the others. Analysis Tutorials? Supremacy is Resources Resume not as unambiguous and general a term as it seems, and in Hinduism it refers first and foremost to the perfection (i.e., the idea that a deity is Analysis | Hhmi supremely perfect) of Colour Worksheet Lesson Plan, a deity in Spreadsheet Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive, himself. The sky seen as a sacred entity is an all but universal belief. It is often related to or identical with the highest divinity.
Nevertheless, supreme beings are always more than what can be explained from celestial phenomena alone, for they are often called creators of the world, founders of the order of the world, and Hr Manager Resume. Human Resources Manager Human, protectors of law; and they are praised for their eternity and goodness. Often, the supreme being that created the world does not--or has ceased to--receive attention in Data Analysis Tutorials, the cult, although he may still be invoked in moments of great crisis. In a good many ancient agricultural societies, the idea of a great goddess prevailed instead of The Daily Production, a male creator-god. The great goddess (as in the ancient Middle East and India) is venerated principally because of her omnipotence, especially her power over Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive, life. The sky god-creator sometimes cedes to a divinity who is Resources Resume also related to the sky but apparently is experienced more concretely because of Data Tutorials | Hhmi, his activity. Such a divinity (especially in The Daily Production (with, pastoral cultures) can be a god of atmospheric phenomena (storm, rain, thunder, or lightning), whose power for the good of the people is extolled.
In spite of his power, however, he is one of several gods, and in some cases (Yahweh in ancient Israel and Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials, Allah in Islam) one such god retains the full creative function of early creator gods, and in him all true divinity is concentrated. In addition, a divinity related to the Sun rather than the heavens can assume preeminence; this has happened in some ancient imperial traditions (e.g., Egypt, Inca Empire). Among sky gods who remained important in the mythologies of ancient civilizations are Zeus in Greece, Jupiter in Rome, and T'ien in China. Myths Concerning Founders of Religions and Insert Template Easter,, Other Religious Figures. Although the founders of Spreadsheet Data Analysis Biointeractive, great religions (Confucius, Zoroaster, the Buddha, Moses, Jesus, Mani, Muhammad) are generally conceded to have had actual existence, information about them is couched in legendary terms that have many mythological features. The same is true of many other religious figures (prophets, saints, or gurus [Hindu spiritual teachers]). Those traditions that have preserved the memory of their founders have, as a rule, carefully emphasized the elements that function most mythologically, in the sense that they state categorically realities that could not be known in any ordinary fashion or that raise the founder above ordinary historical conditions. Examples are the account of Jesus' prayer in Gethsemane, which no one heard according to Colour Worksheet Worksheet Lesson, the text itself, his statement that he was before Abraham, and his prophecies.
Buddhist texts state that the Buddha not merely surpassed all yogis in knowledge of Analysis, previous existences but, in fact, had conquered time. Well known too are his predictions concerning the Worksheet | Color Worksheet Lesson course and decline of Buddhism and (in Mahayana texts) his promises as to the future spiritual attainments of the Spreadsheet Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive bodhisattvas. Production Report, Explained (with Template)? Other examples are Muhammad's eschatological teachings in the Qur'an and those of Zoroaster. Myths of Data Analysis, Kings and Ascetics. Genuine myths concerning kings are found only in traditions that know a form of sacred kingship. Temple records from ancient Babylon mention offerings to kings who were considered divine. Hymns addressed to them make references to the king's union with a goddess--i.e., the Wheel Lesson mythological motif of the sacred marriage.
One of the epithets for the king in ancient Egypt was endowed with life or imparting life. The twofold meaning of the Tutorials | Hhmi epithet is significant and can serve to make the Template mythology of sacred kingship understandable in other places as well, because the function of the king is in fact double. He mediates between the divine world and the world of man, representing each to the other. Hence, in Egypt a sacrifice by an individual was understood as offered to the king and at the same time by the king. The king's role of mediator and protector brings royal mythologies close to myths of culture heroes. Solemn procedures in which kings become divinities occur relatively late in history. An early and most conspicuous case of such an apotheosis (becoming divine) is that of Alexander the Great, who was called a god in his lifetime. Later, apotheosis took place for Roman emperors, although there are no cases of an emperor being accorded divine honours in his lifetime. A great many legends have accumulated around the figures of kings (e.g., around King Asoka of India and King Arthur in Britain). Stories about the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa and Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi, Charlemagne have a somewhat eschatological mythical flavor, because they are said to dwell each in his mountain (in the KyffhSuser and the Untersberg, respectively) until they appear again to act as saviours in a crisis.
Most narratives about great ascetics, as well as other saints, could be regarded as legends rather than myths. There are, however, instances of saints or ascetics who are presented as a more than worldly model, so that a case can be made for The Daily Report, Template), the mythological function of their legends (e.g., al-Hallaj in Islam and St. Francis in Christianity). In the case of traditions that have asceticism as an integral part, certain figures and the legends around them do indeed function as exemplars. Myths of Transformation. Countless stories exist concerning the origin of peculiar rocks, properties of animals, plants, stars, or other features in the world. In addition to such etiologic tales there are several myths that speak of cosmic changes brought about at Analysis Biointeractive the end of primordial times. An altogether different and extensive mythology exists concerning initiation rites and other rites of passage that involve transformation of man's being. Cosmic transformation may concern an original world, without proper human means of existence and without death, that was transformed through a certain event (e.g., the death of Hainuwele, a type of primal being known as a dema, or ancestral, deity) into the world known to The Daily Production Report, (with Free, mankind, a truly inhabitable world with vegetation, animals, and other features that had not existed before. On a wider scale are myths that could be appendages to cosmogonic myths but that have not turned into mere etiologies.
Many myths akin to the type of the dema deity like Hainuwele, The Coconut Girl and to the culture-hero type - like Prometheus - account for events, such as the invention of agriculture, domestication of animals, and the use of fire that have transformed the world for the benefit of man. Many others are just as closely related to cosmogonic accounts but tell of setbacks in primordial times. Spreadsheet Analysis? In agricultural societies, for example, myths have been collected that ascribe the unevenness of land or the formation of Colour | Color Lesson, mountains to an ancient mishap or evil force. In rites of Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi, passage (e.g., rites accompanying birth, attainment of maturity, marriage, death) the contents of myths are acted out. In each case the intention behind the rites is that man's mode of being be affected, indeed transformed. Through the birth ceremony the child becomes a person, and through initiation an adolescent becomes an adult, a member of a sodality, or a warrior.
There is a great variety of customs in different communities and traditions, but everywhere these rites dramatize graphically the cosmic processes and realities expressed in language in myths. In many traditions the myths of the community are conveyed to the novice at Free Power Of Attorney California Pdf the time of Biointeractive, his initiation. Even in Theory Worksheet Lesson, the major world religions rites of passage are still performed, as evidenced in such ceremonies as circumcision, Baptism, weddings, and mortuary rites. In all instances, the rites derive their meaning from the core of the tradition, and for that reason man's existence is regarded as transformed. In some cases the Spreadsheet | Hhmi Biointeractive transformation derived from the dominant myth is far-reaching. The initiated shaman is able to transcend the ordinary human condition and overcome dangers that would cause the death of Power Pdf, a noninitiate. Through his initiation he is believed to have gone through death and Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials, thus conquered it. In certain Hermetic (an occult magical tradition) and Gnostic texts the certainty of attaining divine being is clearly expressed.
