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Por otro lado, el reconocimiento al que se llega tiene por objetivo final reforzarloguatemalteco, reconociendo la voluntad de apropiación y los límites de lo indígena, por muy diferente que sea. Mission Driving School License For Ca! Esto puede llevar una recreación de la actitud de paternalismo -muy propio de los maestros/ as, religiosos/as, personal de las ONG y Otros sectores hacia esos mayas que según ellos necesitarían de alguien que les represent e -y los controle. Car Salesman - Template! Y por último, se trivializa y vacía de cualquier contenido político a estas actividades, y con ello, a todos los símbolos que se les asocia: el Pop Vuh, la esp iritualidad, la danza de la conquista, etc. You Letter To Employer Download Free! Este tipo de actividades es importante pues puede marcar una forma a la que podemos llegar en el desarrollo de la Guatemala mulricultural, Recuerdan mucho a las que Goode y Schneider (994) denominaban de celebración multicultural: actos culturales a través de los cuales, en la ciudad norteamericana de Filadelfia se intentaba dar salida a los reclamos de reconocimiento de las minorías inmigrantes sin cambiar su status ni su situación política. Car Salesman - Template! Actividad del Encuentro N acional de Culturas del MICUDE, en Huehuerenango Una de las manifestaciones más evidentes y burdas en las que se da esta nueva forma de folklorización no es más que la exacerbación de la tendencia, asociada en Guatemala al turismo, de apropiarse de los elementos de la cultura indígena para fines comerciales. Privacy & Security! Lo que es nuevo es el uso de la símbología y el discurso creados por los rnayanisras para ponerse al día de las nuevas formas de entender la diferencia cultural: el lema Guatemala, alma de la tierra, con un símbolo que puede verse como la representación estilizada de un glifo, reúne como producto comercial lo maya, la espiritualidad y la naturaleza, las tres sensibilidades que vimos que se asocian al turismo en Lago del INGUAT 30 Esta codificación puede acudir a elementos externos al grupo, pero no a su represent ación social. Car Salesman Examples! Como ocurría en la feria de Sant iago Atitl án (Vallejo, 2006) es normal que a los garífunas o garinagu se les asocie y represente a rravés del reggae y la cultura rasrafari. Privacy Of Patient Information Ppt Download! 365 :11I I. 7 MAYANIZACIóNYVIDACOTIDIAN A Guatemala. Resume - Template! Esta es la forma de sacar provecho de la nueva imagen multicultural que se vende por el mundo.

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En el caso del análisis de los mayas, el ejercicio de la búsqueda de puntos de tensión se hizo para buscar las ideologías étnicas desde las que se percibían esos elementos, lo que permitió detectar de una forma inductiva tres polos ideológicos desde los que se podían entender las diferentes percepciones encontradas en torno a la vivencia de la diferencia cultural. Thank To Employer - 18+ Free Documents! Pero la propuesta de análisis utilizada para comprender la diversidad de respuestas entre los mayas no se puede aplicar entre quienes no son indígenas, las respuestas han sido totalmente diferentes. Resume Examples - Template! En primer lugar, como se ha dicho, no versan sobre su cultura, sino sobre la cultura maya. Privacy! Esto nos muestra cómo el discurso de la etnicidad no está montado sobre la cultura nacional (que es supuestamente la de los no indígenas), sino sobre su relación con la cultura indígena. Car Salesman - Template! Su situación aparece como una metáfora, una simbolización de la ubicación y la estima social de los indígenas como grupo.

Además, la relación entre los conceptos de sincretismo, modernidad y mayanismo utilizados para el modelo tripolar usado con los indígenas se basa en la supuesta incompatibilidad, la contradicción entre cultura tradicional y modernidad. Mission Driving School :: Step-By-Step! Y esto no ocurre entre los no indígenas: la oposición ideológica no es entre cultura y modernidad, sino entre cultura indígena y modernidad. Car Salesman Examples! Para quienes no son indígenas, la cultura juega un papel muy diferente, que no es incompatible en absoluto con el ser moderno. Sample Thank You Letter Download Free! En su caso, se supone que el tránsito hacia la modernidad no tuvo que hacerse a costa de, u oponiéndose a lo tradicional, sino que fue asumido dentro de lo moderno. Examples! Lo guatemalteco ladino mestizo es una construcción que asume lo moderno como parte de sí mismo. Sample To Employer Download Free Documents! No tenemos 367. 9 MAYANIZA CIóNYVIDACOTIDIANA en este caso un polo ideológico sincrético, pese a que sí existen elementos culturales sincréticos dentro de la cultura guatemalteca. Resume Examples! El modelo tripolar no sirve para entender la relación de los no indígenas con su cultura.

Pero si reordenamos los resultados obtenidos en este análisis podemos entender sus posturas respecto a las demandas políticas y de reconocimiento cultural de los mayanistas. Template, Wedding Programs, Ceremony! Partiendo de los tres polos que representan las ideologías étnicas presentes en Guatemala la segregación, la asimilación y el multiculturalismo podríamos decir que el segregacionismo es la base ideológica del racismo más burdo y evidente, el que considera a ciertos gtupos de personas como carentes de los derechos básicos para ser iguales a uno. Examples! La cultura en este caso no tiene mucho que ver, y el discurso suele ser más racial biológico. List | Procedure! El asimilacionismo liberal, en cambio, parte de considerar la igualdad entre las personas, pero es incapaz de comprenderla más allá de su propio marco cultural, siendo entonces el etnocentrismo el que rige la percepción sobre la cultura ajena. Car Salesman Resume Examples! Estamos ante dos fórmulas creadas para asegurar el dominio sobre los indígenas qué pasa entonces con el mulciculturalisrno, que surge para romperlo?, ése puede entender en este mismo parámetro? Analizando los discursos (racista abierto) con los que se hacía frente a las demandas mayas, veíamos que la mayoría de los argumentos que se utilizaban surgían del discurso nacional liberal, por lo que podemos pensar que en este ETNOCÉNTRlCO caso no se dan tantas tensiones ideológicas como entre los mayas, pues el asimilacionismo es el polo ideológico claramente hegemónico: dado el contexto y contenidos con los que se neo folklorista construyó, este polo tiende en (multicultural) Guatemala de forma natural hacia el segregacionismo racista. :: Step-By-Step For Ca Teens! Es decir, con argumentos liberales se plantean ideologías segregadoras de forma natural. Examples! Pero también desde este polo se puede avanzar hacia vertientes más progresistas, pretendiendo separarse de lo racista y buscando una verdadera igualdad.

Para muchos, el igualitarismo universalista da respuestas suficientes al problema de la desigualdad indígena sin llegar al multiculruralismo. Spider Diagram - Spider Diagram,! Ahí es donde el etnocentrismo toma sentido, al no ser capaz de comprender la necesidad de los derechos culturales que rompan con la igualdad ciudadana. Car Salesman Resume! Desde este punto de vista, la existencia de respuestas de claro respeto y apoyo decidido a los derechos políticos y culturales que reclaman los rnayanistas se muestran como más valientes y difíciles, pues supone romper con todo un bagaje ideológico hegemónico, el liberal nacional, desde elque se han construido las interpretaciones y las repuestas políticas 368. 10 Los no indígenas y el multiculturalismo a los problemas del país. 5+ Party Guest Template | Procedure Template Sample! Y; como se dijo en su momento, no es una cuestión intelectual: hablar de identidad y pertenencias es una cuestión de fuerte carga emotiva. Car Salesman Resume - Template! Por eso, cuesta tanto pensar en una Guatemala internamente diversa --en una nación mutiétnica más allá de lo simbólico. 5+ Party List Template Sample! Y por eso mismo, no nos ha de extrañar la abundancia de respuestas dadas desde el neo folklorismo, como forma de respeto cultural entendido desde una plataforma liberal que no cuestiona la igualdad política ni la cohesión de la nación, como forma de entender unos derechos culturales más que desde el etnocentrismo que permea la mayoría de las percepciones no indígenas. Resume Examples! 4 PERSISTENCIA Y CAMBIO DE RELACIONES Y ACTITUDES ENTRE LOS NO INDÍGENAS Los tipos de relaciones étnicas y de discursos que hemos relatado en este capítulo forman parte, al igual que veíamos entre los indígenas, de un proceso de cambio en el entorno socioeconómico y cultural de la sociedad guatemalteca que ha incidido en la identidad y la ideología, las formas de percibirse étnicamente. You Letter Documents! Las dinámicas de la modernización socioeconómica, primero, y de la globalización, después, en el contexto de una política autoritaria que se mantiene en el tiempo, también afectaron -y mucho a la población no indígena del país en su dimensión étnica. Car Salesman! Por el lado de los contenidos de la diferencia, el proceso ha afectado a esta población en los términos que normalmente se asocian a la modernización: diferenciación socio ocupacional, urbanización, salarización, aumento de nivel educativo, cierta secularización; todo ello en el contexto de lo que se llamaba antes un pequeño país periférico en el que las oligarquías han tratado de que esto no supusiera pérdida de su poder. Mission Driving School License Teens! La globalización ha supuesto una exacerbación de las tendencias a la desigualdad, a la dispersión territorial y a la homogenización del consumo cultural en el contexto de mayor diversificación identitaria y dependencia de los procesos externos.

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Esta vinculación se aprecia en un aspecto que ha aparecido de forma más o menos continuada, y que no tiene que ver tanto con las ideas como con la práctica: muchas veces cuesta más asumir el hecho de un liderazgo autónomo maya que las propuestas que ellos hacen. Diagram Organiser - Spider Diagram,! Por ejemplo, algunas de las actitudes de gente de la vieja izquierda, a la que cuesta entregar la mayoría de edad después de haber luchado en su nombre, o lo que decía un sociólogo con preocupación: antes hacíamos sociología del sujeto. Resume - Template! pero ahora es el sujeto el que hace su sociología. Ceremony Printable Wedding! Hay propuestas que, hechas por no indígenas son aceptadas, pero si las hace un maya, provocan más recelo, rechazo, miedo. Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template! Por ello una de las cuestiones que cuesta de lo maya es su calidad de etiqueta auto otorgada, el reclamo del accionar autónomo y propio. Privacy & Security Information Ppt Download! Esta actitud está detrás de varios de los argumentos vistos en este apartado. Resume Examples! También desde acá se entiende que la crítica al liderazgo rnayanista por artificial: no se refiere tanto a su falta de represenratividad como a que ellos ya han cambiado, ya noson realmente indígenas, como se vio antes.

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Many people obsess over how the resume is formatted. Guest List | Procedure Template Sample? The truth is the words on the resume matter more than font size, columns, or margins. Simple example, if I see a resume that has the wrong margins but the Resume - Template resume says, Harvard University, #1 in Class, Physics (okay, I'm not even sure if Harvard ranks or has a physics degree). I will notice the resume. So the first big takeaway is Summary For Resume. Summary Of Qualifications this: WHAT you say matters more than how you FORMAT what you say. In screening resumes, I have seen dozens if not hundreds of formats. Many different formats can work. Examples? The most important thing is the major accomplishments are easy to read. Here is what the big firms are looking for: 1) Big Brand Name Employers or Schools. 2) Academic Performance (GPA)

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The client is Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template going to want to know what and who they are getting for that kind of money. When the You Letter Download Free answer is John or Jane Doe, who has a BS from Dartmouth, a MD from Yale and MBA from Car Salesman Examples - Template, Harvard, clients respond with an Oh wow. that's impressive comment. Driving School :: Step-By-Step Guide Teens? It makes it easier to get new clients to say yes. Now plenty of people get into the top firms (McKinsey included) that do not have such a perfect ivy pedigree. but if you got it, make sure it is OBVIOUS (it will help a lot). Let me explain the thought process of some of these biases. Car Salesman Resume? The thinking is that only super high achievers get into the top schools. and the top firms really like hiring super high achievers. This is not to Privacy Information, say that the firms do not hire from non-target schools (they do), but they assume the highest achievers from non-target schools will work really hard to contact the firm (generally via networking) -- thus demonstrating their determination.

(There is a lesson here. If you do not have a super pedigree, you'd better be super determined, as evidenced by the amount of effort you put into networking.) In addition, it is Examples - Template very expensive for the firms to do on campus recruiting. So they stick to Sample You Letter To Employer - 18+ Free Documents, schools where the offer rate vs. Car Salesman? applicant ratio is Sample Thank You Letter - 18+ Download high (high being defined as greater than 1%). For example, Stanford (undergrad) is a target school and my year, 400 students applied for full time jobs, 6 offers were extended. and this was considered a very successful recruiting ratio by McKinsey). As a point of reference, when I was recruited by McKinsey, I heard a rumor that the firm spent $100,000 USD in recruiting expense to Resume Examples, hire ONE Business Analyst. This figure included all billable hours of interviewers and Spider Diagram - Spider Diagram, Organiser consultants who go to on - Template, campus recruiting events as well as hard costs for Ceremony Program Template, Printable Wedding Ceremony travel, renting conference rooms, hotels, etc. The recruiters or resume screeners also look for recognizable employer names. It is easier to understand a candidate's accomplishment via the Examples - Template implied credibility of the Summary employer name and it is also easier to convey to clients. It is the same reason everyone wants to work for MBB - McKinsey, Bain or Boston Consulting Group -- it implies something on your resume that stays with you forever.

To this day, I am known as a Stanford Grad and an Ex-McKinsey Guy. It is how I am introduced formally or informally when I give speeches. Resume Examples? It stays with you for a very long time. Let me give you a personal example that helps illustrate the importance of the big brand name on your resume. When I applied for consulting internships in my junior year at Stanford, I got rejected across the Mission Driving :: Step-By-Step License board -- not a single interview. The following year, I got interviews with every major consulting firm that I applied to -- with no exceptions. I got interviews at McKinsey, BCG, Bain, Booz, LEK, AT Kearney, Monitor (since acquired by Deloitte), Oliver Wyman (formerly Mercer), and a few others. (I also got offers from Car Salesman, every consulting firm I interviewed with except BCG where I got rejected in round 1, and Booz when I decided to cancel my final round.) So what did I do in the 12 months that made such a big difference? Well I looked at who got interviews (most were friends of Spider Diagram - Spider Diagram, mine) and Resume Examples tried to figure out why they got interviews.

Their GPAs were identical to mine. Mission Driving License? Their areas of academic study were identical to mine. The only Car Salesman Examples - Template thing I noticed was many of them had worked for well known companies the prior summer, and I had not. I decided to focus on 5+ Party Guest List | Procedure, improving the brand name factor on Car Salesman Resume, my resume in two ways. First, I did an Spider Diagram Organiser Template Diagram,, internship at Merrill Lynch during the school year. I worked in the evenings doing telemarketing cold calls to wealthy families in Silicon Valley selling tax free investment income opportunities (LOL. I still remember my phone script, I said it so many times). By the way, this was an unpaid internship. so I worked for about 4 months every other night making cold calls for Merrill. just so I could put Merrill Lynch on my resume. This decision was very deliberate as almost nobody else my year did an Examples - Template, internship during the Spider Diagram Organiser Diagram, academic year. Second, I was able to get an internship with a big company (now called ATT) for that summer. So when I applied again my senior year, I now had two big brand name employers on my resume, whereas just 12 months earlier I had none.

As I mentioned earlier, the following year, I got interviews with every consulting firm I applied to, in large part because of the brand name employers on my resume (I was competing against 400 other Stanford students -- we all had the famous school on the resume so that was not a differentiator). Similarly as a resume screener, many of us would read resumes with a big red marker. All we would do for Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template hours was skim resumes while circling certain brand names on the resume that jumped out as recognizable or impressive. 2) Academic Performance (GPA) The top firms want to Of Qualifications, know if you are smart. It helps to Examples, put your GPA on Of Patient Information Ppt Download, your resume. If you do not, they will either 1) ask you for it anyways and write it by hand on your resume after you submit it, or 2) assume it is low and assess your resume accordingly. If your school's grading system is not well understood by others, you should explain the grading scale your school uses. Most US schools use a 4.0 GPA system - perfect marks is a 4.0 GPA out of a possible 4.0.

If yours is different or you are applying from one country to an office in Car Salesman Examples a different country, then you want to put on Summary Resume, your resume some way for the reader to interpret your GPA (put your rank or put your %. Resume - Template? like top 1% of class, something along those lines). For applicants coming out of college, many firms will ask for Template Diagram, Organiser your transcript to see your specific grades on Car Salesman, specific classes. In particular, they are looking for your grades in quantitative classes. Oftentimes your resume will be read by a recent graduate from your school. Privacy Of Patient Ppt Download? So if you went to Resume - Template, Stanford and took Geology 101, the reader is going to know that you took Rocks for Jocks (the nickname for that class amongst Stanford students) and interpret your grades accordingly. Again there is not a cutoff and the standard will vary by school.

Amongst the top undergraduate institutions, a 3.5 GPA or higher is good enough to not get disqualified from the process purely because of GPA. The resume reader will most likely read the rest of your resume before deciding. My GPA at Stanford was 3.5 at the time I applied to the major firms. so nowhere near perfect, but in hindsight it was good enough when combined with other factors to get many interviews. 3) High Standardized Test Scores in Math. Many firms will want to 5+ Party Guest List Template Sample, see a standardized test score of Examples - Template some sort - SAT, GRE, GMAT, MCAT, LSAT. Because it is sometimes hard to Printable Wedding Ceremony, compare GPAs from one university to Car Salesman Resume, another, the Spider Template Diagram, Organiser standardized test score is an easy way to - Template, compare measure of one's math ability. Strong math skills do correlate strongly with the Thank ability to think in a logical and analytical way -- the preferred thinking style that consulting firms favor enormously.

Since I applied coming out of college, I had only taken the SAT (the US standardized test high school students take to Resume, apply to US colleges) and I had a score of 800 on the math section (800 out of 800). It is not necessary to 5+ Party List Template, have a perfect score, but certainly the higher the better. There is no absolute cut-off as it depends on Car Salesman Examples, the impressiveness of the rest of your application. That being said, outperforming 95% of Sample Thank To Employer Free Documents other test takers is ideal if applying to the top 3 firms. The standard is Car Salesman Examples not as high with other firms.

4) Evidence of Leadership People Skills. Being smart (factors #2 and #3 above) is Resume Of Qualifications Http not enough to do well as a consultant. - Template? You also need to be able to work with clients who sometimes do not like you or resent you. So one of the things most firms look for List | Procedure is some evidence of people skills or leadership skills. The firms want to know you can handle a difficult interpersonal situation -- especially any one involving high stress, deadlines, inter-personal conflicts. You will get asked about Car Salesman, these kinds of leadership scenarios in your interview.

They also look for it in your resume and consulting cover letters too. If you have these experiences, PUT IT IN THE RESUME. Privacy Of Patient Ppt Download? It is a big mistake if you do not. These experiences can include: * Specific experiences at a particular job (especially people-skill type accomplishments that might not normally be valued by other employers in that industry, but would be valued by Resume consulting firms.) The more technical your background, the more important it is to emphasize these leadership and people skills. If you have a PhD in Physics from MIT and & Security Ppt Download have been published 10 times, this is no guarantee of an interview. Here's why. With a PhD in Physics from MIT, it is assumed you have the analytical skills to Examples, do the quantitative aspect of the consulting job.

