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Read the full transcript of President Obama's farewell speech. President Obama delivered his farewell speech Tuesday in - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 Student And Staff Chicago. President Obama delivered his farewell speech Tuesday in Chicago. Here is an unedited transcript of President Obama’s prepared remarks during his farewell address in Chicago, as provided by the White House. It’s good to Application For Ojt be home.

My fellow Americans, Michelle and I have been so touched by all the well-wishes we’ve received over the past few weeks. Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: College. But tonight it’s my turn to say thanks. It Consultant Letter Icover Consulting. Whether we’ve seen eye-to-eye or rarely agreed at Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 47171: And Staff, all, my conversations with you, the To Vacate Format, American people – in living rooms and schools; at Id Card - Ph: 97905 Student, farms and on factory floors; at diners and on distant outposts – are what have kept me honest, kept me inspired, and kept me going. Every day, I learned from you. Application For Ojt. You made me a better president, and you made me a better man. I first came to Chicago when I was in my early 20s, still trying to - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: College And Staff figure out who I was; still searching for a purpose to my life. It was in Small Business Inventory Spreadsheet neighborhoods not far from here where I began working with church groups in the shadows of closed steel mills. It was on these streets where I witnessed the power of faith, and the quiet dignity of Id Card 47171:, working people in | Printables | Pinterest | Tag Templates, Craft the face of struggle and loss. This is where I learned that change only happens when ordinary people get involved, get engaged, and come together to demand it. After eight years as your president, I still believe that. And it’s not just my belief.

It’s the beating heart of our American idea – our bold experiment in - Ph: 97905 College self-government. It’s the conviction that we are all created equal, endowed by our creator with certain unalienable rights, among them life, liberty, and Fill Up Your Csc - Career Service Exam the pursuit of - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 College Student And Staff, happiness. It’s the insistence that these rights, while self-evident, have never been self-executing; that we, the Small Business 1 Inventory, people, through the instrument of our democracy, can form a more perfect union. This is the great gift our Founders gave us. Id Card - Ph: 97905 And Staff. The freedom to chase our individual dreams through our sweat, toil, and Fill Up Your Cs Form Csc - Service Exam imagination – and the imperative to strive together as well, to achieve a greater good. For 240 years, our nation’s call to citizenship has given work and purpose to each new generation. It’s what led patriots to choose republic over tyranny, pioneers to trek west, slaves to brave that makeshift railroad to freedom. It’s what pulled immigrants and refugees across oceans and the Rio Grande, pushed women to reach for the ballot, powered workers to organize. It’s why GIs gave their lives at Omaha Beach and Iwo Jima; Iraq and Afghanistan – and - Ph: 97905 College why men and women from Application For Ojt Selma to Stonewall were prepared to give theirs as well. So that’s what we mean when we say America is exceptional.

Not that our nation has been flawless from the start, but that we have shown the capacity to change, and - Coimbatore 97905 47171: make life better for those who follow. Yes, our progress has been uneven. The work of democracy has always been hard, contentious and sometimes bloody. For every two steps forward, it often feels we take one step back. Letter For Ojt. But the Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171:, long sweep of Letter, America has been defined by forward motion, a constant widening of our founding creed to embrace all, and not just some.

If I had told you eight years ago that America would reverse a great recession, reboot our auto industry, and unleash the longest stretch of - Coimbatore - Ph: College, job creation in Cs Form Service our history…if I had told you that we would open up a new chapter with the - Coimbatore 97905 47171: College Student And Staff, Cuban people, shut down Iran’s nuclear weapons program without firing a shot, and Inventory take out the Id Card - Coimbatore 97905, mastermind of 9/11…if I had told you that we would win marriage equality, and secure the Tag Template | Pinterest Templates,, right to health insurance for another 20 million of our fellow citizens – you might have said our sights were set a little too high. But that’s what we did. - Ph: 97905 College. That’s what you did. You were the change. Small Business Inventory Template. You answered people’s hopes, and because of you, by almost every measure, America is a better, stronger place than it was when we started. In 10 days, the Id Card - Coimbatore, world will witness a hallmark of our democracy: the peaceful transfer of power from one freely elected president to the next. I committed to President-elect Trump that my administration would ensure the smoothest possible transition, just as President Bush did for me. Because it’s up to all of To Vacate 12 Free Samples Download., us to make sure our government can help us meet the many challenges we still face. We have what we need to do so. After all, we remain the wealthiest, most powerful, and most respected nation on Earth. Our youth and drive, our diversity and openness, our boundless capacity for risk and reinvention mean that the future should be ours.

But that potential will be realized only if our democracy works. - Ph: 97905 And Staff. Only if our politics reflects the decency of the our people. For Ojt. Only if all of us, regardless of our party affiliation or particular interest, help restore the sense of common purpose that we so badly need right now. That’s what I want to focus on tonight – the state of Id Card - Ph: College, our democracy. Understand, democracy does not require uniformity. Our founders quarreled and compromised, and Government expected us to do the same. But they knew that democracy does require a basic sense of solidarity – the idea that for all our outward differences, we are all in this together; that we rise or fall as one. There have been moments throughout our history that threatened to rupture that solidarity. The beginning of this century has been one of those times.

A shrinking world, growing inequality; demographic change and Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 47171: Student the specter of terrorism – these forces haven’t just tested our security and prosperity, but our democracy as well. And how we meet these challenges to our democracy will determine our ability to educate our kids, and Government Resume create good jobs, and protect our homeland. President Obama reprised his message of hope and change Tuesday as an Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 And Staff, antidote to an unstable world, delivering a farewell address in which he exhorted allies to keep the faith as President-elect Donald Trump assumes power but also painted a realist’s portrait of the threats to democracy. President Obama reprised his message of hope and change Tuesday as an antidote to Price | Printables an unstable world, delivering a farewell address in which he exhorted allies to keep the faith as President-elect Donald Trump assumes power but also painted a realist’s portrait of the threats to Id Card - Ph: 97905 Student And Staff democracy. (Christi Parsons, Michael A. Memoli)

In other words, it will determine our future. Our democracy won’t work without a sense that everyone has economic opportunity. Today, the economy is growing again; wages, incomes, home values, and Awesome retirement accounts are rising again; poverty is falling again. The wealthy are paying a fairer share of taxes even as the stock market shatters records. - Coimbatore 47171: College. The unemployment rate is near a 10-year low. Letter. The uninsured rate has never, ever been lower. Healthcare costs are rising at the slowest rate in 97905 47171: College Student And Staff 50 years.

And if anyone can put together a plan that is demonstrably better than the improvements we’ve made to our healthcare system – that covers as many people at Cover Letter Example Uk Inside, less cost – I will publicly support it. That, after all, is why we serve – to make people’s lives better, not worse. But for all the - Coimbatore 97905 Student And Staff, real progress we’ve made, we know it’s not enough. Our economy doesn’t work as well or grow as fast when a few prosper at the expense of a growing middle class. But stark inequality is also corrosive to Small Inventory Spreadsheet our democratic principles. While the top 1% has amassed a bigger share of wealth and - Coimbatore 97905 47171: College Student And Staff income, too many families, in inner cities and rural counties, have been left behind – the laid-off factory worker; the waitress and healthcare worker who struggle to Awesome Resume - Faceto.us pay the bills – convinced that the game is fixed against them, that their government only serves the 97905 47171: Student And Staff, interests of the powerful – a recipe for more cynicism and Resume - Faceto.us polarization in Id Card - Coimbatore 47171: our politics.

There are no quick fixes to this long-term trend. I agree that our trade should be fair and not just free. Resume. But the next wave of economic dislocation won’t come from overseas. - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: Student. It will come from the How To Fill Up Your Cs Form No. 100 Career, relentless pace of automation that makes many good, middle-class jobs obsolete. And so we must forge a new social compact – to guarantee all our kids the education they need; to give workers the Id Card - Coimbatore 97905 47171: College, power to Business Inventory Spreadsheet Template 1 Inventory unionize for better wages; to update the social safety net to reflect the Id Card - Ph: And Staff, way we live now and make more reforms to the tax code so corporations and individuals who reap the most from the new economy don’t avoid their obligations to the country that’s made their success possible. We can argue about how to best achieve these goals. But we can’t be complacent about the goals themselves. For if we don’t create opportunity for all people, the disaffection and division that has stalled our progress will only sharpen in years to come. There’s a second threat to our democracy – one as old as our nation itself. After my election, there was talk of a post-racial America. Such a vision, however well-intended, was never realistic.

For race remains a potent and often divisive force in our society. I’ve lived long enough to know that race relations are better than they were 10, or 20, or 30 years ago – you can see it not just in statistics, but in the attitudes of young Americans across the political spectrum. But we’re not where we need to Application Letter For Ojt be. All of us have more work to do. After all, if every economic issue is 97905 47171: framed as a struggle between a hard-working white middle class and undeserving minorities, then workers of all shades will be left fighting for scraps while the wealthy withdraw further into their private enclaves. If we decline to invest in the children of immigrants, just because they don’t look like us, we diminish the prospects of our own children – because those brown kids will represent a larger share of Small Spreadsheet, America’s workforce. And our economy doesn’t have to be a zero-sum game. Last year, incomes rose for Id Card 97905 47171: College And Staff all races, all age groups, for men and for women. Going forward, we must uphold laws against Notice To Vacate 12 Free Examples Format, discrimination – in hiring, in housing, in education and the criminal justice system. That’s what our Constitution and 97905 College Student And Staff highest ideals require.

But laws alone won’t be enough. Hearts must change. How To Fill Csc - Career Service Exam. If our democracy is to work in - Coimbatore 97905 47171: College this increasingly diverse nation, each one of Government, us must try to - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: College heed the Letter, advice of - Coimbatore 97905 47171: College And Staff, one of the great characters in Spreadsheet 1 Inventory American fiction, Atticus Finch, who said, “You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view…until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.” For blacks and other minorities, it means tying our own struggles for - Coimbatore 47171: College Student justice to the challenges that a lot of Application, people in this country face – the refugee, the immigrant, the rural poor, the transgender American, and - Ph: 47171: College Student also the middle-aged white man who from the outside may seem like he’s got all the advantages, but who’s seen his world upended by economic, cultural, and technological change. For white Americans, it means acknowledging that the effects of slavery and Jim Crow didn’t suddenly vanish in the ‘60s; that when minority groups voice discontent, they’re not just engaging in reverse racism or practicing political correctness; that when they wage peaceful protest, they’re not demanding special treatment, but the equal treatment our Founders promised. For native-born Americans, it means reminding ourselves that the stereotypes about How To Up Your Cs Form Career Service Exam immigrants today were said, almost word for word, about the Irish, Italians, and - Ph: 47171: College And Staff Poles. It Consultant Letter Icover Consulting. America wasn’t weakened by the presence of Id Card 97905 47171: Student And Staff, these newcomers; they embraced this nation’s creed, and it was strengthened. So regardless of the station we occupy; we have to try harder; to start with the premise that each of Notice To Vacate Examples Format 10, our fellow citizens loves this country just as much as we do; that they value hard work and family like we do; that their children are just as curious and hopeful and worthy of love as our own. None of this is easy.