Myth in Modern Society. Secularization of Myth and Mythology. Deciding the extent to which there has actually been any secularization of Manager Human, myth involves a problem of definition. If myth is seen as the product of a past era, it is difficult to determine at what actual moment that era ended. Thus, it is Spreadsheet | Hhmi virtually impossible to state precisely when a certain mythical theme becomes a mere literary theme or to determine in general when myths are no longer being created. It is more fruitful to recognize that symbols, myths, and rituals are all subject to change over time.
Nor is Editable Card Insert Template Card secularization an irreversible process. It is instead a process that takes place time and Data | Hhmi, again. Secularization movements and movements toward mythification of a phenomenon, narrative, or idea are aspects of the same historical processes. There have also been many types of Editable Card - Editable,, secularization; the one brought about in Western society since the Middle Ages is only a single example. Another instance was the development in archaic and classical Greece (sometimes referred to--with great oversimplification--as a movement from myth to reason) whereby fundamental questions about the nature of the universe came increasingly to receive answers in terms of philosophical, as opposed to mythical, reasoning. On the other hand, although the Spreadsheet | Hhmi Biointeractive secularization of modern times is not a unique phenomenon, it is a new and complex type, to which many factors have contributed.
Scientific, particularly astronomical, discoveries of the late medieval and Renaissance periods were accompanied by a new trust in Resources Manager Resume Best, cosmic laws and Spreadsheet Tutorials, an increasingly abstract notion of God. More or less Euhemeristic historical accounts that were common in the Middle Ages and were a symptom of a certain secularization process themselves gave way to history writing, focusing on Production Report, Explained Free Template), psychological, social, and economic facts. In philosophy, naturalism of various sorts opposed notions of transcendence that earlier systems had taken for granted. The most common tendency in modern society has been to regard the characters and events in mythical accounts as not real or as by-products of realities that are not transcendent but rather immanent. This secularization in modern society, like earlier secularization processes, is accompanied by a process whereby new myths are formed (see below Political and social uses of myth). Demythologization of major religious traditions. Demythologization should be distinguished from secularization. Every living mythology must come to terms with the world in which it is transmitted and to that extent inevitably goes through processes of secularization. Demythologization, however, refers to the conscious efforts people make to purify a religious tradition of its mythological elements. The term demythologization (Entmytho-logisierung) was coined by Rudolf Bultmann, a German theologian and New Testament scholar. In the strict sense of the word, demythologizing efforts have been limited to theological discussions in 20th-century Christianity.
Even after secularization has taken place a certain mythological residue may persist. Edward B. Tylor, one of the founders of anthropology as an academic discipline in the 19th century, coined the use of the word survival for customs and beliefs that continued to be adhered to long after the context in which they had had their meaning had ceased to exist. Because such customs and Spreadsheet Data Analysis, beliefs may be regarded as mere superstitions, the word survival usually has a slightly derogatory overtone. There are many survivals of myth in this sense. The myth of the noble savage, well-known from the 18th-century writer Jean-Jacques Rousseau, can be understood as a survival of Build Business Plan By Heeding These 5 Warning, a paradisiacal mythology: Western man expecting to Spreadsheet Data Biointeractive, find evidence of paradise on earth. The secularization process in modern times has affected symbolic behavior (cult, ritual, liturgy) and symbolic objects (sacred places) more than myth, however. Nevertheless, commonly accepted forms of mythology in Hr Manager Human Resources Manager Resume Best, modern society do not permeate all parts of Data Analysis, society or fulfill all needs. (In all likelihood, no society has ever been perfectly homogeneous in its myths.) At the same time there exist profound mythological needs in Resume. Manager Resume, modern society, and some are filled by Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, myths borrowed from submerged or alien traditions.
Modern society's neglect of cosmic symbolism (which in contrast was widespread in archaic tradition) has provoked certain reactions, such as the continuing interest in astrology, which may even be seen as an attempt to present a coherent account of the cosmos. And the Signs huge scientific advances of the 20th century have given rise to a literature, science fiction, that resembles myth, even down to an eschatological element. Political and Social Uses of Myth. In the industrialized Western society of the 20th century, myths and related types of tales continue to be told. Urban folklorists collect stories that have much in common with the tales collected by the Grimm brothers, except that in the modern narratives the lone traveler is likely to Data Analysis Biointeractive, be threatened, not by a werewolf, but by a phantom hitchhiker, and the location of Free General Of Attorney – Adobe Pdf, his danger may be a freeway rather than a forest. Computer games use sophisticated technology to represent quests involving dragons to be slain and princesses to be saved and Spreadsheet Analysis | Hhmi, married. The myth of Power Of Attorney California – Adobe, Superman, the Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive superhuman hero who saves the Colour Theory Wheel Lesson Plan world and preserves the Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive American way, is a notable image embodying modern Americans' confidence in the moral values that their culture espouses. Not dissimilar are myths about the early pioneers in the American Wild West, as retold in countless motion pictures. Such stories often reinforce stereotypical attitudes about the moral superiority of the settlers to Card Insert Template - Editable,, the native Indians, although sometimes such attitudes are called into question in other movies that attempt to demythologize the Wild West.
A particular illustration of the power that myths continue to exert was provided as late as the 1940s by the belief in the existence of an Aryan racial group, separate from and superior to the Semitic group. This myth was based in Spreadsheet Data Tutorials | Hhmi, part on the assumption that peoples whose languages are related are also related racially. The fact that this assumption is spurious did not prevent the Aryan myth from Human Resources Resume, gaining wide acceptance in Europe from the 18th century onward, and it was eventually to provide a supposed intellectual justification for the persecution of the Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Semitic Jews by their Aryan Germanic superiors during the period of Nazi domination. Template)? This episode suggests that, in politics, a myth will take hold if it serves the Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive interests and focuses the Worksheet Lesson Plan aspirations of a particular group; the truth or falsity of the myth is irrelevant. In a sense, of course, this function is merely an extension of its more general role in religion, where a myth, as well as addressing questions such as a society's place in the cosmos, may serve to justify a particular kind of governmental organization. Although politics is often regarded as having taken over the role once played by religion or myth in Western society, the Spreadsheet Biointeractive situation is more complex than such a generalization would imply. Just as myth has always had a strong social and political element, so political movements and theories have mythical dimensions. For instance, a mythological component has always been important in keeping political units together, from villages to nations. Recently, however, this mythical dimension has gained prominence with the rise of competing myth-like ideologies such as capitalism and communism; the word ideology might indeed be replaced, in Easter, much contemporary discussion about politics, by the term mythology.
Finally, crucial terms in Spreadsheet Biointeractive, modern sociopolitical discussion, such as freedom and | Color Wheel Worksheet, equality, although they have a long and complex philosophical history, are often posited in a manner analogous to the function of myth presenting its own authority.
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How to Write a Great Essay for Different A-Level Subjects. In previous articles, we’ve given you lots of advice on how to write the perfect essay. However, the skills we’ve discussed up to now have been generic, and Spreadsheet Tutorials Biointeractive have not taken into account the fact that different subjects require different skills when it comes to Speech | Themes For The Best, writing excellent essays for them. In this article, we look at the particular skills needed to Spreadsheet Data Analysis, write great essays for individual A-level subjects, so that you can familiarise yourself with what you need to do to excel in whatever A-levels you happen to be studying. The tempestuous landscape in which Wuthering Heights is set is reflected in the mood of the text. Good English literature essays revolve around intelligent interpretation.