But now the firms want to Mission Driving :: Step-By-Step, know if you can work with people. or if you are a brilliant but arrogant ass. In your resume or CV, you want to deliberately emphasize team work opportunities, leadership experiences, public speaking experiences, conflict resolution, people management, and team management type experiences. Now if you had a PhD in Car Salesman Examples Physics but also did sales jobs to pay your bills during school and you were the top producing sales person, that would be intriguing. and clearly someone worth interviewing. In other words, you need to Guest Template | Procedure Template, be the OPPOSITE of the stereotype for Car Salesman Resume your area of academic study. If you are an English major, the assumption will be you are good with people but lousy with numbers. On your resume, you need to prove the opposite to be true. 5) High Achievement Career Experiences (Proportional to Length of Career) For applicants of all types (undergrad, post-MBA, experienced hires), the firms are looking for Summary Resume Http an impressive (career trajectory vs. length of career) ratio. So if you've worked 1 year in your career, they want to see 1 impressive year. If you've worked 10 years, they want to see 10 impressive years.

Things to emphasize in describing job experiences: * Emphasize OUTCOMES, not just responsibilities. * When possible, quantify your accomplishments with numbers. * Don't write everything you did on the job, focus on what is most relevant to consulting firms. For example, if you have a very technical degree, really good math test scores, 4 years of work experience in a very technical field in a very technical role, it is a waste of space to Resume Examples - Template, spend too much time emphasizing your technical accomplishments. Use those bullets to emphasize business results (derived from your technical work), the financial impact, quantify the measurable change in behavior from your work (because of this new system I developed, 8,000 people now get their performance metrics through this system vs. 0 when I started, that sort of thing). If you have a liberal arts background, a liberal arts major, lots of extra-curricular activities where you showed you were a people person. in your job descriptions, emphasize how you built a statistical regression analysis and model to forecast prices of Gold in the commodities market. Or became a self-taught software developer in a particular job. So the For Resume. Of Qualifications key message here is this:

Pick your job description bullet points strategically . You don't have space to put everything you did, so you must focus on emphasizing those things you want to Car Salesman Resume, convey about each job to round out your profile. Another way to balance out which points you choose to emphasize in the bullet points under each job description -- look for the unusual combo. I remember one classmate of mine who interned at Bain. Privacy & Security Information? She was an English major, but took several advanced math classes -- well over my head as a Quantitative Economics Major -- and got perfect grades in - Template each of Thank - 18+ Documents them. Car Salesman? That's an unusual combo. Another way to think about it is something one of my McKinsey colleagues said to Organiser Diagram, Organiser, me. We like to hire engineers with people skills. And we like to hire poets who can do math. If you have an unusual combination of skills, be sure that comes through in your resume.

Bust the Car Salesman Resume - Template stereotype that you might get type cast in. Thoughts on Resume Formatting. Many different formats work, but a few general common sense rules of Driving License Guide For Ca Teens thumb apply: * Put your education experiences at the top. Make sure the name of the school you went to Resume, is easy to read. Whether you've never worked full time or have been in industry 10 years, put the schooling at the top -- it's what resume readers look for first, so don't bury it. (If it is buried, it is assumed that the school name must not be impressive.) No matter how long you have been out of school, put a standardized test score in the education section of your resume.

If it is missing, the assumption is it must be low (otherwise you would know to put it). * List your career experiences in chronological order (most recent job at the top, following education) -- make sure employer names are easy to read. * Keep the resume concise -- 1 page for 5+ Party Guest List Template | Procedure Sample anyone with little work experience, 2 pages max for experienced hires. * Use bullets to save space. Keep the points short and to the point. A good rule of thumb is 2 - 4 bullets per Resume Examples - Template job experience, ideally most bullets being 1 line long. * Make sure the font size is easy to read. Since a size 11 font will vary depending on Spider Diagram Template - Spider Diagram,, which font is Car Salesman Examples used, just make sure the reader can read it. * Make sure to bold all school names and Ceremony Program Template, Printable Programs, employer names. No need to bold your job titles. Recruiters look at employer name first, job title second.

Emphasize the things that will catch a recruiter's eye first, draw them into reading the Resume Examples resume, and then discovering everything else you have to offer. If you worked for a no name employer, but all your clients were famous. list the 5+ Party List Template Template client names (possibly bold them too. might be a little over the top, but at least it will get seen). So if you worked for John Doe Consultants. Car Salesman - Template? but the client you worked with most was Bill Gates or the founders of Google, say that! This is not resume writing, it is marketing! * Do NOT include everything you ever did in your life. The point of a resume is NOT to write a personal biography. The point is to Summary Resume Of Qualifications, SELL YOU. The key to Car Salesman Examples, sales in any format (resume, cold call, powerpoint, sales meeting) is to just show what the customer, or in this case employer, cares about. * Use language and Ppt Download descriptions that the resume reader will understand.

If you did your school work in Spain, but are applying for a job in Paris, do not assume the recruiter in Paris will know what a 9.5 GPA is. explain it is a 9.5 (out of 10.0) GPA. If you won an equivalent of a Nobel Prize in Resume your field, say won XYZ Award - awarded to 1 person out of Summary Resume Summary 10,000 applicants. These are phrases that any resume reader can understand. YOU MUST UNDERSTAND THE AUDIENCE before you write your resume. Do NOT assume they have the sufficient background to appreciate your accomplishments, you need to explain them on your resume. Good luck on your recruiting process.

Also keep in mind that my website has over 500 articles, all on - Template, the topic of For Resume. Summary Of Qualifications Http case interviews. If you are looking for Examples - Template more information on a specific topic, just go to: If you found this post useful, I suggest becoming a registered member (it's free) to 5+ Party List | Procedure Template Sample, get access to the materials I used to pass 60 out of 61 case interviews, land 7 job offers, and end up working at McKinsey. Members get access to 6 hours of Car Salesman Examples video tutorials on case interviews, the actual frameworks I used to You Letter To Employer - 18+ Free Documents, pass my interviews, and over Resume 500 articles on case interviews. To get access to Mission Driving School :: Step-By-Step Guide For Ca Teens, these free resources, just fill out the form below: Note: All registrations require you to confirm your email address.

Please type your email address carefully, entering your email also subscribes you to Resume - Template, my Case Secrets Email Newsletter. This article was great Victor! The breakdown and Summary Resume Of Qualifications Http examples were especially useful. I follow your site fervently and find your insights and advice really authentic. Car Salesman Examples - Template? I have a few questions if you would be able to give me some advice. I would absolutely love to work at Mckinsey (NYC office, because that is & Security Information Ppt Download where I am from). Car Salesman - Template? I dont plan on applying anytime soon but am trying to Driving School :: Step-By-Step Guide, steer my career strategy towards an eventual move into Consulting. I am currently working for a fortune 100 engineering company (Deere Co.) as a Product Engineer and am planning to get a Mba from one of the top 5 schools. My concern is if I do make it to the one of the schools and then apply for Resume a spot at Mckinsey, would my company and Mba school be enough brand naming for me to Of Patient Information, be considered? In regards to GPA, my undergraduate GPA was quite low although I still managed to acquire a job at Resume Examples Deere which is consistantly considered a top engineering company. Also I went to a top 10 Engineering school (Purdue University), but not top 3 like MIT.

Would these things be detrimental to my future application? I will have about 3 years of Privacy & Security Information work experience by the time I am ready to start my Mba. I was hoping that if I can secure a high GPA at Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template the top Mba school, then I could use that for my GPA on the resume. Lastly I feel that I have great social skills in addition to my analytical prowess due to me being an Engineer. Although I am quite technical I have a varying array of interests, ranging from quantum physics/mathematics to economics to immigrant identity in the western cultures to cultural/social processes of thought in 5+ Party Template | Procedure Template eastern cultures compared to Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template, western and Guest List Template Template Sample the art of Comedy. Would any of this be relevant to Resume Examples - Template, making me stand out as unique?

Im sorry for the obnoxiously long comment lol, but I am hungry for some direction in my endeavor to get back home with the great prestige and Guest List Template opportunity of working for Mckinsey and Car Salesman am trying to get the best strategy to do so. Thanks for all the Template - Spider Diagram, help so far. Short answer: When you have a Harvard MBA, a lot is Car Salesman Examples forgiven or forgotten. If you have a top 5 mba and do well, have a strong GMAT score, a less competitive pre-mba can be compensated for. Information? Yes, it is noticed ó but if the overall trajectory of your resume is strongly upwards, it can be a compensating factor. It might not be enough to Resume - Template, get into Ceremony Program Template, Wedding Programs,, the top 3 firms, but certainly the rest of the top 10 is Car Salesman Examples a definite possibility. The GMAT score will be crucial for you. The interpretation you want the reader to Spider Organiser - Spider Diagram,, have is 1) smart enough to have gone to harvard for undergrad, but for whatever reason the opportunity didnít exist for this person at Resume Examples - Template that time. In terms of the low undegrad gpa at Privacy & Security Of Patient Information a non target school, the interpretation you hope for is the person was smart, but lazy as an undergradÖ and for a variety of reasons, got serious and Car Salesman - Template the more recent accomplishments and test scores reflect being smart with the work ethic.

You donít want the undergrad gpa to be interpreted as that was the Thank You Letter Download Free Documents best the person could have done. The person worked as hard as possible and Car Salesman - Template the maximum performance the personís intellect was capable of was the low gpa. Now if that happens to Of Qualifications Http, be true, it will most likely be reflected in Car Salesman - Template a gmat score in a range similar to the undergrad gpa. But if the GMAT score is substantially higher than the undergrad GPA and the mba GPA is excellent, the Diagram Organiser - Spider interpretation (which they will never public admit) is the person was smart but lazy in - Template college. (Or smart but suffered from illness while in college, or had some family tragedy, or some other non-intellect factor) Action Items: GMAT 720+, get into top 5 mba, graduate at top 20% of your class. This is Spider Diagram Organiser great! But do I have no real chance at the top three firms, even if I accomplish the said action items? I have become very keen on being able to Examples - Template, work at Mckinsey and from many of the stories I have read on your site it seems that people who have not gone to target schools as undergrad were still able to Guide, work at the top 3 firms. Car Salesman Resume - Template? I was under the impression that if I worked hard enough with all the Template material and advice you provide and also network well at one of the top 5 Mba programs, that I would have a fighting chance.

I mean I know that nothing is definite, but your opinion as a former Mck interviewer is obviously very potent and relevant. If my future application with all the things I am trying to accomplish is still by your standards not up to par, I have to respect that. Car Salesman - Template? I know you always say that anything could happen and to & Security, find my own way is key but knowing your experience as a resume screener and interviewer, I canít help but re-evaluate. Car Salesman? Still, I do intend on trying and striving towards a spot at the top and if it doesnít happen then I will still have all my accomplishments to fall back on. Summary Of Qualifications? Anything you can give me so to bolster my future candidacy would be of immense worth and focus, this is the path I have set out and Car Salesman Resume Examples my determination to go to - 18+, Mck is absolute.

Thanks Victor for the direction, I will fervently strive to one day be on your success stories section. Hi Victor! As an undergraduate student applying for consulting internships for next summer, I found this article incredibly helpful. I have one question about the standardized test scores Ė I have 5ís on both Calculus AP tests and both the language and - Template literature AP tests. These scores are better than my SAT scores in math and Thank You Letter To Employer Free critical reasoning Ė would it be acceptable to use my AP scores on my resume for the standardized test section? Hey Victor, I have been reading your articles all summer and they are super insightful! Question: Would any of the Car Salesman Examples - Template firms hire someone with a B.A. majoring in Biology and English who is medical school bound? I am going to medical school September 2015, and have a gap year. I ultimately want to work in a place like McKinsey after pursuing an Diagram - Spider Diagram,, MD and getting some clinical experience. How should I proceed?

Do you have any advice on Car Salesman Examples, moving from IT/HR consulting to Strategy consulting? Outside of going back to get an MBA or other advanced degree, Iíve heard the paths are extremely limited. I have an undergrad degree in aeronautical engineering from an overseas university with a 7.00/10.00 GPA, and Iím currently working on my Masterís in Aerospace Engineering at Penn State University. My GPA will only be around 3 when Iím done, however I have 710/800 in Quants and 700/800 in For Resume. Summary Of Qualifications Verbal from my SAT in senior year of high school. I also have 800/800 in Quants and 740/800 in Verbal on the GRE when I applied to grad school. I have realized only after coming to grad school that engineering isnít what I really want. I have pretty good critical thinking and analytical skills. And I have been told my communication skills are very good too. I have been thinking hard about consulting over the past several months and I think consulting would be a great fit for Car Salesman Resume me.

What do you think are my chances of Resume Summary Of Qualifications Http getting a top 10 company to give me an interview shot with the above criteria? What else besides the - Template GRE and SAT scores would I need to offset that bad GPA? Iím looking to :: Step-By-Step License Guide For Ca, attack all other areas of my profile as much as possible so I would really appreciate your feedback on this. Thanks! Thank you for Car Salesman Resume - Template this great site too! Helpful and insightful article. Ceremony? You have answered all my questions. Car Salesman Resume - Template? I have fired blanks all the Summary Summary Of Qualifications time with Consulting companies though I considered myself well suited Ė Executive management experience more than 15 years management and Examples project management experiences, two masters degree Ė one cum laude from Summary Resume Summary Http, private college in my home country. Resume? Re-reading your article suggest, i have no chance in hell in landing that consulting career with a big consulting house.

What a pity. Should post-college graduates abridge resume to 1 page? In terms of resume length, the rough rule of thumb is one page per decade of Mission Driving School :: Step-By-Step License Guide Teens post college work experience. I am working as a procurement research analyst in a start up company in India. The company I work for is 8 years old but all our clients are billion dollar global companies including the fortune 500 companies. I have 3 years work experience after an MBA from Car Salesman Resume Examples, a state level top b-school.

I am aiming at the big 4. Do I have a chance? Resume might not be as impressive as Harvard but I will give my best in the interview. My question is Resume Of Qualifications Http am I even in the race? Itís hard to tell. The easiest test is to look at other graduates for your business school to see if any are working at the too 4 consulting firms. Just wanted to give you some Kudos for that helpful article. Greetings from Germany, I am a mech engineer with a Masters from a top 15 school in the US and a bachelors from a top 10 (non-IIT) school in India. I moved into IT through a scholarship by NIH and have been with a not-for-profit managing their entire IT department (13 million) since. Iíve been admitted in SBS (Oxford) for a MBA.

What are my chances of working with one of the top three consulting firms? Does a not for Examples - Template profit background and non-branded background rule me out You Letter Download as a candidate? Hey Victor, Iím an - Template, undergrad at berkeleys business school but the problem is I transferred from community college. Berkeleys undergrad biz school is super hard to get into, about 6% Acceptancce rate. If I do well at berkeley will any of the top consulting firms even give me a chance? Please feel free to be honest. Thanks. By itself, I donít think it is a deal killer. But, you will have to do well at Cal and realistically better than you normally would if you went their directly from Driving School :: Step-By-Step Guide Teens, high school. My college roommate at Stanford was a community college transfer. He was a Stanford Computer Science major with a 4.0 GPA ó needless to say nobody cared how he got into Stanford, only how he performed as he left.

Incidentally, the ďstoryĒ you want to imply (assuming it is true) is Car Salesman - Template that you went to community college to 5+ Party Guest, save money (which most consider an acceptable reason to go) but were qualified to attend an elite university (and your high gpa at the elite university is indicative of your ability to Car Salesman Resume, perform at Privacy & Security Ppt Download a high level). The ďI couldnít afford itĒ is a much more acceptable ďexcuseĒ than ďI wasnít Ďsmartí enough to get inĒ. Resume? It would help to have a super high SAT, GMAT or GRE score too. Thank so much for the reply victor. For haas business there is a curved GPA, do you think they will take that into Ceremony Template, Ceremony, consideration if I donít have a 4.0? I think I should have a 3.75-3.8 is that ok? Thatís pretty good if itís a STEM (science, technology, engineering or math) type major. Resumes get reviewed on the whole picture.

You donít need everything to be perfect, but if one thing is low something else on the resume needs to stand out as a compensating factor. Resume? So a low GPA with a perfect GRE score might still get considered if a good explanation for the low GPA came along with it. A less prestigious school with a #1 rank amongst all students would often still get considered. My consulting resume toolkit includes a dozen or so resume grading calculators. You can find the Sample You Letter To Employer - 18+ Documents link somewhere on Resume - Template, the website, probably at the top. If everything across the board is poor, thatís a deal breaker. If one thing is poor, but the rest exceptional thatís a possibility. If everything is above average, thatís a possibility, etcÖ Numerous ways to get considered. Also have you ever heard of people getting a job at a top consulting firm (MBB) with a lower GPA? 3.5 or higher is the norm, under that would require exceptional circumstances.

I am a mech engineer with a Masters from a top 15 school in the US and a bachelors from a top 10 (non-IIT) school in India. Of Patient Ppt Download? I moved into Examples - Template, IT through a scholarship by Program Wedding Programs, Ceremony NIH and have been with a not-for-profit managing their entire IT department (13 million) since. Iíve been admitted in SBS (Oxford) for a MBA. Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template? What are my chances of working with one of the Mission School For Ca top three consulting firms? Does a not for profit background and non-branded background rule me out as a candidate? The non profit background does not rule you out. The lack of brand is an issue, but can be compensated for.

Oxford is Car Salesman Resume a target school so that is going to be of enormous help for you. The lack of brand employers can be compensated in 5+ Party Guest List Sample few different ways. If your prior work achievements were exceptional, that will help. Your performance at Oxford will be heavily scrutinized. I donít know if they track and Examples publish school rank, but if you were in the top 10% I think you would get interview opportunities. The final compensatory factor would be to network, meet people in Summary Resume Http the firms you want to target, and Examples get them to recommend to their recruiting departments to interview you. The above maximizes your chances of getting the interview.

Then you have to Template, perform exceptionally well on the case. It can not just be an marginally acceptable performance (which someone with a stronger background might be able to get away with in the first round), in your case it really needs to be exceptional starting in Examples - Template round 1 to offset the perceived risk of hiring someone without a brand employer background. From an interviewers point of Template view, it is - Template extremely, extremely difficult to turn down a candidate in round 1 who did exceptionally well. It is VERY hard to do that. If there is & Security Ppt Download a resume issue, the thinking most interviews will do is they will struggle with the decision, and then decide to pass the decision to the round 2 interviewers. I should point out I have received many emails from people with backgrounds with a perceived negative item or two (some much ďworseĒ than yours). They have gotten into the top firms. Car Salesman Resume Examples? BUT, and I canít stress this enough, they were EXTREMELY motivated and probably put 100 Ė 200 (the highest Iíve ever seen is 300+ hours) hours into List, case prep and several hundred hours into networking. It can be done, but the ďworseĒ the resume (and I donít consider your resume bad, the Oxford piece is quite the accomplishment but the lack of brand employers is a valid issue in Car Salesman Resume Examples the eyes of 5+ Party List Template Sample consulting firms) the harder you just worker AND very importantly the EARLIER you must start.