For too many of us, it’s become safer to retreat into our own bubbles, whether in our neighborhoods or college campuses or places of worship or our social media feeds, surrounded by Id Card - Ph: 97905 Student And Staff, people who look like us and share the same political outlook and never challenge our assumptions. The rise of naked partisanship, increasing economic and regional stratification, the splintering of How To Fill Up Your Csc -, our media into a channel for Id Card - Ph: 97905 47171: College every taste – all this makes this great sorting seem natural, even inevitable. And increasingly, we become so secure in How To Cs Form Csc - Career Service Exam our bubbles that we accept only information, whether true or not, that fits our opinions, instead of basing our opinions on the evidence that’s out there. This trend represents a third threat to our democracy. Politics is a battle of Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: College And Staff, ideas; in the course of It Consultant Cover Letter Icover Uk Inside Consulting, a healthy debate, we’ll prioritize different goals, and the different means of reaching them.

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Now, we can and should argue about the best approach to the problem. But to simply deny the problem not only betrays future generations; it betrays the essential spirit of innovation and practical problem-solving that guided our Founders. It’s that spirit, born of the Enlightenment, that made us an Price Tag Template | Printables | Pinterest Templates, Craft, economic powerhouse – the Id Card - Coimbatore Student And Staff, spirit that took flight at Kitty Hawk and Cape Canaveral; the spirit that that cures disease and put a computer in every pocket. It’s that spirit – a faith in How To Fill Up Your Cs Form Career reason, and enterprise, and the primacy of right over might, that allowed us to resist the Id Card - Ph: College And Staff, lure of fascism and tyranny during the Great Depression, and Icover Uk Inside Consulting build a post-World War II order with other democracies, an Id Card - Ph: 97905 47171: Student, order based not just on military power or national affiliations but on principles – the rule of law, human rights, freedoms of religion, speech, assembly, and How To Fill Cs Form Career an independent press. That order is now being challenged – first by violent fanatics who claim to speak for Islam; more recently by autocrats in foreign capitals who see free markets, open democracies, and civil society itself as a threat to their power. The peril each poses to our democracy is more far-reaching than a car bomb or a missile. It represents the fear of change; the fear of Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: College Student And Staff, people who look or speak or pray differently; a contempt for the rule of law that holds leaders accountable; an intolerance of dissent and free thought; a belief that the sword or the gun or the bomb or propaganda machine is the ultimate arbiter of what’s true and what’s right. Because of the extraordinary courage of our men and women in uniform, and the intelligence officers, law enforcement, and Business Spreadsheet diplomats who support them, no foreign terrorist organization has successfully planned and executed an attack on - Ph: 97905 47171: our homeland these past eight years; and although Boston and To Vacate 12 Free Samples Examples Download. 10 Orlando remind us of - Coimbatore 47171: College Student And Staff, how dangerous radicalization can be, our law enforcement agencies are more effective and vigilant than ever. We’ve taken out Tag Template | Printables | Pinterest | Tag Templates, Craft, tens of thousands of terrorists – including Osama bin Laden. The global coalition we’re leading against ISIL has taken out Id Card College Student, their leaders, and 12 Free Samples Examples Format 10 taken away about half their territory.

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Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to 97905 47171:, describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Cover Icover Consulting. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the - Coimbatore Student job than where you went to college. How To Up Your Cs Form Csc - Career. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in Id Card 97905 47171: College, reverse chronological order.

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If you have lots of skills related to Business Spreadsheet 1 Inventory, a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out - Coimbatore 97905 College Student, one of those sections and It Consultant Uk Inside, listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about Id Card 97905 47171: And Staff it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial.

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Then, get into - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: College your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Cover Icover Consulting, Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on - Ph: College And Staff, your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is Awesome, as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to Id Card College And Staff, take this section of your resume seriously.

39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for Small Inventory Spreadsheet Template references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the - Coimbatore College Student And Staff obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for For Ojt you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). - Ph: 97905 47171: And Staff. If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to Notice To Vacate Samples Examples, an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the 47171: College And Staff hiring manager has to Small Inventory 1 Inventory, take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills?

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(ii) A minimum population of 5,000. (iii) At least 75 per cent of the Male working population engaged in non-agricultural and How To Career allied activity, (iv) A density of population of at least 400 persons per square kilometres. Thus, the term ‘Rural’ essentially means an area, which is characterised as non-urban style of life, occupational structure and settlement pattern. ‘Development’ in general refers to the process of 97905 47171:, a general improvement in levels of living together, decreasing inequality in incomes and the capacity to sustain continuous improvements overtime. Thus the term Rural Development is viewed as an activity of a series of activities or a process, which either improves the 12 Free Samples Download., immediate living conditions-economic, social, political, cultural and environmental or increases the potential for future living or both of the rural people. The Royal commission on Agriculture defined Rural Development as: “We cannot too strongly state our conviction that the directorship of agriculture is one of the key posts in Rural Development and that agricultural advance must in a very great degree depend upon the stability of the officer.” The taskforce appointed by the Planning Commission on Integrated Rural Development in 1972 defined Rural Development as: “After a careful consideration we have belatedly decided to take what might be considered a rather restricted view of the expression. ‘Rural Development’ we have chose to equate it with agricultural development in Id Card - Ph: 97905 College Student, the widest sense so as to embrace besides crop husbandry, all the allied activities.” According to the view of World Bank “Rural Development as a strategy design to improve the economic and social life of a specific group of people – The rural (people) poor. Tag Template | Pinterest | Tag Templates,! It involves extending the benefits of development to the poorer among those who seek a livelihood in rural areas. - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171:! The group includes small-scale farmers, tenants and the landless.” Rural Development means a strategy to improve the economic and social life of the rural poor and the rural weak in the overall spectrum of development and growth.

It is not only important to raise the agricultural productivity and the rate of - Faceto.us, overall economic growth in the rural areas, but also it is to - Coimbatore - Ph: Student ensure that the poor and weaker sections share the benefit. “Rural Development as a process in complex and involves the interaction of economic, social, political, technological and other situational factors. These have to be integrated with Government policies and plans with the objective of improving the quality of life of the people in the villages”. Rural Development encompasses: (i) Improvement in Up Your Career, levels of living, including employment, education, health and nutrition housing and a variety of social services. (ii) Decreasing inequality in distribution of - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 47171: College Student, rural incomes and in rural-urban balances in incomes and economic opportunities and. (iii) The capacity of the rural sector to sustain and accelerate the pace of these improvements. The critical element in the Rural Development is improvement living standards of the poor through opportunities for It Consultant Icover Uk Inside better utilisation of their physical and human resources in the absence of this utilisation of rural resources has no functional significance.

Making the process of rural development self-sustaining of capital and - Ph: 97905 Student use of technology for the benefit of the poor but their active involvement in the building up of institutions as well as functioning of these. There are a number of definitions of rural development. But that varies according to time, priority and nature of rural activities. Despite of differences, the academicians, planners and policy makers have always laid emphasis for the all-round development of the How To Fill No. 100 Csc - Service, rural activities. However, Rural Development as a concept and as series of experiments in alternative methods of organising production, welfare and exchange in rural activities has a long history and is not the monopoly of any single system or country. Its recent popularity however is mainly symptomatic of the Id Card - Ph: 47171: College Student And Staff, failure of technocratic and growth strategies pursued by most developing countries in Letter For Ojt, the 1950s and 1960s. Academics, nationals and international policy makers are carrying out the search for solution to - Coimbatore 47171: Student the twin problems of rural poverty and unemployment. The noted Western economists like, Kuznets, Gerschenkron, Floud and Mccloskey provide useful insights into the history of economic development of the Fill Cs Form, present day developed countries. The growth of output and productivity in these countries during last 10 to 15 decades has been qualitatively different from that observed in earlier periods.

Modern Economic growth since the late 18th century is different from periods of growth in earlier times in three specific respects. Firstly, the ownership and use of economic surplus were 34 Rural Development in India separated for the first time. Those who used this surplus as capital in the production process did not necessarily own it as they did in the land-based feudal pre-industrial system. Secondly, extensive use of an acceptable unit of Id Card - Coimbatore 97905 47171:, exchange called money helped in expansion of Awesome Government Resume, market, which made specialization and mobility possible. Lastly, mobility of both capital and labour in pursuit of higher gains to urban areas and distant lands occurred on an unprecedented scale. The consequent increase in Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: College And Staff, output and productivity were substantial and Application sustained over a long period of time. Id Card - Ph: 47171: College And Staff! These impressive increases were also accompanied by growth of population and large-scale migration from not only rural to urban areas but from nation to nation and It Consultant Cover Icover from continent to continent. Historically experience suggests that, when seen in long-term perspective, economic growth has been accompanied by specialisation centralization, maximization, urbanization and industrialization. History shows that, poverty has been diminished by the growth of labour increased productivity in Id Card 97905 47171: College Student, the agricultural sector and migration of Fill Up Your No. 100, labour to urban non-agricultural activities. The population movement occurred mainly because industry could offer the incentive of Id Card Student, higher wages and better employment opportunities. The role of the State has been changing significantly since the Application Letter For Ojt, Eighteenth Century.

Traditionally the Government’s activities could be divided into three departments namely, defense, Public works and internal administration. A healthy balance among the three ensured stable regimes with the advent of modern economic development; the “Public works” component has been an expanding area of State activity. Modern development policy makers while, recognising the importance of Id Card - Ph: 97905 47171: College, infrastructure have been rather ambiguous about the Cover, contents of infrastructure is one of the very few illuminating contributions on the subject. Infrastructure includes all things provided by the State, which promote directly or indirectly productive activities. Transport, irrigation, power, water supply, health, education and urban services are considered important elements of infrastructure.

In a mixed economy, with a relatively important public sector, provision of infrastructure has to be carefully planned and Id Card 97905 College provided by the State. The State playing an Letter, important role in development. Policy makers and planners have started devoting more to “rural development’ in their declarations and documents on - Coimbatore - Ph:, national planning policies. In various ways and for various motives they have attempted to relate to the problems of their own rural poor. Despite, substantial and impressive increase in growth of agricultural and food outputs in some regions of a number of developing countries the plight of small and marginal farmers, agricultural and landless labourers, artisans and small retailers has not been improved significantly.

In India the term ‘Rural Development’ is not a very old phenomenon. | Printables | Tag Templates,! Early in the century their exist the British rule. - Coimbatore 97905 47171: Student! In that time, rural development was a minor symphony in the governmental orchestra. The functions of the Government were limited and even the spread of each function was narrowly restricted. Thus, Development cannot but be of minor meaning and significance in the structure of the priorities of colonialism, which was also reflected in the rural areas. The decade 1920-30 was very significant from the view of Tag Template | Tag Craft, early pioneering efforts at rural development in India. The noted social Thinkers, Educationists, Politicians started such efforts in our country; in early 20s. 2. Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Id Card - Coimbatore 97905 Student And Staff Rural Development: Programmes and Projects in Pre-Independence Periods: The important activities and experiments undertaken for rural development in Pre-Independence periods are: (i) Sriniketan Experiments: This programme was pioneered by noted scholar of the country Rabindranath Tagore.

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This village development programme called as the “Gurugaon Scheme”. The Gurugaon Scheme claimed to deal with the whole life and the activity of the peasant and his family and to present a complete remedy from the terrible conditions in with they lived. (iv) Rural Reconstruction Movement in Baroda: The important rural reconstruction centre was set up in 1932 and the work commenced in It Consultant Cover Letter Example Icover Uk Inside Consulting, a group of villages round Kosamba (Navasri district). The movement aimed at improvement in - Ph: Student, all aspect of rural life, changing the Government Resume, outlook of the agriculturists, the attainment of higher standard of living.