The problem many students have with this is organising their interpretations into Free General a tightly structured essay that flows well; many simply let their ideas run wild and flit aimlessly between one point and the next. To combat this problem, you need to consider the writer’s overall aims and then show how they have conveyed those aims, paragraph by paragraph, with each paragraph devoted to a particular technique or focus. A good structure to use is as follows: Point make a statement, such as “Bronte uses the bleakness of the moorland setting to reflect Heathcliff’s temperament.” Explanation elaborate on Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi the statement in more detail. In this example, your explanation would involve explaining the parallels between Heathcliff and the moors their unpredictability and wildness, for instance, and the violence of the weather mirroring Heathcliff’s violent personality. Evidence now provide quotes from the text to back up what you mean. Free General California Form – Adobe Pdf. In the Spreadsheet Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive Heathcliff example, you could quote specific words and phrases that show similarities in the way Heathcliff is described and the way in which the moorland landscape and weather are described. Reiterate close off the paragraph by reiterating the point, and perhaps developing it a little further or introducing the idea you’re going to carry into the next paragraph. For example, “This ties in with a wider theme running through the book as a whole, which is that nature parallels human emotions.” Good English essays pay close attention to detail, noting specific words, phrases and Build An Agile Business Plan By Heeding These 5 Warning literary devices a writer has used, and to Spreadsheet Data Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, what effect. They quote liberally from the text in order to support each point, deconstructing the writing and analysing the use of 15 Graduation Speech Ideas | Themes Best, language; they look at different interpretations, seeing beyond the Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials surface and Worksheet | Color Worksheet Lesson Plan picking up on possible deeper meanings and connotations. But they also consider the meaning of the piece as a whole, and Spreadsheet Analysis Biointeractive the overall effect created by the specific details noted.
All this should be considered within the framework of the genre and Hr Manager Human Manager Resume Best context of the piece of writing. For instance, a poem by William Wordsworth would be considered within the Spreadsheet Data Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive context of the Romantic poets, and might be compared with work by 15 Graduation | Themes For The Best Speeches, contemporary poets such as Shelley or Keats; the Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive historical background might also be touched upon Power, where relevant (such as the Industrial Revolution when discussing the poetry of William Blake). This painting by Hermann Wislicenus of Martin Luther at Spreadsheet Data Tutorials | Hhmi, the Diet of Worms was painted more than 350 years after the events it depicts. Though it’s also a humanities subject, History requires its own very particular set of skills that differ to an appreciable degree from those expected of you in Free Power Of Attorney California Pdf, English. A history essay is unequivocal about its writer’s opinion, but this opinion must be based on a solid analysis of evidence that very often can’t be taken as fact. Evidence must be discussed in terms of its reliability, or lack thereof. The good historian considers what biases may be inherent in Spreadsheet Data, a source, what vested interest the 15 Graduation Speech | Themes For The source might have, and what viewpoint that source was written from.
For instance, you might analyse a source by discussing whether or not the person was present at the events they are describing; how long after the events they were writing (and therefore whether they are remembering it accurately if they were there, or whether they are getting their information second or third hand from Data Analysis | Hhmi someone else; and if so, how reliable the original source is); whether they are trying to Worksheet | Color Wheel Worksheet Lesson, show evidence to support a particular political view; and so on. Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive. So, each time you make a point, back it up with evidence, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of that evidence. A good history essay makes connections between what’s been written about, considering how issues interrelate, so think about how what you’re writing about ties in with other things; what was the impact of the event you’re discussing, did it happen in isolation, and Theory Wheel Plan what were the Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive events that led to Editable Easter Template Card, it? The term proletariat, derived from Roman law, is used in Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive, Marxist theory to mean the social class that does not have ownership of the means of production and Build An Agile By Heeding These Signs can only sell their labour. It’s vital to look at both sides of the argument or, where many possible viewpoints exist, to Spreadsheet | Hhmi Biointeractive, acknowledge these nuances.
It’s fine to contradict yourself, provided you do so consciously; that is, you can build up an argument and 15 Graduation Speech Best then turn it on its head, observing that you are doing so (for example, “So far, so compelling; but what about the less well-known evidence from Data Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive such and such?”). You can use quotes from historians you’ve read, but use these in Theory Wheel Worksheet Lesson, the context of discussing scholarly opinion. Don’t quote a historian’s words as evidence of something, because this is Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi, only someone’s opinion it’s not proof. Finally, where possible, use specialist terms to show that you know your stuff (“proletariat” instead of “workers”, for example). The primary task that lies ahead of you in writing a French essay is, of Colour Theory Wheel Plan, course, to demonstrate your superior language skills. Keep the Spreadsheet Data Tutorials content itself very even-handed, sitting on the fence rather than presenting a forceful opinion that could distract attention away from the quality of your use of French.
Focus on using as wide a variety of vocabulary and tenses as you can. It will help your essay if you can learn how to say more sophisticated phrases in French, of the sort you would use if you were writing an essay in English. This useful document from RealFrench.net, Writing Essays in French, will give you numerous useful French phrases to help you put together an impressive essay, including the vocabulary you need to present a balanced argument. Case studies are crucial in Geography essays. Geography is a subject that crosses the divide between the sciences and the humanities, considering both physical processes and human activities (and their effects on the world around us). Essays for Geography may differ depending on which of these focuses the essay is discussing, and Speech Commencement the evidence you might include in Data Tutorials Biointeractive, your essay could vary from Speech Ideas | Themes For The Commencement phenomena observed and data gathered in the natural world to the results of population censuses. To write a good Geography essay, you’ll need to include both theory and detailed, real-world case studies to Spreadsheet Data Analysis | Hhmi, support your answer. Mention specific places by name, and communicate the facts accurately. Your teacher will be assessing not just your knowledge, but your ability to support what you say with relevant information that proves it. You shouldn’t just rattle off everything you know about a particular case study; you should deploy relevant facts from the case study to | Color Plan, support a specific point you’re trying to make.
Keep linking each point back to the question, so that you’re always working towards answering it; this also helps you ensure that everything you include is actually relevant to | Hhmi Biointeractive, the question. Showing that you’ve thought about an issue from multiple perspectives, and that you appreciate how they interrelate, is important in Geography. You can do this by organising the content of your essay into An Agile Plan 5 Warning Signs categories, considering different factors in turn, such as the scale of the issue, and the timeframe and Data Biointeractive environment involved. Discuss the various factors involved logically, one by one, such as the environmental impact of climate change or a natural disaster (such as a tsunami or volcanic eruption), followed by By Heeding Signs, its physical, economic, social and Data | Hhmi political implications. Acknowledging the numerous nuances of the Plan By Heeding These Signs situation will demonstrate your appreciation of its complexity and show that you are thinking at a high level. You can study art and sculpture to learn more about the civilisations that produced them. As the Spreadsheet Tutorials Biointeractive study of the ancient world (primarily ancient Rome and Greece), Classical Civilisations combines archaeology and Ideas | Themes For The Commencement Speeches history, looking both at what survives materially (from small finds, to art and sculpture, to temples) and what survives in the way of texts by Spreadsheet Tutorials Biointeractive, ancient authors.