If possible start 6 and preferably 12 months earlier than when you plan to interview. That is one of the common traits among those who got offers from the top 3 with some kind of disadvantaged resume. Flat out, they wanted the offer badly and Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template were willing to put in the effort. Thank you for your reply. I am probably 7 months away from starting school and 14-15 months away from interviewing. What do you recommend I do to get started? I am a slow learner but a hard worker so what should my first step be? Is there a course I can join or should I get started with your videos? Also, Iíve heard the Sample - 18+ Documents term ďnetworkingĒ thrown around a LOT since I got admitted. Is there a good place to learn networking 101? What should I be doing now to get placed a year later?

Thanks so much. Car Salesman Resume? Your reply was very helpful. Do you think regardless of your grades a referral/recommendation from a top employee within the firm can still get you a job within the company? No. It might be possible to Sample You Letter To Employer Download Documents, get a case interview opportunity based solely on the relationship, but absolutely impossible to get the job offer at Car Salesman Resume the top few firms without doing well on the case. From the firmís point of view, there is ENORMOUS risk in Ceremony Template, Printable Wedding Programs, putting someone without certain skills in front of Resume Examples a client. The fear is that one mis-hire could ruin the reputation of the Privacy & Security Information entire firm by saying something really ďstupidĒ (e.g., in the firmsí eyes that would be stating a conclusion that is logically and factually incorrect). When I was a McKinsey consultant, if I made a major error with a client, it will not be described as ďVictor made a mistakeĒ, it will be described by the client as ďMcKinsey screwed upĒ.

THAT is why the firms are so intensely focused on Car Salesman Examples, the case interview. Summary For Resume. Of Qualifications? That are totally paranoid about the - Template scenario I just described. Hey Victor, thanks for letting me know. Summary Resume Of Qualifications Http? What books do you recommend for case interviews? Or any tools that would help with acing case interviews? Thanks. Iím a bit biased on Car Salesman, this one. I recommend my own book Case Interview Secrets. For more advanced training, my Look Over my Shoulder program is very effective. Thank You Letter Documents? It contains recordings of 20+ hours of actual case interviews with candidates with my real time analysis and critique of the candidates performance.

It also specifically compares the differences between poor, average,and exceptional case interview performance so you can see, hear and experience the differences between performance levels. Also if you do well in - Template your interview (that is if you got an interview through an Sample Thank You Letter - 18+ Free, employee) and your grades arenít top notch, say maybe a. 3.4-3.5 can you still secure a job at one of the three (MBB)? Yes absolutely. I had a 3.5 GPA coming out of Stanford. I would really try to get or keep your GPA at 3.5 or higher. It also depends on the selectivity of your school.

So a person with a 3.5 GPA from an Car Salesman, ivy would get looked at and could get in if they did well on 5+ Party Template | Procedure Template Sample, the case. Someone from a top 200 university would be expected to Examples - Template, have a higher GPA to compensate for lack of Summary Resume Summary ivy. - Template? The same is Sample Thank Free true if the major is not technical or math oriented. An English major is expected to have a higher GPA than an engineer because the bias in consulting is that math oriented majors are harder than the liberal arts oriented one. Hi victor, I have an upcoming interview at Bain for a summer associate intern position but Iím struggling to find the Resume appropriate review and Summary Of Qualifications prep materials. Car Salesman Resume? Do you think case in point would be a good place to start? Or is it a bit advanced for a summer intern interview? Do you recommend any additional materials other than your videos (which are awesome btw!!) but Iím just stressing and want to be as prepared as possible. Thanks!! There is very little difference between undergrad intern and MBA level case interviews. The standard is high mainly because clients demand it regardless of Mission Driving School License Guide Teens whether a consultant is an intent, and undergrad, or a MBA.

Logic is logic. Math is math. Accurate conclusions are accurate conclusions. In terms of resources, I would recommend the following listed in increasing order of cost. My free videos and Car Salesman Resume - Template email newsletter. My Look Over My Shoulder Program Ė recordings and analysis of Sample - 18+ Download 20+ case interviews with actual candidates http://www.caseinterview.com/loms. Doing 1:1 practice with a case coach (a former Bain, BCG or McKinsey interviewer) http://www.CaseInterviewCoach.com. In addition I would recommend up to 50 practice interviews with a practice partner. If you donít have one locally you can search for one at http://www.caseinterviewpartner.com. I would recommend practicing with partners after LOMS and before using case coaching. Oh also sorry I forgot to mention Iím an undergraduate not an Car Salesman Examples - Template, MBA student.

Thanks! Thank you for the helpful advice. I have sent an online application to Deloitte for their NextGen Leaders program and Sample - 18+ Documents their minimum GPA requirement is a 3.2 according to their website. I am currently a community college student that will be transferring to a CSU in the fall. Iím anticipating a 3.4 overall GPA at the time of transfer.

Is that worthy for a community college student that is prior military with no extra curricular work? Any advice or recommendations to help myself stand out? Thank you. I am an Resume Examples, undergraduate student at the University of Minnesota majoring in B.S Economics. I do have internship experiences in Information equity research, consulting and Examples investment banking. My current GPA is Sample Thank To Employer Free Documents 3.5.

However, I do not think my school brand is Examples - Template well know comparing to Driving Guide Teens, those Top schools. Also, two of the internship experiences that I had is from China which I think itís not a big brand for US employer. The other one that I am working ( Consulting Intern) is a small consulting firm in Minneapolis which it is not really well known big brand as well. 1.Is that mean I am in really disadvantage situation among those applicants 2. Car Salesman Resume? Do you have any recommendation for Thank You Letter - 18+ Download Free Documents me to improve my chance of Car Salesman - Template being accept into the firm ? Hi Victor, I have been working in science research / project management for several years, but am now looking to To Employer, switch into MC. Do you have any advice on additional ways to - Template, enhance my resume and training prior to Program Template, Printable Ceremony, applying?

My education background includes a Masters (science) from Cambridge. Car Salesman Examples? I have also previously started an entrepreneur business venture. If Iíve had a total of 6-7 experiences (including pre-undergrad full time work and college internships). Is it necessary to include everything in my resume? An interviewer (non-US, non-top 50) brought it up during an interview and said I should, even if it means exceeding the recommended 1 page length. Also, say I am working for a startup that isnít doing that great and so decide to take another job (while still working for the startup), do I need to mention both as my current experience in my resume? What I am trying to understand is if a resume is indeed just a marketing document where you provide only the most relavent information or if its mandatory to list every position youíve ever held. Just for full disclosure, I always mention all my work experiences during the List Template interview process itself (I am not really trying to hide anything).

Thanks a ton. Really appreciate the help. I think most people are somewhat split on this decision. I personally see the resume as a marketing document. Everything on there should be accurate, but I personally think it is fine to Examples - Template, exclude things that arenít relevant.

For example, I do some volunteer work at my kids school. I helped them remove weeds from the Ppt Download garden next to the playground. Resume Examples? One could argue it is For Resume. Summary Of Qualifications Http a ďjobĒ. But it isnít relevant to my reader. Depending on Examples - Template, your experience level, itís customary to include coursework you took in Mission Driving :: Step-By-Step For Ca school Ė though not practical to Examples - Template, list every course. Thatís my personal take.

Again, a number of people will disagree with this point of view. You should make your own decision on this based on 5+ Party List | Procedure, what you are comfortable with. First of all, I really appreciate everything you put on the website. All of it is very useful and immensely informative. I d0 have one question that I am curious about.

My resume lists all of the things you listed above: A high GPA while committing over 40 hours a week to coaching/volunteering with various organizations. A big brand name internship as a sophomore, where I did some pretty meaningful things (as meaningful as an intern can do). Plenty of Car Salesman Resume leadership/team experience. I havenít taken a GMAT/SAT ever (took ACT as a sophomore in HS), but feel confident about my ability to Organiser Organiser, do well on Car Salesman Examples, them if I were needed to list them. However, I go to The Ohio State University, which is not exactly prestigious (although it is For Resume. Of Qualifications climbing up the rankings every yearÖ Go Bucks!). Whatís the likelihood that my resume hits the trash folder because of the Resume name of the school at the top?

Is there anything I can do to still get an interview opportunity despite my school not being top 10? Lots of Privacy Of Patient Information networking, I presume? If I donít get a job because I interview and perform worse than the people they hire, I can sleep easy at night. - Template? Itís going to nag at me if I donít even get a swing at the plate because of my school. Anything youíve got would really be appreciated. Your assessment of the situation is fairly accurate.

There is a huge bias against non target schools. Spider Template? Networking is the key and also targeting in your case offices based in Car Salesman Resume Examples Ohio. You will have an easier time get a chance (though still a long shot) from someone in an Ohio office than say New York or Boston. Other than, anticipate getting an informal case interview by phone or over coffee (unannounced) to determine if someone you meet wants to risk their reputation by recommending you for a real interview. You have to nail the case in the interview for Sample Thank - 18+ Download Free Documents the interview. You basically would have to blow them away with your case performance to provide the Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template extra margin of Template comfort they would need to Resume Examples, endorse you despite the non target school on your resume.

Your article is very helpful. So my path is a bit non-traditional since I was previously a pre-med and graduated with a Neuroscience degree at For Resume. Resume Of Qualifications Http UCLA. However, after a year of deliberation, I have decided to Car Salesman Resume, pursue the consulting path, particularly healthcare consulting. I did get an 800 in the math portion of the SATís and my quantitative skills have always been very strong but I do not have much coursework at Ceremony Program Printable Wedding Ceremony UCLA that further demonstrates that. While I am applying to jobs, I have been considering taking some math or analytical courses that will increase my marketability. Do you have any thoughts or suggestions about my approach? All of this is Resume Examples very new to me but your website has been a huge help! Thanks so much and looking forward to Of Patient, your response, From a consulting firms point of view, if you got an 800 on the math SAT and presuming your in Car Salesman Examples - Template major gpa in Driving :: Step-By-Step License Guide Teens a hard science was pretty good, itís safe to say you can add, subtract, multiply, divide and Car Salesman Resume Examples calculate a percentage. (Truly that is 95% of the math used in Ceremony Program Printable Wedding Ceremony consulting). If youíve taken organic chemistry (at my school that was a weeder class for premed) or any of the core science classes thatís sufficient. No need to take math classes unless you want to for your own knowledge sake.

If you were going to take more for you own benefit, I would recommend an intro statistics class and Resume an intro economics class ó both quite useful even outside of consulting. Generally 800 math SAT is the end of the assessment as to whether or not this candidate do arithmetic. (at least at the resume screening portion of the process). If I were screening your resume, I would presume you could do math. Sample Thank To Employer Download Free Documents? I would be curious to Car Salesman Resume - Template, see your gpa in neuroscience. Did you excel or did you just get by? UCLA may not be a target school for Ceremony Program Template, Wedding Ceremony most firms, so to be considered it would really help if you had a very high gpa from ucla ó 3.9 or above ideally. So the lack of ivy is a bigger constraint for your background than lack of a math class on your transcript. Pardon my choice of words (but it reflects how these resume screeners think), are you UCLA average? or are you UCLA exceptional? The former probably not going to get an interview, the latter is a definite possibility. At the ivyís the Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template presumption is the List Template | Procedure Template Sample talent pool is Resume a higher caliber, so the firms will go lower on the gpa scale.

So a 3.5 Harvard is equal if not better than a 3.9 UCLA (as an Guest Template | Procedure, illustrative example). A 4.0 UCLA in hard sciences, with 800 math SAT + a few interesting experiences with brand name employers on resume thatís worth a resume reader taking a closer look. Thanks so much for your helpful article! I just have a question after reading it: Iím a Stanford undergrad and Examples - Template have the great brand name, so now Iím wondering how to differentiate myself in my extracurriculars. What sorts of extracurriculars do you think would be impressive? Iím currently a chair in student council and am team lead in the Business Association of Stanford Entrepreneurial Students. Are there other areas youíd recommend I get involved in? Iíve also competitively played the piano in high school (performed at You Letter Download Documents Carnegie Hall and won other awards), but I stopped playing in college because I thought that student council and other leadership might be more relevant to consulting recruiting, and that continued involvement with piano might not be as important for Car Salesman Examples - Template consulting. 5+ Party Guest List Sample? Is this true?

Thank you so much! I think you are somewhat asking the wrong question. What extra curricular activities do you enjoy enough to Car Salesman Examples - Template, be really good at? In general firms like activities that are demonstrate inter personal skills through actual achievement in Driving School :: Step-By-Step License the role. So a ground sounding extra curricular where you did nothing meaningful doesnít help you much. If you landed a bunch of great extra curricular titles, but didnít actually have to interact with anyone in those roles, it will be very obvious at the interview that your inter personal skills seem inconsistent with the Examples - Template interpersonal skills your resume would imply. So pursue meaningful opportunities that give you the Sample - 18+ Free Documents opportunity to Resume Examples - Template, work with others and get much practice doing so. Itís important to BE good, not just LOOK good.

Also to me it is impressive you played at Carnegie Hall. School :: Step-By-Step License Guide For Ca Teens? Itís different. Resume Examples? Is it directly relevant to consulting? No. Resume Http? Does it stand out as different? Yes.

Consulting firms like people who can achieve things that are hard for the general public to achieve. Car Salesman Resume Examples? It shows a track record of focus, commitment, discipline, etcÖ in many cases the Summary specific field that achievement is in is less important than the Car Salesman Resume fact that you achieved something difficult to achieve. If you won an Olympic medal, that too would be interesting even if not relevant. The hard part in the resume screening part of the Ceremony Template, Printable process (see my consulting resume toolkit for Resume Examples - Template more specific details and Sample To Employer actual resume examples) is you need something that sticks out Car Salesman - Template as different from the crowd. When I was at Stanford, 400 undegrads applied. My guess is Sample 40 or so got 1st round interviews, 6 got offers. Car Salesman Resume Examples? Keep in mind many of the 400 didnít even know what a case interview was. My extra curriculars were being the Mission :: Step-By-Step For Ca Teens Photo Editor of the Daily and later the yearbook. Hardly directly relevant to consulting, but it was what was interesting to me at the time, I worked 30 hours a week at it, and Resume - Template got to Spider Diagram Organiser Diagram, Organiser, cover some breaking news events (riots/protests, vice presidential candidate announcements, etc..). The range of who gets interviews can be quite wide. Try not to Resume Examples, over think it and to game the system.

Instead, focus on developing your skills in your major as well as leadership / people skills that cross majors. Also it doesnít hurt to do what you enjoy if it means you will put more effort into it and developed greater competence at it. On your resume, DEFINITELY put on the bottom that you played Carnegie Hall. It wonít get you the interview, but if you are borderline things like that can tip things in your favor. How would a MPP or a MA in Regional Studies from Harvard compare to MBA graduates if I am going into Driving :: Step-By-Step License For Ca Teens, consulting after a number of years in government service from a country other than the US? (You mentioned earlier that HBS on - Template, resume will likely cause other factors to be forgotten, I assume other Harvard degrees are less prestigious?) Also, I am not sure if you are familiar with Japanese schools but how would you say Kyoto graduates compare with Tokyo grads or Keio grads vs Waseda grads? Are they on par on 5+ Party Guest List Template | Procedure, the prestige factor or are there differences? The MPP ore regional studies from Harvard is Car Salesman Examples less prestigious than the Of Qualifications Http bschool. It also depends what country and office you apply to. If you apply for the Boston office, you have no differentiation. If you apply for the Moscow office, any Harvard is better than no Harvard.

Iím not familiar with the Japanese universities and unfortunately would not be able to Car Salesman Examples - Template, comment on Spider Organiser Diagram, Organiser, that. I am currently an architecture student at one of the top ranked public schools in the US. Examples? I have recently come across the Ceremony Template, Printable Wedding consulting industry, and, after a lot of research and thought, I have decided that consulting is an - Template, industry I would like to go into Summary For Resume. Resume Summary Http, after graduation. I am wondering what I can do to be able to prepare myself so that my resume is attractive to the Big 3 so that I can secure an Car Salesman Examples - Template, interview. I still have 3 years left at school (I am in a 5 year program) and switching majors is not an option at this point. I have a 3.75 GPA, my math SAT was a 740, and I have held numerous leadership positions. I am currently the president of the School of Architecture council, and Ceremony Program Printable Ceremony I represent our college at the University-wide level.

I am also planning on founding a community service program related to architecture this fall. I have great people skills and was voted Class Favorite and Examples Most Likely to Succeed in high school senior year. What can I do to become more appealing to Spider Diagram Organiser - Spider, consulting firm recruits? I have no business background and I am afraid this will hurt me. I have looked up many websites to teach myself some business terminology and Car Salesman concepts. There is a business certificate that we can complete along with our major, and I am wondering if this would be worthwhile. Thank you so much, I look forward to hearing back from you.

If your university has a business school or campus clubs than span schools within the university, consider jointing some business or entrepreneurship oriented ones. Yes it hurts you to Driving License Guide, not have some indication of Resume - Template interest in Ceremony Program Printable Wedding Programs, business in your background. Certificates carry very little weight generally. The issue is two fold: 1) looking like you have interest in a business career, and 2) actually understanding basic business concepts. Car Salesman Examples - Template? The first helps you get the interview, the latter to pass it. You canít be googling every term you here in an interview. Itís just not practical. For the Spider Organiser Template - Spider Organiser former, consider business oriented activities. For the latter, start reading Bloomberg Business Week and Fortune magazine. The first for short news articles, that latter for Resume Examples indepth profile articles that go into Spider Diagram Template - Spider, depth about the issues of specific companies.

Google any terms or concepts you do not understand. Other options. Take an intro to economics class as an elective, maybe a financial analysis classÖ Both to add to your knowledge and to Car Salesman, indicate interest. Many free classes online on these topics as well. Hello, I was recently accepted to the No. 15 US News Business School (UT-Austin) for the Part-Time program. Driving For Ca Teens? I have 4 years work experience, a 3.3 Undergrad GPA in Car Salesman Resume - Template Aerospace Engineering (Texas AM), currently work as a Software Engineer at You Letter To Employer - 18+ Free Documents Dell, and a 670 GMAT (44Q, 38V). Iíve taken the GMAT once before and scored a 560 (33Q, 34V), but this time, I really studied hard for the GMAT (Manhattan GMAT). I really want to enter the world of management consulting at one of the Big 4 (not MBB, but Deloitte, PwC, KPMG or EY), and plan to supplement my low GMAT with extracurricular activities (Graduate Consulting Club), networking, and planning to switch career trajectories in about a year to a hybrid engineering-finance role at Dell before I graduate.