(v) Sarvodaya Scheme of Id Card - Ph: 97905 47171: Student And Staff, Bombay: This scheme was based on How To Fill Up Your No. 100 Csc - Service, the Gandhiji’s idea of Sarvodaya. The important aim of the project is to stop migration of youths to nearest towns and cities. The supply of food for Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: College Student all, adequate medical facilities, free education, local self-Government, self-employment through cottage industries were highlighted in the programme. (vi) Firka Development Scheme: The Firka Development Scheme aimed at the attainment of the Gandhian ideal of “Village Swaraj” by brining about not only the education, economic, sanitary and other improvements of For Ojt, village along with the revitalisation of the spirit if people and to make them self-confident and self-reliant. The schemes involved close coordination with the various Government services like, agriculture, veterinary, irrigation, industries, medical and communication departments. The scheme was later merged with the National Extension Services in 1953-54. Programmes and Id Card - Ph: Student And Staff Projects in Post-Independence Period:

Programmes and projects were also launched in post-independence and pre-planning periods. The important among them are: (1) The Pilot Development Project of Etawah: The Project began under the sponsorships of the provincial Governments of Uttar Pradesh in late 1948. The important objectives of the project were to increase the degree of productivity, social improvements, promotion of self-confidence and cooperation. The pilot project at 12 Free Samples Format Download. 10 Etawah treated as one of the most successful rural development project of the World. The project also exhibited the exemplary Cooperation and Coordination of Government, volunteers and others. (2) The Nilokheri Experiment : India divided in 1947.

The Rehabilitation of displaced persons coming from Pakistan gathered importance. In order to provide them gainful employment a new township was developed at Nilokheri in 1948 with the efforts of Sri S.K.Dey. Sri Dey evolved a faith were to activate and support a triple charter of rights such as: (i) Right to College live, (ii) Right to Resume - Faceto.us work for living and. (iii) Right to receive what is earned. To give a practical shape to this charter or rights a new scheme known as the “Mazdoor Manzil” was drawn up. The basic concept of the Mazdoor Manzil was to stop the one-way traffic of labour, material, skill and culture from villages to Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 47171: Student town. The township was intended to include institutions for To Vacate 12 Free Examples 10 medical relief and sanitation, Higher Education, Technical and Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: And Staff Vocational Training, Veterinary aid and agricultural extension embracing agriculture, horticulture, poultry, piggery, fishery, sheep breeding and other forms of It Consultant Cover Example Uk Inside, animal husbandry. The project was highly appreciated by the then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.

The Planning for Rural Development have been received utmost attention by the planners and policy makers along with the National Plan for Economic Development. The rural development strategies were also adopted by planners as per the methods and strategies adopted for the economic development of the country. India adopted both the centralised and - Coimbatore - Ph: decentralised planning models in the process of its planned economic development. The First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) adopted the Harrod-Domar model of capital accumulation and saving mobilisation as its methodological approach towards planning. Under this approach, the process of economic development must start from the villages. In this context, the mobilization of peoples participation was required. How To Up Your Csc - Career Service! In order to implement this ideology the - Ph: 97905 College And Staff, Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Block administration was created as a centre of Letter, Rural Development activities. This programme failed as blocks were quite big and left the - Coimbatore Student And Staff, weaker section untouched. The programme was also implemented in Orissa.

The State planning machinery followed the objectives and guidelines fixed by Central Government. The Second Five Year Plan (1955-56 to 1960-61) based on Feldman-Mahalnobis model of sectoral growth. This strategy emphasised investment in heavy industry to achieve industrialization, which was assumed to To Vacate Download. 10 be the Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: College Student And Staff, basic condition for rapid economic development. A good deal of Government Resume, reliance was placed on cottage and small industries with the - Ph: And Staff, aim of reducing rural under employment, unemployment. As against this background no important specialised rural development programme was launched during the second plan period. However, steps were taken to strengthen the ongoing community development programme.

In this respect the, need for viable institutional base was felt and the Panchayati Raj System was introduced during the plan period. Besides, specialised rural economic development programmes like, Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP), Khadi and Village Industries Programme (KVI), Multi-purpose Tribal Development, Village Housing Projects/Schemes were also introduced in rural areas of the Awesome, country. Id Card College! As a part of the Union, the specialised sectoral development programmes were also introduced in Orissa. In the Third Five Year Plan (1960-61-to-1965-66) all round agricultural development was envisaged. Increased agricultural production in the farm sector and activities allied to agriculture received topmost priority during the plan period.

The important agricultural development programmes bringing green revolution strategy like Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) and - Faceto.us High Yield Varieties Programme (HYVP) were implemented in the country. - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: Student! It is observed that, the benefits accrued only to rich and progressive peasants. Once again, landless and agricultural labourers were left untouched. Besides, rural industries project for the promotion of village industries was also launched during the said plan period. Health and Nutrition is regarded as important inputs required for improvement in Application Letter For Ojt, the quality of life. To ensure appropriate and adequate nutrition to the children, for their growth Applied Nutrition Programme was introduced during the - Ph: 97905 College, Third Five Year Plan. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) in the name of Price | Pinterest Templates, Craft, “Growth with social justice” initiated efforts towards uplifting the vulnerable sections of rural society.

In this connection a number of ‘area development oriented’ and ‘Target Oriented’ programmes were introduced. Programmes such as Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Small Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFAL), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Tribal Area Development Programme (TADP) were introduced as the - Coimbatore 47171: Student, important rural development programmes. Tag Template | Pinterest | Tag! These rural development programmes did succeed, but only in limited areas and numbers. This plan paved the path for - Ph: 97905 47171: College Student a number of rural development and poverty alleviation programmes in the country. These programmes were implemented through the existing administrative apparatus at block and To Vacate Samples village levels. Employment generation programmes like, Crash Scheme for Rural Employment and Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Programme were also launched during the plan period.

The Fifth Plan (1974-79) based on Id Card 97905 47171: College Student, the Inter-sectoral transactions model of Leontief which emphasised on strengthening the inter-sectoral linkages for balanced growth in sectors. The most important objectives of the Fifth Plan Period was: (i) Removal of poverty and. (ii) Achievement of self-reliance. In order to attain these objectives. The Programmes like, Command Area Development Programme (CADP), Hill Area Development Programme (HADP), Minimum Needs Programme (MNP), Food for Work Programme (FFW) were introduced, during the plan period. Besides, in Awesome Resume, order to promote small-scale, village and cottage industries the Id Card - Coimbatore 47171: Student And Staff, District Industries Centres (DICs) were set up in all districts of the country. The 20-point Economic Programme was also introduced during the said plan period. The Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) aimed at the removal of poverty, growth, modernisation, self-reliance and social justice. Awesome Government Resume - Faceto.us! In order to attain all-round development in rural areas, one single integrated programme called Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was conceived.

IRDP is regarded as a multi-level, multi-sector and multi-section concept of rural development. As a multi-level concept it encompasses rural development at various levels such as viable cluster of village communities, districts and blocks. As a multi- sector concept, it embraces development in various sectors and sub-sectors of the rural areas such as agriculture, industry, education, health and transportation etc. As a multi-section concept, it encompasses socio-economic development of various sections and sub-sections of rural population such as Small farmers, Marginal farmers, Landless and agricultural labourers, Artisans, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Besides IRDP, the employment generation programmes like, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Economic Rehabilitation or Rural Poor (ERRP), Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Self Employment for the Educated Unemployed Youths (SEEUY). Id Card 97905 47171: College Student! Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) etc. were also introduced during the said plan period. The important objectives of the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) were; building an independent self-reliant economy, establishment of social system based on equity and justice, reduction of regional imbalance and adoption of advanced technologies. The plan intended; to continue the rural development programmes launched/implemented during the Sixth Five Year Plans. Besides, some rural infrastructural development programmes like, Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme (IREP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY), Million Wells Scheme (MWS), etc. were implemented as the Inventory Spreadsheet Template, special rural development programmes during the plan period.

The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) aimed at generation of adequate employment opportunities, Universalisation of elementary education, provision of 97905 College And Staff, safe drinking water and primary health care facilities, and strengthening the infrastructure. The special rural development and poverty alleviation programmes implemented in earlier plans were also intended to Notice To Vacate 12 Free Format Download. 10 continue during the Eighth Five Year Plan. In order to boost earlier infrastructure and employment generation programmes the new and culmination programmes like, Intensified Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (IJRY), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Operation Black Board (OBB), and Id Card - Ph: 47171: College District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) were introduced. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) aimed at generating employment opportunities in It Consultant Cover Example Uk Inside Consulting, the secondary sector, all-round development of agricultural sector, strengthening the rural economy through development of agro-based industries, small- scale village and cottage industries and elimination of poverty. As against these objectives, the programmes for self- employment, and supplementary wage employment and other programmes intended to continue during the Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 47171: Student, Ninth Plan with some modifications.

These important antipoverty programmes include the Awesome - Faceto.us, IRDP, TRYSEM, JRY, IAY, IJRY, SFPP, DPAP and EAS etc. The IRDP, DWCRA, TRYSEM, MWS were in operation till the end of 1998-99. It was felt that; this fragmented approach with a multiplicity of schemes was not able to focus on the needs of the rural poor in a coherent manner. Hence these schemes were amalgamated by - Ph: 47171: And Staff Government of It Consultant Cover Example Uk Inside Consulting, India and merged into a single new scheme called Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) with effect from 1.4.1999. In order to create adequate infrastructural development the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) was also implemented on - Ph: 97905 College Student, the same date. All the plan strategies for rural development based on various approaches like, growth-based approach in first Three Five Year Plans (First Five Year Plan, Second Five Year Plan, Third Five Year Plan), which was popularly known as trickle down approach. The Fourth Five Year Plan based on Target group approach. The Fifth Five Year Plan highlights the target group approach with equal importance to Minimum Needs approach to rural development.

The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Letter For Ojt Ninth Five Year Plan in our country adopt the target group approach for rural development. The important elements of rural development strategies are: (1) Appropriate Institutional Arrangements. (2) Labour – Intensive agriculture and - Ph: 47171: College And Staff Minor development works. (3) A hierarchy of development centres to bridge the wide gap between rural and urban areas and self- reliance. (4) An active policy for social development, and. (5) Appropriate Organisational arrangements. The Rural Development Programmes based on various approaches and strategies. These are varies according to plan and Small Business Template the Nature of the programme. - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 Student! However, all the Rural Development Programmes have its own feature, objectives finance system, implementation and monitoring as well as success and failure. The discussion on some of the important rural development programme will throw light in this respect. 3. Essay on Notice 12 Free, the Rural Development Programmes in India:

India started her planned economic development through Five Year Plans in the year 1950-51. The economy of the Country has been dominated by the rural and - Coimbatore College Student And Staff traditional economic sectors. The productivity of these sectors has not changed significantly over the period of 50 years. Letter For Ojt! The existence of massive unemployment and poverty is the common feature of Indian economy in general and rural economy in particular. The infrastructure of the country has not developed up to the world standard. Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: Student! It is proper to mention here that, we have achieved little over Price | Printables | Tag Templates, Craft the period of - Ph: College Student, 50 years of Application, planned economic development. - Ph: 47171: Student! The planners and policy makers have been laid best possible efforts for the development of the economy and rural development.

Due to a number of factors, desired success has not been achieved so far. However, we would like to discuss some of the important rural development programmes implemented in our country as well as the states and Union Territories from time to time. The aims and objectives of these programmes are national in How To Cs Form Csc - Career Service Exam, nature and the progress and Id Card 97905 College Student achievements are based on the secondary data available. As one of the under developed state, the progress and achievements of rural development programmes of Orissa. Some comparative analysis of the R.D. Programmes implemented in the country and the State Orissa is also made. Since 1951 a number of rural development programmes have been implemented in our Country. Among such programmes/schemes, twenty five important rural development programmes considered for analysis. These programmes covers all plan periods i.e.; First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to Cover Letter Example Icover 1955-56) to Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). (i) Community Development Programme (CDP): India as an independent Country started its planned economic development process in the year 1950-51.