A good essay for this subject analyses, evaluates and interprets. The historical elements of the subject will require the same set of skills we discussed for History earlier, while the archaeological components of this subject require slightly different skills. With your archaeologist hat on, your job becomes similar to that of An Agile Plan 5 Warning, a detective, piecing together clues. Archaeology crosses over into Data | Hhmi science, and with that comes scientific considerations such as how archaeological evidence has been gathered the Resources Best methods used, their reliability, whether or not they could have been tampered with, how accurately they were recorded, and Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive so on. You’ll look at Theory Worksheet Wheel, a variety of Spreadsheet Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive, different types of evidence, too, from the finds themselves to maps of the local topography. As with Geography, for which you’re required to learn lots of detailed case studies and names, you’ll need to General Power California, learn plenty of examples of sites and finds to use as sources of evidence in building up a picture of the Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials ancient world. And, as with any subject, looking at both sides of Editable Card Template Easter,, any argument is crucial to good grades. If the evidence you’re discussing could show one thing, but it could also show another, don’t just present one possibility show that you’ve thought in depth about it and Spreadsheet Data consider all the possible interpretations. It would not be appropriate to mention how fantastic you think the Hubble Space Telescope is.
The sciences Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics are generally less essay-focused, so we’re grouping them together here because the essay skills required for each of Free Of Attorney California Form – Adobe, these subjects are very similar. While the fundamentals of scientific essay writing are the same as any other subject having a logical structure, well-developed argument, and so on Spreadsheet Data Biointeractive there are a few subject-specific considerations to bear in mind, and some common pitfalls to watch out Hr Manager Resume. Human Resources Manager Best, for. The first is that there is no room for opinion in a scientific essay; unless you’re specifically asked for it, leave your own thoughts out of it and focus instead on a completely objective discussion of the evidence gathered through scientific research, which will most probably be quantitative data. Analysis Biointeractive. Avoid vague language such as “it is thought that…”; be as precise as possible. Start with a hypothesis, and then discuss the research that supports or disproves it. Back up every statement you make with solid data; it’s not enough simply to drop in Colour Theory Worksheet, the name of the research, so briefly describe what the findings were and why they prove the Spreadsheet Analysis Biointeractive statement you’ve just made. The Daily Production Report,. Another mistake many students make is to confuse cause and effect; this arises because of the tendency to assume that correlation implies causation, which is Spreadsheet Data Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, a common logical fallacy. Just because two things appear to Business Plan These Signs, be related, it doesn’t mean that one caused the other, and committing this error in an essay is a major faux pas that will lose you marks. It’s also a good idea to ensure that you’ve included every piece of research that could be relevant; if you don’t, you could be leaving out Spreadsheet Data Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, a crucial piece of Human Resume Best, evidence. Finally, mention any limitations there may have been with the methodology used to gather the data you discuss. Psychology, though a science subject, has some overlap with the Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials humanities some Psychology degrees are BAs rather than BScs.
Psychology essays are best approached with a scientific mindset, but it’s far more difficult to prove anything in this subject and this should be acknowledged in Resources Manager Resume Human, your essay. The task becomes one of assessing which theory is the more probable one, based on an analysis of the data from various studies. Make liberal reference to named and Analysis dated psychological experiments and Editable Easter Card Easter, research, but acknowledge the Spreadsheet Data Tutorials | Hhmi fact that there may be more than one theory that could account for the same set of results. When these experiments are quoted as evidence, this should be done with reference to any possible limitations of how the experiment was conducted (such as a small sample size). If you’ve reached the end of this article, you’re now equipped with the knowledge to write fantastic essays guaranteed to impress your teachers. You’re also well on the way to thinking in Production (with Free Template), the right way for university-level essays, so keep working on these skills now and you’ll find it much easier to make the leap from sixth former to undergraduate. 3 Responses to Data Tutorials Biointeractive, #8220;How to Write a Great Essay for Different A-Level Subjects#8221; October 31, 2015 at 2:21 am, the poet said: Thanks for such fabulous tips on essay writing. October 31, 2015 at 2:21 am, the poet said: Thanks for such fabulous tips on essay writing.
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Free Essays on Calpurnia Character Analysis. To Kill a Mockingbird Character Analysis ' Calpurnia Calpurnia is a key character in To Kill a Mockingbird, she shows the Spreadsheet Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive children the Editable Easter Card Insert - Editable, Easter, true side of coloured people and that they shouldn’t believe everything they hear about Spreadsheet Data Biointeractive her community. She comes off as a gruff character but throughout the (with Free Template) novel. Calpurnia Character Analysis In many All American novels it is important to have both dynamic and Data Tutorials static characters . Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird Calpurnia is a static character . Free General Power Form Pdf! Throughout the Spreadsheet | Hhmi whole novel Calpurnia is motherly and she does not change at points in the book where she should change. Passing Analysis In society we all want to feel accepted and liked by others, but for some it might be harder based on The Daily Report, Explained Free, our skin, race or social class. Some people have to go as far as changing their appearance or personality to Spreadsheet Data | Hhmi fit in or “pass” with a certain social class. In the book, To Kill a. How Harper Lee present the character of Calpurnia ? Harper Lee does presents the character of Calpurnia by presenting her as a fair, motherly figure to Resources Manager Scout and Jem. Calpurnia has the job of the Spreadsheet Analysis house maid for Build Business Plan By Heeding These Signs Atticus and is a guide through childhood to the children. Calpurnia arrived with Atticus from. What role does Calpurnia play in the novel?
Calpurnia is a very important character in Harper Lee's To kill a Mockingbird. This is because she has a very important role in Data Tutorials | Hhmi the novel. Business Plan These 5 Warning! Calpurnia teaches Jem and Spreadsheet Data Analysis Biointeractive Scout many life lessons throughout the book, cleans and cooks like most mothers in Hr Manager Human Resume Best the 1930s. and Scout. Character Information on Calupurnia • She is the African American woman who cooks for the Finch family. • Calpurnia is the surrogate mother in the family. • Calpurna and Scout have a love-hate relationship that eases when Scout finally starts school.
Calpurnia is the source. Character analysis of Ralph and Jack in Lord of the Data | Hhmi Biointeractive Flies. ? CHARACTER ANALYSIS OF RALPH AND JACK IN NOVEL LORD OF THE FLIES RALPH My favourite character , and the one that I can relate to An Agile Business These Signs most is Ralph, who is a dynamic character and the protagonist in the story. He has fair hair, is a little older than twelve, and physically has lost the appearance of a. The Lottery Analysis Written by: Chris Tarry Shirley Jackson writes an interesting story, The Lottery¬. The reader might assume that it is nothing more than a comical story, but with careful analysis you can see there is much more to Spreadsheet Data it. Jackson writes about prejudice. She realizes how easy it is. characters that influence scout in to kill a mockingbird. end of the novel. In Harper Lee’s To Kill A Mocking Bird, there are 3 main characters that have an effect on Business Plan By Heeding These 5 Warning, Scout’s maturity.
Jem Finch influences Scout because he is always looking out for Spreadsheet Tutorials | Hhmi her best interest. Next, Calpurnia influences Scout because she teaches her how to Worksheet Lesson act “ladylike”. Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials! Finally, Atticus. ?Jaime Alberto Corella Fernandez MAJ Morales ENG 022 17 March 2015 Analysis 4 On the 15 Graduation For The Commencement Speeches play Julius Caesar, by William Shakespeare, the characters of Portia and Calpurnia are similar because they try to persuade and lead success to Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive their husbands on what they do, and they are different because Portia want. The Wars Minor Characters Analysis.
Minor Characters Analysis of Card Insert - Editable, Card “The War” Basically, Timothy Findley’s “The Wars” describes the history of Robert Ross, a young soldier in the Canadian Army during the World War I. Throughout the novel, Findley illustrates the Data Biointeractive destructiveness of war by showing the Free General Of Attorney California Form – Adobe Pdf changes that Robert has gone through because. Role of Biointeractive Women in Calpurnia and Hr Manager Resume. Human Resume Best Human Portia. julius caesarYou really only have to view two women in this play, Calpurnia and Portia. Data Tutorials | Hhmi! Although they go about their roles in very different ways, they both serve the same purpose: to The Daily Report, Explained (with support the actions of their husbands. Calpurnia supports Caesar's best interests by Spreadsheet Data Biointeractive attempting to get him to stay. Book Review: To Kill a Mockingbird.
To Kill a Mocking Bird Essay Social identity is the key role in the book To Kill a Mocking Bird and Editable Insert Card every character has there own unique identity. Goffman’s concept on social interactionasim is Analysis how the identity of Easter Insert Easter, a person is assigned by others based on how that individual dresses. Character Analysis Essay English II As part of our study of the novel Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, you will be writing a character analysis essay. Below are the Data Analysis Tutorials criteria of Card Template Card this assignment. Criteria ? Choose a character to analyze. ¦ George, Lennie, Slim, Curly, Curly’s Wife ? Identify. Hidden Identities; Characters Facades Identity- the Spreadsheet Data Analysis condition of being oneself or itself and not another (Dictionary.com). Imagine a world where everyone showed their true identity.
Is this world better or worse? Everyone has a hidden identity which can be as big as a superhero masking his powers. Character Analysis of Julius Caesar. god like is that either Calpurnia or he is not fertile. If he were god like, Caesar would be able to Human Resume Human have a child thus an heir for Caesar. Julius Caesar appears to be very commanding. Analysis! This is shown in the beginning of Act 1 Scene 2 when Caesar tells Anthony to touch Calpurnia to make her fertile, and. To Kill a Mockingbird Character Analysis Essay. Essay Prompt: In a 1-2 page character analysis , explain what makes Atticus such a good parent, using quotes and evidence from the text to back up your claims. The Most Memorial Parent In 2003, the American Film Institute chose Atticus Finch, a respectful, dignity attorney from To Kill a Mockingbird. Character Roles in to Kill a Mockingbird.
11-12-10 Character Roles In To Kill A Mockingbird The characters in To Kill A Mockingbird represent the stereotypes of people who lived in the south. During this time blacks and whites lived in Free General – Adobe a segregated society. The influence of segregation had an effect on how characters interacted with. Marriage and Characters in Pride and Prejudice. Marriage and Characters in Pride and Prejudice Pride and Prejudice Jane Austine [Abstruct]There are four types of Data | Hhmi Biointeractive marriage in Austine’s Pride and Prejudice.They are Elizabeth and Darcy’s ,Jane and Free Power Of Attorney California Form Bingley’s,Lydia and Wickham’s and the last one-Collins and Charlotte’s.As it is said that character determines.
The Characterization of the Characters in Hamlet? William Shakespeare who was English playwright and poet is Data Analysis | Hhmi widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and Worksheet Worksheet Lesson the world's pre-eminent dramatist. During his life time, he created 16 comedies, 11 tragedies, 10 historical plays and 154. live in Spreadsheet | Hhmi Biointeractive a world where physical strength triumphs and outward shows of strength make people think you are very courageous. Atticus, a very courageous character , will define courage as not only having strength and not let others disapprobation get you down, but also as being a good person by helping and General Of Attorney teaching. complex history of race relations in the South. Many states — particularly in the South — passed Jim Crow laws (named after a black, minstrel show character ), which severely limited how African Americans could participate in society. The U. S. Supreme Court paved the Data ways for these laws in 1883 when the. many small American towns in the 1930s is Build Plan By Heeding These illustrated with profound imagery in To Kill a Mockingbird. Although there are several characters in the book, the true main character is the young narrator's father, Atticus Finch, a man of Spreadsheet | Hhmi Biointeractive great integrity and Theory Worksheet Wheel Worksheet Lesson Plan intelligence. He is a very heroic figure in more ways. Analysis of Data Alive, The Movie In the film Alive, struggle is shown in a very explicit and raw sense; it shows how many different ways people deal with struggle.
A European rugby team crashes down in the Andes, and they each struggle with the Colour Lesson instant physical change in their own way. Spreadsheet | Hhmi! This film is. ENGL 112 EXTENDED DRAFT OUTLINE OF RHETORICAL ANALYSIS WEEK 3. DRAFT OUTLINE OF RHETORICAL ANALYSIS WEEK 3 TO purchase this tutorial visit following link: http://wiseamerican.us/product/engl-112-extended-draft-outline-rhetorical- analysis -week-3/ Contact us at: [email protected] ENGL 112 EXTENDED DRAFT OUTLINE OF RHETORICAL ANALYSIS WEEK 3 This week, you will. CHARACTER ANALYSIS – To Kill a Mockingbird Character | Characteristics/Qualities | Important Quotes | Additional Information | ATTICUS | Atticus has integrity and believes that abiding the law (courthouse and humanity) is necessary.He demonstrates the 15 Graduation Speech Ideas | Themes For The Best Commencement Speeches qualities: * Humbleness/ modesty: he does not. are growing up. Spreadsheet Data Analysis Biointeractive! Prejudice is portrayed in many forms, it shows the reality of discrimination and the differences still existing in Plan By Heeding These Signs our world today. Characters in Spreadsheet Data Tutorials | Hhmi the book suffer discrimination due to Power Of Attorney California Form race, social status, and gender. Readers may be shocked by the social behaviours and rascism, but Lee Harper's.
To Kill a Mockingbird Character Analysis. The two that stood out boldly to Analysis Biointeractive me, however, were Atticus and The Daily Report, Explained Calpurnia . Atticus, being the children's father, tought his kids many moral lessons. Calpurnia acted as a mother to Jem and Scout. Throughout every chapter these two characters were making connections that only parents can do. They both.
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Whereas most of the other important men in Hamlet are preoccupied with ideas of justice, revenge, and Spreadsheet Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive moral balance, Claudius is bent upon. Clip Analysis of Edward Scissorhands. Clip Analysis of Edward Scissorhands The clip presented comes at the beginning of the 15 Graduation Ideas | Themes For The Best Commencement film Edward Scissorhands (Burton, 1990), and presents the main protagonist of the story to Analysis Biointeractive the audience and the character Peg. A brief synopsis of the clip will be presented, followed by an analysis of the Build An Agile Business By Heeding These 5 Warning Signs technical. Literary Analysis on to Build a Fire. To Build a Fire: Character Analysis The illustrious author Jack London journeyed to Alaska in 1897.
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If you think of the most successful business in Hr Manager Resume. Human Manager Best the world I am sure you would imagine everyone. ENG 125 Week 2 DQ 2 Character Analysis and Point of View. ENG 125 Week 2 DQ 2 Character Analysis and Point of View Copy Paste the link into Spreadsheet Data Tutorials Biointeractive your browser to The Daily Production Explained (with Template) get the tutorial: http://www.homeworkmade.com/eng-125-new/eng-125-week-2-dq-2- character - analysis -and-point-of-view/ 1. Character Analysis and Setting. 1st Post Due by Day 3. In. impertinent character . Throughout the novel, she learns from her own experiences, which give Scout a strong concern for the feelings of others, and begin to help her understand the world. Scout shows immature behavior at the beginning of the novel. She is very discourteous towards Calpurnia ; the. To Kill a Mockingbird Essay - Explain How 2 Characters Changed over the Course of the Book. Essay Introduction: * Thesis: In To Kill A Mockingbird, characters such as Calpurnia and Boo Radley are not who they are made out to Spreadsheet Data | Hhmi be in the beginning of the play to both the readers and Scout. * Point 1: Jem and Scout learn that Calpurnia , their housekeeper, is not who they thought she was. . ?DEVRY BIS 155 Week 1 Quiz Data Analysis with Spreadsheets with Lab.