Should I retake GMAT given my profile?? Itís been weighing heavily on my mind.. Thanks in advance! For MBB you really need over Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template 700 on the GMAT. Since your goal is Big4, youíre probably in the range at 670. Whether or not to Ceremony Program Template, Programs, Ceremony, retake it depends on your opportunity cost and likelihood of improving the score by - Template a significant enough amount to warrant the Spider Diagram Organiser Template - Spider Diagram, effort. Car Salesman - Template? My sense is retaking the GMAT is probably not a high return on investment activity especially since you said you already studied hard for Template it. Car Salesman Resume? Networking harder will probably be a better use of your time as well as rounding out your resume and skill set with more people-oriented activities. When I see your profile, through Big4 eyes, I canít help but wonder if I could put you in front of Diagram Diagram, a client. If a client says you are wrong and does so in an aggressive or slightly combative way, will you be able to confidently and respectfully disagree and persuade the client otherwise? If a group of junior clients on your team are bickering, do you have skills to smooth out the situation?

These are the larger questions that pop into my mind based on Car Salesman Resume Examples, your profile. I just completed my undergraduate in Business with a top notch school in India( But I am afraid no one outside India would be aware of the Resume prestige on my institution.) I wish to work for 2-3 years, then apply for Resume Examples an ivy league school in USA, after which I aim to eventually get into Privacy Of Patient Ppt Download, MBB. Now the problem is, in India undergraduates are generally not offered good roles. The big firms such as MBB or big 4 only give research related jobs at this stage. And I have a offer for an analyst at a small firm. Its a smaller name, but it is better work and it is Examples easier to get noticed and promoted. Now, in order to achieve my long term goal of Program Printable Wedding top school + MBB, do you suggest I take the job at the smaller firm but better work, or should I look for Examples - Template a job in the bigger firm but bad work? For cross border careers, people with well known brand name employers on their resume have a major advantage. You have to decide if the benefit out Template, Wedding weights the Car Salesman Resume downside of potentially less interesting work.

In addition, it helps to School Guide Teens, be at Car Salesman - Template peace with your choice even if the second step of your career doesnít work as planned. No easy answers on this one. Iím thinking of pursuing a masters degree in management science instead of an MBA; simply because an MBA is longer and I do not want to Spider Diagram Organiser Template - Spider Diagram,, work for 3 or 5 years before I do my masters. Would this affect my prospects of Car Salesman Resume - Template getting a consulting job at any of the MBB companies or any top consulting company? Thanks in advance. Yes. Most likely you would be slotted with the 5+ Party List Sample post undergrad candidates.

Having a masters with no work experience doesnít qualify you to lead teams of analysts and client teams consisting of Vice President level professionals. It doesnít negatively impact your ability to get into Car Salesman Examples - Template, the top firms, just the level at which your enter. Does one page CV applies to Organiser Template Diagram, Organiser, UK office applicants (from UK university)? I wanted your opinion on a quick question. If I am listing my SAT score on my resume, would it be sufficient to just include the math score? I got an 800 on the math but 650 in reading and 730 in writing and Car Salesman - Template Iím not sure if the For Resume. Resume reading score in particular would raise any kind of red flag (if other applicantsí resumes have for instance very high Math and reading scores). You should list the full score and all the sub scores. Resume Examples? If you only list one sub score, they will either send it back to you to complete or just reject the app assuming the others scores are too low. As an You Letter Free, undergrad, I just wanted to ask if there was any real downside to excluding the Car Salesman SAT score. When I had a McKinsey consultant look into my resume (without the Program Template, Printable SAT score), he made no mention of Car Salesman Resume Examples a SAT score. Sample To Employer Download? I actually just graduated from college after this summer semester, and Car Salesman Resume was thinking it might not make sense given I took the Summary Summary Http test about 4-5 years ago and have already graduated from college.

What do you think? Thank you for all your help! Much appreciated! Best case, a recruiter will call you to ask you for Examples - Template your numbers. Worst case, they reject you out right assuming the For Resume. Of Qualifications Http scores must be poor. The former is likely if everything else looks good on your resume, the latter if everything else isnít strong. On the Examples job analytical performance is extremely highly correlated with math SAT (GMAT, GRE) scores. Victor, I got already on my resume the big brand companies names but for a short period of time (less than a year).

Would you still suggest to keep the brand companies names on my resume? Generally speaking yes as it looks better than being unemployed. & Security Of Patient Information Ppt Download? If it is only for Car Salesman Examples 3 months and it is not clearly an Summary Summary Of Qualifications, internship, then you might want to think twice. Hi. I am a PhD student at Cambridge University, UK. I focus on tropical ecology- this is Car Salesman Resume - Template a science based subject which uses extensive statistical modelling. Prior to this I completed an Ceremony Template, Ceremony, MPhil in Environmental Sciences from Oxford Uni (with a 2.1) and Car Salesman Examples a General Engineering degree. List Template? I will finish my PhD in late 2016.

I would like to work in consulting and specifically target McKinsey. My background is pretty quantitative- perhap not as quantitative as aeronautical engineering but much more quant then liberal arts. I have not done internships ( owing to visa issues) but I have done fieldwork all over Car Salesman - Template SE Asia and built useful links. I have several peer reviewed publications to my name. Should I try to gun for For Resume. Resume Summary Http McKinsey?

Your background seems similar to the background of other McKinsey consultants coming out of a PhD in Europe. I donít know the UK grading system, so I canít comment on your marks. Everything else seems comparable and I would encourage you to apply. Also the level of math used in consulting 90% of the Car Salesman Resume - Template time involves adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing, and calculating percentages. McK looks for quantitative backgrounds not because the math is difficult but rather because those with quantitative backgrounds think in a particular way thatís very useful in Driving License Guide For Ca Teens consulting. I first wanted to comment on Car Salesman - Template, the number of Sample You Letter Download Documents posts you have replied to. Iím really surprised you get back to Car Salesman, so many people! Thatís awesome and greatly appreciated. My first question is whether or not accounting is considered a quantitative enough background for consulting? I see most applicants are in engineering, science, economics, etc.

I have excellent grades and a Masterís in Accounting but I wasnít sure if this was an Wedding Programs, Ceremony, automatic deal breaker. Although I have high grades, leadership, and internship experience, the school I attend has a very clear reputation as a ďparty schoolĒ and is not a target of really any consulting firms (Syracuse University). Could work experience possibly compensate for Car Salesman Resume - Template this and make me a more viable candidate in the future? Thank you so much for Privacy Of Patient your help! Your school will be a bigger issue than your major. Accounting isnít considered an exceptionally quantifiable field from the consulting firms point of view. If you had strong standardized test scores, it would be fine. Networking can compensate for a non target school, a slightly below average GPA, or some other weakness is a candidates application, but it canít compensate for more than one weak spot in Car Salesman Resume Examples most cases. Iíd say the top 3 would most likely be out of Mission Driving :: Step-By-Step License Guide For Ca reach for you. The rest of the top 10 would be a stretch (depending on your overall application) if you networked a lot and did a ton of case prep (several hundred hours between the two activities). My consulting resume toolkit has a resume scoring calculator to estimate the likelihood of your resume getting an interview.

For networking advice, do a search on the site for ďnetworkingĒ and Car Salesman - Template ďnon-target schoolĒ as there are several success stories from others that you can learn from. Thanks for all the useful information. Guest Template | Procedure Template Sample? I am looking to break away from science and start a career in Car Salesman Resume - Template consulting. Program Template, Wedding Programs, Ceremony? I have a BS in psychology from Michigan State with a 3.95 gpa, and am currently working on - Template, a PhD in neuroscience from Information Ppt Download, Penn State College of Medicine (3.5 gpa). 730/800 quantitative on Examples - Template, gre (no sat Ė got started at community college). What are my options and what firms should I be targeting? Should I try for an internship while I still have time?

I obtained a PhD from MIT Aerospace but my GRE was not the highest when I initially applied (Q700/800). Mission :: Step-By-Step License? How much do you think this will work against me when applying to Examples, MBB? Should I re-take the License For Ca Teens GRE just for boosting the numbers? Or should I just focus on polishing my well-earned analytical skills and networking? A PhD in Aerospace from MIT qualifies you do add, subtract, multiply, divide, and calculate percentages which is 90% of the Car Salesman Resume Examples math used in consulting. At this point, I wouldnít worry about the Guest Template GRE score. Make contacts via networking. If you are in a post doc, focus on publishing if thatís a possibility for you. The general rule of Car Salesman Resume thumb is firms want to see an upward sloping career trajectory. You inspired me a lot.

Thank you so much for providing very detailed information about the dosí in a Resume. I am a Masterís student (Industrial Engineering) at UIUC. I am looking for summer internship in For Resume. Resume Summary Http consulting firms. I graduated from Resume Examples - Template, Government College in To Employer Download India. I have couple of Car Salesman Resume Examples leadership experiences and internship experiences in non-consulting background. My GRE quant score is 159/160(78 percentile) and Analytical Writing Score is 4.5/6.0. Privacy & Security Information Ppt Download? In my undergrad, I was in the top 7% of the class.

What can I do to have a career in consulting? Most of your articles mentioned consulting career for undergrads, MBA and PhD students. Examples - Template? What is the Thank You Letter - 18+ Download Free scope for a Masterís student like me? I recently got an email from our graduate coordinator about internship opportunities in Resume Examples - Template Mckinsey. 5+ Party Sample? Could you please suggest the points I should emphasize in my Resume? Do I stand a chance to be considered for Examples the internship? P. Thank You Letter To Employer - 18+ Download Free? S: Thanks much for Resume Examples - Template your book.

I just got that and Program Template, Printable Programs, it is awesome! Thanks for all the great comments. Car Salesman Examples - Template? Iím wondering if MBB is a possibility for 5+ Party List Template | Procedure Sample me- I graduated with a 3.3 gpa from Car Salesman Resume - Template, Emory and majored in Economics/Math. I got a 720 on the GMAT and worked 3 years doing business analytics at a top retailer with 1 promotion. I just joined the Peace Corps to gain some international/volunteer experience and plan on Mission Driving License Teens, attending a top 15 MBA program after. For MBB I am concerned about my undergraduate GPA but would definitely welcome the opportunity to work in an international office if that helps my chances. Realistically, MBB is out of Car Salesman Resume Examples reach with that GPA especially from a non target school. The GPA expectations internationally are often higher, so unfortunately that doesnít help either.

I would suggest targeting the next two tiers of School firms. I will be attending either LBS/Insead/Kellogg for my MBA next fall and was wondering if you could help provide some feedback/guidance on getting into MBB. My background is: 700 gmat, 3.44/4.0 at a US state school, 4 years working in sales marketing roles. Does MBB have minimum gmat requirements? Also if I am unable to secure a consulting internship, are there any other actions I can take to help transition into management consulting? Greatly appreciate any suggestions you have. Thanks. Thanks for your guidance. Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template? I am PhD candidate in 5+ Party List | Procedure Template biotechnology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, GPA :3.9/4.

GRE: 800/800 in Quant. (May 2015, expected graduation) I have worked extensively with various teams, contributed toward 5 publications. Lead on 3 projects for Car Salesman Resume first author publications in reputed peer-reviewed journal. Mission Driving License For Ca Teens? Filed 2 patent applications. Also won 2nd place in Examples business plan event to commercialize our technology. But since my university is Resume Summary Of Qualifications Http not as reputed as ivy league schools, I was not sure if I can make this transition to strategy consulting. Also I do not have an MBA or other formal business degree. Please advise if I should focus on the top firms or next tiers?

Any suggestions from Examples - Template, you would be highly helpful. Thanks a lot, Best Regards,Ruchir Mundra. Thank you for your great articles. I am wondering if MBB is out of reach because I have not yet taken GRE or GMAT even though I have a high GPA and am finishing up my PhD at a top Canadian university. Not necessarily. The purpose of the GMAT and GRE is to have some numerical measure of analytical skills that can be compared across candidates. If your university and Ceremony Template, Wedding Programs, program are well known, and its analytical rigor well understood, it may be sufficient.

McKinsey may ask you to - Template, take the McKinsey Problem Solving Test ó a kind of consulting version of the GMAT to test your quantitative abilities. If you have a high GPA and a school the 5+ Party List Template | Procedure Template Sample MBB firms recognize as a target school and your PhD is in a technical field, the lack of a GRE wouldnít be a deal breaker. Iíve recently applied to MBB for Car Salesman Examples - Template summer internships and I didnít even get an interview! I was pretty surprised because I thought I had most of what was required on this article. I have a little under a 3.8 GPA from an Ivy, and Iím a double major in Summary Http the hard sciences. I have a 750+ Math SAT. I have extracurriculars on campus that show leadership. The particular one Iím in is very time consuming and maybe that wasnít enough just to Examples, have one? I have experience in a research lab and I networked with some people who I knew from the firm (some other people I know who had lower GPA didnít network at all and still got an interview at one of the firms). I donít know where I went wrong! Do you have any thoughts?

Itís impossible to know for sure. At the end of the day, a human being makes the Spider Template - Spider Diagram, Organiser decision and Resume Examples they are not 100% predictable. My best guess in no particular order: 1) resume was not formatted in Ceremony Template, Printable Wedding Programs, Ceremony ideal way such that your vitals stats were actually noticed in the first 5 seconds / the Car Salesman Resume Examples bullet points didnít use the optimal phrasing of your extra curricular or work experiences. 2) your cover letter looked just like everybody else / didnít highlight your vitals in the first paragraph / didnít name drop any big brand names / didnít reference people you met at the firm you applied to. 3) your networking wasnít strong enough such that someone you met informally endorsed you behind the Sample Thank Download Free scenes. For what itís worth, I didnít get any internship interviews either my junior year. I have been using your resources (including Resume ToolKit) for some time found it very useful. Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template? Thanks for the great service you are doing. Iím a PhD candidate in a Top Australian University and Iím planning to apply for Ceremony Program Template, Printable BCG, Bain, and Accenture firms in Australia.

1. What are the Car Salesman Examples - Template differences (if there are any) in Resume and Diagram, Cover letter preparation for Australian consulting firms compared to USA confirms ? 2. Can I mention about my PhD in two sections of the Car Salesman Resume Resume : Education section as an academic qualification and 5+ Party Template Sample Experience section as a demonstration of problem solving and analytical skills. For a PhD you can use a full length academic PhD including all publications (no page limit on CV) or resume. Car Salesman Examples - Template? In a resume, you can list it twice but avoid making it redundant. In experience you might focus on Mission Driving School :: Step-By-Step Guide Teens, your research or teaching duties, in education on dates of attendance relevant test scores in your country and Resume Examples - Template the like. I am currently pursuing my Masters of Science degree in Information Technology from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. In the preceding to my enrollment at HKUST, I worked as a consultant analyst with IBM in India. I am now planning to apply to a few management consulting firms (KPMG, Bain) since I graduate in a few months time. I have a weak GPA ( 3.5/4) and Sample To Employer - 18+ Free scored 320/340 on the GRE. What are my chances of Car Salesman - Template landing an interview at Thank To Employer Download Documents the aforementioned firms?

Also, I will be applying to Resume, IBM for a management consulting post. Will my prior experience of working with them in India put me in a better position than other candidates inspite of my relatively inferior academic performance? Hi Viktor, thanks for the great article. I agree that all these factors make the results quite predictable. Of Qualifications Http? On the other hand side a big plus is always personality; whenever you can transmit that it gives you a great impactÖ

I loved your article!! I have a question though. You have advised us to put people and leadership skills on our resume and Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template said that skills related to conflict resolution and team management help. I have such experiences on-job, but donít know how to Mission Driving License Guide Teens, put them on resume. I canít exactly say that I resolved a conflict between A and B and thus helped the project in X way. Please advice on - Template, how to put such experiences on resume.

Use words like manager, work with colleagues, team member, etcÖ Use words that describe how you interact with people in general. This is especially the case if your job title tends to Mission Driving :: Step-By-Step For Ca Teens, imply you stare at a computer all day and donít normally interact with people. Hi Victor! I come from a Canadian university studying undergrad Mathematics at a top university in Canada. My GPA system uses percentage. What does 3.5 translate to Car Salesman Examples - Template, around? Of course itís different everywhere but I was curious about the standards. You Letter To Employer - 18+ Documents? I thought 3.5 was like a B+? Anyways my program is very difficult, and I went through a rough year getting a 61% average. However in 2nd and 3rd year, Iíve been getting a 90% average.

My gpa currently is a high 70 and Iíve been doing various internships in the finance industry. Will I have a chance at Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template MBB. I am sure if I get the interview I can make the cut, itís just Iím worried about Summary Of Qualifications Http, my GPA and donít know how to compare since I am canadian student. Iíd probably work in MBB firms in toronto if picked. Iím wondering how realistic getting a job at a top consulting company would be for me.

Iíll graduate from Clemson University in May with a B.S. in Economics and a B.A. in French and International Trade. Examples - Template? I have a 3.63 GPA and a summer internship at VCE with their Business Process Group. I received a 720 on the math portion of the SAT and was thinking of taking the GMAT in the fall. Do you think thereís hope? For a top 3 firm, Iíd say no chance without a top 5 MBA. For the rest of the Summary Resume top 10, Iíd says itís a maybe. Car Salesman Resume Examples? Best bet would be the strategy arm of a former accounting firm with a local office near your school where alumni from your school work there. Program Wedding? If there are alumni there, itís possible. I suggest getting on linkedin and doing a search between your school and those firms. If you find some, then you would want to network your way into those forms. I have a networking guide available somewhere on Resume Examples, this site that explains how.

With only a standard resume and cover letter to the recruiting department, I think you application would not pass the keyword filter. Your strongest asset is the math SAT score. 5+ Party List | Procedure Sample? A similar score on gmat would be confirmatory evidence. The issue is Clemson is not a target school for most firms. But if you can find an alum working there that will get your application considered, that would be enormously helpful. I think top 11-25 and boutiques would be your best bet. Boutiques are small 10-100 person firms usually started by a partner from a top 10 firm that went out on his or her own. They typically have one office, in Car Salesman Examples only one city, and focus on a single industry. Iím a PhD candidate at Johns Hopkins University. My undergraduate gpa is 3.9 (from a good university in China). But my graduate gpa is somehow low ( 3.3).

Will this be a major burden when applying for consulting positions? I have a good list of publications, but not sure if it is important to the employers. Did you get an interview invite or the 3.3 GPS did not cut it? Hi, I am a prospect Oxford MBA candidate. But my GMAT is slightly on the lower side (Q45 V35). I want to Ceremony Template, Wedding Programs, Ceremony, work in Examples Strategy consulting. Wedding Programs, Ceremony? What are my chances to break into firms such as LEK or AT Kearney or Deloitte? Do you think my GMAT is still low for these firms?

1) You mentioned that having a big-name company on Resume - Template, your resume greatly improves your chances of getting interviewed. Is that the Organiser Template Diagram, Organiser case even when the position you held has nothing to do with business or consulting? Iím a Computer Science major, currently pursuing my undergrad, and Examples - Template am aiming for a big-name tech company (Google, Apple, Facebook, etc.) internship next summer. Is an internship like that likely to help me in Spider Diagram, getting a consulting position post-graduation, or should I try to Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template, get some more business-related experience in instead? 2) Standardized Tests. Sometimes when I read about Summary Of Qualifications Http, consulting I get confused on Car Salesman Resume Examples, whatís expected of those applying post-undergrad, as it seems like most material is written for MBAís. Do firms (specifically big 3 firms) look for standardized tests from Of Patient Ppt Download, undergrads?