The First Five Year Plan 1950-51 to 1955-56 based on methodical approach. The noted Harrod-Domar Model of development was adopted in the said plan. The model emphasised on Id Card 47171: College Student, capital accumulation and saving. The process of economic development must start from the | Printables | Pinterest Templates,, village was also emphasised in the first plan. In this context, the mobilisation of Id Card 97905 47171: Student And Staff, people’s participation is essential and to implement this ideology, the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. Government Resume! The Community Development Programme was launched on 2nd October 1952. A general village community in India can be divided into six main groups as follows: (i) The owners of land and those who have hereditary rights of tenancy.

(ii) The sub-tenants or tenants at 97905 47171: College Student will. (iii) Landless Agricultural labourers. (iv) Village Artisans. (v) Money lenders and Shopkeepers. (vi) Persons in the professions or in personal services, e.g. doctors, lawyers, barbers, village officials. Taking all into consideration the objectives of Community Development Programme was framed. The important objective of Community Development Programme is to create an urge among the rural people for a better life and to show the way to satisfying this urge predominantly by means of self-help. This objective is to be attained by revitalising the existing village institutions and creating new ones where ever necessary.

The programme emphasized to give effects to an intensive and comprehensive programme covering all aspects of rural life; i.e.; agriculture, rural industries, education, housing, health, recreation and Price Tag Template | Printables Craft services etc. and - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 College Student And Staff aimed at utilizing under a democratic set up the surplus labour force in rural areas for development purpose. It also aims at It Consultant Cover Example Icover Uk Inside Consulting the largest possible extension of the Id Card 97905 Student And Staff, principle of cooperation and every effort to made to make rural families credit worthy. The Community Development Programme as a people’s programmes introduced and implemented through Local-self Government and the rural people. The Local Self Government get further boost after the recommendation of Samples Examples, Balwantrai Mehta’s formulation of Democratic decentralisation in Id Card 97905 47171: College And Staff, the forms of Awesome - Faceto.us, village Panchayats, Panchayat Samities and Zilla Parishads. The Finance for the Community Development Programme is drawn both from the - Ph: 97905 And Staff, people and the Government. Tag Template Templates, Craft! Being a people’s programme prescribes a qualifying scale of voluntary contribution from the people in Id Card 47171: College Student And Staff, the form of Notice To Vacate 12 Free Samples Examples Format, labour as well as money. The State Government and the Central Government with due sharing basis meet the balance expenditure in a block.

The Community Development Programme was launched in selected blocks of the State Orissa, as pilot programme. The Community Development Programme received its momentum during Second Five Year Plan. The total expenditure of Rs. 822.91 lakhs was incurred during the Second Plan period for the said programme. By the end of the Third Five Year Plan (1965-66) period there were 147 Stage I blocks, 139 Stage II blocks bringing the total number of - Coimbatore College Student, blocks to 314. Thus, all the blocks were covered under Community Development Programme. The total expenditure under this programme was Rs 1767 lakhs. The Community Development Programme has attained its pick during the To Vacate Format, Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974).

During the said period all the Stage I block converted to Stage II and Id Card 47171: large number of stage II block to post-stage II blocks. It is observed that there were 43 CD blocks in stage II and the remaining 271 blocks in the post stage II or in stage III. Total Fund of Notice Samples Examples Format Download., Rs 850 lakhs were earmarked for the programme. Besides, special development schemes on Id Card - Coimbatore 97905 47171: College, irrigation, Agriculture extension, animal husbandry, horticulture, drinking water and communication were also implemented in seven backward districts of the State. In this respect a total sum of | Printables, Rs 225 lakh has been earmarked. The contribution of Community Development Programme to the rural development are: (1) The setting up of a network of community development blocks covering the - Ph: Student And Staff, length and Price Tag Template | Tag Craft breadth of the country, thus enabling the government to reach the rural population in almost any aspect of their life, (2) The transfer of powers and functions for implementing the programme to the elected representatives at the village, block and district levels, thereby paving the way for - Ph: democratic decentralisation through a three-tier Panchayati Raj System. The National Institute of Community Development conducted a survey to assess the impact of CDP They concluded that “the process of modernisation has reached all strata, and going to do so at a faster pace in Application Letter For Ojt, future, but this has not resulted in any violent reaction on the part of the lower classes”. The ideology of people’s participation through Panchayati Raj System, in - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 47171: And Staff, absence of Tag Template | Pinterest Templates, Craft, proper education and discipline resulted in conspicuous alienation of the weaker sections of the rural communities by the privileged classes. The latter could secure the benefits of the programme because their contribution was not free but charged with consideration.

It is observed that the whole programme suffered from lack of vitality, and was tending to generate only into a number of - Ph: 97905 College, material benefits for a limited few. The official agencies responsibility for implementation of development activities lacked in understanding the new climate because they were manned by those officials who were trained in the particular framework. Besides, their bureaucratic approach also appeared to be a hindrance in initiating the programmes. The critics complained that the Community Development Programme has given a ‘new look’ but not the ‘food’ to the rural poor. It is no denying a fact that the For Ojt, expenditure on building the institutions for Student And Staff social change was larger than the expenditure incurred on productive purposes. Thus, its social contents superseded the economic contents though it was assumed to the instrument of economic transformation.

(ii) Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP): The Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) as a package programme was very strongly recommended by Agricultural Production Team of the Ford Foundation (USA) on 1959. This programme was put into action during 1960-61. The important objective of the programme was to improve the Price | Pinterest | Tag Templates,, agricultural production in a integrated and intensified manner. This programme was introduced in selected districts of the country. The selection of Id Card - Ph: College Student And Staff, these districts was made on the basis of: (a) The district should as far as possible have assured water supply. (b) It should have a minimum of natural hazards, (c) It should have well developed village Institutions like Cooperatives and Panchayats.

(d) It should have maximum potentialities of increasing agricultural production within a comparatively short-time. Taking the criteria into consideration Sambalpur district was selected in Orissa. It was decided to implement for the development of Rabi Crops in 12 Free Download., 1962-63. This programme was introduced in all the 29 blocks of the district. In the second phase of the programme main thrust was given on the increase of higher yielding paddy in the Khariff extending the area under various commercial and horticulture crops and on promoting efficient soil and water management practices. Required inputs, know how and financial provisions are made for - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 47171: College the success of the programme. Sambalpur district not only self-reliant in Rice Production but also treated as a main rice-producing district of the State. The IADP has been a ‘Path finder’ for Business Spreadsheet 1 Inventory successful programme. (iii) Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP): The Third Five Year Plan (1960-65) aimed to achieve self- sufficiency in food grains and - Coimbatore 97905 47171: Student increase agricultural production to meet the requirements of industry and Notice Examples Download. exports. Besides, the mid-term appraisal of the Third Five Year Plan observed that “Much greater emphasis should be given to the development of scientific and progressive agriculture in an intensive manner in areas where a high agricultural production potentialities”.

The Government of India formulated the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) with a view to cover at Id Card - Ph: 47171: Student least 20 per cent to 25 per cent of the cultivated area of the country and this area should be selected for the intensive development of import crops such as wheat, paddy, millets, cotton, sugarcane, potato, pulses etc. The programme was launched in 1964-65. The aim of IAAP was to bring about a progressive increase in the production of main crops in selected areas by an intensive package approach i.e.; the use of inter-related factors – physical, social and institutional-in-strategic combination which were likely to exert an impact on agricultural production. It was decided to Fill Up Your Csc - Career implement such programme in the selected blocks of the country as well as the state. 97905 47171: College And Staff! The selection criteria were the blocks having a minimum irrigated area of 5 thousand acres. In Orissa a total of Application, 86 blocks were covered under the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme during the period of Fourth Five Year Plan an additional 46 blocks were brought under the programme, taking total coverage of blocks up to 132.

The required funds for the programme were met from the plan and Id Card - Ph: 97905 Student non-plan expenditure of the Agriculture and allied activities. The programme paved the way for the introduction of Green Revolution in India. The Introduction of High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) reduced the importance of IAA Programme in the State as well in the country. (iv) High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP): The High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) was launched in Price Tag Template | Tag Templates,, the country from the kharif seasons of 1966-67 as a major plank of Id Card - Ph: 97905 College And Staff, new agricultural strategy under the economic planning system. The important objective of the programme was to attain self-sufficiency in To Vacate Examples Download., food by the end of 1970-71.

The programme envisages the introduction and spread over fairly large areas of the newly identified and evolved high yielding variety of paddy, wheat, maize, jowar and bajra. The HYVP proposes to make a technological break-through in Indian agriculture which consists of the introduction of new and high-yielding varieties of improved seeds, increased application of the right amount of Id Card - Ph: 47171:, fertilizers and extension of the use of pesticides so that the crop produced is not destroyed by insects. To enable the farmers to undertake this agricultural practice, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) agreed to relax the Example, usual terms and conditions in respect of Central Cooperative Banks (CCBs) for the purpose of financing such cultivators. During the Fourth Five Year Plan about 742.6 thousand hectares of land was brought under the HYV programme in Orissa. This has increased to - Ph: 97905 47171: College about 1860 thousand hectares of land during Fifth Five Year Plan with an investment of Application, about Rs. 2 Crores. This programme mainly confined to good land and to those farmers who have the resources and the adaptability to embrace the progress of technology. This programme became successful in the states like Punjab, Haryana and a part of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in general and - Ph: 47171: Student And Staff Punjab, and Small Inventory Spreadsheet 1 Inventory Haryana in particular, where wheat is the main food crop. The rice and other commercial crops reported insignificant improvement in their production. Orissa as non-wheat producing state received insignificant growth in food production. (v) Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA):

The Reserve Bank of India appointed All-India Rural Credit Review Committee on Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 47171: College And Staff, 1969, under the Chairmanship of Sri B.Venkatappiah. Letter Icover Uk Inside Consulting! The committee in its-interim report recommended for the establishment of Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) in following words: “The special efforts proposed are to be restricted to those cultivators who can be developed into surplus farmers if they adopt improved techniques on the basis of support in Id Card College Student And Staff, terms of supplies, irrigation, services of machinery etc. Appropriate schemes have to Cs Form No. 100 be drawn up by technical experts with reference to Id Card - Coimbatore 47171: And Staff local resources and requirements, so that such cultivators can undertake specific lines of investment (e.g. sinking of wells) adopt a suitable crop pattern, use modern inputs and so on. Small Inventory Template! It is to deal with this limited problem that in institutional setup in the form a Small Farmers Development Agency may be established in certain selected districts.” The important functions of the - Coimbatore 97905 College And Staff, Agency was to: (i) Investigate and identify the problems of small farmers and endeavour to see that the provision of various services and supplies to small farmers is ensured, (ii) Help small farmer to secure loans from co-operative banks and other assistance like obtain improved seeds, fertilizers and other inputs, (iii) The agency is to Government Resume provide various services such as spraying of insecticides, hiring out of tractors and Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 47171: College Student land leveling to small farmers through the agro-industries corporations or other appropriate bodies and institutions including cooperatives and local authorities such as Zilla Parishad and extension services, (iv) To draw up plans for investment and production activities to Application Letter For Ojt be undertaken by the cultivators participating in Id Card - Coimbatore 97905 College And Staff, the programme, (v) To explore the possibility of adding to the income of the small farmers by assisting them in taking up animal husbandry activities such as dairy and Government - Faceto.us poultry, (vi) It should endeavour to Id Card College promote the flow of short-term, medium- term and long-term co-operative credit to small cultivators for It Consultant Cover Uk Inside appropriate purposes from the Agricultural Credit Societies and Central Cooperative banks on the one hand and the land development banks on the other. The scheme was included in the Fourth Five Year Plan.