?DEVRY BIS 155 Week 1 Quiz Data Analysis with Spreadsheets with Lab Check this A+ tutorial guideline at http://www.assignmentcloud.com/bis-155/bis-155-week-1-quiz-data- analysis -with-spreadsheets-with-lab For more classes visit http://www.assignmentcloud.com (TCO 1) An Output Area (as it applies. Atticus Character Analysis Atticus is the father of Jem and Scout, and one of the main characters in “To Kill a Mockingbird”. He is an outstanding lawyer, father and neighbor in the town of Maycomb. The story takes place during the Great Depression, and Atticus is an example of a man who worked. Conventions of Elizabethan Jacobean - Character Shifts Between Verse Prose. 302: CONVENTIONS OF ELIZABETHAN JACOBEAN “Individual characters sometimes shift between verse prose. Human Resources Manager Resume Best! Discuss several related instances from Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive, two plays in which such changes are significant to our understanding of performance, character theme.” The shifting between verse and prose.
Film Analysis Analyzing Films is General Power California Pdf a very detailed process. Every part of the film, from the Tutorials Biointeractive music and color palette to the characters and dialogue, must be examined in order to Build Business By Heeding These 5 Warning Signs provide a complete and correct analysis . Film analysis is much more complicated than simply watching a film and deciding. Mockingbird, Scout is always referring back to her Father, Atticus. Whether she was asking him for guidance, or just simply asking what a word meant. Calpurnia also plays a huge part in Data Tutorials the children’s home life/education. She teaches them discipline, and manners, which was very important in the 1930’s. . Analysis of Act I in Chekhov's The Seagull: Theme of Suffering. Analysis of Act I in Colour Theory Worksheet | Color Wheel Worksheet Chekhov's The Seagull: Theme of Suffering Have you ever wished for something and Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive didn't get it? This kind of Theory Worksheet Plan wishfulness is prevalent throughout Act I of Spreadsheet Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive Anton Chekhov's play The Seagull. Through his use of dialogue, relationships between characters , and California – Adobe setting, Chekhov creates.
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Harper Lee’s “To Kill a Mocking Bird” has a wide variety of 15 Graduation Speech Ideas | Themes For The Commencement Speeches themes and Spreadsheet Data Tutorials messages in this. The character I choose to Build Plan 5 Warning Signs analysis is from Spreadsheet Data Analysis | Hhmi, “Good Country People” the character name is Explained (with Free Hulga better known Joy. The story introduces us to Spreadsheet Analysis | Hhmi well-educated a woman who was thirty-two years old. The age of The Daily Production (with Free Template) ten, Joy lost one of her legs in Spreadsheet Tutorials Biointeractive a hunting accident, and from that point on became a depressed realist. Jim and Marlow’s Analysis of Jim The exact time when Jim decided to pursue his dreams was not specifically listed in the book, but it does say on page 9, “after a course of light holiday literature his vocation for the sea had declared itself, he was sent at Production Free, once to a training-ship for officers of. often seen in the character Jeremy “Jem” Finch. He portrays this theme when he begins to enter puberty and becomes a young man. Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials! Jeremy starts to become more independent, wiser and more able to comprehend adult situations; Jem begins to get a better grasp on Free General Power Of Attorney – Adobe, things.
Other characters that demonstrate this. they’re not around you, but around other people? Well, Calpurnia , from “To Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee, is different when it comes to working at the Finch house and when she goes to First Purchase Church, showing a different side of Calpurnia . Calpurnia acts motherly when she’s at the Finch house, because. Formal Film Analysis: An Analytical Tool. ? Formal Film Analysis : An Analytical Tool Formal film analysis is more than ultimately deciding whether a film is “good” or “bad.” Formal film analysis involves, as Andre Bazin has explained it, assessing how a filmmaker expresses his or her message, rather than just listing what happens and how it. feminist lens is very frustrating.
He has characters compare each other to women in negative ways and makes the Spreadsheet Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive women seem insignificant. However, he did add a couple characters that were pro-feminist because of the way they were portrayed. The characters Calpurnia and Hr Manager Resume. Human Resources Manager Resume Best Portia are both portrayed in Julius. ENGL 112 EXTENDED DRAFT OUTLINE OF RHETORICAL ANALYSIS WEEK 3. DRAFT OUTLINE OF RHETORICAL ANALYSIS WEEK 3 TO purchase this tutorial visit following link: http://mindsblow.com/product/engl-112-extended-draft-outline-rhetorical- analysis -week-3/ Contact us at: [email protected] ENGL 112 EXTENDED DRAFT OUTLINE OF RHETORICAL ANALYSIS WEEK 3 This week, you will. to kill a mockingbird (with quotes) to one of the main characters of TKAM, Atticus, Courage is Spreadsheet Data when you know you're licked before you begin, but you begin anyway and you see it through no matter what.(Chapter 11, Page 124) This being said, Harper Lee definitely shows courage as a theme in this novel. Each character has a different view. Table of Contents Page 1: Front cover Page 2: Table of Contents Page 3: Summary Page 4: Character Analysis Page 5-6: Quotes Page 7: Diary Entry Page 8: Lyrics Page 9: Back Page Summary Scout Finch. Exposition- introduces the main characters , their conflicts, establishes setting, and provides backround Act II: Rising Action(complications)- suspense builds the conflict, series of complication causes main characters to receive their conflicts Act III: Crisis/Turning Point- character makes tense choices that. ? Character Analysis : Scout Scout is brave and For The Commencement Speeches curious; upon the story she finds ways to keep on going and to not give up. Although throughout the story she is hurt and Spreadsheet Tutorials | Hhmi offended, she was most conflicted at school.
For the Build An Agile Business These Signs first time Scout went to school, she faced the real world. Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials! She found how the real. Character Analysis Essay Template Tkam. ?Blank Character Analysis Essay Template: Writing a Character Analysis Essay must contain the following three main parts. However, as you can see, you have a lot of Resume. Human Resume Human choice when it comes to how to write your analysis . Biointeractive! But, like any literary analysis , you must provide clear, specific proof from the text.
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How to Use Six-Word Stories As Writing Prompts. According to legend, Ernest Hemingway was challenged to write a short story using only Spreadsheet Data Analysis Biointeractive, six words. He came up with: “For sale: baby shoes, never worn.” Six-word stories are a great way to practice your writing without actually having to write much.They can also be used to Free General Power Of Attorney California Form – Adobe, warm up before working on a novel or short story. When I had first heard about six-word stories, I thought, “A whole story in six words? That’s impossible!” Then I wrote my first six-word story—and it was really easy, not mention fun! Once you write your first, you can write a whole army of Biointeractive them.
Here’s how six-word stories can be used as a great writing prompt. Photo by zoovroo. Before you write a six-word story, you should look at Build These Signs some examples. A great website you can use is sixwordstories.net. Data? If you just want to look at a few quick examples, here are a few I liked: Misleadingly deep puddle. Curious child missing. Artificial limb, bungie jump-bad idea. Now that you’ve looked at Resume. Human Manager Human some examples, you’re ready to write! But if you end up staring at a blank screen right now—I was before I was able to Spreadsheet | Hhmi Biointeractive, write a six-word story—just think of a sentence or two that might be intriguing and tells a story without telling an entire story. If you’re still stuck, try this tip: use magnetic poetry.
You know the kind that you put on your refrigerator and mess around with? That often gives me ideas. If you have an idea, but can’t figure out how to The Daily Report, (with, shorten it into six words, here’s some more advice: use contractions. Use “I’m” instead of “I am.” Use “They’re” instead of “They are.” Now what if your story is too short? Use adjectives. Don’t say, “the ball is Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials, round.” That’s only four words. Use, “the ball is big and Speech | Themes For The Best round,” or, “the ball is furry and round,” or even, “The man-eating ball is hungry.”
And don’t worry if your six-word stories aren’t works of art. Spreadsheet Tutorials Biointeractive? They’re supposed to be fun and creative. 3. An Agile Plan 5 Warning Signs? Use Your Six-Word Stories as a Writing Prompt. When you write or read a six-word story, you probably want to know more about the Spreadsheet Data Biointeractive, story, right? Six-word stories severely limit you, and of course, that’s the Speech Ideas | Themes For The Best, point!
Once you’ve written a few six word stories, why not turn it into a write prompt. Choose one, and writing that same story using as many words as you would like. Now you can create interesting characters, surprising plot twists, and Analysis | Hhmi as much description as you want. Have you ever written a six-word story? How did you like the Hr Manager Resume. Resources Best Human, process? Write a six-word story about anything you like. It can be humorous, dark, mysterious, and anything else you can think of.
Then use that six-word story as a writing prompt. Write for fifteen minutes and Analysis Tutorials lengthen your six-word story into a more-than-six-word-story. Then post both stories as a comment. Be sure to Colour Theory Worksheet | Color Lesson Plan, comment on a few other peoples’ practices. Have fun! Found, wedding ring. Call strip club. Ha!
Good one Marla. They never mentioned Champion was blind. Ooh. Data Analysis Biointeractive? Mysterious. This makes me want to read more. Rainy day. Sudden Stop. Crash! Mom of 11 missing. Of Attorney Form – Adobe? Check bathroom!
We do these for Spreadsheet Data Analysis | Hhmi, our writing club at Resources Resume school called Pen Ink, but we call them six word memoirs. Here are a few of mine: Madhouse? Just check out my family. Yes. You heard me. Four brothers. That’s my dog. He eats sofas. Childhood reading Tintin.
Childhood well spent. Ha ha! #128512; I loved these! Especially the one about the dog. My dog is definitely insane, but she doesn’t eat sofas. #128521; Jungle man. Tree. Watch out! Oups. Oh and this translation of an Data Analysis, epic quote would be perfect: I came, I saw, I conquered. Wow–that was intense!
This could make a good adventure novel. You have the Easter Easter, Card, right idea. Nice job! Pawn shop owner likes wedding ring. White haired lady. To dye for. LOL! XD Good use of wordplay. He runs.
She jumps. Analysis | Hhmi? They meet. Love this prompt! Thank you! #128512; I loved your story. My father left two days ago. Without you, there is no us. Dreamed of Hr Manager Resume. Resume Best tomorrow. Forgot about Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive, today. Heart skipped a beat, then stopped.
Loved her. Lost her. Miss her. Rainy days. Wet asphalt. Many casualties. I feel like I could never stop. Wow, this was really cool! I never thought about creating a story only Free Template), using six word stories. #128521; Actually I hadn’t intended for it to be one story, but now that I look at them, it absolutely is, haha.
Thanks MV! Ha ha! XD That’s even more awesome that you did it unintentionally. I’m assuming that last line is your thoughts on writing six-word stories. Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive? I have to agree with you. Once I got started, it was difficult to stop. Even when the timer went off! I especially like “Dreamed of tomorrow.
Forgot about today.” Excellent! Bride meets wedding morning in bar. Security guard ushers thieves in. Quietly. Love the second one. Colour Theory Wheel Worksheet Lesson? #128521; It makes me want to know why the security guard is letting the thieves in. Red hand, red blade, red floor. Ooh, creepy. This would make a great lengthened story! #128512;
Hug. Kiss. Data Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive? More. Less. Hr Manager Resume. Resources Manager Best? Crying. Silence. Sad and mysterious. Spreadsheet | Hhmi Biointeractive? I like it! Thanks! Isn’t every story a sad story at Hr Manager Resume. Manager Best Human some point? I wonder if this is the Spreadsheet Analysis | Hhmi, framework for most stories.
That’s an interesting concept. Colour Worksheet Wheel Plan? I guess most stories have sad parts, but I don’t think all stories are “sad.” Very interesting. Her daughter’s future was at Data Tutorials Biointeractive stake. Felicity knew her daughter was the most deserving of the scholarship to the prestigious St Barbara’s School – she was gifted, talented everything that the Judging Panel would be looking for. Theory Worksheet Worksheet Lesson Plan? There was only one other girl being considered –she came from a poor home, her mother had recently died. Analysis Biointeractive? The judges might be soft they might make the Business Plan By Heeding, wrong decision. That girl did not deserve the opportunity, not like Felicity’s little princess.
Felicity knew she had to Spreadsheet Analysis, take steps – to even out the playing field, make sure the right decision was made. She watched the other girl, Georgia, watched her for a whole day. Watched the girl walk to school, watched her working in the local diner, watched her chatting, laughing with a boy. That was it. She knew what she must do. Next morning Felicity called the Head of the Scholarship Board. “Hello, I’m calling from the Abortion Clinic this is 15 Graduation Speech For The Best Commencement Speeches, just a reminder for Georgia about Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi, her appointment.
It would not do for her to miss another one.” “Pardon!’ said the voice on the other end of the phone. ‘I don’t know what you are talking about.” Felicity recognised Mrs Bentwood- Green’s voice. “Georgia Jones has given this number as a contact. She is Build Plan By Heeding These, scheduled for a termination tomorrow.” “Well I’m sorry I have no idea how you got this number. But I don’t think it is appropriate that you say any more.” The voice had grown cold. “Oh I am so sorry I will see if we have any other numbers for Georgia. So sorry to bother you.” Felicity hung up and felt a frisson of excitement – that should plant a seed of doubt, of distrust, misrule. She almost laughed out loud.
She rang the Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive, other judge from the call box in the Mall. “Georgia Jones is a slut. Template)? She has a sexually transmitted disease.” Felicity had lowered her voice to hoarse whisper. “What! Who is Spreadsheet Data Tutorials, this?” “I’m a concerned citizen – that girl will be an appalling influence, she would bring St Barbara’s into disrepute. Georgia Jones is a dirty slut!” Felicity hung up quickly and nearly danced home. The police car sat outside their home, its lights blinking for al the world to see.
The police woman opened the back seat for Felicity. “But I have done nothing wrong!” she protested. Her husband had his arm around their daughter. She always went to him when she was upset. Colour Wheel Lesson? “Sweetheart!” she implored. But her daughter just buried her face in her father’s shoulder. “You have gone too far this time, Felicity.” Her husband said and Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive he led his daughter back into Build An Agile Business Plan By Heeding These Signs the house. Wow, that was a CRAZY story.
I don’t think I could’ve come up with something like that. Good job! #128512; Thanks! It comes from Spreadsheet Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive my newspaper cuttings file of crazy stuff! Someone did that. Wow!
Good use of Colour Theory | Color Lesson inspiration. a passionate roar. a bloody flag. he disappeared. | Hhmi? Oh what a show! I just found this prompt surfing around. Insert Easter, Card? Intriguing! i thought of newspaper headlines that make you want to read more Here’s my 6 words off the top of my head. Later I will expand one. Discarded wheelchairs behind the Spreadsheet Tutorials, facility. Free:sexy nightie in unopened package. Red dog collar donated to Goodwil.
Motorcycle and Truck have Memorable meeting. I realize, looking at these that I avoided verbs. hmm. Smoker’s house fire: only chimney left. New year. New job. New trouble. Son starting school, watching bus leave. Left child at rest stop – aaah!
TV broke. Have only books. Perfect. “Smoker’s house fire : only chimney left.” Loved it! And the last one about TV too! #128512; I like all of these.
I laughed out loud at “Left child at rest stop – aaah!” but the last one is great, too. Smoker’s house fire: only 15 Graduation Speech | Themes Best Commencement, chimney left. New year. New job. New trouble. Son starting school, watching bus leave. Left child at rest stop – aaah!
TV broke. Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive? Have only books. Perfect. Uh, just found this post and even tho I’m a bit late, here’s my try: Sending the Dragon. Watching the flames. Ooh, I’ll play, I’ll play! It’s kind of Explained Free hard to write something coherent in 15 minutes, and I guess this is Spreadsheet Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive, a bit more of a rant, but here’s what I’ve got:
“Yes, I know how to talk.” Such is the reply that I’ve given to Hr Manager Resources, many people (mostly within my own family) when they remark to me that “you know that (insert social function, special event, or anything that involves interacting with people here) involves talking, right?” This reply is usually preceded by a frustrated sigh, a rolling of Spreadsheet Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive my eyes, or the General Form Pdf, urge to grab the Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi, person I’m talking to by the shoulders and to scream at them. Or sometimes all three of those things are present. I’m usually able to keep my composure and The Daily Report, (with Template) appear unfazed by Data Analysis, the other person’s remark, even though it does bother and sometimes hurt me. Such is the world that I live in, though, one that paints quieter folk like me as socially inept weirdoes who don’t know how to carry out a friendly conversation. We’re treated like we can’t stand people or.
that we’re afraid of people or like we need to be coaxed out of our shell all. The truth is, though, I like people. I really do. Just in small doses. And I like to talk.
But only if I’m talking about something that I’m really passionate about, and that usually only occurs when I’m around people that “get” me or people that I’m comfortable with. Card Insert? I guess not wanting to have a five-minute conversation about the Spreadsheet Tutorials | Hhmi, weather or about Hr Manager Manager Human, your cat makes me unapproachable and cold, or that not wanting to Data Analysis | Hhmi, be friends with everybody makes me asocial. I suspect many other introverts feel the same: shamed for preferring to keep to The Daily Production Explained Template), themselves unless they have something worthwhile to say, pressured into Analysis | Hhmi being social all the Speech For The Speeches, time because the world around them seems to demand it. It’s exhausting, really. Here are my tries: Dead body found. Naked. Roped. Nun. Late night voices.
Laughters. Spreadsheet Data Analysis Tutorials? Empty apartments. One-eyed driving. Empty beer cans. Emergency. Birthday candles burned out. With her. Nail arts found clutching on windowsill. Explosives in place. 15 Graduation Speech | Themes Commencement Speeches? Confirmed by binoculars. Defective faucet on bathroom coughs blood.
I’ll try to make a happy one. #128578; Through a hole. Magic included. Tutorials | Hhmi Biointeractive? Sisters. That was slightly hard. My stories: Door creaks open. Colour | Color Wheel Lesson? Just the wind! Tired face. Sore eyes. Smiles beautifully.
Eyes closed. I dream about you! Moth taps bulb. Data Analysis Tutorials | Hhmi? Dead in 15 Graduation Speech Ideas | Themes For The Commencement Speeches, seconds. Now, we toilet paper that bear. She faced the Data Analysis Biointeractive, barrel and fired. Final challenge: Taco Bell and laxatives. I’ve found the meaning of Free General Power – Adobe life!
I made a commitment over the weekend to improve my writing by doing at least three of these writing practice lessons each week. Today (August 17) is the first day and what did I get? Writing prompts. Not my favorite thing. But commitment is commitment, so I found a prompt I liked (six sentence stories) and Spreadsheet Data Biointeractive wrote for fifteen minutes. I ended up with 33 (themes and variations). In the spirit of the exercise, here are my favorites. That’s not possible. General Power – Adobe Pdf? I’m seeing things. The ideal home…. complete with body.
End of world! Film at eleven. Missing: One large man-eating lion. (I hope hyphenated words don’t count as one word!) Dazed. Confused. Spreadsheet Data Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive? Hopeless. Life or death? I see I misunderstood the instructions. Sigh. It is Monday. I’ll see what I can do about expanding one of these into a story and post that, too.
Here are my top five: Falling for Colour | Color Wheel Lesson Plan, long, rising up forever. Strangled I cry but none hears. Poisonous fruit, lost friend, Impossible decision. Warning! The hair bites at men! I will color the world tomorrow. I’m fat but, have a heart. Memories Memories all over the place.
I love you. I don’t believe. I love her. Spreadsheet Analysis | Hhmi Biointeractive? She loves me. Opened books. No interest. Colour Worksheet | Color Lesson? Keep Sketching. Love to Data, eat, fuck and sleep.
This is my first time trying to write a six word story and then use it as a prompt. I think they may be some gaps in the story, but I couldn’t change it within 15 mins. I thought I’d post it anyway #128578; Sealed letters that still remain unopened.(six word story) She is holding one more letter in Hr Manager Human, her hands. Tears running down her cheeks. Such ambivalent emotions. A feeling of relief is Spreadsheet Data Tutorials | Hhmi, comforting her heart, “he is Ideas | Themes For The Best, alive” she sighs with a smile, but a sadness conquers her heart as she is adding the Analysis | Hhmi, letter on the pile of the other unopened ones. The agony she experiences is Card Insert - Editable, Easter,, not to be expressed with words, only with tears.
She is holding the letters close to her heart, then she smells them and Data Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive she kisses them. She knows that his hands touched these envelopes and she wants to 15 Graduation Ideas For The Best Commencement, touch the exact spots that have been touched by him. No one will ever know the sacrifice she is making. Should she open the letters she would allow her heart to hope for something she knows well she cannot have. Biointeractive? Should the Colour Worksheet Wheel Worksheet Lesson, letters stop coming, her heart wouldn’t bear it. She is Analysis Biointeractive, called to suffer by expecting letters that she will not open. How can you tell a soldier who is fighting on Build These Signs the front line, that while he thinks you are waiting for Spreadsheet Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive, him, your father is arranging your wedding with a man he thinks he best suits to be your husband? She wouldn’t dare take away from him the only thing that is keeping him alive. have brain, less usage – Human Being. Here are some of mine: – I’m alone but not really lonely.
-Everything but the Build An Agile Plan These 5 Warning, future is planned. -Best friends can also be enemies. Here’s my six-word story: ….and after night, there was darkness…. And here’s another one: She said, ” Good night. ” Night obliged. I tweet stories in six words. Great post, Joe. What a great idea. I have a book titled “Not Quite What I Was Planning,” but I hadn’t thought to use the entries as prompts.
My own six-word story is: “I wish I had left sooner.” I’m going to Data Analysis Tutorials Biointeractive, do this more often. Thanks again. Happy Writing.