If so, does it make a difference whether they take the GMAT or GRE? 1) Yes a big brand name employer in a non business role is desirable. Itís not your business experience they want. Car Salesman Resume? They can teach you that. They want to hire someone who has been vetted by & Security someone else and Resume Examples been determined to Spider Diagram, be exceptional in their field (regardless of the field). 2) More important you score high than which standardized test. GRE, GMAT, SAT, LSAT, or MCAT all fine. I have three years of work experience consulting for a non-profit and a year for the World Bank. I have MPhil in Econ from Cambridge, 3.96 CGPA in my undergrad and 800 on my Math GRE score. Do you think my profile is strong enough for McKinsey? Short answer is: yes.

I seem to have different circumstances than most on here. I was a cop in the military for Car Salesman Resume Examples 12 years. I was in a leadership position, managing people and Information projects. I earned a bachelorís in Car Salesman Resume Business Administration while I was in, with a GPA of 3.4, from a cheap online school. Summary? The military stressed a degree, but they didnít care where from. Car Salesman Resume? Iíve begun looking for a second career and have become obsessed with consulting. I donít have any delusions of :: Step-By-Step Guide For Ca grandeur. I donít think that I will ever get a chance to be a part of MBB. However, what are my chances, realistically, with a firm like Deloitte, or PWC? 1. I have been a telecom consultant Ė technical and Examples strategy related for Diagram Organiser Template 10 years now Ė working for Resume Examples the biggest operators and Program Template, Printable Programs, vendors over Car Salesman Examples 3 different continents. I am 33 years old.

Do you think its wise for me to pursue a career at management consultant at Organiser - Spider this age? I just did my MBA (Distance Learning) from Car Salesman Examples - Template, Warwick., 2. I was interested to & Security Ppt Download, buy your consulting resume package. Car Salesman Examples - Template? Do you think it will be beneficial for & Security me, considering I am going to apply for a Ďexperienced positioní? And is Resume - Template LOMS aimed to help experienced candidates like me?

Ok, thats 3 questions! Most of the questions asked focus on people with MBAs and Program Template, Wedding Programs, Ceremony PhDs but I was wondering how consulting companies looked at degrees like MDs/DOs? I am currently a medical student and was wondering what the process would look like for me/what would you look for Resume - Template a medical candidate who was curious about a career in consulting. Firms, McKinsey especially, do hire MD types. They are great with health care clients. Process is Thank You Letter To Employer - 18+ Documents similar as PhD recruiting process generally. Expectations and qualification criteria are similar. I really appreciate your time with us. Your comments are invaluable.

I was curious how excellent is required by BA of Resume top 5. I feel a lot of students have even much better experiences than mine. Program Wedding Programs,? I donít really have a ďcheck-ableĒ big name on Car Salesman Resume - Template, my resume. Ė Ivy/ GPA 3.7/ Master/ Not business or engineering major/ GRE V85%+ Q95% Ė three internships in major government agencies in NYC/ Ė did well in finance econ market analyses engineer classes. Ė thesis using four coding and Privacy & Security Of Patient Information Ppt Download analyses tools. Ė founder of three non-profit organizations during and after undergrad. Ė some athlete experience 10 years agoÖ Do you consider it a weak one or any advice for me? Thanks Victor!

Based on your background, I think youíd be considered at a top 3 firm. Be sure your GRE Q score is prominent on your resume. Shows you can do math even if math isnít necessarily associated with your major or masters area of study. They might question why you want to work in business given your government and non-profit experience. Youíd want to be prepared to - Template, answer that question. I am part time MBA candidate @ Kelley school of business. Got good career progression compare to proportionate length of my career and have strong alma matter like Michigan Tech, Cummins, Kelley school of Business and Guest Sample currently working as Manager in Google. However, No GMAT Ė Would that be an Resume Examples, issue for MBB application in future? Do you have an SAT score?

The math score would be important. Thereís an enormously high correlation between those with a 95%tile math standardized test score and those who get promoted at Thank You Letter To Employer - 18+ Free Documents McKinsey (and other top 3 firms) after 2 years. Iíve seen it myself, those with high math scores are able to follow the Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template logic of the work. If you didnít, and they really liked you, theyíd have you take one of their own internal math tests. But given the non ivy background, my guess is if the math score wasnít there, they wouldnít bother with the extra effort to get a standardized math read on your abilities. I didnít have SAT score but I scored 780/800 in Printable GRE Quant section. Do you think GRE Quant score can help?

Yes a GRE quant score would be perfectly acceptable as well. A 780 GRE quant is inline with other people at Car Salesman Examples the top firms. Definitely include the Guide For Ca Teens score on your resume. I have read through all the comments, and - Template there is no-one in my situationÖ Flawless academic record (1st in my entire country!!), 800 Math SAT, Yale University, Computer Science major, went to work for a French consultancyÖ in - Spider Organiser 1999.

I spent some years working for Car Salesman Examples - Template the consultancy, then became technical director of a start-up, then took a few years off to Summary For Resume. Http, raise a family (of academic superstars!). Car Salesman? I also travelled the world running half-marathons in Program Printable Wedding Programs, Ceremony a dozen different countries, speak several languages, and Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template am a Cordon Bleu certified pastry chef. But I know I am not exactly a top consulting firm profile. I wouldnít even consider it, but a close family member is a successful McKinsey consultant and honestly believes the role is PERFECT for Summary For Resume. Summary Of Qualifications Http me. Car Salesman Resume Examples? I have a reputation as a geniusÖ but Iím afraid itís outdated, and You Letter Free Documents possibly wiped out completely by the time off to raise the family. What do you think? Is there an age limit?

And what about a long gap in work experience (but surely raising a family is Car Salesman - Template a valid reason?)? No age limit. Your background is Mission Driving School Teens interesting. You would need to explain why consulting fits into your career plans at this particular moment in time. If your GPA at Yale was high, I would definitely put that on your resume. The story you want to Examples - Template, convey is you were the kind of candidate McKinsey would have interviewed upon graduating from Spider Diagram Template - Spider Diagram, Organiser, college, and now theyíre getting another chance. You would want to Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template, acknowledge your more recent background is a bit atypical, explain how it would benefit the firm and its clients, and also explain how if you got the job you would stay for some time. The concern would be you would be dabbler and not take consulting seriously. If your GPA were strong and you could provide reasonable answers to the above questions, I would select your resume for For Resume. interview. I currently studying Mechanical Engineering at UC Berkeley.

Would you consider UC Berkeley for Resume engineering (a top 3) an equivalent to the Ivy brand recognition you talk about, for Diagram Organiser - Spider someone studying engineering? I am applying to the Next Generation Women Leaders Program at McKinsey. I know this is not an internship opportunity but I am only a Sophomore so I am trying to get one for next year. Is a 1960 score on Car Salesman, the SAT too low Ė should I not list it on Summary Of Qualifications Http, my resume? I am wondering if they care for Car Salesman Resume Examples these types of programs (they do not ask on the application), I do not want to put it on if they think it would be too low and am unsure if they would ask. Since itís not an actual job application, if they donít request your score, itís fine to leave it out. A 1960 score on 5+ Party Guest List | Procedure Sample, the SAT would likely be considered low by McKinsey standards.

When you apply, you will need to included your score. If you donít, an administrative recruiter will to ask you for your scores before your resume is Resume Examples - Template ever read by a decision maker. However, a good GPA in management/finance does not make you good with numbers or smart with numbers. I have taken many finance courses and it is nothing compared to what math people do. In management, everything you nee to Printable Programs, Ceremony, know is in a book, or in past finals, past midterms. You memorize and apply, and you donít need to Resume Examples - Template, understand the real logic behind all the elements in 5+ Party Guest List Sample a formula.

Thank you very much. The resources youíve provided are invaluable. Iíll be applying as a advanced degree holder to consulting firms (aiming for top 10) this cycle and am considering re-taking some standardized tests. Car Salesman Resume Examples? I have a BA Physics from UC Berkeley (3.60 GPA) and will be applying as Engineering PhD graduate from UCLA (3.62 GPA). What do you think my GRE and SAT scores should be if I am to stand a chance for the top 10? Thanks again for everything. For top 3 firms, anything over 95% percentile is clearly sufficient. Over 90% percentile is often acceptable if the Ceremony Program Printable Programs, Ceremony rest of the package is strong. If thereís a math break out to the standardized test, theyíre looking for 95%+. If youíre already over 90%, probably not worth re-taking the test.

A better use of your time would be to network and make contacts within your target firms. Better ROI on Car Salesman - Template, your time. For rest of top 10 firms, you can probably drop those ďcut-offsĒ (they arenít hard and fast cut offs), by 5% Ė 15% depending on the firm and Privacy Ppt Download where there in the top 10. Thanks for this article Ė itís been really useful for me. I realised after reading it my CV was lacking experience with a ďbig nameĒ employer, so I pursued these opportunities. Resume Examples? Iíve been offered an Diagram Template - Spider Diagram, Organiser, internship at Taylor Wimpey (UKís biggest house builder, FTSE100), but itís in health and safety (the job description makes it sound pretty unimpressive) Iím unsure whether it will improve my CV for strategy consulting purposes. The alternative would be to stay on at the CSR consultancy I currently work for: we have some well-known FTSE100 clients, but thereís not much room for promotion/new responsibilities in the company. Any advice you have would be appreciated. By the way, Iím based in the UK and planning to apply for graduate roles there in September. Neither situation seems ideally suited on the basis of being a stepping stone to strategy consulting. You might consider making the decision based on other factors or if time permits look for Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template a third option.

Thank you very much for Sample You Letter To Employer - 18+ Download Free your advice. I appreciate you taking the time to answer. That sounds like a good plan. I would like to know your feedback on my special case. I am an Car Salesman, American citizen that lived in Lebanon for almost my entire life, and Sample To Employer Download I studied Mechanical Engineering at the American University of Beirut. I would like to Examples, know what firms do you think would consider me for an interview, the following is Mission Driving License For Ca a brief profile description. Cumulative GPA: 3.15. GPA during the last 2 semesters: 3.67. Experiences: Research assistant at Car Salesman the University of Houston, and Privacy Ppt Download an intern for Car Salesman Resume Examples a local boutique consultancy firm.

Extracurricular activities: President of the Engineering Student Society, varsity player in 2 sports, student representative.. I have a question about Program Template,, my poor SAT scores. I did poorly on Car Salesman Resume - Template, my SAT with total composite of 1800+ and math 710(which is on the boarder line). This year, I successfully transferred to an Ivy League school through an engineering program and Iím going to be a raising junior this academic with a relative good college GPA. Iím very interested in going into Consulting/IB(Capital Markets), especially MBB and the bulge bracket. Ceremony Wedding? I recognized that my low SAT score may hinder my path in the future, do you recommend me taking it again soon? This is Resume a tough one. Your math SAT is good enough for a resume reader to read the Privacy Of Patient rest of your resume. Car Salesman? The other part of the 5+ Party Template Sample SAT is low. My hesitation is it takes a lot of time to make meaningful improvements in your scores.

If you think you might be going to Examples, graduate school or b-school, you might consider taking the 5+ Party Guest List | Procedure Template Sample GRE or GMAT instead. Iíd like at Resume - Template the relative weights of those tests math vs all else and Ceremony Program Template, Printable Programs, see if the structure of the test fits better with your strengths. If your career plan involves taking the Resume Examples - Template GMAT at some point in time, itís an easier decision to take it a little earlier than you otherwise would. Itís harder to justify retaking a test you have no use for Ceremony Program Printable Programs, Ceremony other than a single bullet point on Resume Examples, your resume. I am an advanced degree candidate (Ph.D) and I am hoping to move into Organiser Template Diagram,, management consulting in Car Salesman Examples one of MBBs. My issue currently is that I did not have to take a standardized test for :: Step-By-Step For Ca Teens my Ph.D. in engineering program in a top 15 graduate schools. Is having standardized test results a requirement for my application? Do you suggest that I take either the GMAT or GRE so that I can have a standardized test score on my resume? or focus my energy on case studies? Thank you so much.

Did you ever take the Car Salesman Examples - Template SAT or ACT? If so, use that. Otherwise, I would check the McKinsey website and Organiser Template Diagram, Organiser potentially call the on Resume - Template, campus recruiting coordinator and ask your question. I donít think itís worth taking those tests if you can avoid it. Most likely if McKinsey has concerns, they would have you take the McKinsey Problem Solving Test to get a read on your quantitative skills.

Iím unclear on :: Step-By-Step Guide Teens, how other firms would handle it. Basically you need some way to objectively prove you can think logically (and math test performance is a good proxy for this school, but not the only one). If youíre PhD is in mathematics that would be one alternative. If youíre a teach assistant in - Template some kind of Template math or statistics class that would be another. If youíve won any awards and can show your percentile rank, that would be another.

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Can the Car Salesman Resume, Chain of Causation ever be broken in cases of Manslaughter? The simple maxim that the accused in a criminal proceeding ought to have caused the Resume Http, crime is one of the potentially most important doctrines in law. It has a direct bearing on the entire scope of the criminal law and speaks fundamentally to how we view our society. The proximity between cause and effect that we consider to bring rise to a positive moral duty of care , when we refer to the imposition of punitive sanctions on members of society, is one of the most important tests of - Template, criminality. Those areas in the penumbrary cause the most difficulty for judges, academics and society in generally. Therefore the prosecution of drug dealers for the death of those they supply , doctors who were negligent and contribute to the death of their patients , Reckless transmission of HIV / Aids to sexual partners or the List Template, denial of access to life-saving treatment are all areas where the person being accused of the crime may or may not be considered to have ‘caused’ the harm. The quotation above by Seneca represents one of the key difficulties in establishing a chain of causation from the accused to the victim of any crime. In English law omission to act cannot be considered the cause of a crime because there is not the causal link; however there is an undoubted argument that someone who refuses to help upon seeing a crime is encouraging that action. The main focus of the work is whether, if ever, the chain of causation can be broken in cases of manslaughter , this attribute alone would be sufficient to Examples make it generic.

The work starts with a section on Sample Thank You Letter - 18+ Download, the general principle of causation in criminal law. We will then move onto have an in depth discussion and analysis concerning the case law on the issue before finally using the other jurisdictions and areas of law to compare to the application of the Resume Examples - Template, test in manslaughter. Privacy Information Ppt Download! This is an incredibly vast subject matter and the restriction to consideration of manslaughter is hoped to Car Salesman Examples - Template give the essay more poignancy and give a more holistic understanding to the operation of causation from which we maybe able to extrapolate general principles about causation. The main focus will be on the drug supply cases and their impact on the principles of causation . Causation is an extremely important part of the Actus Reus in Diagram, Organiser result crimes. The failure of the prosecutor to establish causation is disastrous to Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template a case because ‘if the death, damage or destruction occurred because of some other cause then the offence has not been committed even though all the other elements of the actus reus are present and the accused had the Sample To Employer Documents, necessary mens rea’ However, it is far from a simplistic concept of deciding that the action caused the result. The concept of Car Salesman, causation represents a nexus between fact and law, they are at certain points clearly distinguishable and at others not. This work cannot possibly hope to do justice to the complexity and history of the concept of causation however the aim is to give a general overview of the concept so that we have a working understanding when we go onto Thank To Employer - 18+ Download Free Documents, consider the Car Salesman, case law on manslaughter . The first principle that the law requires of the facts is that an Spider Diagram Template - Spider act will only be considered the Resume Examples, cause of an event if it is a ‘causa sine qua non’ . In other words this is a test that requires the cause to be material; ‘it must be established that the consequence would not have occurred as and & Security Of Patient when it did not ‘but for’ the accused’s conduct’ . This principle is consequently referred to as the ‘but for’ or ‘sine qua non’ test.

The natural justice of Resume, this principle is clear but it is Spider Diagram Organiser - Spider Organiser, not simple necessarily to apply. At a conceptual level there is difficulty with the fact that the decision-maker has to decide between the ‘infinite number of prior conditions of Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template, which it is true that if it had not occurred some given event would not have occurred’ . This can be a tricky situation especially if we consider the penumbrary examples mentioned in Spider Diagram, Organiser the introduction. The death of somebody from a drugs overdose has numerous prior conditions but the two obviously competing ones would be the supply of drugs by a dealer and the voluntary act of the deceased to take the drugs, they are both events but for which the person would not be dead. Examples! The choice of these prior conditions as a ‘cause’ of the death is artificial, in Privacy Of Patient Information reality both and many more are the cause including the friends the person made, family life, wealth, mental health and attitude to risk-taking. This is why the sine qua non test is considered to be the Car Salesman - Template, purely factual element of causation because once a decision-maker goes beyond these considerations they begin to make legal and policy judgements about which causes merit moral opprobrium. Hart Honore commented on this duality within causation: ‘These two aspects of causation, even if they cannot be crudely opposed as ‘factual’ and ‘non-factual’, are of very different character.

They occasion different kinds of doubts and Driving School License Guide For Ca difficulties, and different kinds of criteria are used in their resolution’ The classic example of the application of the sine qua non test is Car Salesman Examples - Template, R v. White where a man had put cyanide in his mother’s drink, when his mother’s corpse was found the glass had not been fully drunk; evidence proved that she had died of a heart attack. Spider Organiser Template - Spider Diagram, Organiser! The accused was acquitted of murder because his mother’s death was not contingent upon the cyanide drink and would have occurred in Car Salesman Resume any case. The sine qua non test is conceptually and legally restricted so as to make it practical and equitable and it is these concerns that we need to turn our attention towards. In understanding the various impinging concerns we need to have a deeper understanding of cause and Summary For Resume. Of Qualifications effect as it is Car Salesman - Template, understood in the legal sense. The cause of something has to be ‘sufficient to bring about the consequences in conjunction with other ‘mere conditions’’ and furthermore a cause ought to be necessary.

However the ‘condition sine qua non’ doesn’t always embody these ideals and we can start to get into difficulty quickly if we do not pay attention to the fact that there are many situations where the test is satisfied but ‘the connection between X and Y has nothing to do with any form of causal connection even in the broadest sense of causal’ . The obvious example given by Ceremony Program Template, Wedding Programs, Hart Honore is that it is analytically true to state that a person would not be a widow if they had not been married but there is no factual connection between the marriage and her status as a widow. There is furthermore an intuitive distinction which we must be careful of distinguishing between facts which are causally related to the outcome and those which only serve to individuate the particular act in question. This will become even more important when we begin to consider cases of manslaughter which make a distinction between harm caused by an illegal act and Car Salesman - Template those caused by a legal act. There is a tendency in & Security Of Patient Information Ppt Download dealing with causation issues here to blur the issues and argue that there must be a causal link between the Car Salesman, wrongful act and the harm caused but in a situation where a person who is driving without a licence hits someone and injures them the fact of not holding a licence is Resume Http, merely incidental to the harm caused. One final conceptual issue to remember is that most writers present the sine qua non test as the sole factual issue of causation, this doctrine is however not the only factual doctrine and there are allowances for Resume Examples - Template other approaches.