However, the scheme actually started functioning on a significance scale in the year 1971-72. The schemes were implemented in Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 47171: College And Staff, selected districts by How To Fill Up Your Cs Form No. 100 Csc - Career Service a separate agency constituted under the - Ph: 47171: College Student And Staff, Societies Registration Act. The scheme was financed by the State and Central Government on It Consultant Cover Letter, matching basis. The provision of subsidy was also made by the agency at the rate of 25 per cent to Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: Student non-tribal small farmers, 33.3 per cent to It Consultant Example Icover Uk Inside Consulting non-tribal marginal farmers and 50 per cent to Tribal farmers in capital investments and Id Card - Ph: College Student inputs subject to maximum of Rs 3000 and Rs 5000 respectively for any farmers. In Orissa, the Small Farmers Development Agency was implemented in three districts. They were Bolangir, Dhenkanal and Ganjam. Notice Format 10! During first two years of the programme, could not make much headway because of a number of Id Card - Coimbatore 97905 College Student, initial difficulties. The loans were advanced to the farmers under this scheme were utilised mostly for productive purposes. Orissa stand second in Tag Template | Pinterest Templates, Craft, utilisation of loans in all-India basis after Kerala.

The State utilised about 83.6 per cent of the loans sanctioned under the scheme. During the 97905 47171:, period between 1971-72 and | Printables | Pinterest | Tag Templates, 1980, about 272 lakh families in 115 blocks less than seven SFDA were benefitted. The total loans mobilised stood at Rs. - Coimbatore - Ph: College And Staff! 38.4 crores. How To Fill Up Your Cs Form Service! A total expenditure incurred towards subsidies and agency staff was Rs. 14.8 crores. The SFDA was the first rural development programme in the country where the Central Government, State Government and Id Card - Ph: Student Financial Institutions maintained proper linkage for the success of the programme. However, the programme had been merged with the Integrated Rural Development Programme since 2nd October 1980. (vi) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFALDA):

The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies were set up along with SFDA on the recommendation made by Rural Credit Review Committee (1969). The principal objective of the programme is to assist the marginal farmers and agricultural labourers in maximum productive use of their small holding and skills by undertaking horticulture, animal husbandry and other economic activities, like rural industries etc. The important functions of the programme were to: (i) Identify eligible beneficiaries and their problems. (ii) To formulate economic programmes for providing gainful employment to the participants, (iii) To promote infrastructural facilities for production, processing, storage and marketing of products. (iv) To promote rural industries.

The necessary credit for productive investment was provided by Institutional Financing Agencies like, Cooperatives and Commercial banks. Besides provision of For Ojt, matching subsidies were also provided to the beneficiaries. The non-Tribal Marginal farmers and Agricultural labourers were eligible to receive subsidies worth 33.3 per cent on the capital investments and inputs, whereas this was 50 per cent for tribal beneficiaries, subject to maximum of Rs 3000/- and 47171: Student And Staff Rs 5000/- respectively. The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency was launched during the year 1971-72 in the districts of Cuttack and Keonjhar. During first two years both short and medium-term loans amounted to Rs 61.32 lakhs and Rs 45.97 lakhs respectively were advanced to How To No. 100 Csc - Service Exam about 9 thousands and 8 thousand Farmers respectively. - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 47171: College And Staff! A total sum of Rs 1.6 cores was earmarked in the year 1974-75. This amount has increased to Rs 4.2 crores in the year 1975-76.

Under the project 2.6 lakh Marginal farmers and 0.3 lakh Agricultural Labourers were identified and benefitted under the programme. Among them about 70 per cent of the - Faceto.us, beneficiaries were enrolled as members of cooperative societies. (vii) Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP): A Rural works programme was initiated in 1970-71 with the objective of providing development investment in drought prone areas. During the - Coimbatore 97905 Student And Staff, Fourth Five Year Plan the Price Tag Template | Pinterest | Tag Templates, Craft, main emphasis of the programme was on labour intensive works such as medium and minor irrigation, road construction, afforestation, soil conservation and Id Card - Coimbatore 97905 Student provision of drinking water. In the Fifth Plan, this scheme was re-oriented as an area development programme.

The strategy of this programme was to Awesome Government Resume - Faceto.us improve the economy of the areas covered, through a package of infrastructural and on-farm development activities with the objective of optimum utilisation of land, water, human and livestock resources. This programme was also targeted the Id Card Student And Staff, weaker sections of the society like, Small and Marginal farmers, Agricultural Labourers and other rural poor, who have no assured source of income. Co-operative societies were organised to act accordingly. This programme implemented in the areas where the monsoon is most unpredictable vis-a-vis it also laid emphasis for the inclusion of target group people. Notice 12 Free! Thus, this programme was the first in its category, which included both the area approach and target group approach. The DPAP was implemented in the chronically drought affected districts of Orissa. Considering the concentration of weaker sections as well as drought prone area the programme was implemented in 11 blocks of Kalahandi and 14 blocks of Phulbani district in Orissa. During the Fourth Plan the scheme was fully financed by 97905 47171: Student And Staff the Government of India.

The Government of India revised the programme during Fifth Five Year Plan. As per the revision the programme was financed by Central State Governments on Cover Letter, 50:50 matching basis. In Fourth Five Year Plan the Central Government sanctioned an amount of Rs 3.4 Crores to Orissa for the programme. During the years 1974-80 expenditure on Id Card - Ph: College Student And Staff, the programme was stood at Rs 14.2 Crores on different schemes. The programme has been extended to 14 more blocks of Bolangir and Sambalpur districts (8 blocks in Bolangir and 6 blocks in Sambalpur) bringing total blocks to 39 in 4 districts of the Small Business Inventory, State. The State Plan allocation for the Sixth Plan was Rs 7 Crores against the anticipated expenditure of Rs 7.1 Crores. The total plan expenditure for Id Card 47171: College And Staff DPA Programme during the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) was Rs 26.5 Crores. Small Business 1 Inventory! The launching of Eighth Plan was delayed by two years due to Id Card - Coimbatore College Student political instability in the country. However the programme received Rs 12.7 Crores in 1990-91 and 1991-92. Government Resume - Faceto.us! The Drought Prone Area Development Programme is being operated in 47 blocks (2 blocks each in Id Card - Ph: College And Staff, Boudh, Sonepur, Dhenkanal, 12 blocks in Phulbani, 10 blocks in Kalahandi, 8 blocks in Small Business Spreadsheet Template, Bolangir, 6 blocks in Bargarh and 5 blocks in - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171:, Nuapada districts) Spread over to 8 districts of the State during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). The Total expenditure incurred under the plan was Rs 36.9 Crores.

The total Funds available during 1997-98 at; the all-India level was about Rs 913 lakhs. The total Expenditure incurred during the year was Rs 436 lakhs. The expenditure was thus 47.8 per cent of the total funds available under the programme. The percentage share of Small Business Inventory Template, total expenditure to total funds available was about 48.6 per cent. (viii) Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA): Next to Id Card 97905 College Student And Staff Africa, India has the largest concentration of the tribal population in the World.

Though all the states have tribal population in Application Letter For Ojt, various degrees of concentration, majority of them is found in Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and West Bengal. Economic backwardness of the tribal population has undoubtedly occupied considerable interest among our planners. The First Five Year Plan laid down its priorities for tribal development in three broad categories namely education, economic uplift and health, housing and other schemes. Since then each five year plan has chartered new strategies for achieving these basic objectives. During the Second Five Year Plan, multi-purpose tribal blocks were set up which were later re-named as Tribal development blocks in the Third Five Year Plan. Expenditure on tribal development too, increased several fold over the plan periods. However, these efforts did not bring about any substantive change among the Id Card 47171: College Student, majority of the Letter For Ojt, tribal population. It is noticed that, in Id Card - Ph: 97905 47171: And Staff, the first three plans emphasis was placed on sectorial plans under various subjects such as agriculture, industry, transportation, health and education etc. Most of these were conceived at Price | Printables | Pinterest Templates, Craft the National or at the State level.

The Fourth Five Year Plan gave importance to Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: Student planning at the district level and to experimental studies on growth centres for evolving a planning strategy at the grass-root level. In this context, the Government of India has sanctioned pilot projects for Cs Form Csc - Service tribal development in the central agricultural sector. Among the Six projects sanctioned in All-India level, Ganjam and Koraput districts were selected in Orissa. The outlay on each of these projects was Rs 2 Crores. Under the Tribal Development Agencies (1972-73) the Tibetan Re-settlement scheme at Chandragiri of - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 47171: College Student And Staff, Ganjam district and a Saura Development Scheme in Resume, Koraput district were brought out. A new strategy has been evolved for planning the development of the tribal communities during the Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: College Student, Fifth Plan period. The new strategy envisages the preparation of a sub- plan for Fill Csc - Career Exam the tribal areas. The first exercise in this regard is to demarcate the tribal areas based on the tribal population. (i) Areas, where the tribal concentration of 50 per cent or above. (ii) Areas of dispersed tribal population below 50 per cent.

(iii) Extremely backward and isolated little communities. In order to implement the sub-plan programmes 21 ITDA’s were constituted covering 118 out of 314 blocks in the state. Each ITDA has a project level committee under the Chairmanship of Collector with official and non-official and Tribal women as members. They have to draw up the plan and programmes at ITDA level and 47171: College Student review and monitor the developmental activities of different Department. Each ITDA is Cs Form No. 100 Career, headed by a Class I officer with supporting staff like Special Officer, Assistant Engineer, Junior Engineer, Statistical Assistant, Soil Conservation/Agricultural Extension Officer and other clerical staff. 15 Project Administrators have been declared as Additional District Magistrates for exercising powers under different regulatory laws. There were about - Coimbatore College, 47 thousand villages in Orissa; out of that 18.7 thousand villages were in Tribal sub plan of Notice Download., which 14 villages were declared as ITDP villages.

They were spread over to about 98 blocks of the State up to 1977-78. A total financial outlay of Rs 189 crore was earmarked for the programme in 1979-80 with a view to cover about 2 thousand families. The total estimated flow of resources during the sixth plan period was Rs 700 Crores. It is observed that 36 per cent of the total outlay of the State during Sixth Plan Period was earmarked for investment as against 23 per cent during fifth plan period. About 5.0 lakh tribal families were assisted under various anti- poverty programmes (including IRDP ERRP) during Sixth Plan Period. During the Seventh Plan period, about 7.6 lakh families were covered under the plan with the plan expenditure of Rs 1440 Crores. The plan allocation for the sub-plan during the year 1990-91 and 91-92 was estimated at Rs 391 crores and - Coimbatore Student And Staff Rs 590 crores respectively. The proposed flow of funds for the Eighth Plan Period (1992-97) was estimated at Rs 3885 Crores. The Flow of funds during 1992-93 was of the order of Rs 459 Crores. This covered about 34 families.

The total funds for the year 1993-94 have increased to Application Rs 466 crores. Further more the - Ph: 97905 47171: College, plan expenditure under the It Consultant Cover, programme was Rs 568 Crores. Under the plan 43 thousand families were benefitted in the year 1993-94. Where as this stood at Id Card - Ph: 97905 47171: College Student And Staff 41 thousand during 1994-95. Templates, Craft! During 1995-96 about 96 thousand tribal families were benefitted with a total financial investment of Rs 626 Crores. The total plan out lay for the year 1996-97 and Id Card 1997-98 was Rs 862 Crores and Rs 749 Crores respectively. (ix) Modified Area Development Approach (MADA): Article 46 of the constitution enjoins up on the State to Government Resume - Faceto.us promote with special care the educational and economic interest of the weaker sections and in particular Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The approach for development of Scheduled Tribes was first laid down by Id Card - Ph: 47171: And Staff the first Prime Minister of India, Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in his “Tribal Panchseel” more particularly emphasised on the preservation of tribal culture. Awesome Government - Faceto.us! The Tribal Sub-plan approach was operated in mid seventies.

The objectives of the Tribal sub-plan strategy have basically remained two fold: (i) Socio-Economic Development of S.Ts. and. (ii) Protection of tribals against exploitation. Integrated Tribal Development Programmes in the form of Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (I T D A) were implemented in - Coimbatore College, the areas where the Cover Uk Inside, concentration of tribal population is more than 50 per cent, and they live in extremely backward areas. For the Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: College Student And Staff, all-round development of the Tribals outside the It Consultant Example Icover Consulting, Sub-plan areas a new programme called Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) was launched in 1978- 79. The criteria for selection of this area was areas having a population of ten thousand or more with at least 50 per cent tribal concentration. The identified areas called as MADA Pockets. In these pockets individual family-oriented schemes as well as community benefit oriented programmes are to be implemented. There is a MADA level Advisory Committee for each MADA Sub-Collector concerned with officials and non- officials like peoples representatives as members.

This Advisory Committee is responsible for drawn up programmes and overseas the implementation. During Fifth Plan Period 30 Modified Area Development Approach Pockets were identified and Rs 1.2 Crores was earmarked for Id Card - Ph: 97905 47171: College And Staff the development of Tribal people living in those areas. How To Fill! The number of pocket has increased to 37 during Six Plan period. A Total sum of Rs 5.5 Crores was allocated for the programme, where about 10 thousand Tribal families were received assistance. There are, 45 MADA Pockets covering about 47 blocks of the State, during Seventh Plan Period. The total amount of Rs 7.2 Crores was earmarked for Id Card 97905 College Student the implementation of different schemes. Under different schemes about 13 thousand Scheduled Tribe families were benefitted during the said plan period. In two annual plans i.e.; 1990-91, and 1991-92 about Five thousand families benefitted under the programme.

The total investment of Rs 2.2 crores and Rs 2.5 crores were made for - Faceto.us the year 1990-91 and 1991-92 respectively. The number of MADA pockets increased to 46 during the Eighth Plan (1992-97) period. A total Fund of Rs 16.4 crores was utilities for Id Card - Ph: 97905 College Student implementation of different programmes in the MADA Pockets. During the plan period about 20 thousand tribal families were covered in different programmes. (x) Command Area Development Programme (CADP): The Command Area Development Programme was introduced in - Faceto.us, the Country in - Coimbatore 47171: And Staff, 1974-75 with a view to realising a fast and Awesome Government Resume optimum utilisation of the 47171: And Staff, irrigation potential created in the major irrigation projects.

In Orissa, the programme was launched in 1976-77 covering 52 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur and Bolangir. It was spread over to about 5.3 lakh hectares of land of three major Irrigation Projects of Mahanadi, Salandi and Hirakud. The basic concept of the Programme was to step up agricultural production by optimum utilisation of water by controlled irrigation and adoption of multi-cropping pattern on an extensive scale. The components of Spreadsheet Template 1 Inventory, C A D Project which are given highest priority in realising these objectives are: (i) Construction of field channels. (ii) Warabandi i.e; regulated and assured water supply to the farmers. (iii) Consolidation and. (iv) Adoption of Multi-cropping pattern. As against this background four Command Area Development Authorities have been registered as Societies under the Societies Registration Act 1860. Funds sanctioned for the various schemes by State and Central Government are placed at their disposal in shape of Id Card - Ph: 47171: College And Staff, grant-in-aid. A special loan account was also set up by the ARDC with 50% contribution from Central Government and 25% each by the State Government and Resume ARDC to finance on-farm development works for the ineligible and unwilling beneficiaries.

During the Fifth Plan the major achievement was, conducting of Id Card - Ph: 47171: College Student And Staff, a large number of multi-crop demonstrations to make the farmers aware of the needs for Fill Cs Form No. 100 Service Exam having three cropping patterns. Small and Marginal farmers were also involved themselves in the programme and College And Staff became members of Co­operative Societies. A modest beginning was also made in Small Template 1 Inventory, demonstration of proper water Management by Construction of field channels to serve about Id Card 97905 47171: College Student, 3 thousand hectares of land. A total financial provision of Rs 12.5 Crores was made for the programme. The principle components of the Command Area Development Programme during the Sixth Five Year Plan (SO­BS) have been: (i) Construction of field channels including field drains. (ii) Topographical Survey. (iii) Soil Conservation and Survey. (iv) Rotational water supply to Application For Ojt the beneficiary farmers. (v) Multiple Crop Demonstration, including mini-kits and - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: Student farmers training. During the said plan period about 1.5 lakh hectares field channel was constructed with the Cs Form No. 100 Exam, total expenditure of Rs 6.9 Crores. The Command Area Development Programme expanded to 58 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur, Bolangir and Koraput.

An area of 2.7 lakh hectare Culturable Command Area has been covered under field channels at the end of Seventh Five Year Plan. The Principal Component of CAD Programme during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) was: (i) Survey Planning and Design. (ii) Construction of field channels, drains and land leveling. (iii) Rotational water supply. (iv) Adaptive Trails. (v) Farmers participation. (vii) Conjunctive use of surface and ground water. (viii) Marketing and Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 47171: College Communication and.

(ix) Monitoring and Small Business 1 Inventory evaluation. The programme has been extended to 83 blocks in 17 districts with a Culturable Command Area of 7.4 lakh hectares during Eighth Plan Period. Id Card 97905 And Staff! A total sum of Application Letter For Ojt, Rs 18.4 Crores was spending under the programme during said plan period. It is Id Card - Ph: College, observed from the Price Tag Template Templates,, available data that, during the Id Card - Ph: 97905 47171: And Staff, Seventh Five Year Plan about 11.14 million hectares field channels were constructed. About 1.93 million hectare of Notice 12 Free Samples 10, land leveling activities and 4.96 million hectare Warabandi work was also completed during the said plan period.

The total achievement during the Eighth Plan Period on construction of field channels, land leveling and Warabandi was about 1.75 M.ha, 0.14 M.ha, and 2.75 M.ha respectively. The achievement of Eighth Plan reduced due to other alike rural development programmes introduced in the country. The introduction of specialized watershed scheme was one of the same programmes. 4. Essay on the Institutions for - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 And Staff Rural Development: The Rural Development in India is a very old phenomenon. Social scientists and Government - Faceto.us organisations had experimented this noble attempt in - Coimbatore 47171: College Student And Staff, pre-Independence period. Those programmes were not highlighting a unique problem of the rural poor and the necessary solution therein. However, the Tag Template | Pinterest Templates,, attempts so undertaken were focused mostly to the social, economic and cultural aspects of human well-being. The noble attempts made by great and intellectual sons of the - Ph: And Staff, soil could not spread over to all part of the country due to lack of government attitude and patronage. Letter For Ojt! The British Government had never felt the importance of rural development in 97905, the country.

The rulers felt that, rural development was a part of social welfare, which is perhaps contradictory to the British ideology and policies. India became an independent nation in Cover Letter Example Icover, August 1947, from political point of view but attend its economic independence only on January 1950. After attaining the economic independence, India started its planned Economic Development Programmes with the adoption of Five Year Plan. During the process of planned economic development, Rural Development received utmost attention by the rulers, planners and policy makers. Since 1952, a number of rural development programmes were introduced, implemented and discontinued in the country.

The programmes are varied in nature and approach. Some of the Id Card - Coimbatore 97905 47171:, programmes proved to It Consultant Cover Icover Uk Inside Consulting be successful and some failures. The success and failure of the Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 47171: College, programmes governed by a number of factors important among them are: (i) Nature of the programme, (ii) Approach of the programme, (iii) Finance for the programme, (iv) Implementation of the programme. Good nature, right approach, adequate finance and proper implementation may bring success to the programme. In this connection, the last factor, proper implementation gathers top most importance as it co-ordinates other factors of success. This can be achieved through good and right institutions. As against this background, we would like to discuss the structure and functions of the Notice Samples Examples Download. 10, institutions established exclusively for Rural Development from time to time. These institutions can be classified into two such as: (i) Main institutions and. (ii) Ancillary institutions. The main institutions are those, which are directly responsible for the planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluation of the rural development programmes and permanent statutory in nature.

The ancillary institutions are those, which are indirectly responsible for planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation and temporary in nature. In India, a structure of policy formulating and implementing institutions has been built up in the country for Rural Development. Some of - Ph: 97905 47171: Student And Staff, them are at the national level, some are single purpose, some relate to a particular target groups, some relate to area, sector and commodity. However, all these institutions aim at fulfilling the Notice Samples Examples Download. 10, national objectives of Id Card 97905 47171: Student And Staff, economic development in general and rural development in particular. The administrative organs of Central and State Governments involved in the process of rural development are at the Centre of the Organisational Structure. The spatial structure of rural development administration mainly comprises Centre, State, District, Blocks, Gram panchayats and Village. At the Centre, the Ministry of Rural Development is in charge of all rural development a programme including those relating to land reforms, village and cottage industries, town and country planning and rural roads etc. This is the How To Fill Up Your No. 100 Career, nodal responsibility for elementary education, adult education, rural health, rural electrification, rural water supply, housing for landless rural labour, nutrition and sanitation programmes. The ministry has also responsible for all aspects of rural reconstruction and development. The Ministry lays down broad policies, devises suitable programmes and determines Central assistance etc. In addition to the Ministry of Rural Development, the ministries of Agriculture, Commerce and Civil Supplies, Energy, Irrigation and Industry also perform functions related to rural development.

The Ministry of Agriculture is in charge of agricultural extension, Ministry of Commerce and Civil Supplies has within its purview the Development Commissioner of Handlooms, several Commodity Boards and the public distribution system. The Ministry of Energy and 97905 47171: Student And Staff Irrigation deals with all matters pertaining to water resources development and irrigation and Service accordingly has important functions pertaining to Id Card - Ph: rural development. The Central Silk Board, Coir Board, Khadi Village Industries Commission are attached to the Ministry of Industry. The Ministry of Rural Development, for rural development with proper co-operation and coordination from other ministries. Cover Icover Consulting! The other ministries are also take active role in the rural development programmes so formulated. Besides, the Ministries, the Reserve Bank of India in the past and NABARD at present play the catalytic role for the success of rural development.

NABARD as the apex level financial institution for rural development provide refinance to the financial institutions working at the state level. At the State level, the State Governments have the primary responsibility for the administration of developmental programmes. The Departments of agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation, forests, education, public health and sanitation, industries, power. Government has also take active part on the monitoring and implementation of rural development programmes in Id Card - Coimbatore Student, the State. The State Government also formulates State level special rural development programmes other than the Central Government’s Programmes. However, The State Level Organisational Committee is headed by 12 Free Samples Examples Format Download. the Secretary for Rural Development, who is in Id Card 97905 College, the rank of 12 Free Samples Format Download., Commissioner of rural development is assisted by one Deputy Commissioner three Assistant Commissioners and a number of technical officers and subject specialists. Besides, a representative of the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India is associated as a member of the Committee. There are a number of Statutory Corporations, Boards and Id Card College And Staff other agencies providing infrastructural, promotional and Notice 12 Free Download. supporting services for rural development. Important among them are: (i) Rural Electrification Corporation, (ii) The Central Ground Water Board. (iii) Minor Irrigation and tube well Corporations. (iv) Central and State Warehousing Corporations.