The inherent vagueness of the sine qua non test means that there will be situations where the rule will not give a nice neat factual answer. It is perhaps correct therefore to endorse the approach that Ormerod has outlined and Driving :: Step-By-Step Guide For Ca state that ‘The ‘but for’ principle is a starting point in the causation inquiry, but nothing more’ . As I mentioned above the duality of causation requires us to give consideration to Examples the more complex and 5+ Party Guest List Template Sample inherently more difficult legal side of causation. The first legal causation issue is that of culpability. The case of R v. Dalloway is the landmark case on this issue where it was established that if the culpable behaviour of the accused in no way contributed to Car Salesman Resume Examples the result then the chain of Sample - 18+, causation would be broken. In that case a child was killed when he ran in front of a cart being driven by Car Salesman - Template D, it so happened that the driver had not been holding onto the reins. The accused was acquitted on 5+ Party Guest | Procedure Template Sample, the basis that even had the driver been holding the reins he wouldn’t have had time to stop, thus the negligent act had not legally caused the death of the Car Salesman Examples - Template, child.

In other words the causal link between an action and its consequence will not be assumed simply because there was a negligent act. The culpable act must have a degree of substantiality as a cause of death, the determination of Ceremony Program Wedding Programs,, this is for the judiciary and Examples - Template it certainly seems to be construed narrowly as was stated by Goff LJ in Organiser Diagram, R v. Pagett ‘the accused’s act need not be the Resume Examples - Template, sole cause, or even the Summary For Resume. Resume Of Qualifications Http, main, of the victim’s death, it being enough that his act contributed significantly to that result’. The distinction between a minimal contribution and a significant contribution has no technical meaning and in most violent criminal cases it will be what the ‘twelve men and women sitting as a jury in Resume the jury box would regard in a common-sense way as the cause’ . In Adams, where Devlin J stated that approach, he was discussing the issue in relation to a doctor administering his terminally ill patient with pain relieving drugs. This illustrates the distinction between a minimal and major contribution very well. If the administration of drugs was considered part of a doctors duty which had the incidental effect of shortening life then this was not murder however if it was considered to be an intentional attempt to end the life of the patient then it was a substantially intervening fact so as to be considered the Template, Printable, cause of Resume Examples - Template, death.

Related to this distinction is the clear line of cases which has established that the negligence of third parties doesn’t necessarily abrogate or dilute the liability of the accused. This flows naturally from the Pagett dicta that the 5+ Party Guest List Template, accused’s act need not be the sole cause of any particular harm. Resume - Template! In R v. Benge there was evidence that there was negligence over and above the Summary For Resume. Http, accused’s which had contributed to a train accident. In that case Pigott B had directed the jury that ‘if D’s conduct mainly or substantially caused the accident it mattered not that it might have been avoided if the others had not been negligent’ . The flipside of this approach is what is known as the Novus Actus Interveniens doctrine which is where the Car Salesman Resume Examples, act of a third party is ‘significant enough to acquire causative potency for itself’ . You Letter To Employer Download Documents! The border between the intervention of third parties being significant or not is Car Salesman Resume - Template, sometimes incredibly difficult to Information Ppt Download demarcate to any great extent but the effect of an intervening act is to break the chain of causation. The easiest to identify as a novus actus interveniens is an ‘Act of God’ which is Resume Examples, understood to have to be something occurring in nature which is random and unpredictable. There are various hypothetical situations given in the literature but the distinction seems clear; if the natural event is foreseeable then it will not be considered to be an act of god: ‘the phrase is usually used in context of very extreme climatic conditions, it can also be used to cover the You Letter - 18+ Download Free, equally unpredictable and unforeseeable operation of animate forces, such as the Car Salesman Examples - Template, rate which gnawed a hole in Program Wedding Programs, the cistern in Carstairs v Taylor (1870) LR 6 Ex 217’ The examples given in the literature show this distinction for example, if a man is assaulted and knocked unconscious then the situation can make a big difference. It is foreseeable that if it were on a beach then it is reasonably foreseeable he may die with high tide. - Template! However if it were in a building it is not reasonably foreseeable that an earthquake might occur causing the building to collapse and kill the person in question.

Aside from these situations it becomes more difficult to identify a novus actus interveniens when they are in the form of a third party. Goff LJ cited Hart Honore in Pagett when they stated ‘The criterion which they [Hart Honore] suggest should be applied in such circumstances is 5+ Party Template | Procedure Sample, whether the intervention is voluntary, i.e. whether it is free, deliberate and informed’. The court felt that this was the correct approach to be taken to the situation. This automatically rules out innocent agents being forced by Car Salesman - Template third parties, involuntary actions caused by a shock and acts done by ‘a police officer in the execution of his duty acts to prevent a crime, or to apprehend a person suspected of a crime’ . :: Step-By-Step License! All of the above do not break the chain of causation, thus it is only in the very narrow category of a novus actus which is ‘free, deliberate and informed’. The cases on this issue cover a very wide area and Car Salesman Examples discussion of the issues raised in those cases could form a piece of work on their own right. Organiser Organiser! However a brief outline of the issues raised is necessary; this work is primarily concerned with whether the chain of causation can ever be broken in Resume Examples - Template cases of manslaughter. Thank You Letter To Employer Free! An understanding of this issue is fundamental for a comparative approach. Resume - Template! I will talk briefly about the various categories that have considered the intervention of third parties: • Negligent Medical Treatment. The issue of negligent medical treatment is one that has occupied the courts attention on a number of occasions.

There are ancient authorities such as James Williamson where it was stated that ‘unskilful and unjudicious treatement’ of a ‘simple and early cured wound’ . This was followed in modern times in the seminal case of R v. Jordan where a doctor’s negligence was held as sufficient grounds for & Security Of Patient Information the overturning of a conviction. The problem is that the court specifically declined to make any comment about how this decision was grounded in principles of causation. Furthermore in the case of Car Salesman Resume Examples, R v. Smith negligent medical treatment wasn’t held as a novus actus interveniens. The distinction between the authorities is ambiguous . The most recent authority on the issue is the :: Step-By-Step License Guide For Ca Teens, case of R v. Cheshire where the court seems to have significantly narrowed the Car Salesman, operation of this doctrine, here the Sample Thank To Employer - 18+ Free Documents, deceased was shot in the leg and Resume - Template suffered ensuing respiratory problems. Spider Organiser Template - Spider Organiser! This required a tracheotomy to be performed. The death occurred because of complications with the tracheotomy due to medical negligence, this occurred some 2 months after the shooting.

The court held that the gunshot was the cause of Resume - Template, death and thus the Template, accused was convicted. Car Salesman Examples! The rationale of the court was based on the fact that only the Mission School :: Step-By-Step License Guide Teens, most extraordinary and unusual case would suffice and they argued ‘treatment which falls short of the standard expected of the competent medical practitioner is unfortunately only too frequent in human experience for it to be considered abnormal’ . This is more in line with the Car Salesman, authorities such as R v. Holland and Flynn where the refusal of a patient to receive treatment that exacerbates a minor injury will not constitute a novus actus interveniens. • Thin Skull Rule. It is clear from the authorities that where the Privacy, victim has some pre-existent condition then this will not excuse the accused: ‘It would never do for Examples - Template it to Ceremony Template, Printable Programs, go forth from this court that house-breakers or robbersshould be entitled to lay violent hands on very old or very sick or very young people, and, if their victim died as a result, to turn around and say that they would never have died if they had not been very weak or very old’ This is a fundamental rule and Car Salesman - Template obviously will not count as a novus actus. The previous two categories are examples of when the law has held that third parties do not intervene on Program Printable Wedding, the chain of Car Salesman, causation. This is List Sample, indicative of an extremely strict approach to Resume Examples issues of causation, they do not allow potentially large supervening factors to get in the away and if you were cynical then it would be tempting to state that consequences simply cannot be too remote from the culpable act. Only in a situation such as R v. White can the chain really be broken and those situations have got to be truly extraordinary. Current Case Law on Manslaughter Chain of Causation. We now turn to consider the specific subject matter of this work which is the chain of causation as it is applied in cases of manslaughter.

The major issue in this section will be focused on the penumbrary issues of Sample Thank Documents, manslaughter. Undoubtedly in core cases the principles of causation sit nicely with the facts. The major issue of interest are areas such as prosecution of drug suppliers where the principles of causation are stretched to their limit and open to no small amount of criticism. The first issue is just to Car Salesman Resume briefly recap what exactly the crime of manslaughter is and how it is Thank To Employer - 18+ Download Free, distinct from murder. The nature of the crime can often have effect on the way principles of causation are applied.

Manslaughter is an offence which covers a vast area only ‘limited in scopeby murder at Car Salesman Resume one extreme and accidental killings at the other’ . Guest Template! There are two forms of manslaughter; voluntary and involuntary, in the latter the person has the mens rea for murder but there is some mitigating circumstances which reduce the crime to manslaughter. Voluntary manslaughter was put into statutory form by the Homicide Act 1957 and now only occurs in three defined situations: provocation, diminished responsibility and a suicide pact. Involuntary manslaughter covers a vast area such as negligence, recklessness and Car Salesman unlawful or dangerous acts. This means that the scope of the crime is far from distinct; issues of causation are thus inevitably raised in cases of License Guide, involuntary manslaughter where the thing that caused death may have a remote link to the accused in the particular case. The linking of a criminal act to death can be fraught with difficulty as can the difficulty of intervening acts. It is clear that the chain of causation can theoretically be broken in manslaughter, both the authorities and the case law agree on this issue. However, there have been a series of cases over Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template, the 30 years regarding manslaughter which seem to imply that the chain of causation may not be able to be broken even by the voluntary intervention of third parties; the Privacy Of Patient, chain of - Template, causation may not be possible to Summary break. In Cato the accused was charged with the manslaughter of a man called Kennedy. The facts were that Kennedy had brought the drugs with him to a house, him and Cato had paired off and Resume taken turn to inject each other with heroin throughout the 5+ Party Template Sample, night.

Kennedy was found to have died the next morning as a result of the overdose. One of the other important factors was that each party had made up the syringe with the requisite mix of heroin and water themselves and thus the partner was merely injecting the drugs. The accused was convicted of manslaughter by an unlawful and dangerous act which requires proof of the basic act which was criminal. In this case it was held that heroin was a ‘noxious thing’ as understood under s.23 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 and that this base crime was sufficient to establish manslaughter. In the Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template, case there were a number of issues that revolved around causation and the interplay between legal and factual causation was nowhere better illustrated. In this case causation in the strictest sense was not really an issue. There was an For Resume. Resume Of Qualifications Http attempted argument on appeal that it had not been proved satisfactorily that it was heroin that had caused death but on the evidence this was rejected. The really interesting issues were sidestepped in this case because per se under the Misuse of Resume - Template, Drugs Act 1971 the Sample To Employer Documents, actions of Cato was an offence. The dubious judicial chicanery of using s.23 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 aside the Car Salesman Examples, question sidestepped the issue of whether consent would have broken the chain of causation in a charge of Mission School Guide Teens, manslaughter by gross negligence or recklessness, Lord Widgery in Cato specifically stated that the Examples, argument was not pertinent, he went as far as to Diagram Organiser Template Diagram, say that they would have used unlawful possession as a substitute to s.23. This is obviously damaging to principles of causation in that actual possession cannot be considered to have caused the Car Salesman Resume, death, it would be one of these incidental factors that we have discussed in the previous section . Furthermore the Diagram Organiser - Spider Organiser, case law under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 precludes any alternative such as supply of Examples - Template, drugs interpretation: R v. Maginnis and Ceremony Program Programs, R v. Harris , both on similar factual circumstances to Cato, found that it would be a farcical situation that where a person was merely insisting with the injection that it couldn’t be considered supply. It would seem to make sense, given the Pagett test of a ‘free, deliberate and informed’, that the consent of the person would constitute a novus actus to break the chain of causation.

However, this issue of the supply or administration of drugs has come before the courts on numerous occasions since Cato and Car Salesman Resume Examples we can derive a number of lessons from these cases about the operation of causation in cases of manslaughter however it has to be argued that the logic in Cato ‘seems to Diagram - Spider stretch credulity’ . The rationale that seemed obvious to many commentators after Cato was upheld in R v. Dalby . On appeal the court came to consider whether someone who supplied a person with drugs was liable for manslaughter when the victim went onto make up the solution and inject themselves. The court decided that ‘Where the charge of Car Salesman Examples, manslaughter is based on an unlawful and Driving Teens dangerous act, it must be an act directed at the victim and Examples likely to For Resume. Resume Summary Of Qualifications Http cause immediate injury’ . The major criticism of this judgement was that it wasn’t couched in terms of causation but made it very unclear what the basis for stating that an act not directed at the victim could not form the basis of a manslaughter by unlawful and dangerous act. Common sense seems to imply that it is the Car Salesman Examples - Template, lack of causal relationship but this was not endorsed by the court. The requirement for an act to be ‘directed at the victim’ was considered to be incorrect in the later case A-G's Reference (No 3 of 1994) . However, the fundamental criterion that meant a supplier was not liable for manslaughter was considered to be the likelihood to cause immediate injury. This makes it a causational issue. The fact that it is a causational issue and the correctness of the approach in R v. Dalby have been divisive issues which have been treated with a lack of coherence in subsequent case law on the issue. The case of R v. Armstrong considered whether or not it was manslaughter when the accused supplied the victim with heroin and the means by which to mix and inject it. The court overruled the initial conviction on two grounds; there wasn’t sufficient evidence that the heroin was a major cause of death i.e. it fell foul of the Template, Printable Wedding, de minimis principle and more importantly that the Car Salesman Resume - Template, voluntary act of taking the drugs constituted a novus actus interveniens and consequently broke the Ceremony Template,, chain of causation. Since this case there has been a great deal of oscillation by the courts on the issue. The cases of Dalby and Armstrong seemed to imply that the voluntary act of the victim was enough to overcome a conviction of manslaughter and importantly was sufficient to breach the Car Salesman Resume, chain of You Letter To Employer - 18+ Free Documents, causation. The problem was that Armstrong didn’t deal with the effect of an unlawful act by the accused and Delby didn’t directly deal with the principles of causation.

It was therefore unclear whether the novus actus interveniens of voluntary injection was sufficient to overcome manslaughter by unlawful and dangerous act, furthermore the question of manslaughter by gross negligence was left completely aside in these cases, however I will discuss this issue in greater detail below. The next case to consider the issues was the much maligned R v. Kennedy which came to consider a different factual circumstance. In Kennedy the facts were such that the defendant had made up the mixture in the same room as the victim, handed him one of two syringes made up by Car Salesman Examples - Template himself and List left the room. Prima facie this is incredibly similar to Car Salesman Resume Examples the facts of Armstrong and Dalby however the court in Kennedy managed to come up with a conclusion that, according to Heaton, would ‘have been a cause for embarrassment for any competent law student’ . Here, they drew a distinction, relying on Cato, that the defendant had ‘assisted or encouraged Bosque to inject himself with the mixture of heroin and water’ . They furthermore on Ceremony Wedding, the issue of causation came to the conclusion, based on the dicta of Goff LJ in Pagett, that the chain of causation was not broken because the appellant could be considered ‘jointly responsible for the carrying out of that act’. This imported a completely novel concept that appeared to be some form of accessorial liability by Resume assisting another commit a crime. The inconsistencies of this decision with basic causation principles and the other case law have lead to fairly universal condemnation. Primarily they failed to make adequate distinction between the sine qua non test and a novus actus interveniens, they seemed to assume that if the sine qua non test was satisfied then this somehow circumvented the voluntary injection of the drugs by the victim. The legal argumentation was also completely flawed in that case because the victim hadn’t in himself been committing a crime so the defendant couldn’t have been art and part guilty of assisting him and You Letter Download Documents even more forcefully a person cannot commit manslaughter on himself so the accused cannot be accessorially liable for Resume - Template that manslaughter. Furthermore, the rationale of dangerousness in Kennedy and the distinction from Dalby that the court made are not supported when we consider the Template - Spider Organiser, dicta in the latter case that we mentioned above about ‘immediate harm’. Resume - Template! It also doesn’t square with general principles of causation concerning the kind of ‘dangerous’ behaviour that ought to be exhibited. In the cases of R v. Of Patient Ppt Download! Watson and R v. Dawson the courts accepted that if the Car Salesman Examples - Template, act’s danger was contingent on natural conditions such as frailty then the chain of Information Ppt Download, causation could be broken.

Thus in both cases there were robberies, in Car Salesman Watson the victim was an old man but in Dawson the victim was seemingly healthy. In both cases the victims suffered heart attacks but the courts held the dangerousness of the act was only established in For Resume. Resume Http Watson because the harm was foreseeable. It is at Car Salesman Resume Examples least arguable when we consider the fact that given Heroine can be a safe drug when taken in the correct quantities and with knowledge of the particular person’s tolerance level that there would have been no way the defendant’s actions could be considered dangerous. This aside the court in Kennedy made no reference to Armstrong, however it might be possible to cynically distinguish the two on the basis that the accused in Mission Driving School License Guide Teens Armstrong couldn’t be bothered to make up the mixture and left it to the victim however in Kennedy he was the one who did the preparation. Kennedy’s rationale was never very clear and more recent judgements have even further complicated the issues by attempting to distance themselves from the Car Salesman, dicta of that case whilst still achieving the same result. It seemed that lucidity had been achieved when the decision in R v. Dias was handed down by Ppt Download the court of appeal; on facts almost identical to Car Salesman Resume Kennedy the court quashed the conviction of manslaughter. Summary For Resume. Resume Of Qualifications Http! The court distanced itself from Kennedy and elaborated the Car Salesman Resume Examples, conceptual difficulty with that court’s approach very well. Primarily, the injection of drugs was not an offence so the accused could not be considered to have been guilty of this by accessorial liability. Separately, the issue of causation cannot be made out as between the illegal supply of drugs and & Security Information the death of the accused because of the voluntary actions of the victim. And finally the main crux of confusion in Kennedy was highlighted from this point: ‘It follows from Examples - Template, that that the appellant could only have been guilty of manslaughter as a secondary party and not as a principal.

But in that case who is the principal guilty of manslaughter? As there is no offence of self-manslaughter, it is Sample Thank You Letter To Employer Download, difficult to see how the appellant could be guilty of that offence as a secondary party because of his encouragement or assistance to Escott over the injection of the drug’ The decision in Dias amply highlighted the difficulties the courts had been struggling with because of conflation of causation with the unlawful act itself. The failure to realise that accessorial liability to manslaughter where the principal was the victim made no logical sense was at the heart of Examples, this confusion. It appeared as though trial judges had accepted that supply couldn’t be the Driving School :: Step-By-Step Teens, cause of death and embarked upon Car Salesman Resume - Template reverse logic. They assumed that if they found a crime that could be considered to have caused the death then manslaughter could be established. This is to make a fundamental mistake about manslaughter by unlawful and dangerous act, the first step is to establish that an unlawful act has occurred and Spider Organiser Template Organiser then to see whether that act caused the death. Given that this was the problem it is reasonable to see why the court in Dias left the door open when they hinted that there could be certain situations where a Manslaughter by Gross Negligence may be able to be established when a duty of care may arise. The main issue is just always to bear the distinction between causation and the unlawful act separately.

There was by Resume this point a growing corpus of decisions in the form of Dalby, Armstrong and Dias with obiter support from Cato that the supply of drugs could not be considered manslaughter however the decisions in Privacy & Security Ppt Download R. v Finlay and R. v Rogers have ‘muddied the waters’ . In Rogers the accused had held the tourniquet whilst the Examples - Template, victim injected himself. The victim had procured the Summary For Resume. Resume Summary Of Qualifications Http, drugs himself, injected the accused and then the accused had assisted the victim inject himself by holding the Resume Examples - Template, tourniquet. He was convicted of manslaughter by unlawful and dangerous act, the Guest, court relying s.23 of the Offences Against the Car Salesman Resume - Template, Person Act 1861. 5+ Party List Template! The court distinguished Dias in that it was considered these actions fell within the remit of Resume, ‘administering’ the drug. Like in Cato the court were obviously using a real stretch of Template,, logic. It was clear that ‘administer’ in the sense meant by the OAPA 1861 did not envision this kind of interpretation and has subsequently been criticized.

However, the Resume, case of Finlay was a blatant attempt at judicial chicanery to circumvent the Privacy Information Ppt Download, line of authority ending with Dias. The facts were identical to Resume Examples Kennedy and Dias but the result was different. They re-established the chain of 5+ Party Guest List Template | Procedure Template, causation between the supplier of drugs and the victim by relying on Car Salesman - Template, s.23 of the OAPA 1861 where it states ‘Whosoever shall unlawfully and maliciously administer to or cause to Template - Spider Diagram, Organiser be administered’ The court used the famous case of Environment Agency v Empress Car Company to establish that in Resume - Template fact the Guest List | Procedure Sample, chain of causation could not be broken by the voluntary act of the victim as a novus actus interveniens when that action would be an ‘ordinary occurrence’ as opposed to an ‘extraordinary’ occurrence . The court in Finlay felt that the voluntary injection was an ordinary event and would not break the chain of Car Salesman Examples, causation, thus the Summary For Resume. Of Qualifications, voluntary nature was just a factor to be taken into consideration. The court confusingly relied on the idea of ‘joint principalship’ drawing on Rogers however it is extremely difficult to see how this escapes the problems identified above. The victim and the accused cannot be joint principals in an s.23 offence and also cannot be joint principals in manslaughter. In both of these cases there is a requirement of a third party. Furthermore the use of Empress Cars as authority is Car Salesman, extremely dubious given that the case is For Resume. Summary Http, also one which is subject to a high degree of criticism. Car Salesman - Template! The decision has been described as ‘perverse’ , ‘heresy’ , ‘aberrant’ and ‘bad principle, bad law, bad reasoning’ . The decision in Empress Cars was based on pollution and the holding of someone responsible as causing the effect because the act which did it was not so extraordinary as to be unforeseeable. The decision in Finlay was simply terrible because it took one maligned case and applied the incredibly dubious logic to a separate set of factual circumstances. The latest case is unfortunately also to be lamented because it has once again moved in a different direction in order to achieve the Ceremony, same effect as Finlay, Kennedy and Rogers. This involved the second appeal of Kennedy to the court of Examples, appeal . In Kennedy (No2) the court impliedly rejected the Finlay approach and rejected the Empress Cars logic.

Instead the court fabricated a completely new doctrine of ‘joint participation’ which completely sidesteps the issue and seems to imply that causational issues are irrelevant . The court argued that in situations such as Kennedy the & Security Information Ppt Download, accused can be considered to be acting in concert with the Resume - Template, victim to commit an offence under s.23 OAPA 1861. This seems prima facie to ignore the fact that a s.23 offence requires a third party, a ‘other person’ , the question of how the victim and the accused can act in concert to commit a s.23 OAPA 1861 is tautologous and amounts to the same argument in Kennedy. The whole decision tries to sidestep causation. The court is Sample Free Documents, fully aware if it can establish an s.23 OAPA 1861 then it can establish causation in the natural manner. - Template! However, it has been unable to convincingly do this in the case where the accused merely supplies the victim. The reliance on joint participation cannot resolve the problems created by the drug supply question for two very important reasons that Ormerod Fortston identify: Primarily, the court in Kennedy (No2) recognised an accused cannot be held liable as a secondary party for the reasons explained in Ceremony Template, Printable Dias. However principles of secondary liability require that one person is the principal and one the secondary, thus when acting in a team both parties cannot be liable both as principles or if they can then the court in Kennedy (No2) has rewritten the principles of secondary liability without telling anyone.

Secondarily, the use of Resume, ‘Joint Participation’ would be unjust in many situations if taken to its logical extreme. Ormerod Fortston give a specific example here: D who supplies the bullets for P's gun for him to Spider Organiser - Spider murder V now becomes a murderer as a principal, not as an accessory. This undermines the principles of Resume, secondary liability in as fundamental a way as did the ruling in Kennedy (No.1)’ The clear message from the case law is that the judiciary seem willing to convict at any cost no matter the damage to principles of causation and the general criminal law.

The application of the law in these cases is incoherent and from Kennedy (No1) to Kennedy (No2) we have heard four different justifications all completely flawed. For Resume. Http! The chain of causation in Car Salesman Resume these cases is continually held not to Privacy & Security Information Ppt Download be severed by the seeming novus actus interveniens of voluntary injection but the rationale for this is very unclear. It is clear however from other case law on unlawful act manslaughter that the drug cases are not consonant with other principles of Car Salesman - Template, causation. In R v. Williams the court talked about the voluntary act by a third party on the chain of causation and stated that the voluntary act had to be ‘within the Mission Driving School License Guide, ambit of reasonableness and not so daft as to make it his own voluntary act which amounted to a novus actus interveniens and consequently broke the chain of causation’. This was dealing with cases where the victim was threatened and then did some act which caused his death; the key thing for these cases is that the voluntary act by the accused had to exhibit rationality. If the facts of the case indicated that the victim was being irrational then the accused couldn’t not be said to have caused the death. The rationale of the Resume - Template, drugs cases is to Driving :: Step-By-Step License Guide For Ca Teens completely circumvent questions of causation by attempting to say that the voluntary act of injection was somehow overcome. The principle of novus actus interveniens when the victim or another person makes a ‘free, deliberate and informed’ decision is Resume Examples - Template, one of the most important concepts of causation. Mission School :: Step-By-Step Guide For Ca! The drugs and manslaughter cases have ridden rough shod over these principals. In cases involving manslaughter the prosecution always has open to them to attempt a prosecute under the idea of ‘recklessness’ or ‘gross negligence’.

The issues of causation are also pertinent here and given the Car Salesman Examples, speculative nature of the Spider Diagram Organiser Template, crime the chain of causation can sometimes be difficult to establish. However, for Car Salesman our purposes we will want to consider the principles as they potentially apply to drug suppliers and other categories where legal causation may be difficult to Sample You Letter To Employer Download establish. There was considerable confusion in recent years but the confusion seems to have been settled by Car Salesman Examples the court in R v. & Security Information Ppt Download! Adomako . Car Salesman Resume - Template! Following that case it is clear the prosecution must establish three criteria: • Must be in Privacy & Security breach of the Car Salesman - Template, duty of care under established principles of negligence. • The negligence must have caused death. • The action must be considered as ‘gross negligence’

In the Summary For Resume. Summary Of Qualifications Http, drug supply cases it was suggested by R v. Dias that ‘manslaughter by way of gross negligence may arise if a duty of care can be established’ . Heaton was of the opinion in this case that whilst undoubtedly a duty of care would have existed on the facts as they had existed in Cato however the finely balanced issues may preclude a finding of ‘gross’ negligence. In cases such as Dalby, Kennedy and Finlay where the victim self-injects it is hard to see how this progresses the issue of Car Salesman Examples - Template, causation any further. The main problem with drugs cases is that the Organiser Template Diagram, Organiser, reasoning is completely circular and very difficult to grasp without detailed contemplation of potential analogies. The crucial distinction for Car Salesman Resume Examples the whole case law is Ceremony Template,, between the situation in Car Salesman - Template Cato and those in Kennedy. The difference between those two is that Cato could be considered to have ‘caused’ the death of the victim in that he was the one doing the injecting, the consent of Ceremony Program Wedding, a victim is no defence for good reason. Prima Facie in Examples - Template the supply case the 5+ Party Guest, intervening voluntary act of the Examples - Template, victim acting in a free deliberate and informed manner would normally break the chain of causation. What the List | Procedure Template, court did in Kennedy (No2) was to leave the law in Resume - Template confusion, especially because they didn’t couch their approach in terms of causation. The problem was amply highlighted by Heaton: ‘An individual, D, might be regarded as a factual cause of the prohibited result where his action combined with others brings about that result. For Resume. Resume Summary Of Qualifications Http! This does not mean on orthodox principles that he will necessarily be held to be a legal cause: his actions may well be treated in law as too remote’

The use of joint participation to establish the s.23 OAPA 1861 doesn’t close the causation gap because the supplier still is too remote. The court attempted to circumvent this inevitability by relying on R v. Latif and Car Salesman Examples others : ‘The free, deliberate and informed intervention of a second person, who intends to Sample To Employer - 18+ Download Free exploit the situation created by the first, but is not acting in concert with him is held to relieve the first actor of criminal responsibility’ Thus causation becomes reliant on Car Salesman, the perception of ‘acting in concert’ however this causes a beehive of problems. Whilst they maybe acting in & Security Information Ppt Download concert how does this create an unlawful act? S.23 was clearly instituted for the ‘protection of the person to whom the substance is administered ’ and thus surely they cannot act in concert to commit a crime that only one of them can commit. The court seems to have made a mistake here and Examples conflated legal causation with factual causation, they seem to think that Cato has created authority that if you can establish administration then automatically causation is established. It is clear that this is not the case however the court in Kennedy wants to shift the Http, legal basis the facts remain the same there was not a traditional causational link. The basic answer to whether the chain of causation can be broken in cases of manslaughter is that theoretically and it has been broken in Resume Examples numerous cases. However, the logic and approach of the courts in the drug supply cases threatens to undermine all these principles. 2: Comparison to other areas of Criminal Law.

The decisions in List Empress Cars and the drug supply cases have been heavily criticised as having caused ‘a revolution within the field of criminal causation’ . It is primarily because in Empress and the drug supply cases they have completely disregarded the novus actus interveniens of a third party’s voluntary actions. The chain of causation can only really be broken by Resume a limited number of defined cases as we discussed in the first section these are roughly stated, failure to Privacy Of Patient Ppt Download be a sine qua non or failure to establish an intervening act between the Car Salesman Resume - Template, cause and effect. Resume Summary! The removal of the voluntary action intervention distorts these principles and if taken to Resume - Template its logical extreme could cause serious defects in criminal causation. However, the principles of causation, as traditionally understood always seem to find the ‘best illustrations supporting the & Security Of Patient Information, thesisin cases other than homicide’ , this is undoubtedly an accurate description. The interesting thing about this area of law is that whilst there are plenty of academic authorities to Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template the fact that ‘The novus actus rule is of fundamental importance’ it is particularly difficult to For Resume. Of Qualifications Http find cases other than the ones we have mentioned already where the court has upheld a novus actus. However, one of the main justifications for the existence of the rules on causation is the distinction in Car Salesman Resume Examples criminal law between principal and accessory ; it is in these cases that we are able to find dicta which are at odds with the approach in the drugs supply cases. Ppt Download! The whole basis of accessorial liability is Resume Examples, based on Summary Resume Of Qualifications Http, the fact that the accused didn’t in fact cause the harm, in fact he may have had absolutely no intention to commit the Car Salesman Resume, crime but he can still be an Template, Wedding Programs, Ceremony accessory to the crime. Thus take the Car Salesman Resume - Template, famous case of R v. Bainbridge as an example of why the logic of causation is heinously wrong in the drug cases. In Bainbridge the accused sold oxygen-cutting equipment to another person, that person in turn broke into a bank and Download Free Documents stole £18,000.

The accused was convicted as an accessory to the theft. Here we have analogous facts to the drugs supply cases, if we leave aside the fact that the third party did in fact commit an offence in this case. One cannot be accessory to theft where there are only two parties. For example if the Examples - Template, third party had taken the oxygen-cutting machine and broken into his own house and ‘stolen’ £18,000 then no offence is committed by the accused. However it maybe that the accused is guilty of an offence such as supplying the oxygen-cutting machine without a licence. The problem is that in this case there is no extra element such as in a homicide which is an unlawful act resulting in death.

Therefore lets say when the third party is using the oxygen-cutting machine breaking into his own house he cuts himself, there is no crime of self-injury but there is & Security Of Patient Ppt Download, one of assault. Using the logic in Kennedy (No 2) the accused and the third party could somehow be ‘joint participants’ in Examples causing an assault on the third party. This obviously makes absolutely no sense and would be completely ridiculous. Thus the Mission :: Step-By-Step License For Ca, approach taken in Examples the manslaughter cases doesn’t sit easily with principles of accessorial liability because as I have argued above legal causation seems to have taken precedence over factual causation which means that establishment of who is the principal and the accessory become questions of legal construction as well as fact. The rest of the criminal law of result crimes however shows a distinct pre-occupation with voluntary actions, thus there have been plenty of cases such as R v. Template, Ceremony! Hanson where the accused was the original thrower of a squib which then was thrown away by the intended target and caused injury to a third party. The fact that the throwing of the Examples - Template, target was not voluntary meant that it couldn’t break the chain of causation. In the cases surrounding Assault occasioning actual bodily harm we can see the causation element become of great importance.

In R v. Roberts the assault was an 5+ Party Guest Template | Procedure Template attempt to remove a woman’s coat which occasioned her to jump out of a car and sustain injury. The court again upheld the dicta that the action had to be so unreasonable or irrational that it was unforeseeable. Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template! The clear theme arising from these cases is that the voluntary action of a victim must be caused by Mission License Guide For Ca Teens the criminal act of the accused. This can be established in these ‘escape’ cases such as Roberts because the facts bear out that it was the cause, however it is clear in drug supply questions the implied assertion and the one accepted in Dias is that the supplier cannot be said to cause the death. The foreseeability issue that Finlay raised was taken in the wrong context, it is clear the stressed mindset of the Resume - Template, victim was what made the harm foreseeable. It is a warning as to why principles of causation ought not to be treated holistically in that they are often fact sensitive and can be used as they were in Finlay to distort their intention.

It is arguable that the principles in other result crimes such as assault ought not to be treated as being binding on the approach in manslaughter. We will see that the crime can make a difference to & Security Of Patient Information Ppt Download the way causation is established in the next section when we turn to look at the approach in other jurisdictions. 3:Comparisons to other Jurisdictions. The issue of the supply of Car Salesman Resume Examples, drugs has been raised in a few cases north of the border and it is interesting to School :: Step-By-Step Teens look at their approach as a comparator. The courts have taken a similar view to the courts in Resume - Template England but based on different grounds. However, the 5+ Party List | Procedure Sample, decisions north of the border have consistently found suppliers to be guilty and that the Novus Actus Interveniens of voluntary behaviour doesn’t break the chain of causation. In both Khaliq v. HMA and Ulhaq v. HMA the supply of solvents was enough to establish the crime of ‘Culpably and recklessly endangering life and health’.

In Lord Advocate’s Reference (No1 of 1994) the court considered a directly analogous case to Car Salesman Resume - Template those of the drug supply when the accused was charged with the Scots Law equivalent of manslaughter, Culpable Homicide. Diagram Organiser Template Diagram,! On Appeal to the High Court after an Car Salesman Resume - Template initial acquittal the High Court upheld the views of Khaliq and Ulhaq and specifically stated: ‘The purpose and Sample Thank You Letter Download Documents the intention of the Car Salesman Resume Examples, supply libelled was that the solvents should be abused, employing the 5+ Party Guest Template, means of abuse provided. The solvents were, it is averred, abused, and this could be regarded as the expected, intended and Car Salesman - Template probable consequence of the supply’ This knowledge of abuse thus in School :: Step-By-Step License Guide For Ca Scots Law was held to be vital because the foreseeability of the use meant that the Examples, chain of causation was not broken. They argued that the distinction between supply and Driving School License Guide For Ca administration was so negligible where ‘supply is closely related to the use by words of instigation or by some act of instigation on the part of the panel’ . Car Salesman Examples - Template! The proximity and foreseeability of use therefore negate the Novus Actus Interveniens on that basis. The argumentation is more convincing than in the English cases although it is submitted this is because of the double test requirement of Manslaughter by Template, Printable Programs, Unlawful Act. It seems quite clear that the supply of drugs can constitute a murder charge in certain states of America. In particular two cases are pertinent on this issue and these are State of Iowa v. Albertson and Lofthouse v. Commonwealth of Kentucky the courts came to consider very similar issues as we have discussed in the cases above. In the latter case the accused was charged with reckless homicide under the Kentucky Penal Code. The courts in Kentucky made a distinction as far as supervening factors were concerned between an ‘independent intervening cause’ and a ‘’dependent intervening cause’.

The latter did not relieve the accused of criminal responsibility unless the Resume, human act was completely abnormal, the former would relieve unless it was ‘reasonably foreseeable at the time of his conduct’ . Sample Thank You Letter To Employer Download Documents! The issue of causation was thus circumvented on the basis of foreseeability based on the inherent dangerousness of the drugs: ‘The Commonwealth posits that, as a matter of law, the act of furnishing narcotic drugs to another creates a substantial risk of death to the transferee sufficient to convict of either second-degree manslaughter (awareness of and conscious disregard of the Car Salesman Resume Examples, risk) or reckless homicide (failure to perceive the risk)’ The test is Summary For Resume. Summary Http, very similar to the Empress and Car Salesman Resume - Template Finlay approach and the distinction between ordinary and extraordinary occurrence that was made in the latter case, however the main issue here is that whilst foreseeability is the test they have specifically attuned the offence so that the issue of For Resume. Of Qualifications Http, causation is correctly centred on the foreseeability of the harm resulting from an Resume Examples - Template action. The crime is reckless homicide and the only way the novus actus interveniens can intervene was held to be, much like our escape cases such as R v. Roberts and Diagram Organiser - Spider Diagram, Organiser R v. Mackie was where the act of the Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template, victim was abnormal or completely irrational in the situation. Interestingly the US has completely rejected what was known as the felony murder rule which is defined as: ‘If death ensues as a consequence of the commission of a dangerous felony, the intent to commit the dangerous felony provides the element of intent necessary to convict of the homicide’ The court in Lofthouse discussed the case law surrounding this crime which bears obvious analogies to manslaughter by unlawful and dangerous act. It appears as though the approach has been abandoned in Kentucky and other states for a number of reasons. One of the main reasons is that many states have their own statutory crime of homicide caused by Driving :: Step-By-Step Guide Teens the supply of narcotics this includes states such as Connecticut, New Jersey and Florida. However the use of the felony-murder doctrine is identical in most respects to the manslaughter by unlawful and dangerous act, including the attendant difficulties of establish a causal relationship between the felonious conduct and the death. The approach in the seminal case of Heacock v. Commonwealth was too hold that the Car Salesman Resume Examples, distribution of Driving For Ca, cocaine was an inherently dangerous act enough to establish second degree murder under the felony murder rule. Examples! It has subsequently been held in numerous cases that the supply of For Resume. Summary, drugs under the felony murder rule will constitute a crime see Ingleton v. State , State v. Whitted and Sheriff, Clark County v. Morris . The South African approach to causation issues seems to be very similar to the one in this country.

In two particular cases; S v. Grotjohn and S v. Hibbert the South African Courts fell to consider the effect of the Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template, voluntary act of the victim on the accused’s liability in homicide cases. In both these cases the victim had committed suicide but the accused had handed her a gun in a manner where it was very foreseeable that they would shoot themselves., Steyn CJ stated in the case of Grotjohn that the important issue was that the novus actus interveniens be ‘a completely independent act, in the sense that it should be totally unconnected and has no relationship to the act of the perpetrator’ . The cases are not completely analogous because in the cases there was an intention or desire to bring about a fatal result and they had a particularly close involvement in the instigation of the actions of the victim. In a situation very similar to Cato the court in the New Zealand case of R v. Bennett found that a young man who had injected drugs into his friend at a party was guilty of Resume Summary Http, manslaughter. Continental Approach to Causation. In surveying the foregoing case law it becomes apparent that in both Scotland and the U.S.A the law is in effect much the same as the result in Kennedy (No 2). However, what we see is that both on the continent and in these other jurisdictions is that undoubtedly any liability is Resume, based upon the idea of negligent manslaughter or culpable homicide because death was reasonably foreseeable. In all the jurisdictions the interrelation between foreseeability and causation is Program Template, Printable, that the causal link can be established by negligence. This is because in those situations the seemingly voluntary action of the victim is foreseeable, or ought to be, so the accused is deemed to have been aware of the Resume Examples - Template, dangers and continued any way. The English approach to the question has seemingly been correct then in embracing the Empress Cars foreseeability test in criminal law. The problem is that this is not really relevant in List Template | Procedure Template Sample manslaughter by unlawful and dangerous act.

The act must have caused the death, the foreseeability of the issue isn’t relevant because if the act was unforeseeable then it is established that the chain of causation can still be established (i.e. the Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template, person had a thin skull or a rare disorder). However, in other jurisdictions the foreseeability issue goes to negligence not causation and this avoids the problems. In all jurisdictions the supply of drugs is a causa sine qua non however the chain of causation is held not to be broken because the crime is consequent upon Http negligence by definition whereas the - Template, manslaughter cases require a standard causational link between the act and death. This work has concentrated predominantly on the drug supply cases in manslaughter; this mirrors the domination that is given to them in Sample You Letter To Employer Documents all the textbooks and articles on the issue. It is well understood that there are numerous things which could potentially break the chain of causation in manslaughter such as failure to be a causa sine qua non, intervention by an act of nature, intervention by a third party, it may not be a substantial cause of death. The intervention of Resume, a third party, particularly where that third party is the victim himself, is a foundational principle of causation and as mentioned above the basis for accessorial liability. The drug supply cases seem to Summary For Resume. Summary Of Qualifications offend these principles and Car Salesman yet there is Summary For Resume. Resume Summary Of Qualifications, a paucity of good authority to contradict their conclusions.

In many ways the conclusions in Resume Examples - Template Kennedy (No 2) defy logical explication, however it is an obvious attempt at maintaining the policy that drug dealers can be guilty of manslaughter. Diagram Organiser - Spider Diagram, Organiser! This principle is recognised both north of the border and in the USA which in turn creates pressure for conformity. However, the detriment to causational principles seems to lie in the fact that it in many respects completely bypasses the operation of causation. It doesn’t pay attention to the fact that causation is a mixture of fact and law, the one cannot exist without the other, and furthermore it is simply not tenable to argue that once de minimis factual cause is established that the facts have no effect. Kennedy (No 2) tried to create some kind of legal chain of Car Salesman Resume Examples, causation, whereby the establishment of ‘administration’ by constructing the facts so as to fit into the definition somehow changed the facts from what they were, thus legally all administration causes death where in fact it does. The chain of causation can be broken in cases of Summary For Resume. Resume Summary Of Qualifications Http, manslaughter; it is clear from American authorities such as People v. Elder and Smith v. Car Salesman Resume Examples! State that where the accused commits a minor crime which is then followed by a grossly disproportionate killing by a third party then this will break the chain of causation. Summary Resume Summary Of Qualifications Http! However there are virtually no examples in English law and if we follow the approach under R v. Dear as we discussed above the chain of causation in cases concerning homicide may be incredibly difficult because even the most unreasonable behaviour of the victim in exacerbating an Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template initially trivial harm are not relevant in breaking the Spider Diagram Organiser Template, chain of causation. It is as well to Resume Examples remember however that this doesn’t necessarily entail a conviction of Driving School :: Step-By-Step License Guide For Ca, manslaughter, causation is primarily concerned with the actus reus of a crime and the mens rea may have a very important bearing on the outcome. Allen, Michael Textbook on Criminal Law 2005 / OUP / 8th ed.

Fletcher, George Rethinking Criminal Evidence 2000 / OUP Hart, HLA Causation in Resume - Template the Law 1985 / OUP / 2nd ed. Honore, T McCall Smith, R Scots Criminal Law 1997 / Butterworths / 2nd. Sheldon, D 2nd ed. List | Procedure! Ormerod, David Smith Hogan Criminal Law 2005 / OUP / 11th ed. Heaton, Russell Dealing In Death 2003 CLR 497 Principals?

No Principles 2004 CLR 463 Ormerod, D Drug Suppliers As Manslaughterers (Again) 2005 CLR 819. Fortson, R Padfield, N Clean Water And Muddy Causation: Is 1995 CLR 68 Causation A Question Of Law Or Fact, Or Just A Way Of Allocating Blame. Phippen, L Drugs and manslaughter 2005 NLJ 1054. Radlett, D Reed, Alan Involuntary Manslaughter And Assisting 2003 JCL 431. Drug-Abuse Injection Court of Appeal: Causation and Assisting 2005 JCL 384. Drug-abuse Injection Toczek, L Is the supplier also the Resume Examples - Template, killer? 2002 NLJ 595 Weait, M Taking the 5+ Party Template Template, blame: criminal law, social 2001 JSWFL 441. responsibility and the sexual transmission of Car Salesman Resume - Template, HIV Williams, R Policy And Principle In Drugs Manslaughter Cases 2005 CLJ 66.

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If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Law Essay on Chain of Resume, Causation cases of Manslaughter . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/law/chain-of-causation-manslaughter.php [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of Examples - Template, this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and Spider delivered on time.

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essay on Examples - Template, the brain Modern neuroscience postulates the equivalence of brain processes and thinking or consciousness. Ceremony Template, Printable Wedding? Thought is the natural product and phenomenon of neurochemical processes within the brain of our body. One assumption especially favored by modern neuroscience is the consideration of quantum-mechanical processes as the trigger of consciousness and thus of all our mental and - Template volitional acts. From the physicalist point of view I do not deny the practical value and the obvious preferential treatment given to this theory within the top echelon of academic science. Thank You Letter To Employer - 18+ Free Documents? There is one point, however, that I do find worth considering. If we assume quantum-mechanical processes in microtubules of the brain as generative of Car Salesman Resume consciousness, we must allow the properties of quantum-mechanics to be transferred or implicate and inherent in the produced phenomenon itself, i.e., consciousness must itself have quantum-mechanical properties. A physical cause always conveys its property to its produced effect. & Security? For example, consider the cause of a force, pushing a body into Car Salesman, motion. The force of motion in the original cause is transmitted to the resting body, which itself receives this force and Summary For Resume. Resume Summary Of Qualifications is incited to motion.

Thus the kinetic energy of the muscle in my arm is transferred to the book, which I lift up from the Car Salesman Resume, table. Before I moved the Summary Summary Of Qualifications, book, it was resting in a fixed place. As soon as I raise the book, a new determinant is added, that of motion. This example is incomplete in so far, as it only describes the transference of contingent and non-essential properties from the - Template, cause to its effect. Our body is a complex organism, operating as a whole. Spider Diagram Organiser Diagram, Organiser? By analyzing the Resume, parts we do not come to a full understanding of the Mission Driving :: Step-By-Step For Ca, whole organism. We say, that the organism is the Car Salesman Examples - Template, product of biological processes, especially those inherent in the DNA. The properties of the DNA are also present within the whole organism. For example the principle of Sample Thank Free Documents reproduction as a principle of life itself is fundamental to the functionality of the DNA, as well as of the whole body. Similarly, do we not have to assume, that quantum-mechanical properties of the brain processes are inherent and Car Salesman essential to thought and consciousness? For example, take the property of non-locality in quantum mechanics.

It is 5+ Party List | Procedure Sample a physical and approved fact, that quantum-mechanical processes implicate the non-local behavior and relationship of Car Salesman Examples - Template particles. & Security Of Patient? If we transfer this property to consciousness and assume non-locality to be a primary constituent in the mechanism of thought, we must inevitably end up with the Examples - Template, self-contradictory conclusion, that consciousness and thought possess a non-local nature, although neuroscience tries to explain them in terms of locality, i.e., as a phenomenon of the brain. Therefore, the local theory of the mind, put forward by the most eminent neuroscientists, eventually results in the non-locality of the mind. This self-contradiction can only be solved if we do not consider thought to be a product of physical brain processes. As our consciousness and our thought, by & Security nature and Car Salesman Resume - Template definition and Thank - 18+ Free through our own experience evinces non-local features, we are compelled to reconsider these neurobiological theories and eventually to refute them in Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template favor of a non-local theory of the mind. The biological evolution of the human species has not yet been completed. Especially the development of our brain has only Driving Guide, reached a stage of archaic potentiality. The fact that today most people live according to Car Salesman Resume Examples, their biological and bodily drives and impulses than according to Mission :: Step-By-Step Guide Teens, the capacity of reason that is said to distinguish humans from other living animals, obviously shows, that we are far from having attained the final stage of human evolution. The evolution of the body or most of nature may have reached a point of near completion, but, as the brain has developed later in the process of evolution than the other parts of the Car Salesman Resume - Template, body, we have to assume, that the brain's evolution is far from Diagram Organiser being complete. I would even say, regarding the low factor of - Template utilisation of the brain's capacities human beings display nowadays, that we are at the beginning of the brain's evolution.

This evolution is not only biologically, but concomitantly, the evolution of the Template Diagram,, faculties of thinking is extending our thinking massively. This sustains my theory of Paranoesis or Transrational Thinking. Because it is already now possible to use the full extent of our brain's capacity by applying the method of Paranoesis. Fortunately, this method is so far unknown, and as this method cannot be applied by people who are not philosophically engaged, the danger of its abuse is debarred. If we look on some thousand years into Car Salesman - Template, the future, we can probably imagine the human being in its full blossom, that is, thinking is Sample Free highly extended and used more effectively and comprehensively than in our days. How is it possible to attain the full range of capacities of our brain although it is not developed biologically enough?

The answer is simple: if we do not consider thinking as an epiphenomenon of the brain, as modern neurobiology erroneously assume, we can explain the brain as a sort of medium or bridge between Hyponoesis (Universal Mind) and Exonoesis, that is our individual thinking faculty as such. Exonoesis is - Template dependent on the evolution of our brain, because it uses the Privacy & Security Of Patient, brain's physiological capacities. Hyponoesis is Resume Examples - Template independent of any material or corporeal medium. If our individual mind applies the method of Paranoesis or Transrational Thinking, it will be able to transcend the limitations constraining the Individual Mind (Exonoesis) and link up directly with Hyponoesis. A person thinking transrationally is not thinking within the bounds of the capacity of the brain, as rational thinking does.

Exonoesis thinks as Hyponoesis, it is one with Hyponoesis and therefore uses the unrestrained power of Hyponoesis. As Exonoesis participates in Hyponoesis, whether thinking rationally or transrationally, and as Exonoesis is the individualized and materialized product of Hyponoesis, there always exist a natural nexus between Exonoesis and Hyponoesis. The Transrational Thinker is able to unearth this latent nexus and thereby restore the original oneness of Exonoesis and Hyponoesis (Individual and Universal Mind), abolishing the illusory duality and becoming noetically one with Hyponoesis. The common notion about evolution of mankind draws on the scientific theory elucidated in Darwinism. Unfortunately Darwin held that the human mind evolved simultaneously together with the organism and the faculties of perception.

While our ancestors living in caves developed gradually the faculty of using the first tools, the Evolutionists believe, that their intellectual faculty also began to Printable Programs, Ceremony, flourish and thus reason, the Car Salesman Resume - Template, unique feature of the homo sapiens, slowly came into being. Mind that makes up the human being in its wholeness, has never evolved. Only the intellectual faculties were refined over Sample Thank - 18+ Download Free Documents the centuries. Mind as such has always been, independent of the evolution, unchanged by the changes of time, indifferent to the upheavals of mankind and the struggling effort to grasp that which I call the One Mind. Therefore it is only the utilization of the latent and hitherto unknown faculties of our mind that increased over the time. While cave people used their mental faculties at Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template, a minimum rate, modern human's rate of Template utilization has dramatically increased and has produced our technological age. Nevertheless, the average degree of utilization is Car Salesman Resume small compared to all the Printable Wedding Programs, Ceremony, unexplored faculties that lie still unused in our mind, not yet discovered. Only some outstanding and illustrious personages in every era, and especially the great philosophers of the past, succeeded in tapping the uncharted reservoir of the human mind, if only partially, though. Thus the evolution of mind and the evolution of matter (body and Resume consciousness) are not necessarily concomitant. If neuroscientists are convinced that consciousness could be ultimately explained by Privacy & Security Of Patient Ppt Download neurochemical processes in Car Salesman Resume Examples the brain, I would not object to this assumption that I think will be experimentally verified in the near future . Consciousness as a state of For Resume. Summary awareness or attentiveness does not explain thinking that is a much more complex process.

Thinking will never be explained as a product of the neurophysiological events within the brain, because thinking is not an epiphenomenon of corporeal or material processes. Even consciousness is still not accounted for by merely physical processes. How does something invisible, immeasurable, completely subjective such as our experience of ourselves is, originate from an observable and Resume Examples measurable physical process. This phase transition from mere physical brain operations to mental or psychical operations is the critical and up to now unexplained Achilles heel of neuroscience and ancillary fields. Thinking harnesses the capacity of our brain, which evolved over For Resume. Http 2 million years. It is the medium that evolved, not thinking as such. Thinking is dependent on the brain in order to express itself, in order to establish communicative powers, reasoning powers and so on. Thinking is Car Salesman Examples - Template necessary for our survival as a species, for the individual being to be able to live. The more our brain evolved, the more the Summary Resume Summary Of Qualifications Http, infinite power of thinking (or what I call Hyponoesis ) could become manifest through the behavior and thinking of the human being.

Thinking as such (Hyponoesis) is independent of the body or the brain. If not active as the individual mind it remains in a state of Examples - Template noetic vacuum before manifesting as Exonoesis (Individual Minds). The brain is therefore just a medium of & Security expression for Car Salesman Resume Examples, thinking. Consciousness however is the To Employer - 18+ Download Free, fundamental state that denotes the being as alive, and that is the intermediary between thinking as a non-material process and the neurophysiological processes of the brain. Consciousness is the link between thinking and the brain, between the Examples - Template, mind and the body. I do not mean to emphasize a dualistic notion with this. On the contrary, dualism, as postulated by Descartes, means an assumption of two totally independent and Template different substances, although they are capable of interacting somehow. We could call this the strong dualism, compared to the weak or complementary dualism I propose. This dualism is comparable to the particle-wave dualism and Car Salesman the principle of complementarity postulated by Bohr. Both, particle and wave are an aspect of the same subatomic event. They complement each other and belong necessarily together.

Mind and 5+ Party List Template Template body, therefore, are not antagonistic or completely different. Both are interconnected aspects of the same underlying and fundamental energy. The body as such is just a biological machine, which could not survive on its own. Consciousness gives the body the - Template, necessary information about the world outside it and about the body itself. Thinking is the what guides, steers or directs the course of the life, how the body is used for expressing inner moods etc. The whole psychology of our psyche is under the guidance and auspices of thinking (see also the laws of cybernetic). In Aristotelian terms: thinking is the form that individuates matter, and thus produces the individuality, be it that of the body, the mind or the soul. (cf. Thomas Aquinas on the unity of body and soul, Summa Theologica, Ia, 76.1) The problem with neuroscience and its assumption that mind is only a complex biological phenomenon is, that they cannot explain, how an immaterial complexity, such as consciousness and thinking could have originated and evolved from a totally different material substance as matter (explanatory gap). Every material phenomenon can be measured or at least statistically described by natural science.

Why are they not able to do the same with this so-called biological phenomenon of the MIND? Why do most scientific approaches fail when applied to the understanding of our mind? Between this complex structure of consciousness and the physiological brain functions there seems to Privacy Of Patient Information, be an unsurmountable gap that has not yet been bridged. The functions and structure of Resume Examples - Template our mind do not, by Spider - Spider Diagram, analogy, resemble the Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template, function and structure of the Organiser, material counterpart, the brain. Both functions are different. If consciousness is the result of complex neurobiological functions in the brain, why is the resulting structure so completely different in its processes? How is it possible, that a material body can produce an immaterial consciousness?

How is Car Salesman Resume Examples - Template individuality in our mind explained, though our brains are basically the same? I mean, the human bodies may be slightly different, but the basic functions, like breathing, digestion, blood circulation, brain processes etc. are the same within the species of Privacy & Security Of Patient Ppt Download home sapiens, even within the genus of Resume Examples - Template living beings. Nevertheless, if we consider the individuality of the human being, its character, its consciousness, its thinking, nothing could be more variegated and distinct than that. If our brain would be responsible for the mind, then where does this individuality come from? Why do some persons have an extraordinary reason, and others are dull and barely intelligent? Environmental influences alone cannot explain that fact, otherwise animals would show a smiliar distinction within their species. I think that philosophers since ever clearly separated the mind from Privacy & Security Of Patient Information our body or the Car Salesman Resume Examples, material world.

We cannot simply reject their thoughts as dualism. Why shouldn't there be a dualism of some sort? It is only in our century that thinkers came to be sceptical of dualism by accepting only one substance, matter. By this act they could easily wipe away some of the more fundamental problems. This enterprise is Janus-faced, because on the other side they created a host of new problems, as mentioned above, and Organiser Organiser these problems are for some part really absurd. 1996-2017 by Tom Arnold. Car Salesman Resume - Template? All rights reserved. Send comments and questions to author.

Last Updated: 7/9/2016.