(v) Central and Id Card - Ph: 47171: College Student And Staff State Seed Corporations. (vi) Food Corporation of India. (vii) The Jute and the Cotton Corporation of India. (viii) National Cooperative Development Corporation and Cooperative banks in Cover Letter Consulting, the State. (ix) National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation. (x) State Trading Corporations, (xi) The Handicraft and 47171: College Student Handloom Corporations. (xii) The Boards for Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Cardamom, Tobacco, Cashew and Uk Inside Consulting Coconut etc. (xiii) The National Dairy Development Board. (xiv) The Khadi and Village Industries Commission. (xv) State Khadi and - Coimbatore 97905 And Staff Village Industries Board.

(xvi) The Central Silk Board. (xviii) The State Finance Corporation. (xix) The Agro-Industries Corporation. (xx) The Marketing Regulation Boards etc. The statutory corporations and To Vacate 12 Free Format 10 Boards works for the implementation of various rural development programmes to their expertise. At the State level the Financial Institutions also play vital roles for formulation, implementation of various rural development programmes. They form one State Level Coordination Committee taking the representatives of all financial institutions like, Cooperative banks, Nationalised Commercial banks and Regional Rural banks. Besides, the representatives of various government departments are also participate in the formulation and Implementation strategy of the rural development programmes. The representative from NABARD is also participating in the committee.

One Nationalised Commercial bank acts as the 47171: Student, convener of the committee. The Third Stage of Institutional Structure for Notice To Vacate Format Rural Development is the District Administration. The District Collector is responsible for law and order, Revenue Collection and developmental activities. In the past, the developmental programmes so formulated by Id Card - Ph: Student the central and state governments were channelised through the District Administration, known as the District Development Coordination Committee. This committee consisting of the Project Officer, the Managing Director of the Awesome Government Resume, Central Cooperative Societies, one/two representatives from Id Card 97905 47171: College Student Cooperative Societies and a Special Rural Credit Officer. How To Up Your Cs Form Csc - Career! Prior to October 1980, the - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 Student And Staff, rural development programme particularly beneficiary and area oriented programmes operated through specially constituted agencies. They are, Small Farmers Development Agencies, (SFDA) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) and Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP), etc. In 1980 the integrated rural development programme was launched. In successive time period some special programmes related to Awesome rural development are also implemented.

All the programmes are to be implemented by a single agency called as District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 47171: Student! The earlier agencies functioning at the district level are merged with the DRDA. The District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the DRDA. Besides the No. 100 Career Service Exam, agency has a full time Project Officers followed by Assistant Project Officers in agriculture, animal husbandry, and cooperation, a credit planning officer, rural industries officer and Id Card - Ph: College Student And Staff an economist/statistician. In addition there is one Research Officer, two senior economic investigators followed by regular supporting staff. The peoples representatives like, the Chairman Zilla Parishad, Member of Parliament, the MLA and the representatives of Weaken Sections and How To Cs Form Csc - Exam women are also take active part in the planning process at the district level. The representatives of the lead bank, financial institutions also take active role with the DRDA to formulate District Credit Plans. According to the Indian Constitution Amendment (74th) Act 1992 The State Governments constituted the - Ph: Student, District Planning and It Consultant Example Uk Inside Consulting Development Board to provide necessary guidelines and direction to district planning units and to approve the Id Card - Ph: 47171:, district plans prepared by the planning units. The board consists of a Chairman, a Vice-chairman and other members, viz.; all Sub-divisional Officers, all Chairman of Panchayat Samities (Block) in | Printables | Pinterest, the district, the Id Card 47171: And Staff, head of lead Bank and Presidents of all Municipal Committees. The Chief Planning and Development officer acted as the Member Secretary. The district-planning unit comprised the Chief Planning and Development Officer, an economist, a Planning Officer, a Credit Planning Officer and other supporting staff.

The position of the Notice To Vacate Format Download., Chairman of DPB varies from state to state. In some State a Minister of State Government chairs it and 47171: College And Staff the district Collector is the Chairman in some other. The Block is the Application Letter For Ojt, Fourth Important Institution for planning and implementation of 47171: College Student And Staff, rural development programmes. To Vacate 12 Free Examples! The overall resource situation, to identify human resource situation, particularly from the point of view of employment, to review the ongoing development activities to formulate a package of schemes/programmes to optimize production and augment employment and income, to - Ph: 47171: College And Staff identify gaps in infrastructure and to devise measures for filling these gaps. The Planning Commission appointed an Expert group to frame guidelines on the basis of the recommendations of Prof. M.L. Small Spreadsheet Template! Dantewala working group. As per the guideline issued on 1978 the block level plan should have the following component: (i) Production programmes for the target groups in the rural areas. (ii) Manpower planning and skill development in relation to - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: College And Staff production programmes. (iii) A supplementary works programme, where necessary to clear off the backlog of Price Tag Template | Pinterest | Tag Templates,, unemployment.

(iv) A programme for the self-employed in the trades and services sector. (v) Programme for rural Infrastructure like, market, roads, rural electrification etc. (vi) A programme for the provision of - Ph: 97905 47171: College Student, Social Services, including basic minimum needs. (vii) A programme for Application Institutional support to the rural poor. The Administrative setup of the Blocks was defined during the First Plan Period with the inception of Community Development Programme. With the implementation of Integrated Rural Development and other special developmental schemes/programmes in early 80s. The Administrative setups of the blocks were revised accordingly. The Block Development Officer is - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 47171: College And Staff, intended to be the steering wheel of the new developmental administration. The BDO is to Application be assisted by extension officers from different fields like; agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation and works, cooperation, Panchayats, social education, public health, village industries and women and child welfare etc.

Below the extension officer there are about Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: College Student And Staff, 10 village level workers (VLWs) or Lady Village Level Workers (LVLWs) working for the implementation or rural development programme. There is a Progress Assistant who coordinates the development committee. Awesome - Faceto.us! The people’s representatives like; Chairman Panchayat Samiti, MLA and Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: representatives of Small Template 1 Inventory, Weaker Sections and women also participate in the Developmental Planning at the block level. The representatives of the financial institutions also take part in Id Card - Ph: 97905 College Student, the committee while undertaking credit plans at the Block level. Village Panchayat is the last recognised institution responsible for planning and implementation of Application Letter For Ojt, rural development programmes. - Coimbatore 97905 47171: And Staff! The village Panchayat as an executive body implements the policies and decisions of the Gram Sabha comprising the entire population of the village. The social sanctions of the people generally strengthen the hands of the Panchayat and act as a deterrent to arbitrariness. The Panchayat organise local manpower for the developmental purposes. In almost all the states; the Gram Sabhas have been statutorily recognised and assigned the specific functions to direct and supervise the activities of the Village Panchayat and to some extent to the Blocks.

The important functions performed by the Panchayats are: (i) Civic amenities. (ii) Social welfare activities and. (iii) Development works. The broad functions of the Panchayat are: The people’s representatives like Ward Members; Sarapanch also took part in Inventory Template 1 Inventory, decision-making and implementation of the programmes. The village level worker represents the block in Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: College Student And Staff, village committee. Besides, the Small Inventory Template 1 Inventory, Panchayat Secretary, Secretary of the Cooperative Societies, the Revenue Inspectors also play active role in the village committee. Thus village committee comprises of the: (i) Village level worker.

(ii) Panchayat Secretary. (iii) Secretary of the Cooperative Societies. (iv) Revenue Inspector. (v) The Sarapanch. (vi) The ward members. (vii) The villagers are the General body members. It is to Id Card 97905 College Student conclude that, the planning and Implementation of the - Faceto.us, rural development begins from the - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 Student And Staff, root i.e.; village and flows upward to the national level. Tag Template | Pinterest! Experience shows that the rural development programme decisions in respect of formulation, strategy approach are undertaken at the national level and Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: College Student that flowing downward to the village in a “Trickle down approach”.

The “Bottom up” approach although exist in the country does not exist in Fill No. 100 Csc - Career Exam, practical sense of planning and implementation. However, the institutions for rural development are closely connected with each other, whether there exists “Trickle down” or “Bottom up” approach of planning and Id Card 47171: Student implementation of the rural development programmes in our country as well as the state. 5. Essay on the Observations and Problems of Rural Development : India is an economically underdeveloped country. The condition of rural economy is worse. It Consultant Letter Example Uk Inside Consulting! The economic activities and people employed therein have not also achieved required development/growth. In order to break the jinx of Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: Student, rural economic sector, Government through its different plans introduced a number of rural development programmes. The programmes are also varied in nature. They are of sector, area and 1 Inventory target oriented programmes. The Formulation, Implementation of the programmes has also undertaken by some specialised Agencies of Government.

In addition the NGOs, the Panchayati Raj institutions, financial institutions involved themselves in - Coimbatore 97905 Student And Staff, the success of the Awesome Resume, programmes. In course, of their function they also encountered a good number of problems. The problems were also varied in nature. As the Id Card - Ph: Student, book/based on the macro level information/data. The problems so encountered by both the implementing agencies and the beneficiaries of the programme are highlighted based on the general observations and macro-based data/information available. The problems mainly highlights the problems encountered by the Government as the planning and implementing machinery the Associated/ancillary agencies inevitable for the fruitful implementation of such rural development programmes, they are the - Faceto.us, Rural Development agencies/institutions/Departments, Financial Institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations, working as intermediary agencies for the implementation of rural development programmes/schemes. The last agencies are the people likely or receive benefits from the rural development. - Coimbatore 97905 College Student! They can also belong to the area and sector approach rural development programmes. Thus, we can classify the rural development agency into three as; Government, Intermediary/Ancillary agencies and Notice Samples Examples Format the targeted people/beneficiaries. - Coimbatore 97905 College Student! All the problems and Small Inventory Template 1 Inventory observation based on the facts, information and literatures available from the secondary sources.

These may not hold good in all respects. Rural Development Programmes have been conceived for the all-round development of the - Coimbatore 97905 Student, rural areas. However, the rural development programmes are launched in the context of general problems of the rural areas. Letter For Ojt! It fails to give importance to some particular and - Coimbatore College And Staff area issues. The rural development programmes should be micro in nature and growth oriented based on Business, real values. As per the Guidelines all the developmental programmes in the rural areas are to be planned/formulated by the DRDA in cooperation and coordination of other departments and - Coimbatore 97905 College Student financial institution, agencies of peoples representatives etc. It is Application Letter, often observed that these agencies, organisation failed to maintain proper coordination among each other. All the agencies/organisations are trying their best to stick to their own principles and ideologies. In the process cooperation and coordination are not maintained. The Agencies responsible for Id Card - Ph: 47171: College Student And Staff the formulation, Implementation and evaluation of the Rural Development Programme is required to maintaining good co­ordination among them.

(iii) Based on Ruling Party Principles and Ideologies : In India, the rural development programmes are conceived/launched as per It Consultant Cover Icover Consulting the principles and ideologies of the ruling party. Besides, in the participation for planning, formulation and implementation through their representatives tried to maintain such principles and ideologies. The said representatives often interested to fetch more benefit to their party affiliated peoples/workers. This does not cover the problems of all class people. The Rural Development Programmes should be based on reality and highlight the Id Card - Coimbatore, real problems of the rural areas as well as the Application, people. The political personalities are required to Id Card - Coimbatore 47171: College Student change their attitudes in this respect. The rural development programmes require more capital investment. To Vacate! The Economic Sectors of rural areas remain more or less traditional.

These sectors also adopt traditional methods of production. In order to attain rural development the transformation of - Coimbatore 47171: College, technologies is required. The conditions of weaker sections people are not improved after 50 years of planned economic development. The upliftment of Application For Ojt, their socio­economic condition also require high dose of investment. In our country, a fixed amount of Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 College And Staff, funds are allocated for Application For Ojt a particular rural development Programme. These are distributed among the States/District as per the importance, such as geography, concentration of Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: Student And Staff, weaker section population etc. The share of the Fund to cope with the local problems seems to be inadequate.

Contributions from the public or other viable private organisations are not seeked by the Government. Thus inadequate fund is a major concern for the attainment of the rural development. India’s rural economy being primarily land-based, all major developmental programmes of rural India are linked with agricultural developments. It is also evident that most of the available resources are controlled by few, this reinforces the Cover Example Icover, hegemony of the few over many and the benefits do not tickle down to those who need them most. Besides, the - Coimbatore College Student And Staff, precarious land and man ratio suggests that by introducing radical land redistribution in rural India very limited egalitarian goals can be achieved and if done so, that will mean only sharing of poverty and no real development. Rural development plan implementation is required to be accepted by the local level functionaries who attend the District consultative committee meetings and that they are in To Vacate Examples Format, a position to mobilise financial and organisational resources to fulfil accepted commitments. It is - Ph: 47171: And Staff, observed that the authority structure in the administration and the banks is such that those who attend such meetings are neither in a position to accept firm commitments on behalf of To Vacate Samples Examples 10, their departments, banks without reference to higher authorities not to act accordingly. Although some powers are conferred to the officers to Id Card 97905 47171: exercise but these are seems to be very limited. All the decisions are required due approval from the higher authorities.

It is observed that, there is considerable leakage of Application, benefits to non-target sectors and groups. Most of the rural development programmes are conceived to improve the Socio-Economic condition of the - Coimbatore, weaker sections like small, marginal farmers, agricultural and non-agricultural labourers, rural artisans, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and deprived women etc. Up Your Cs Form No. 100 Service Exam! It is observed that the benefits are not properly reaching to these classes. It is often found, that, the vulnerable class of the society enjoys the real benefits. The subsidy components of the Id Card - Coimbatore 97905 47171:, rural development programmes tend to allow to non-target groups, specially the programme implementing bureaucratic class, rather than including expansion of production base of the beneficiaries. Due to illiteracy and It Consultant Letter Example Icover Uk Inside ignorance the real benefits sometimes enjoyed by - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: Student the Third party commonly speaking the middlemen and the village touts including the petty personnel having a little political affiliation. It is observed that a considerable number of rural development programmes/schemes having no or little sustaining impact for changing the socio-economic status of the beneficiaries. The assets created from the credit assistance of It Consultant Example Icover Consulting, financial institutions and subsidies of the development/administrative agencies are short lived (Particularly in-case of livestock assets) failed to push the beneficiaries up on the scale of production and productivity.

This is 97905 47171: College, perhaps due to the existence of low or no developmental approach/thoughts. This factor again dominated by the lack of awareness about the programmes. (ix) Dominance of Welfare over How To Fill Up Your No. 100 Csc - Exam Productivity: In India, most of the rural development programmes are based on the basic welfare principles. These schemes are backed by both credit and subsidy components. Id Card 47171: And Staff! Besides, development of infrastructure facilities is also emphasised under these programmes. It is also evident that provision of long-term credit and based on the principle of write off by political parties also have adverse effect on the productivity of economic sectors. It is observed that the subsidy component is often extending up to 100 per cent in some selected schemes and class of beneficiaries.

This reduces the Spreadsheet Template, productive motive, attitude of the beneficiaries. (x) Based on the Principles and Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: College Student Policies of Political Parties : In our country most of the rural development programmes are either based on the principles of the political parties or biased by their ideologies. Besides, the programmes again ruled/governed by cheap popular slogans or election; manifestos. Due to How To Up Your Cs Form Career Exam these, causes the - Coimbatore - Ph: 97905 47171: College Student And Staff, programmes failed to attain the expected success. It is also observed that after the completion of one political party’s rule the next political party, which assumes power, hesitates to carry out the | Tag Craft, same. Besides, the new party is also don’t hesitate to wind up the ongoing programme despite of its importance and success. In India, due to these problems, the rural development has not attained after five decades of the planned economic development.

6. Essay on the Suggestions for - Ph: 97905 47171: College Rural Development in To Vacate 12 Free Examples Download. 10, India: 1. In India, the rural people in general and the weaker section people in particular are to depend upon traditional rural economic sectors for their livelihood. The rate of literacy in rural areas is Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: College, very low in comparison to Cover Letter Example Icover Uk Inside Consulting urban areas. Due to low literacy level, most of the rural people are not aware about the ongoing rural development programmes. The steps taken by Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: College the government in Business Inventory Spreadsheet Template 1 Inventory, order to enhance the awareness level of the beneficiaries is not adequate. The Government should open special cells for the publicity of the rural development programmes. The Government is 97905 47171: College, required to adopt the publicity method, which is conducive to the nature and requirement of the rural people. The people are to be provided with adequate instruments for enhancement of awareness level. The existing system of publicity about the rural development is | Pinterest, required to be re-considered and Id Card - Coimbatore 97905 And Staff should be based on rural realities prior to the Selection of the Scheme as well as the Beneficiaries, the implementing agencies should provide details of the programme to Awesome Government Resume the rural people, who are likely to be benefitted serious endeavour is, therefore, needed to make the rural people aware about the resources earmarked for rural development in various Government departments.

2. In our country a number of rural development programmes have been launched, implemented since 1952. It is often said that, the rural development programmes failed to - Coimbatore College Student attain its desired goal due to improper identification of the programmes, schemes and the beneficiaries therein. The Implementing Agencies attitude to implement the programme is target oriented. The target-oriented approach of the identification in Small Business 1 Inventory, different levels is believed to Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: College Student be made in a hurry. To Vacate 12 Free Download. 10! This approach forced the agencies for Id Card 97905 College wrong identification of programmes, schemes and beneficiaries. As against this, the Notice 12 Free, Government should lay more emphasis on the reality rather than the target. The schemes should be appropriate to the rural conditions and the beneficiaries therein are to be selected by the villagers or the effectively functioning Gram Sabha.

The implementing agencies should take the matter seriously, while selecting the Id Card - Coimbatore College And Staff, scheme as well as the beneficiaries. Business Spreadsheet 1 Inventory! The selection of the schemes is needed to be made by the beneficiaries. - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: Student And Staff! Emphasis to be given to the interest, intention, and attitude of the beneficiaries towards the scheme for rural development programmes. It is to conclude that, A realistic programme on rural development with the How To Up Your Cs Form Csc - Career Exam, potentiality of the successful implementation, can only be prepared if rural poor are taken into confidence and are assisted to draw the development programme, taking the village as unit. Outsiders, as technocrats, Economists etc. should only - Coimbatore 47171:, assist them as Friends to make their own decision. 3. The important objective of rural development programme is to eradicate poverty, reduce imbalance and increase productivity of rural economic sectors. Thus, the beneficiaries of Price Tag Template | Pinterest | Tag Craft, rural development programmes are rural poor living below the poverty line. - Coimbatore 97905 College! The poverty line in India determined by To Vacate 12 Free the relative standards.

A less importance has been laid on absolute standard of poverty determination. Whatever, emphasis laid again converted to money terms, which appears to be unrealistic. A household earning income more than Poverty line income level may be poor in relation to the calorie intake. Thus, the determination of poverty line required re­considered. Besides the identification of beneficiaries living below the poverty line (BPL) should be fixed at the realistic level.

4. Id Card - Coimbatore 47171: College! The beneficiaries of the Self-employment programmes need training and education prior to their involvement in the programmes. Awesome Government Resume! The implementing and monitoring agencies is required to impart required training to the selected beneficiaries, before the developmental activities undertaken. Besides, rural people should be provided with the scope of expressing their own felt needs and need to be provided with an Id Card - Coimbatore, opportunity to choose economic activities for their own development. 5. The wage employment programmes can be fully focused on rural infrastructure development and local natural resources development. This approach will not only improve the infrastructure network but also help village people to improve their farm as well as non-farm production for Tag Template | Printables Templates, Craft which a favourable environment exists. 6. The working of the Rural Development Programme in Id Card - Ph: 47171: And Staff, the last decades has shown that the initiative for To Vacate 12 Free Samples implementing the programmes is vested on DRDA. The role of DRDA is more or less confined to the planning and 97905 47171: release of subsidies for rural development programmes.

The DRDAs should play an important role for the Implementing and Monitoring of Application Letter For Ojt, rural development programmes. Id Card College And Staff! Regular monitoring and evaluation of rural development programmes in real manner could solve the ongoing problems encountered therein and can also helpful to solve the problems. This will pave the path of success to Awesome the rural development programmes and attainment of rural development. 7. The village plans would have to - Ph: College And Staff be dovetailed into the district plan, which would prepare by the DRDA. Proper appraisal of the rural development schemes is Small Spreadsheet, needed.

Besides, for the success of Rural Development Programmes it should be ensured that the Project Directors of the DRDA are given tenure of not less than three years so as to inculcate in them a sense of commitment to the programme. The other staff in the key posts should not be disturbed frequently. 8. The various Government departments with specialised expertise and banks should work in close co-operation with the district planning unit in order to Id Card - Coimbatore - Ph: 47171: Student And Staff have a coordinated and scientific plan, the availability of local resources, the potential for alternative productive works and of viable schemes, to be looked into. 9. Voluntary effort will no doubt continue to grow in the coming years but it can accelerate if the environment is more congenial to its growth. Voluntary Organisations with professional and Managerial Capabilities can act as a catalyst and can organise beneficiaries, involve people in planning and development and It Consultant Cover Icover Uk Inside provide the necessary support to make development a reality. Id Card - Coimbatore 97905 47171: College Student And Staff! In this respect, the Government should provide required assistance to the Voluntary Organisations. 10.

The prosperity of the rural economy depends directly upon the development of agriculture and industry. These to dependent variables for development again controlled by a number of independent variables. These are, power, credit, transport facilities, which include railways, roads, waterways, market, communication, information facilities etc. All these facilities and services constitute collectively the infrastructure. The development and expansion of these facilities are an essential pre-condition for attainment of economic development and rural development. The link between infrastructure and development is How To Fill Up Your Cs Form Career Service Exam, not once for all affair. It is a continuous process and progress in development has to be preceded, accompanied and followed by progress in 97905 47171: And Staff, infrastructure, if we are to fulfill our declared objectives of a self-accelerating process of economic development. Despite its importance the desired infrastructural development has not been achieved due to resource constraint. In view of the For Ojt, resource constraint, further expansion of facilities may be secured by a shift of priority from high cost technology to low cost technology, from public funding to private financing and from large-scale public management to small-scale private/co­operative/community management in - Coimbatore 97905 47171: College And Staff, appropriate areas required for rural development. 11. The planning, implementing, monitoring of rural development programmes has been made by the Planning Commission and its subsidiaries.

In the process they have been facing a number of It Consultant Example, difficulties. Political interference is one of the difficulties faced by the Planning and Implementing agencies. This undue interference seems to be one of the important causes of failures of - Coimbatore - Ph: College, rural development programmes. In order to attain rural development the Planning and Implementing agencies in our country should perform independently like the Judiciary System. Before publishing your articles on Awesome - Faceto.us, this site, please read the following pages: