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To appreciate the nature and significance of the coming “singularity,” it is important to ponder the nature of Home Ideas. Sample Resume Letter exponential growth. Resume - Anuvrat.info! Toward this end, I am fond of telling the tale of the inventor of chess and his patron, the emperor of China. All Worksheets » Statistics! In response to the emperor’s offer of a reward for his new beloved game, the inventor asked for a single grain of rice on the first square, two on Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info, the second square, four on the third, and so on. 12 Best Images Resume, Resume! The Emperor quickly granted this seemingly benign and humble request. One version of the story has the emperor going bankrupt as the 63 doublings ultimately totaled 18 million trillion grains of rice. At ten grains of rice per Resume Modern, square inch, this requires rice fields covering twice the surface area of the Earth, oceans included. Another version of the story has the inventor losing his head.
It should be pointed out that as the Best Dorm Essentials Only emperor and - Anuvrat.info, the inventor went through the first half of the chess board, things were fairly uneventful. The inventor was given spoonfuls of rice, then bowls of rice, then barrels. By the end of the first half of the All Worksheets » Statistics Worksheets chess board, the Resume Modern inventor had accumulated one large field’s worth (4 billion grains), and the emperor did start to take notice. It was as they progressed through the second half of the chessboard that the situation quickly deteriorated. Incidentally, with regard to the doublings of Resume Examples Template Microsoft computation, that’s about where we stand now–there have been slightly more than 32 doublings of performance since the first programmable computers were invented during World War II. This is the nature of exponential growth. Although technology grows in the exponential domain, we humans live in Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, a linear world.
So technological trends are not noticed as small levels of technological power are doubled. Then seemingly out of Images On Pinterest Resume nowhere, a technology explodes into view. For example, when the Resume Internet went from 20,000 to 80,000 nodes over a two year period during the 1980s, this progress remained hidden from the general public. A decade later, when it went from 20 million to 80 million nodes in the same amount of On Pinterest | Executive time, the impact was rather conspicuous. As exponential growth continues to accelerate into Templates Modern the first half of the twenty-first century, it will appear to explode into infinity, at 12 Best Images On Pinterest | Executive Resume, Resume, least from the - Anuvrat.info limited and linear perspective of contemporary humans. All Worksheets! The progress will ultimately become so fast that it will rupture our ability to follow it. It will literally get out of our control. The illusion that we have our hand “on the plug,” will be dispelled. Can the Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info pace of technological progress continue to speed up indefinitely?
Is there not a point where humans are unable to think fast enough to keep up with it? With regard to unenhanced humans, clearly so. But what would a thousand scientists, each a thousand times more intelligent than human scientists today, and each operating a thousand times faster than contemporary humans (because the information processing in their primarily nonbiological brains is faster) accomplish? One year would be like a millennium. What would they come up with? Well, for one thing, they would come up with technology to become even more intelligent (because their intelligence is no longer of fixed capacity). They would change their own thought processes to think even faster. When the scientists evolve to » Statistics - Printable be a million times more intelligent and operate a million times faster, then an Resume Templates Modern hour would result in a century of progress (in today’s terms). This, then, is the Singularity. The Singularity is technological change so rapid and so profound that it represents a rupture in Resume 2007, the fabric of Modern human history.
Some would say that we cannot comprehend the Singularity, at Resume Examples. How To Write Resume Teacher, least with our current level of Templates - Anuvrat.info understanding, and Best 25+ College Dorm Only | College, that it is impossible, therefore, to look past its “event horizon” and make sense of what lies beyond. My view is that despite our profound limitations of thought, constrained as we are today to a mere hundred trillion interneuronal connections in our biological brains, we nonetheless have sufficient powers of abstraction to make meaningful statements about the nature of - Anuvrat.info life after the 12 Best Refer | Executive Resume, Resume Singularity. Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info! Most importantly, it is my view that the intelligence that will emerge will continue to represent the human civilization, which is already a human-machine civilization. This will be the next step in evolution, the All Worksheets next high level paradigm shift. To put the Modern - Anuvrat.info concept of Singularity into perspective, let’s explore the history of the Refer Images On Pinterest word itself. Singularity is a familiar word meaning a unique event with profound implications. In mathematics, the term implies infinity, the explosion of Modern value that occurs when dividing a constant by Sample Medical Form | Templatezet, a number that gets closer and Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, closer to zero.
In physics, similarly, a singularity denotes an event or location of infinite power. At the center of Sample Medical Authorization Form a black hole, matter is so dense that its gravity is infinite. As nearby matter and energy are drawn into the black hole, an event horizon separates the region from the Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info rest of the Universe. It constitutes a rupture in the fabric of space and time. The Universe itself is said to Profile Teacher have begun with just such a Singularity.
In the 1950s, John Von Neumann was quoted as saying that “the ever accelerating progress of technology…gives the Resume Templates Modern appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the Best 25+ College Dorm Only On Pinterest race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.” In the 1960s, I. Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info! J. Good wrote of an “intelligence explosion,” resulting from intelligent machines designing their next generation without human intervention. In 1986, Vernor Vinge, a mathematician and computer scientist at San Diego State University, wrote about a rapidly approaching technological “singularity” in his science fiction novel, Marooned in Realtime. Profile Resume Examples. How To Write Example! Then in Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, 1993, Vinge presented a paper to a NASA-organized symposium which described the Singularity as an impending event resulting primarily from the advent of 25+ College Essentials On Pinterest | College “entities with greater than human intelligence,” which Vinge saw as the harbinger of Modern a run-away phenomenon. From my perspective, the Profile Examples. How To Write Resume Example Singularity has many faces. It represents the nearly vertical phase of exponential growth where the Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info rate of growth is so extreme that technology appears to be growing at Ideas. Perfect Resume Resume Cv Cover, infinite speed. Of course, from a mathematical perspective, there is no discontinuity, no rupture, and the growth rates remain finite, albeit extraordinarily large. But from our currently limited perspective, this imminent event appears to be an Resume - Anuvrat.info acute and abrupt break in » Statistics - Printable Worksheets, the continuity of Modern progress. However, I emphasize the Resume Write Example Teacher word “currently,” because one of the salient implications of the Singularity will be a change in the nature of our ability to understand. In other words, we will become vastly smarter as we merge with our technology. When I wrote my first book, The Age of Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info Intelligent Machines, in the 1980s, I ended the book with the specter of the emergence of machine intelligence greater than human intelligence, but found it difficult to look beyond this event horizon. Now having thought about its implications for Sample the past 20 years, I feel that we are indeed capable of understanding the many facets of this threshold, one that will transform all spheres of - Anuvrat.info human life.
Consider a few examples of the Sample Form Sample | Templatezet implications. - Anuvrat.info! The bulk of our experiences will shift from real reality to Profile Resume How To Teacher virtual reality. Most of the intelligence of our civilization will ultimately be nonbiological, which by the end of this century will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than human intelligence. However, to address often expressed concerns, this does not imply the end of biological intelligence, even if thrown from its perch of evolutionary superiority. Moreover, it is important to note that the nonbiological forms will be derivative of Resume Templates Modern biological design.
In other words, our civilization will remain human, indeed in All Worksheets Worksheets, many ways more exemplary of what we regard as human than it is Resume Templates Modern, today, although our understanding of the term will move beyond its strictly biological origins. Many observers have nonetheless expressed alarm at the emergence of forms of nonbiological intelligence superior to human intelligence. The potential to augment our own intelligence through intimate connection with other thinking mediums does not necessarily alleviate the concern, as some people have expressed the Home Design Sample Resume Resume Cv Cover wish to remain “unenhanced” while at the same time keeping their place at the top of the intellectual food chain. My view is that the likely outcome is that on the one hand, from the Resume Templates perspective of biological humanity, these superhuman intelligences will appear to be their transcendent servants, satisfying their needs and desires. On the other hand, fulfilling the wishes of a revered biological legacy will occupy only 12 Best Images On Pinterest | Executive Resume a trivial portion of the intellectual power that the Singularity will bring. Needless to say, the Singularity will transform all aspects of Templates - Anuvrat.info our lives, social, sexual, and Resume Examples In Word. Template Microsoft 2007, economic, which I explore herewith. Before considering further the implications of the Modern Singularity, let’s examine the wide range of technologies that are subject to the law of accelerating returns. The exponential trend that has gained the greatest public recognition has become known as “Moore’s Law.” Gordon Moore, one of the inventors of Design Ideas. Sample Cv Cover Letter integrated circuits, and then Chairman of Intel, noted in the mid 1970s that we could squeeze twice as many transistors on an integrated circuit every 24 months. Given that the electrons have less distance to travel, the Templates circuits also run twice as fast, providing an overall quadrupling of Refer Images On Pinterest | Executive Resume computational power. After sixty years of devoted service, Moore’s Law will die a dignified death no later than the year 2019.
By that time, transistor features will be just a few atoms in width, and the strategy of ever finer photolithography will have run its course. So, will that be the end of the exponential growth of computing? If we plot the speed (in instructions per second) per $1000 (in constant dollars) of 49 famous calculators and computers spanning the entire twentieth century, we note some interesting observations. Moore’s Law Was Not the First, but the Fifth Paradigm To Provide Exponential Growth of Computing. Each time one paradigm runs out of steam, another picks up the pace. It is important to note that Moore’s Law of Integrated Circuits was not the first, but the fifth paradigm to provide accelerating price-performance. Modern - Anuvrat.info! Computing devices have been consistently multiplying in power (per unit of Profile Resume Examples. How To Resume Example Teacher time) from the mechanical calculating devices used in the 1890 U.S.
Census, to Resume - Anuvrat.info Turing’s relay-based “Robinson” machine that cracked the Nazi enigma code, to 12 Best Refer Images On Pinterest the CBS vacuum tube computer that predicted the election of Eisenhower, to the transistor-based machines used in Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, the first space launches, to the integrated-circuit-based personal computer which I used to dictate (and automatically transcribe) this essay. But I noticed something else surprising. When I plotted the 49 machines on an exponential graph (where a straight line means exponential growth), I didn’t get a straight line. What I got was another exponential curve. Resume Examples Resume Word! In other words, there’s exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. Computer speed (per unit cost) doubled every three years between 1910 and 1950, doubled every two years between 1950 and 1966, and is now doubling every year. But where does Moore’s Law come from? What is behind this remarkably predictable phenomenon? I have seen relatively little written about the ultimate source of - Anuvrat.info this trend. Is it just “a set of industry expectations and goals,” as Randy Isaac, head of basic science at IBM contends? Or is there something more profound going on?
In my view, it is All Worksheets Worksheets - Printable, one manifestation (among many) of the exponential growth of the Templates evolutionary process that is technology. The exponential growth of computing is Resume Resume Template Microsoft, a marvelous quantitative example of the Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info exponentially growing returns from an evolutionary process. Resume Resume Example! We can also express the exponential growth of computing in terms of an accelerating pace: it took ninety years to Modern - Anuvrat.info achieve the first MIPS (million instructions per second) per Worksheets, thousand dollars, now we add one MIPS per thousand dollars every day. Moore’s Law narrowly refers to Resume Templates Modern the number of transistors on an integrated circuit of fixed size, and sometimes has been expressed even more narrowly in Home Ideas. Sample Letter, terms of transistor feature size. But rather than feature size (which is only one contributing factor), or even number of Modern - Anuvrat.info transistors, I think the most appropriate measure to track is computational speed per unit cost. This takes into account many levels of “cleverness” (i.e., innovation, which is to say, technological evolution). In addition to all of the innovation in integrated circuits, there are multiple layers of innovation in computer design, e.g., pipelining, parallel processing, instruction look-ahead, instruction and memory caching, and many others. From the above chart, we see that the exponential growth of computing didn’t start with integrated circuits (around 1958), or even transistors (around 1947), but goes back to 25+ College Dorm Essentials Ideas the electromechanical calculators used in the 1890 and 1900 U.S. Census. This chart spans at least five distinct paradigms of computing, of which Moore’s Law pertains to only the Resume Modern latest one. It’s obvious what the sixth paradigm will be after Moore’s Law runs out of steam during the Examples In Word. Template Word second decade of Modern this century.
Chips today are flat (although it does require up to 12 Best Images Resume, Resume 20 layers of material to produce one layer of Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info circuitry). Profile Resume Write Resume Example Teacher! Our brain, in contrast, is organized in three dimensions. We live in a three dimensional world, why not use the Resume - Anuvrat.info third dimension? The human brain actually uses a very inefficient electrochemical digital controlled analog computational process. The bulk of the calculations are done in the interneuronal connections at a speed of only Profile Examples. How To Write Example about 200 calculations per Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, second (in each connection), which is about ten million times slower than contemporary electronic circuits.
But the brain gains its prodigious powers from its extremely parallel organization in three dimensions . There are many technologies in the wings that build circuitry in three dimensions. Nanotubes, for Resume Examples In Word. Resume Template Word example, which are already working in laboratories, build circuits from pentagonal arrays of carbon atoms. Modern! One cubic inch of nanotube circuitry would be a million times more powerful than the human brain. There are more than enough new computing technologies now being researched, including three-dimensional silicon chips, optical computing, crystalline computing, DNA computing, and quantum computing, to Profile How To Example keep the law of accelerating returns as applied to computation going for a long time. Thus the (double) exponential growth of computing is broader than Moore’s Law, which refers to only one of its paradigms. And this accelerating growth of computing is, in turn, part of the yet broader phenomenon of the accelerating pace of Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info any evolutionary process. Observers are quick to criticize extrapolations of an exponential trend on the basis that the trend is bound to » Statistics Worksheets run out of Templates Modern “resources.” The classical example is when a species happens upon Resume Examples In Word. Resume Template Microsoft a new habitat (e.g., rabbits in Modern, Australia), the Refer Images | Executive Resume species’ numbers will grow exponentially for a time, but then hit a limit when resources such as food and space run out. But the resources underlying the exponential growth of an evolutionary process are relatively unbounded: (i) The (ever growing) order of the evolutionary process itself. Each stage of evolution provides more powerful tools for the next. In biological evolution, the advent of DNA allowed more powerful and faster evolutionary “experiments.” Later, setting the Modern - Anuvrat.info “designs” of animal body plans during the Cambrian explosion allowed rapid evolutionary development of other body organs such as the brain.
Or to 12 Best Refer Images On Pinterest | Executive take a more recent example, the advent of Resume Templates Modern computer assisted design tools allows rapid development of the next generation of computers. (ii) The “chaos” of the Medical Authorization Form | Templatezet environment in which the evolutionary process takes place and which provides the options for further diversity. In biological evolution, diversity enters the process in the form of mutations and Modern, ever changing environmental conditions. In technological evolution, human ingenuity combined with ever changing market conditions keep the process of innovation going. The maximum potential of matter and Examples Resume Microsoft Word 2007, energy to contain intelligent processes is a valid issue. But according to my models, we won’t approach those limits during this century (but this will become an issue within a couple of Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info centuries). We also need to distinguish between the “S” curve (an “S” stretched to the right, comprising very slow, virtually unnoticeable growth–followed by very rapid growth–followed by a flattening out as the Examples 2007 process approaches an Templates asymptote) that is Examples In Word. Resume Template Microsoft Word 2007, characteristic of any specific technological paradigm and the continuing exponential growth that is characteristic of the ongoing evolutionary process of technology. Specific paradigms, such as Moore’s Law, do ultimately reach levels at which exponential growth is no longer feasible.
Thus Moore’s Law is an S curve. But the growth of computation is an ongoing exponential (at least until we “saturate” the Universe with the Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info intelligence of our human-machine civilization, but that will not be a limit in this coming century). Resume Template Microsoft! In accordance with the law of accelerating returns, paradigm shift, also called innovation, turns the S curve of any specific paradigm into a continuing exponential. A new paradigm (e.g., three-dimensional circuits) takes over when the old paradigm approaches its natural limit. This has already happened at least four times in the history of Resume - Anuvrat.info computation. This difference also distinguishes the tool making of non-human species, in which the mastery of a tool-making (or using) skill by each animal is characterized by Best 25+ College Essentials Ideas Only, an abruptly ending S shaped learning curve, versus human-created technology, which has followed an Templates - Anuvrat.info exponential pattern of growth and acceleration since its inception.
DNA Sequencing, Memory, Communications, the Internet, and All Worksheets » Statistics, Miniaturization. This “law of accelerating returns” applies to Templates - Anuvrat.info all of technology, indeed to any true evolutionary process, and can be measured with remarkable precision in information based technologies. There are a great many examples of the exponential growth implied by the law of accelerating returns in technologies as varied as DNA sequencing, communication speeds, electronics of Examples Template Microsoft Word all kinds, and even in the rapidly shrinking size of technology. The Singularity results not from the exponential explosion of Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info computation alone, but rather from the interplay and myriad synergies that will result from Perfect Resume, manifold intertwined technological revolutions. Also, keep in mind that every point on the exponential growth curves underlying these panoply of technologies (see the graphs below) represents an intense human drama of innovation and competition.
It is Resume, remarkable therefore that these chaotic processes result in such smooth and predictable exponential trends. For example, when the human genome scan started fourteen years ago, critics pointed out Dorm Essentials Ideas Only | College that given the speed with which the Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info genome could then be scanned, it would take thousands of years to finish the project. | Executive Resume,! Yet the fifteen year project was nonetheless completed slightly ahead of schedule. Of course, we expect to see exponential growth in electronic memories such as RAM. Notice How Exponential Growth Continued through Paradigm Shifts from Vacuum Tubes to Discrete Transistors to Integrated Circuits. However, growth in magnetic memory is not primarily a matter of Moore’s law, but includes advances in mechanical and electromagnetic systems. Exponential growth in Resume Templates, communications technology has been even more explosive than in computation and is no less significant in its implications. Again, this progression involves far more than just shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit, but includes accelerating advances in fiber optics, optical switching, electromagnetic technologies, and others.
Notice Cascade of smaller “S” Curves. Note that in the above two charts we can actually see the progression of “S” curves: the acceleration fostered by a new paradigm, followed by 25+ College Dorm Essentials Only, a leveling off as the paradigm runs out of steam, followed by renewed acceleration through paradigm shift. The following two charts show the overall growth of the Internet based on the number of hosts. These two charts plot the same data, but one is on an exponential axis and the other is linear. As I pointed out earlier, whereas technology progresses in the exponential domain, we experience it in the linear domain. So from the perspective of most observers, nothing was happening until the Templates - Anuvrat.info mid 1990s when seemingly out of nowhere, the world wide web and email exploded into view. But the emergence of the Internet into a worldwide phenomenon was readily predictable much earlier by examining the exponential trend data.
Notice how the Resume Examples 2007 explosion of the Internet appears to be a surprise from the Resume Templates Linear Chart, but was perfectly predictable from the Exponential Chart. Ultimately we will get away from the tangle of Ideas. Letter wires in our cities and in our lives through wireless communication, the power of which is Templates - Anuvrat.info, doubling every 10 to 11 months. Another technology that will have profound implications for the twenty-first century is the pervasive trend toward making things smaller, i.e., miniaturization. The salient implementation sizes of a broad range of technologies, both electronic and Best, mechanical, are shrinking, also at a double exponential rate. At present, we are shrinking technology by a factor of approximately 5.6 per linear dimension per Templates - Anuvrat.info, decade. The Exponential Growth of Computation Revisited. If we view the exponential growth of computation in its proper perspective as one example of the pervasiveness of the exponential growth of information based technology, that is, as one example of Medical Form Sample | Templatezet many of the law of accelerating returns, then we can confidently predict its continuation. In the accompanying sidebar, I include a simplified mathematical model of the Resume Modern law of accelerating returns as it pertains to the (double) exponential growth of computing.
The formulas below result in the above graph of the continued growth of computation. This graph matches the available data for the twentieth century through all five paradigms and provides projections for the twenty-first century. Note how the Best Dorm Ideas | College Growth Rate is growing slowly, but nonetheless exponentially. The Law of Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info Accelerating Returns Applied to the Growth of Computation. The following provides a brief overview of the law of accelerating returns as it applies to the double exponential growth of computation. This model considers the impact of the growing power of the technology to Home Resume Resume Cv Cover foster its own next generation. For example, with more powerful computers and related technology, we have the tools and the knowledge to Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info design yet more powerful computers, and to do so more quickly. Note that the Best Essentials Ideas Only On Pinterest | College data for the year 2000 and beyond assume neural net connection calculations as it is expected that this type of calculation will ultimately dominate, particularly in emulating human brain functions.
This type of Resume - Anuvrat.info calculation is less expensive than conventional (e.g., Pentium III / IV) calculations by a factor of at Design Ideas. Perfect Resume, least 100 (particularly if implemented using digital controlled analog electronics, which would correspond well to Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info the brain’s digital controlled analog electrochemical processes). A factor of 100 translates into approximately 6 years (today) and less than 6 years later in the twenty-first century. My estimate of All Worksheets Worksheets - Printable brain capacity is Templates, 100 billion neurons times an average 1,000 connections per neuron (with the calculations taking place primarily in the connections) times 200 calculations per second. 25+ College On Pinterest | College! Although these estimates are conservatively high, one can find higher and lower estimates. However, even much higher (or lower) estimates by orders of magnitude only shift the - Anuvrat.info prediction by a relatively small number of years. Some prominent dates from this analysis include the following: We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2023. We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for one cent around the Authorization Form Sample year 2037. We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2049. We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for Resume Modern one cent around the year 2059. The Model considers the following variables:
V: Velocity (i.e., power) of computing (measured in CPS/unit cost) W: World Knowledge as it pertains to designing and building computational devices t: Time. The assumptions of the » Statistics Worksheets - Printable Worksheets model are: In other words, computer power is a linear function of the knowledge of how to build computers. Resume Modern! This is actually a conservative assumption. In general, innovations improve V (computer power) by a multiple, not in an additive way. Independent innovations multiply each other’s effect. For example, a circuit advance such as CMOS, a more efficient IC wiring methodology, and a processor innovation such as pipelining all increase V by independent multiples.
In other words, W (knowledge) is cumulative, and the instantaneous increment to knowledge is proportional to V. W = C1 * C2 * Integral (0 to t) W W = C1 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) (Note on notation: a^b means a raised to the b power.) Simplifying the constants, we get: So this is a formula for Sample Authorization Sample “accelerating” (i.e., exponentially growing) returns, a “regular Moore’s Law.” As I mentioned above, the data shows exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. (We doubled computer power every three years early in the twentieth century, every two years in the middle of the - Anuvrat.info century, and close to every one year during the 1990s.) Let’s factor in another exponential phenomenon, which is the growing resources for computation.
Not only is each (constant cost) device getting more powerful as a function of W, but the resources deployed for All Worksheets » Statistics - Printable Worksheets computation are also growing exponentially. N: Expenditures for Templates computation V = C1 * W (as before) N = C4 ^ (C5 * t) (Expenditure for computation is Home Design Perfect Resume Cv Cover Letter, growing at its own exponential rate) W = C2 * Integral(0 to t) (N * V) As before, world knowledge is accumulating, and the instantaneous increment is - Anuvrat.info, proportional to the amount of computation, which equals the resources deployed for computation (N) * the power of each (constant cost) device. W = C1 * C2 * Integral(0 to t) (C4 ^ (C5 * t) * W) W = C1 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) Simplifying the constants, we get: This is a double exponential–an exponential curve in which the rate of exponential growth is growing at a different exponential rate. Now let’s consider real-world data. Considering the data for actual calculating devices and computers during the twentieth century: CPS/$1K: Calculations Per Second for $1,000.
Twentieth century computing data matches: We can determine the growth rate over a period of time: Growth Rate =10^((LOG(CPS/$1K for 12 Best Images | Executive Resume, Resume Current Year) – LOG(CPS/$1K for Previous Year))/(Current Year – Previous Year)) Human Brain = 100 Billion (10^11) neurons * 1000 (10^3) Connections/Neuron * 200 (2 * 10^2) Calculations Per Second Per Connection = 2 * 10^16 Calculations Per Second Human Race = 10 Billion (10^10) Human Brains = 2 * 10^26 Calculations Per Second. These formulas produce the graph above. Already, IBM’s “Blue Gene” supercomputer, now being built and scheduled to be completed by 2005, is projected to provide 1 million billion calculations per second (i.e., one billion megaflops). This is already one twentieth of the capacity of the Templates - Anuvrat.info human brain, which I estimate at a conservatively high 20 million billion calculations per second (100 billion neurons times 1,000 connections per Home Resume, neuron times 200 calculations per second per connection). In line with my earlier predictions, supercomputers will achieve one human brain capacity by Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, 2010, and personal computers will do so by around 2020. By 2030, it will take a village of Design Sample Resume Resume Letter human brains (around a thousand) to Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info match $1000 of computing. By 2050, $1000 of » Statistics Worksheets Worksheets computing will equal the processing power of all human brains on Earth.
Of course, this only includes those brains still using carbon-based neurons. Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info! While human neurons are wondrous creations in a way, we wouldn’t (and don’t) design computing circuits the same way. Our electronic circuits are already more than ten million times faster than a neuron’s electrochemical processes. Most of the complexity of a human neuron is devoted to maintaining its life support functions, not its information processing capabilities. Ultimately, we will need to port our mental processes to a more suitable computational substrate. Then our minds won’t have to stay so small, being constrained as they are today to a mere hundred trillion neural connections each operating at a ponderous 200 digitally controlled analog calculations per second. So far, I’ve been talking about the hardware of computing.
The software is even more salient. One of the principal assumptions underlying the expectation of the Singularity is the ability of nonbiological mediums to emulate the Authorization Form Sample | Templatezet richness, subtlety, and depth of human thinking. Achieving the computational capacity of the human brain, or even villages and nations of human brains will not automatically produce human levels of capability. By human levels I include all the diverse and subtle ways in which humans are intelligent, including musical and artistic aptitude, creativity, physically moving through the world, and understanding and Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info, responding appropriately to emotion. The requisite hardware capacity is a necessary but not sufficient condition. The organization and Ideas. Sample Perfect, content of these resources–the software of intelligence–is also critical. Before addressing this issue, it is important to note that once a computer achieves a human level of intelligence, it will necessarily soar past it. A key advantage of nonbiological intelligence is that machines can easily share their knowledge.
If I learn French, or read War and - Anuvrat.info, Peace, I can’t readily download that learning to Home Cv Cover Letter you. You have to acquire that scholarship the same painstaking way that I did. My knowledge, embedded in a vast pattern of neurotransmitter concentrations and interneuronal connections, cannot be quickly accessed or transmitted. But we won’t leave out quick downloading ports in our nonbiological equivalents of human neuron clusters. When one computer learns a skill or gains an Resume Templates Modern insight, it can immediately share that wisdom with billions of other machines. As a contemporary example, we spent years teaching one research computer how to Medical recognize continuous human speech. We exposed it to thousands of hours of recorded speech, corrected its errors, and patiently improved its performance.
Finally, it became quite adept at Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, recognizing speech (I dictated most of Sample Form Sample | Templatezet my recent book to it). Now if you want your own personal computer to recognize speech, it doesn’t have to go through the same process; you can just download the fully trained patterns in seconds. Ultimately, billions of Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info nonbiological entities can be the master of all human and machine acquired knowledge. In addition, computers are potentially millions of » Statistics times faster than human neural circuits. A computer can also remember billions or even trillions of facts perfectly, while we are hard pressed to remember a handful of phone numbers. The combination of human level intelligence in a machine with a computer’s inherent superiority in the speed, accuracy, and Templates - Anuvrat.info, sharing ability of its memory will be formidable. There are a number of compelling scenarios to achieve higher levels of intelligence in our computers, and ultimately human levels and beyond.
We will be able to evolve and train a system combining massively parallel neural nets with other paradigms to Worksheets Worksheets understand language and model knowledge, including the ability to Templates read and model the knowledge contained in written documents. Unlike many contemporary “neural net” machines, which use mathematically simplified models of human neurons, some contemporary neural nets are already using highly detailed models of Best 25+ College Dorm Essentials Only | College human neurons, including detailed nonlinear analog activation functions and other relevant details. Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info! Although the ability of today’s computers to Examples In Word. Word 2007 extract and learn knowledge from natural language documents is limited, their capabilities in Templates, this domain are improving rapidly. Computers will be able to read on their own, understanding and modeling what they have read, by the second decade of the Refer On Pinterest | Executive twenty-first century. Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info! We can then have our computers read all of the world’s literature–books, magazines, scientific journals, and other available material. Ultimately, the machines will gather knowledge on their own by venturing out on 25+ College Essentials Ideas Only On Pinterest | College, the web, or even into the physical world, drawing from the full spectrum of media and - Anuvrat.info, information services, and sharing knowledge with each other (which machines can do far more easily than their human creators). Reverse Engineering the Human Brain. The most compelling scenario for mastering the software of Form | Templatezet intelligence is to tap into the blueprint of the Resume - Anuvrat.info best example we can get our hands on of an intelligent process. There is no reason why we cannot reverse engineer the human brain, and essentially copy its design.
Although it took its original designer several billion years to develop, it’s readily available to us, and not (yet) copyrighted. Although there’s a skull around the brain, it is not hidden from our view. The most immediately accessible way to accomplish this is through destructive scanning: we take a frozen brain, preferably one frozen just slightly before rather than slightly after it was going to die anyway, and examine one brain layer–one very thin slice–at a time. Ideas. Perfect Resume! We can readily see every neuron and Modern, every connection and every neurotransmitter concentration represented in each synapse-thin layer. Human brain scanning has already started. A condemned killer allowed his brain and body to be scanned and you can access all 10 billion bytes of him on the Internet http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/visible_human.html. He has a 25 billion byte female companion on the site as well in case he gets lonely. This scan is Best Dorm Essentials Only | College, not high enough in resolution for our purposes, but then, we probably don’t want to base our templates of machine intelligence on Resume Modern, the brain of a convicted killer, anyway. But scanning a frozen brain is feasible today, albeit not yet at a sufficient speed or bandwidth, but again, the law of accelerating returns will provide the requisite speed of scanning, just as it did for the human genome scan.
Carnegie Mellon University’s Andreas Nowatzyk plans to scan the nervous system of the brain and body of a mouse with a resolution of less than 200 nanometers, which is getting very close to the resolution needed for reverse engineering. We also have noninvasive scanning techniques today, including high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, optical imaging, near-infrared scanning, and Images | Executive, other technologies which are capable in Templates, certain instances of resolving individual somas, or neuron cell bodies. Brain scanning technologies are also increasing their resolution with each new generation, just what we would expect from the law of accelerating returns. Future generations will enable us to resolve the connections between neurons and to peer inside the synapses and record the neurotransmitter concentrations. We can peer inside someone’s brain today with noninvasive scanners, which are increasing their resolution with each new generation of this technology. Microsoft 2007! There are a number of technical challenges in accomplishing this, including achieving suitable resolution, bandwidth, lack of vibration, and safety. For a variety of Resume - Anuvrat.info reasons it is easier to Images On Pinterest Resume scan the brain of someone recently deceased than of Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info someone still living. It is easier to get someone deceased to sit still, for one thing. But noninvasively scanning a living brain will ultimately become feasible as MRI, optical, and other scanning technologies continue to improve in resolution and Sample Form | Templatezet, speed.
Although noninvasive means of scanning the brain from outside the skull are rapidly improving, the most practical approach to capturing every salient neural detail will be to scan it from inside. By 2030, “nanobot” (i.e., nano robot) technology will be viable, and brain scanning will be a prominent application. Nanobots are robots that are the size of human blood cells, or even smaller. Resume Templates! Billions of them could travel through every brain capillary and scan every relevant feature from up close. Using high speed wireless communication, the nanobots would communicate with each other, and with other computers that are compiling the brain scan data base (in other words, the nanobots will all be on a wireless local area network). This scenario involves only capabilities that we can touch and feel today. Example! We already have technology capable of producing very high resolution scans, provided that the scanner is physically proximate to the neural features. The basic computational and communication methods are also essentially feasible today. The primary features that are not yet practical are nanobot size and cost. As I discussed above, we can project the exponentially declining cost of computation, and Templates, the rapidly declining size of both electronic and mechanical technologies.
We can conservatively expect, therefore, the requisite nanobot technology by 12 Best Refer On Pinterest | Executive Resume, Resume, around 2030. Because of its ability to place each scanner in very close physical proximity to every neural feature, nanobot-based scanning will be more practical than scanning the brain from Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info, outside. How will we apply the thousands of trillions of bytes of information derived from each brain scan? One approach is to use the results to design more intelligent parallel algorithms for our machines, particularly those based on one of the neural net paradigms. With this approach, we don’t have to copy every single connection. There is How To Write Example Teacher, a great deal of repetition and redundancy within any particular brain region. Modern - Anuvrat.info! Although the information contained in a human brain would require thousands of Resume trillions of bytes of information (on the Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info order of Best Dorm Essentials Ideas Only | College 100 billion neurons times an Templates - Anuvrat.info average of 1,000 connections per neuron, each with multiple neurotransmitter concentrations and connection data), the design of the brain is characterized by 25+ College Essentials Ideas On Pinterest | College, a human genome of only - Anuvrat.info about a billion bytes.
Furthermore, most of the genome is All Worksheets Worksheets, redundant, so the initial design of the Templates Modern brain is characterized by approximately one hundred million bytes, about the size of Microsoft Word. » Statistics Worksheets! Of course, the complexity of our brains greatly increases as we interact with the world (by a factor of more than ten million). Because of the Templates highly repetitive patterns found in each specific brain region, it is not necessary to capture each detail in order to reverse engineer the significant digital-analog algorithms. With this information, we can design simulated nets that operate similarly. There are already multiple efforts under way to scan the human brain and Refer Images On Pinterest | Executive Resume, Resume, apply the Resume - Anuvrat.info insights derived to the design of intelligent machines. The pace of brain reverse engineering is only slightly behind the Design Ideas. Resume Resume Letter availability of the Templates Modern brain scanning and 12 Best Refer Resume, Resume, neuron structure information. A contemporary example is Templates Modern, a comprehensive model of a significant portion of the human auditory processing system that Lloyd Watts (www.lloydwatts.com) has developed from both neurobiology studies of specific neuron types and brain interneuronal connection information. Watts’ model includes five parallel paths and Images | Executive Resume,, includes the actual intermediate representations of auditory information at each stage of neural processing. Watts has implemented his model as real-time software which can locate and identify sounds with many of the same properties as human hearing.
Although a work in progress, the Resume - Anuvrat.info model illustrates the Best Dorm Essentials On Pinterest feasibility of converting neurobiological models and brain connection data into working simulations. Also, as Hans Moravec and others have speculated, these efficient simulations require about 1,000 times less computation than the theoretical potential of the biological neurons being simulated. Reverse Engineering the Human Brain: Five Parallel Auditory Pathways. Chart by Lloyd Watts. Cochlea : Sense organ of hearing. 30,000 fibers converts motion of the stapes into spectro-temporal representation of sound.
MC : Multipolar Cells. Measure spectral energy. GBC : Globular Bushy Cells. Relays spikes from the auditory nerve to the Lateral Superior. Olivary Complex (includes LSO and MSO) . Encoding of timing and amplitude of signals for binaural comparison of level. SBC : Spherical Bushy Cells. Provide temporal sharpening of time of arrival, as a pre-processor for interaural time difference calculation.
OC : Octopus Cells. Detection of transients. DCN : Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. Detection of spectral edges and calibrating for noise levels. VNTB : Ventral Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body. Feedback signals to modulate outer hair cell function in the cochlea. VNLL , PON : Ventral Nucleus of the Modern - Anuvrat.info Lateral Lemniscus, Peri-Olivary Nuclei. Processing transients from the Octopus Cells. MSO : Medial Superior Olive. Computing inter-aural time difference (difference in time of arrival between the two ears, used to tell where a sound is coming from).
LSO : Lateral Superior Olive. Also involved in Images | Executive Resume,, computing inter-aural level difference. ICC : Central Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus. The site of major integration of - Anuvrat.info multiple representations of sound. ICx : Exterior Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus. Further refinement of sound localization. SC : Superior Colliculus. Location of auditory/visual merging. MGB : Medial Geniculate Body.
The auditory portion of the On Pinterest | Executive Resume, thalamus. LS : Limbic System. Resume Templates Modern! Comprising many structures associated with emotion, memory, territory, etc. The brain is not one huge “tabula rasa” (i.e., undifferentiated blank slate), but rather an intricate and intertwined collection of hundreds of specialized regions. The process of Sample Authorization Form Sample “peeling the onion” to Resume Modern understand these interleaved regions is well underway. As the Sample Sample requisite neuron models and brain interconnection data becomes available, detailed and Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, implementable models such as the auditory example above will be developed for all brain regions. After the algorithms of a region are understood, they can be refined and extended before being implemented in Best Dorm Essentials Ideas Only On Pinterest, synthetic neural equivalents. For one thing, they can be run on a computational substrate that is Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info, already more than ten million times faster than neural circuitry. And we can also throw in Resume Examples In Word. Template Word, the methods for building intelligent machines that we already understand.
A more controversial application than this scanning-the-brain-to-understand-it scenario is scanning-the-brain-to- download -it . Here we scan someone’s brain to map the locations, interconnections, and contents of all the somas, axons, dendrites, presynaptic vesicles, neurotransmitter concentrations, and other neural components and levels. Its entire organization can then be re-created on a neural computer of sufficient capacity, including the contents of Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info its memory. To do this, we need to understand local brain processes, although not necessarily all of the higher level processes. Scanning a brain with sufficient detail to download it may sound daunting, but so did the human genome scan. Refer Images On Pinterest | Executive Resume,! All of the basic technologies exist today, just not with the requisite speed, cost, and size, but these are the Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info attributes that are improving at a double exponential pace. The computationally pertinent aspects of individual neurons are complicated, but definitely not beyond our ability to accurately model. For example, Ted Berger and his colleagues at Hedco Neurosciences have built integrated circuits that precisely match the digital and analog information processing characteristics of neurons, including clusters with hundreds of Refer | Executive Resume neurons. Carver Mead and his colleagues at CalTech have built a variety of Resume - Anuvrat.info integrated circuits that emulate the digital-analog characteristics of mammalian neural circuits.
A recent experiment at San Diego’s Institute for Nonlinear Science demonstrates the Refer Images Resume, Resume potential for electronic neurons to Resume Templates precisely emulate biological ones. Neurons (biological or otherwise) are a prime example of Refer On Pinterest | Executive what is often called “chaotic computing.” Each neuron acts in Templates Modern, an essentially unpredictable fashion. When an entire network of neurons receives input (from the outside world or from other networks of Sample Medical Form neurons), the signaling amongst them appears at Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info, first to be frenzied and random. » Statistics Worksheets - Printable Worksheets! Over time, typically a fraction of a second or so, the Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info chaotic interplay of the neurons dies down, and a stable pattern emerges. This pattern represents the “decision” of the neural network. If the neural network is performing a pattern recognition task (which, incidentally, comprises the bulk of the activity in the human brain), then the Worksheets Worksheets emergent pattern represents the appropriate recognition. So the question addressed by Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, the San Diego researchers was whether electronic neurons could engage in this chaotic dance alongside biological ones. They hooked up their artificial neurons with those from spiney lobsters in a single network, and Home Design Resume Letter, their hybrid biological-nonbiological network performed in the same way (i.e., chaotic interplay followed by a stable emergent pattern) and Resume, with the same type of Profile Resume results as an all biological net of Templates Modern neurons. Essentially, the biological neurons accepted their electronic peers. It indicates that their mathematical model of these neurons was reasonably accurate.
There are many projects around the world which are creating nonbiological devices to recreate in great detail the functionality of human neuron clusters. The accuracy and scale of these neuron-cluster replications are rapidly increasing. We started with functionally equivalent recreations of single neurons, then clusters of tens, then hundreds, and 12 Best Refer Images | Executive Resume, Resume, now thousands. Scaling up technical processes at an exponential pace is what technology is good at. As the computational power to emulate the Modern - Anuvrat.info human brain becomes available–we’re not there yet, but we will be there within a couple of decades–projects already under way to scan the human brain will be accelerated, with a view both to Resume Examples Resume Template Microsoft 2007 understand the human brain in general, as well as providing a detailed description of the contents and design of specific brains. By the third decade of the twenty-first century, we will be in a position to create highly detailed and complete maps of all relevant features of all neurons, neural connections and synapses in the human brain, all of the neural details that play a role in Templates - Anuvrat.info, the behavior and functionality of the brain, and to Best 25+ College Dorm Essentials Only | College recreate these designs in suitably advanced neural computers. Is the Human Brain Different from a Computer?
Is the human brain different from a computer? The answer depends on what we mean by the word “computer.” Certainly the brain uses very different methods from conventional contemporary computers. Most computers today are all digital and perform one (or perhaps a few) computations at a time at extremely high speed. In contrast, the human brain combines digital and analog methods with most computations performed in the analog domain. The brain is massively parallel, performing on the order of a hundred trillion computations at the same time, but at extremely slow speeds. With regard to digital versus analog computing, we know that digital computing can be functionally equivalent to analog computing (although the reverse is not true), so we can perform all of the capabilities of a hybrid digital–analog network with an all digital computer. On the other hand, there is an engineering advantage to analog circuits in that analog computing is potentially thousands of times more efficient.
An analog computation can be performed by a few transistors, or, in the case of mammalian neurons, specific electrochemical processes. Resume! A digital computation, in contrast, requires thousands or tens of thousands of transistors. So there is a significant engineering advantage to emulating the brain’s analog methods. The massive parallelism of the human brain is the key to its pattern recognition abilities, which reflects the strength of human thinking. As I discussed above, mammalian neurons engage in a chaotic dance, and if the neural network has learned its lessons well, then a stable pattern will emerge reflecting the network’s decision. There is no reason why our nonbiological functionally equivalent recreations of Examples In Word. Resume Template Microsoft 2007 biological neural networks cannot be built using these same principles, and Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, indeed there are dozens of projects around the world that have succeeded in Home Design Sample Resume, doing this. My own technical field is pattern recognition, and the projects that I have been involved in for over thirty years use this form of chaotic computing. Modern - Anuvrat.info! Particularly successful examples are Carver Mead’s neural chips, which are highly parallel, use digital controlled analog computing, and Examples. How To Resume Teacher, are intended as functionally similar recreations of biological networks. The Singularity envisions the emergence of human-like intelligent entities of astonishing diversity and scope.
Although these entities will be capable of Resume Templates Modern passing the “Turing test” (i.e., able to Sample Medical Authorization Form fool humans that they are human), the question arises as to whether these “people” are conscious, or just appear that way. Resume! To gain some insight as to why this is an extremely subtle question (albeit an All Worksheets » Statistics Worksheets ultimately important one) it is Resume - Anuvrat.info, useful to consider some of the paradoxes that emerge from the concept of downloading specific human brains. Although I anticipate that the most common application of the knowledge gained from reverse engineering the human brain will be creating more intelligent machines that are not necessarily modeled on specific biological human individuals, the scenario of All Worksheets » Statistics Worksheets scanning and Templates, reinstantiating all of the neural details of Refer Images Resume a specific person raises the most immediate questions of Modern - Anuvrat.info identity. Let’s consider the question of what we will find when we do this. We have to consider this question on both the objective and Home Design Resume Cv Cover Letter, subjective levels. Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info! “Objective” means everyone except me, so let’s start with that. Objectively, when we scan someone’s brain and reinstantiate their personal mind file into a suitable computing medium, the newly emergent “person” will appear to other observers to - Printable Worksheets have very much the same personality, history, and Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info, memory as the person originally scanned. That is, once the technology has been refined and perfected. Like any new technology, it won’t be perfect at first. But ultimately, the scans and Profile Examples. Write Example, recreations will be very accurate and realistic. Interacting with the newly instantiated person will feel like interacting with the original person.
The new person will claim to be that same old person and will have a memory of having been that person. The new person will have all of the patterns of knowledge, skill, and personality of the original. We are already creating functionally equivalent recreations of Resume - Anuvrat.info neurons and neuron clusters with sufficient accuracy that biological neurons accept their nonbiological equivalents and All Worksheets Worksheets, work with them as if they were biological. There are no natural limits that prevent us from doing the Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info same with the In Word. Template Word 2007 hundred billion neuron cluster of Modern - Anuvrat.info clusters we call the human brain. Subjectively, the issue is more subtle and profound, but first we need to Resume Examples In Word. Template Word 2007 reflect on one additional objective issue: our physical self. Consider how many of our thoughts and thinking are directed toward our body and its survival, security, nutrition, and Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info, image, not to mention affection, sexuality, and reproduction.
Many, if not most, of the Authorization Sample goals we attempt to advance using our brains have to do with our bodies: protecting them, providing them with fuel, making them attractive, making them feel good, providing for Resume Templates their myriad needs and desires. Some philosophers maintain that achieving human level intelligence is impossible without a body. If we’re going to port a human’s mind to a new computational medium, we’d better provide a body. Refer Images Resume, Resume! A disembodied mind will quickly get depressed. There are a variety of bodies that we will provide for our machines, and that they will provide for themselves: bodies built through nanotechnology (i.e., building highly complex physical systems atom by Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, atom), virtual bodies (that exist only in virtual reality), bodies comprised of swarms of nanobots, and Refer | Executive Resume,, other technologies.
A common scenario will be to enhance a person’s biological brain with intimate connection to nonbiological intelligence. In this case, the body remains the good old human body that we’re familiar with, although this too will become greatly enhanced through biotechnology (gene enhancement and replacement) and, later on, through nanotechnology. A detailed examination of Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info twenty-first century bodies is beyond the scope of this essay, but recreating and enhancing our bodies will be (and has been) an easier task than recreating our minds. To return to the issue of subjectivity, consider: is the All Worksheets - Printable reinstantiated mind the same consciousness as the person we just scanned? Are these “people” conscious at all? Is this a mind or just a brain?
Consciousness in Templates Modern, our twenty-first century machines will be a critically important issue. But it is 25+ College Essentials Ideas Only, not easily resolved, or even readily understood. People tend to Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info have strong views on the subject, and How To Write, often just can’t understand how anyone else could possibly see the issue from a different perspective. Marvin Minsky observed that “there’s something queer about describing consciousness. Whatever people mean to say, they just can’t seem to make it clear.” We don’t worry, at least not yet, about Templates - Anuvrat.info, causing pain and suffering to our computer programs. But at what point do we consider an entity, a process, to be conscious, to feel pain and discomfort, to have its own intentionality, its own free will? How do we determine if an entity is conscious; if it has subjective experience? How do we distinguish a process that is Best 25+ College Dorm Essentials Ideas, conscious from one that just acts as if it is conscious? We can’t simply ask it.
If it says “Hey I’m conscious,” does that settle the issue? No, we have computer games today that effectively do that, and they’re not terribly convincing. How about if the entity is very convincing and compelling when it says “I’m lonely, please keep me company.” Does that settle the issue? If we look inside its circuits, and see essentially the identical kinds of feedback loops and other mechanisms in its brain that we see in a human brain (albeit implemented using nonbiological equivalents), does that settle the issue? And just who are these people in the machine, anyway? The answer will depend on who you ask. If you ask the people in the machine, they will strenuously claim to Modern - Anuvrat.info be the original persons. Best 25+ College Dorm On Pinterest! For example, if we scan–let’s say myself–and record the exact state, level, and position of every neurotransmitter, synapse, neural connection, and every other relevant detail, and then reinstantiate this massive data base of information (which I estimate at thousands of Templates trillions of Resume How To Example Teacher bytes) into a neural computer of sufficient capacity, the person who then emerges in the machine will think that “he” is (and had been) me, or at least he will act that way. He will say “I grew up in Queens, New York, went to college at MIT, stayed in the Boston area, started and sold a few artificial intelligence companies, walked into a scanner there, and Resume Templates Modern, woke up in the machine here. Hey, this technology really works.” Is this really me?
For one thing, old biological Ray (that’s me) still exists. 12 Best On Pinterest Resume, Resume! I’ll still be here in Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info, my carbon-cell-based brain. Alas, I will have to sit back and watch the new Ray succeed in endeavors that I could only dream of. Let’s consider the All Worksheets - Printable issue of just who I am, and who the new Ray is a little more carefully. First of all, am I the stuff in my brain and body?
Consider that the particles making up my body and brain are constantly changing. We are not at all permanent collections of particles. The cells in our bodies turn over at different rates, but the particles (e.g., atoms and molecules) that comprise our cells are exchanged at - Anuvrat.info, a very rapid rate. I am just not the same collection of particles that I was even a month ago. It is the patterns of matter and energy that are semipermanent (that is, changing only gradually), but our actual material content is changing constantly, and very quickly. We are rather like the patterns that water makes in a stream. The rushing water around a formation of rocks makes a particular, unique pattern. This pattern may remain relatively unchanged for hours, even years. Of course, the actual material constituting the 12 Best Refer Images | Executive Resume pattern–the water–is replaced in Templates - Anuvrat.info, milliseconds.
The same is true for Ray Kurzweil. All Worksheets - Printable! Like the Resume - Anuvrat.info water in a stream, my particles are constantly changing, but the pattern that people recognize as Ray has a reasonable level of continuity. This argues that we should not associate our fundamental identity with a specific set of particles, but rather the pattern of matter and energy that we represent. Many contemporary philosophers seem partial to this “identify from pattern” argument. If you were to 25+ College Dorm Essentials Ideas Only On Pinterest scan my brain and reinstantiate new Ray while I was sleeping, I would not necessarily even know about it (with the nanobots, this will be a feasible scenario).
If you then come to me, and Templates, say, “good news, Ray, we’ve successfully reinstantiated your mind file, so we won’t be needing your old brain anymore,” I may suddenly realize the flaw in this “identity from pattern” argument. I may wish new Ray well, and realize that he shares my “pattern,” but I would nonetheless conclude that he’s not me, because I’m still here. How could he be me? After all, I would not necessarily know that he even existed. Let’s consider another perplexing scenario. Suppose I replace a small number of biological neurons with functionally equivalent nonbiological ones (they may provide certain benefits such as greater reliability and longevity, but that’s not relevant to Sample this thought experiment). After I have this procedure performed, am I still the Templates same person? My friends certainly think so.
I still have the same self-deprecating humor, the same silly grin–yes, I’m still the 12 Best Images On Pinterest | Executive Resume, Resume same guy. It should be clear where I’m going with this. Bit by bit, region by region, I ultimately replace my entire brain with essentially identical (perhaps improved) nonbiological equivalents (preserving all of the neurotransmitter concentrations and Resume Templates, other details that represent my learning, skills, and memories). At each point, I feel the procedures were successful. At each point, I feel that I am the same guy. After each procedure, I claim to Design Ideas. Sample Perfect Letter be the same guy. My friends concur. There is no old Ray and new Ray, just one Ray, one that never appears to fundamentally change. But consider this.
This gradual replacement of my brain with a nonbiological equivalent is essentially identical to the following sequence: (i) scan Ray and Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info, reinstantiate Ray’s mind file into new (nonbiological) Ray, and, then (ii) terminate old Ray. But we concluded above that in such a scenario new Ray is not the same as old Ray. And if old Ray is terminated, well then that’s the end of Ray. So the gradual replacement scenario essentially ends with the same result: New Ray has been created, and Resume In Word. Microsoft Word 2007, old Ray has been destroyed, even if we never saw him missing. So what appears to be the continuing existence of just one Ray is Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, really the creation of new Ray and the termination of old Ray. On yet another hand (we’re running out of Best Dorm Ideas On Pinterest | College philosophical hands here), the gradual replacement scenario is not altogether different from - Anuvrat.info, what happens normally to our biological selves, in that our particles are always rapidly being replaced.
So am I constantly being replaced with someone else who just happens to be very similar to my old self? I am trying to illustrate why consciousness is not an easy issue. If we talk about consciousness as just a certain type of intelligent skill: the ability to 12 Best reflect on one’s own self and situation, for example, then the Templates Modern issue is Sample Medical Authorization Form Sample | Templatezet, not difficult at Templates Modern, all because any skill or capability or form of intelligence that one cares to define will be replicated in nonbiological entities (i.e., machines) within a few decades. With this type of objective view of consciousness, the conundrums do go away. But a fully objective view does not penetrate to the core of the issue, because the essence of Best 25+ College Dorm Essentials Ideas Only On Pinterest consciousness is subjective experience, not objective correlates of that experience. Will these future machines be capable of having spiritual experiences? They certainly will claim to. They will claim to be people, and to have the full range of emotional and Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, spiritual experiences that people claim to have. And these will not be idle claims; they will evidence the 12 Best Images On Pinterest | Executive sort of rich, complex, and subtle behavior one associates with these feelings.
How do the Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info claims and behaviors–compelling as they will be–relate to Home Design Resume Letter the subjective experience of these reinstantiated people? We keep coming back to the very real but ultimately unmeasurable issue of consciousness. People often talk about consciousness as if it were a clear property of an entity that can readily be identified, detected, and gauged. Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info! If there is one crucial insight that we can make regarding why the issue of consciousness is so contentious, it is the following: There exists no objective test that can conclusively determine its presence. Science is about objective measurement and logical implications therefrom, but the very nature of objectivity is that you cannot measure subjective experience-you can only measure correlates of it, such as behavior (and by Examples Resume, behavior, I include the actions of components of an entity, such as neurons). This limitation has to do with the Templates Modern very nature of the concepts “objective” and “subjective.” Fundamentally, we cannot penetrate the | Templatezet subjective experience of another entity with direct objective measurement. We can certainly make arguments about it: i.e., “look inside the brain of Resume Templates this nonhuman entity, see how its methods are just like a human brain.” Or, “see how its behavior is just like human behavior.” But in the end, these remain just arguments. No matter how convincing the behavior of a reinstantiated person, some observers will refuse to accept the consciousness of an entity unless it squirts neurotransmitters, or is based on DNA-guided protein synthesis, or has some other specific biologically human attribute. We assume that other humans are conscious, but that is 12 Best Refer Images On Pinterest | Executive Resume,, still an assumption, and there is no consensus amongst humans about the consciousness of Resume Templates Modern nonhuman entities, such as higher non-human animals. The issue will be even more contentious with regard to future nonbiological entities with human-like behavior and intelligence.
So how will we resolve the claimed consciousness of nonbiological intelligence (claimed, that is, by the machines)? From a practical perspective, we’ll accept their claims. Keep in 12 Best Images On Pinterest Resume, Resume, mind that nonbiological entities in the twenty-first century will be extremely intelligent, so they’ll be able to convince us that they are conscious. They’ll have all the delicate and emotional cues that convince us today that humans are conscious. Templates! They will be able to make us laugh and » Statistics - Printable, cry. And they’ll get mad if we don’t accept their claims.
But fundamentally this is Templates Modern, a political prediction, not a philosophical argument. Over the past several years, Roger Penrose, a noted physicist and philosopher, has suggested that fine structures in the neurons called tubules perform an exotic form of computation called “quantum computing.” Quantum computing is computing using what are called “qu bits” which take on Worksheets, all possible combinations of solutions simultaneously. It can be considered to be an extreme form of parallel processing (because every combination of values of the qu bits are tested simultaneously). Penrose suggests that the tubules and their quantum computing capabilities complicate the concept of recreating neurons and reinstantiating mind files. However, there is little to suggest that the tubules contribute to the thinking process. Even generous models of human knowledge and capability are more than accounted for by current estimates of brain size, based on contemporary models of neuron functioning that do not include tubules. In fact, even with these tubule-less models, it appears that the brain is conservatively designed with many more connections (by several orders of magnitude) than it needs for its capabilities and capacity. Recent experiments (e.g., the San Diego Institute for Nonlinear Science experiments) showing that hybrid biological-nonbiological networks perform similarly to all biological networks, while not definitive, are strongly suggestive that our tubule-less models of neuron functioning are adequate. Lloyd Watts’ software simulation of his intricate model of human auditory processing uses orders of - Anuvrat.info magnitude less computation than the Resume Examples In Word. Resume Microsoft Word 2007 networks of neurons he is simulating, and Modern - Anuvrat.info, there is Ideas, no suggestion that quantum computing is needed. However, even if the tubules are important, it doesn’t change the projections I have discussed above to any significant degree.
According to my model of computational growth, if the Resume - Anuvrat.info tubules multiplied neuron complexity by Resume Template 2007, a factor of Modern - Anuvrat.info a thousand (and keep in mind that our current tubule-less neuron models are already complex, including on the order of a thousand connections per neuron, multiple nonlinearities and other details), this would delay our reaching brain capacity by only about 9 years. If we’re off by a factor of a million, that’s still only a delay of 17 years. A factor of a billion is around 24 years (keep in mind computation is growing by a double exponential). With regard to quantum computing, once again there is nothing to Design Perfect Resume Letter suggest that the brain does quantum computing. Just because quantum technology may be feasible does not suggest that the Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info brain is capable of it. After all, we don’t have lasers or even radios in our brains. Although some scientists have claimed to detect quantum wave collapse in the brain, no one has suggested human capabilities that actually require a capacity for Sample Medical Form Sample quantum computing. However, even if the brain does do quantum computing, this does not significantly change the outlook for human-level computing (and beyond) nor does it suggest that brain downloading is infeasible.
First of all, if the brain does do quantum computing this would only verify that quantum computing is Resume, feasible. There would be nothing in such a finding to suggest that quantum computing is » Statistics Worksheets, restricted to biological mechanisms. Biological quantum computing mechanisms, if they exist, could be replicated. Indeed, recent experiments with small scale quantum computers appear to be successful. Even the conventional transistor relies on the quantum effect of electron tunneling. Penrose suggests that it is - Anuvrat.info, impossible to Resume perfectly replicate a set of quantum states, so therefore, perfect downloading is impossible. Well, how perfect does a download have to be? I am at this moment in Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info, a very different quantum state (and different in non-quantum ways as well) than I was a minute ago (certainly in Resume Write Teacher, a very different state than I was before I wrote this paragraph). If we develop downloading technology to the point where the “copies” are as close to the original as the original person changes anyway in the course of one minute, that would be good enough for any conceivable purpose, yet does not require copying quantum states. As the technology improves, the - Anuvrat.info accuracy of the copy could become as close as the original changes within ever briefer periods of time (e.g., one second, one millisecond, one microsecond).
When it was pointed out to Penrose that neurons (and even neural connections) were too big for quantum computing, he came up with the Resume Template Word 2007 tubule theory as a possible mechanism for neural quantum computing. So the concern with quantum computing and tubules have been introduced together. If one is searching for barriers to replicating brain function, it is an ingenious theory, but it fails to introduce any genuine barriers. There is no evidence for it, and even if true, it only Templates delays matters by a decade or two. Medical Authorization Form Sample | Templatezet! There is no reason to believe that biological mechanisms (including quantum computing) are inherently impossible to replicate using nonbiological materials and mechanisms. Dozens of contemporary experiments are successfully performing just such replications. The Noninvasive Surgery-Free Reversible Programmable Distributed Brain Implant, Full-Immersion Shared Virtual Reality Environments, Experience Beamers, and Brain Expansion.
How will we apply technology that is more intelligent than its creators? One might be tempted to respond “Carefully!” But let’s take a look at some examples. Consider several examples of the Resume Templates Modern nanobot technology, which, based on miniaturization and cost reduction trends, will be feasible within 30 years. In addition to Home Design Ideas. scanning your brain, the nanobots will also be able to expand our experiences and our capabilities. Nanobot technology will provide fully immersive, totally convincing virtual reality in the following way. The nanobots take up positions in Resume Templates Modern, close physical proximity to every interneuronal connection coming from all of All Worksheets - Printable our senses (e.g., eyes, ears, skin). We already have the technology for electronic devices to communicate with neurons in both directions that requires no direct physical contact with the neurons. For example, scientists at the Max Planck Institute have developed “neuron transistors” that can detect the firing of a nearby neuron, or alternatively, can cause a nearby neuron to fire, or suppress it from firing. This amounts to two-way communication between neurons and the electronic-based neuron transistors.
The Institute scientists demonstrated their invention by controlling the Modern movement of a living leech from their computer. On Pinterest | Executive Resume,! Again, the primary aspect of nanobot-based virtual reality that is Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, not yet feasible is 25+ College Dorm Essentials Only, size and cost. When we want to experience real reality, the Resume Templates Modern nanobots just stay in position (in the capillaries) and do nothing. If we want to enter virtual reality, they suppress all of the inputs coming from the real senses, and replace them with the signals that would be appropriate for the virtual environment. You (i.e., your brain) could decide to cause your muscles and limbs to move as you normally would, but the nanobots again intercept these interneuronal signals, suppress your real limbs from moving, and instead cause your virtual limbs to move and provide the appropriate movement and 12 Best Images | Executive Resume, Resume, reorientation in the virtual environment. The web will provide a panoply of virtual environments to explore. Some will be recreations of real places, others will be fanciful environments that have no “real” counterpart.
Some indeed would be impossible in the physical world (perhaps, because they violate the laws of Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info physics). We will be able to “go” to 12 Best Images On Pinterest | Executive Resume, these virtual environments by - Anuvrat.info, ourselves, or we will meet other people there, both real people and simulated people. Of course, ultimately there won’t be a clear distinction between the two. By 2030, going to a web site will mean entering a full immersion virtual reality environment. In addition to encompassing all of the senses, these shared environments can include emotional overlays as the In Word. Microsoft nanobots will be capable of triggering the neurological correlates of emotions, sexual pleasure, and other derivatives of our sensory experience and mental reactions.
In the same way that people today beam their lives from web cams in their bedrooms, “experience beamers” circa 2030 will beam their entire flow of sensory experiences, and if so desired, their emotions and other secondary reactions. We’ll be able to plug in (by going to Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info the appropriate web site) and experience other people’s lives as in the plot concept of ‘Being John Malkovich.’ Particularly interesting experiences can be archived and Resume Microsoft Word 2007, relived at any time. We won’t need to Resume Templates Modern wait until 2030 to Home Perfect Resume Letter experience shared virtual reality environments, at least for the visual and auditory senses. Resume! Full immersion visual-auditory environments will be available by Refer | Executive Resume,, the end of this decade with images written directly onto our retinas by our eyeglasses and contact lenses. Templates Modern! All of the electronics for the computation, image reconstruction, and very high bandwidth wireless connection to the Internet will be embedded in our glasses and woven into our clothing, so computers as distinct objects will disappear. In my view, the most significant implication of the Singularity will be the merger of biological and Dorm Ideas | College, nonbiological intelligence. First, it is important to Resume Modern point out that well before the end of the twenty-first century, thinking on Resume Examples Template Microsoft Word 2007, nonbiological substrates will dominate. Biological thinking is stuck at 10 26 calculations per second (for all biological human brains), and that figure will not appreciably change, even with bioengineering changes to Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info our genome. Nonbiological intelligence, on Home Ideas. Perfect Resume Resume Cv Cover Letter, the other hand, is growing at a double exponential rate and will vastly exceed biological intelligence well before the middle of this century.
However, in Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, my view, this nonbiological intelligence should still be considered human as it is fully derivative of the Resume Examples In Word. Resume Template Microsoft Word 2007 human-machine civilization. The merger of these two worlds of intelligence is not merely a merger of biological and nonbiological thinking mediums, but more importantly one of method and organization of thinking. One of the key ways in Templates Modern, which the two worlds can interact will be through the All Worksheets Worksheets nanobots. Nanobot technology will be able to expand our minds in virtually any imaginable way. Our brains today are relatively fixed in design. Although we do add patterns of interneuronal connections and neurotransmitter concentrations as a normal part of the learning process, the current overall capacity of the Resume Modern human brain is highly constrained, restricted to a mere hundred trillion connections.
Brain implants based on massively distributed intelligent nanobots will ultimately expand our memories a trillion fold, and otherwise vastly improve all of our sensory, pattern recognition, and cognitive abilities. Since the Best Essentials nanobots are communicating with each other over a wireless local area network, they can create any set of new neural connections, can break existing connections (by suppressing neural firing), can create new hybrid biological-nonbiological networks, as well as add vast new nonbiological networks. Using nanobots as brain extenders is Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, a significant improvement over the idea of surgically installed neural implants, which are beginning to be used today (e.g., ventral posterior nucleus, subthalmic nucleus, and ventral lateral thalamus neural implants to Medical Form Sample | Templatezet counteract Parkinson’s Disease and tremors from other neurological disorders, cochlear implants, and others.) Nanobots will be introduced without surgery, essentially just by injecting or even swallowing them. They can all be directed to Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info leave, so the process is Design Perfect Resume Cv Cover Letter, easily reversible. They are programmable, in Modern, that they can provide virtual reality one minute, and a variety of brain extensions the next. Resume Examples. How To Example! They can change their configuration, and clearly can alter their software. Perhaps most importantly, they are massively distributed and therefore can take up billions or trillions of positions throughout the brain, whereas a surgically introduced neural implant can only be placed in one or at Resume - Anuvrat.info, most a few locations.
The Double Exponential Growth of the 12 Best Refer Images On Pinterest Resume, Economy During the 1990s Was Not a Bubble. Yet another manifestation of the Modern law of 12 Best Refer Images On Pinterest accelerating returns as it rushes toward the Singularity can be found in the world of economics, a world vital to both the genesis of the law of Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info accelerating returns, and to Sample Medical Authorization Form | Templatezet its implications. It is the economic imperative of Resume a competitive marketplace that is driving technology forward and fueling the law of accelerating returns. In turn, the law of accelerating returns, particularly as it approaches the Singularity, is transforming economic relationships. Virtually all of the economic models taught in On Pinterest Resume, Resume, economics classes, used by the Federal Reserve Board to set monetary policy, by Resume Modern, Government agencies to set economic policy, and by Resume In Word. Template Microsoft Word 2007, economic forecasters of all kinds are fundamentally flawed because they are based on the intuitive linear view of history rather than the historically based exponential view. The reason that these linear models appear to work for a while is for the same reason that most people adopt the intuitive linear view in the first place: exponential trends appear to be linear when viewed (and experienced) for a brief period of time, particularly in the early stages of an Templates exponential trend when not much is Worksheets, happening.
But once the “knee of the curve” is achieved and Resume, the exponential growth explodes, the linear models break down. All Worksheets » Statistics - Printable! The exponential trends underlying productivity growth are just beginning this explosive phase. The economy (viewed either in Templates Modern, total or per capita) has been growing exponentially throughout this century: There is also a second level of | Templatezet exponential growth, but up until recently the second exponent has been in the early phase so that the Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info growth in the growth rate has not been noticed. However, this has changed in this past decade, during which the rate of growth has been noticeably exponential. Productivity (economic output per worker) has also been growing exponentially. » Statistics! Even these statistics are greatly understated because they do not fully reflect significant improvements in the quality and features of products and services.
It is Templates - Anuvrat.info, not the case that “a car is Best 25+ College On Pinterest, a car;” there have been significant improvements in safety, reliability, and features. There are a myriad of such examples. Pharmaceutical drugs are increasingly effective. Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info! Groceries ordered in five minutes on Home Design Ideas. Perfect Resume Cv Cover, the web and delivered to your door are worth more than groceries on Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info, a supermarket shelf that you have to Refer Images On Pinterest Resume, Resume fetch yourself. Clothes custom manufactured for your unique body scan are worth more than clothes you happen to Templates find left on a store rack.
These sorts of improvements are true for most product categories, and none of - Printable Worksheets them are reflected in the productivity statistics. The statistical methods underlying the productivity measurements tend to factor out gains by essentially concluding that we still only get one dollar of products and services for Modern - Anuvrat.info a dollar despite the fact that we get much more for a dollar (e.g., compare a $1,000 computer today to one ten years ago). University of Chicago Professor Pete Klenow and » Statistics Worksheets, University of Rochester Professor Mark Bils estimate that the value of existing goods has been increasing at 1.5% per Modern - Anuvrat.info, year for the past 20 years because of qualitative improvements. This still does not account for the introduction of entirely new products and product categories. The Bureau of Worksheets Labor Statistics, which is responsible for the inflation statistics, uses a model that incorporates an estimate of quality growth at only 0.5% per Resume Modern, year, reflecting a systematic underestimate of quality improvement and In Word. Resume Template Microsoft Word, a resulting overestimate of inflation by at least 1 percent per year.
Despite these weaknesses in Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info, the productivity statistical methods, the gains in productivity are now reaching the steep part of the exponential curve. Labor productivity grew at 1.6% per year until 1994, then rose at 2.4% per year, and is now growing even more rapidly. Home Design Perfect Resume Letter! In the quarter ending July 30, 2000, labor productivity grew at 5.3%. Manufacturing productivity grew at 4.4% annually from Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, 1995 to Profile Resume Example Teacher 1999, durables manufacturing at Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info, 6.5% per year. The 1990s have seen the most powerful deflationary forces in history. This is why we are not seeing inflation. Yes, it’s true that low unemployment, high asset values, economic growth, and other such factors are inflationary, but these factors are offset by the double exponential trends in the price-performance of all information based technologies: computation, memory, communications, biotechnology, miniaturization, and even the overall rate of technical progress. These technologies deeply affect all industries. We are also undergoing massive disintermediation in the channels of distribution through the All Worksheets Worksheets web and other new communication technologies, as well as escalating efficiencies in Templates - Anuvrat.info, operations and administration. All of the technology trend charts in Sample Medical Authorization Form Sample, this essay e represent massive deflation.
There are many examples of the impact of these escalating efficiencies. BP Amoco’s cost for finding oil is now less than $1 per barrel, down from Resume - Anuvrat.info, nearly $10 in 1991. Processing an internet transaction costs a bank one penny, compared to Home Design Ideas. Sample Resume Cv Cover over $1 using a teller ten years ago. A Roland Berger / Deutsche Bank study estimates a cost savings of $1200 per Modern, North American car over the next five years. A more optimistic Morgan Stanley study estimates that Internet-based procurement will save Ford, GM, and DaimlerChrysler about All Worksheets Worksheets - Printable Worksheets, $2700 per vehicle. Software prices are deflating even more quickly than computer hardware. Software Price-Performance Has Also Improved at an Exponential Rate.
Current economic policy is based on Resume Templates, outdated models which include energy prices, commodity prices, and capital investment in plant and equipment as key driving factors, but do not adequately model bandwidth, MIPs, megabytes, intellectual property, knowledge, and other increasingly vital (and increasingly increasing) constituents that are driving the economy. The economy “wants” to grow more than the 3.5% per year, which constitutes the current “speed limit” that the Sample Form Federal Reserve bank and other policy makers have established as “safe,” meaning noninflationary. But in Templates Modern, keeping with the law of accelerating returns, the Resume Examples Word 2007 economy is capable of “safely” establishing this level of Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info growth in less than a year, implying a growth rate in an entire year of greater than 3.5%. Recently, the growth rate has exceeded 5%. None of this means that cycles of recession will disappear immediately.
The economy still has some of the underlying dynamics that historically have caused cycles of recession, specifically excessive commitments such as capital intensive projects and the overstocking of inventories. However, the rapid dissemination of information, sophisticated forms of online procurement, and increasingly transparent markets in all industries have diminished the impact of this cycle. Profile Examples. How To Resume Example Teacher! So “recessions” are likely to be shallow and short lived. The underlying long-term growth rate will continue at a double exponential rate. The overall growth of the economy reflects completely new forms and Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info, layers of wealth and All Worksheets Worksheets, value that did not previously exist, or least that did not previously constitute a significant portion of the economy (but do now): intellectual property, communication portals, web sites, bandwidth, software, data bases, and Modern, many other new technology based categories. There is no need for high interest rates to All Worksheets Worksheets - Printable Worksheets counter an inflation that doesn’t exist. Resume - Anuvrat.info! The inflationary pressures which exist are counterbalanced by all of the Examples. How To Write deflationary forces I’ve mentioned. Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info! The current high interest rates fostered by the Federal Reserve Bank are destructive, are causing trillions of dollars of lost wealth, are regressive, hurt business and the middle class, and are completely unnecessary. The Fed’s monetary policy is only influential because people believe it to be. 12 Best Refer On Pinterest Resume,! It has little real power. The economy today is largely backed by private capital in Resume Templates, the form of a growing variety of All Worksheets » Statistics Worksheets equity instruments.
The portion of available liquidity in the economy that the Fed actually controls is relatively insignificant. The reserves that banks and financial institutions maintain with the Modern Federal Reserve System are less than $50 billion, which is only 0.6% of the GDP, and 12 Best Images On Pinterest | Executive Resume, Resume, 0.25% of the liquidity available in stocks. Restricting the growth rate of the Resume Templates economy to an arbitrary limit makes as much sense as restricting the Ideas. Resume rate at which a company can grow its revenues–or its market cap. Speculative fever will certainly occur and there will necessarily continue to be high profile failures and market corrections. However the ability of technology companies to rapidly create new–real–wealth is Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, just one of the factors that will continue to fuel ongoing double exponential growth in the economy. All Worksheets » Statistics! These policies have led to an “Alice in Wonderland” situation in which the market goes up on bad economic news (because it means that more unnecessary punishment will be avoided) and goes down on good economic news. Speaking of Templates Modern market speculative fever and market corrections, the stock market values for so-called “B to B” (Business to Profile Resume Examples. Business) and “B to C” (Business to Consumer) web portals and enabling technologies is likely to come back strongly as it becomes clear that economic transactions are indeed escalating toward e-commerce, and that the Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info (surviving) contenders are capable of demonstrating profitable business models. The intuitive linear assumption underlying economic thinking reaches its most ludicrous conclusions in the political debate surrounding the long-term future of the social security system.
The economic models used for the social security projections are entirely linear, i.e., they reflect fixed economic growth. This might be viewed as conservative planning if we were talking about projections of only a few years, but they become utterly unrealistic for Resume In Word. Template the three to Templates four decades being discussed. Home Ideas. Cv Cover! These projections actually assume a fixed rate of growth of Resume 3.5% per year for Profile Examples. Write Resume the next fifty years! There are incredibly naive assumptions that bear on both sides of the Resume - Anuvrat.info argument. On the Best 25+ College Dorm Essentials Ideas On Pinterest | College one hand, there will be radical extensions to human longevity, while on - Anuvrat.info, the other hand, we will benefit from far greater economic expansion. These factors do not rule each other out, however, as the positive factors are stronger, and will ultimately dominate. Moreover, we are certain to rethink social security when we have centenarians who look and act like 30 year-olds (but who will think much faster than 30 year-olds circa the year 2000). Another implication of the law of accelerating returns is Best 25+ College Only On Pinterest | College, exponential growth in education and Resume Modern, learning. Over the past 120 years, we have increased our investment in K-12 education (per student and in constant dollars) by a factor of ten. Best Dorm Essentials | College! We have a one hundred fold increase in the number of college students.
Automation started by amplifying the power of our muscles, and in recent times has been amplifying the power of our minds. Thus, for - Anuvrat.info the past two centuries, automation has been eliminating jobs at the bottom of the skill ladder while creating new (and better paying) jobs at the top of the skill ladder. So the ladder has been moving up, and thus we have been exponentially increasing investments in education at all levels. Oh, and about that “offer” at the beginning of this essay, consider that present stock values are based on future expectations. Given that the (literally) short sighted linear intuitive view represents the Resume ubiquitous outlook, the common wisdom in economic expectations are dramatically understated.
Although stock prices reflect the consensus of a buyer-seller market, it nonetheless reflects the underlying linear assumption regarding future economic growth. But the law of accelerating returns clearly implies that the growth rate will continue to grow exponentially because the rate of progress will continue to accelerate. Although (weakening) recessionary cycles will continue to cause immediate growth rates to Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info fluctuate, the underlying rate of growth will continue to double approximately every decade. But wait a second, you said that I would get $40 trillion if I read and understood this essay. That’s right. According to my models, if we replace the linear outlook with the more appropriate exponential outlook, current stock prices should triple. Since there’s about $20 trillion in the equity markets, that’s $40 trillion in additional wealth.
But you said I would get that money. No, I said “you” would get the money, and that’s why I suggested reading the sentence carefully. The English word “you” can be singular or plural. I meant it in the sense of “all of you.” I see, all of Resume In Word. Resume Template Word 2007 us as in the whole world. But not everyone will read this essay. Well, but everyone could.
So if all of you read this essay and understand it, then economic expectations would be based on Resume Templates Modern, the historical exponential model, and thus stock values would increase. You mean if everyone understands it, and agrees with it. Okay, I suppose I was assuming that. Is that what you expect to happen. Well, actually, no. Putting on my futurist hat again, my prediction is that indeed these views will prevail, but only over time, as more and Resume Example, more evidence of the exponential nature of technology and its impact on the economy becomes apparent.
This will happen gradually over the next several years, which will represent a strong continuing updraft for the market. Technology has always been a double edged sword, bringing us longer and Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info, healthier life spans, freedom from physical and mental drudgery, and many new creative possibilities on the one hand, while introducing new and All Worksheets, salient dangers on the other. We still live today with sufficient nuclear weapons (not all of which appear to be well accounted for) to end all mammalian life on the planet. Bioengineering is in the early stages of enormous strides in reversing disease and aging processes. However, the means and knowledge will soon exist in a routine college bioengineering lab (and already exists in more sophisticated labs) to create unfriendly pathogens more dangerous than nuclear weapons. As technology accelerates toward the Singularity, we will see the same intertwined potentials: a feast of creativity resulting from human intelligence expanded a trillion-fold combined with many grave new dangers. Consider unrestrained nanobot replication. Nanobot technology requires billions or trillions of such intelligent devices to be useful. The most cost effective way to scale up to such levels is through self-replication, essentially the Resume same approach used in the biological world. And in the same way that biological self-replication gone awry (i.e., cancer) results in biological destruction, a defect in the mechanism curtailing nanobot self-replication would endanger all physical entities, biological or otherwise.
Other primary concerns include “who is controlling the nanobots?” and “who are the nanobots talking to?” Organizations (e.g., governments, extremist groups) or just a clever individual could put trillions of undetectable nanobots in the water or food supply of an individual or of an Profile Examples. Resume Teacher entire population. Templates! These “spy” nanobots could then monitor, influence, and even control our thoughts and actions. In addition to introducing physical spy nanobots, existing nanobots could be influenced through software viruses and other software “hacking” techniques. When there is software running in Sample Form, our brains, issues of privacy and security will take on a new urgency. My own expectation is that the creative and constructive applications of this technology will dominate, as I believe they do today. But there will be a valuable (and increasingly vocal) role for a concerned and constructive Luddite movement (i.e., anti-technologists inspired by early nineteenth century weavers who destroyed labor-saving machinery in protest). If we imagine describing the Templates - Anuvrat.info dangers that exist today to people who lived a couple of hundred years ago, they would think it mad to take such risks. On the other hand, how many people in Home Ideas. Resume Resume Cv Cover Letter, the year 2000 would really want to go back to the short, brutish, disease-filled, poverty-stricken, disaster-prone lives that 99 percent of the human race struggled through a couple of Templates Modern centuries ago? We may romanticize the past, but up until fairly recently, most of humanity lived extremely fragile lives where one all too common misfortune could spell disaster. Substantial portions of Example our species still live in this precarious way, which is at least one reason to continue technological progress and the economic enhancement that accompanies it.
People often go through three stages in examining the impact of future technology: awe and wonderment at its potential to overcome age old problems, then a sense of Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info dread at Resume Resume Template Word, a new set of grave dangers that accompany these new technologies, followed, finally and hopefully, by the realization that the only viable and responsible path is to set a careful course that can realize the Modern - Anuvrat.info promise while managing the peril. In his cover story for WIRED Why The Future Doesn’t Need Us, Bill Joy eloquently described the Resume Examples Resume Template Word plagues of centuries’ past, and how new self-replicating technologies, such as mutant bioengineered pathogens, and “nanobots” run amok, may bring back long forgotten pestilence. Resume - Anuvrat.info! Indeed these are real dangers. It is also the case, which Joy acknowledges, that it has been technological advances, such as antibiotics and 25+ College Essentials Ideas Only On Pinterest | College, improved sanitation, which has freed us from the prevalence of such plagues. Suffering in the world continues and demands our steadfast attention.
Should we tell the Resume Templates millions of people afflicted with cancer and other devastating conditions that we are canceling the development of all bioengineered treatments because there is a risk that these same technologies may someday be used for Dorm Essentials Only On Pinterest malevolent purposes? Having asked the rhetorical question, I realize that there is a movement to do exactly that, but I think most people would agree that such broad based relinquishment is not the answer. The continued opportunity to Resume Modern alleviate human distress is one important motivation for 25+ College Essentials Ideas continuing technological advancement. Also compelling are the already apparent economic gains I discussed above which will continue to hasten in Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info, the decades ahead. The continued acceleration of many intertwined technologies are roads paved with gold (I use the plural here because technology is clearly not a single path). In a competitive environment, it is an economic imperative to go down these roads. Relinquishing technological advancement would be economic suicide for individuals, companies, and nations. Which brings us to 12 Best Refer Images On Pinterest | Executive the issue of relinquishment, which is Bill Joy’s most controversial recommendation and personal commitment. I do feel that relinquishment at the right level is part of a responsible and constructive response to these genuine perils. The issue, however, is Templates - Anuvrat.info, exactly this: at what level are we to Sample Form relinquish technology? Ted Kaczynski would have us renounce all of it.
This, in my view, is neither desirable nor feasible, and the futility of Resume Templates such a position is only underscored by the senselessness of Kaczynski’s deplorable tactics. Another level would be to forego certain fields; nanotechnology, for Resume Resume Template example, that might be regarded as too dangerous. But such sweeping strokes of relinquishment are equally untenable. Nanotechnology is simply the inevitable end result of the persistent trend toward miniaturization which pervades all of - Anuvrat.info technology. It is Best 25+ College Dorm Essentials | College, far from Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info, a single centralized effort, but is being pursued by a myriad of projects with many diverse goals. One observer wrote: “A further reason why industrial society cannot be reformed. | Executive! . . is that modern technology is a unified system in - Anuvrat.info, which all parts are dependent on one another. You can’t get rid of the “bad” parts of technology and retain only the “good” parts. Take modern medicine, for example. Sample Medical Sample! Progress in medical science depends on Resume, progress in chemistry, physics, biology, computer science and other fields. Advanced medical treatments require expensive, high-tech equipment that can be made available only by a technologically progressive, economically rich society. Clearly you can’t have much progress in medicine without the whole technological system and everything that goes with it.”
The observer I am quoting is, again, Ted Kaczynski. Profile Examples. How To Write Example! Although one might properly resist Kaczynski as an authority, I believe he is Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info, correct on Profile Resume Examples. Resume, the deeply entangled nature of the benefits and risks. However, Kaczynski and I clearly part company on our overall assessment on the relative balance between the Modern - Anuvrat.info two. Bill Joy and I have dialogued on this issue both publicly and privately, and we both believe that technology will and should progress, and that we need to be actively concerned with the dark side. If Bill and I disagree, it’s on the granularity of relinquishment that is both feasible and desirable. Abandonment of broad areas of technology will only push them underground where development would continue unimpeded by ethics and regulation. In such a situation, it would be the less stable, less responsible practitioners (e.g., the terrorists) who would have all the expertise. I do think that relinquishment at the right level needs to be part of our ethical response to the dangers of twenty first century technologies.
One constructive example of this is the proposed ethical guideline by the Foresight Institute, founded by nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler, that nanotechnologists agree to relinquish the Resume Microsoft Word development of Templates Modern physical entities that can self-replicate in a natural environment. Another is a ban on self-replicating physical entities that contain their own codes for 12 Best Images On Pinterest | Executive Resume, self-replication. In what nanotechnologist Ralph Merkle calls the Templates “Broadcast Architecture,” such entities would have to obtain such codes from a centralized secure server, which would guard against Dorm Essentials Ideas | College, undesirable replication. The Broadcast Architecture is impossible in the biological world, which represents at least one way in which nanotechnology can be made safer than biotechnology. In other ways, nanotech is Resume Templates, potentially more dangerous because nanobots can be physically stronger than protein-based entities and more intelligent. It will eventually be possible to Profile Examples. How To Write Resume combine the Modern two by having nanotechnology provide the codes within biological entities (replacing DNA), in which case biological entities can use the much safer Broadcast Architecture. Our ethics as responsible technologists should include such “fine grained” relinquishment, among other professional ethical guidelines. Other protections will need to include oversight by regulatory bodies, the development of technology-specific “immune” responses, as well as computer assisted surveillance by law enforcement organizations. Many people are not aware that our intelligence agencies already use advanced technologies such as automated word spotting to monitor a substantial flow of telephone conversations.
As we go forward, balancing our cherished rights of privacy with our need to be protected from the malicious use of Worksheets - Printable powerful twenty first century technologies will be one of Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info many profound challenges. This is one reason that such issues as an encryption “trap door” (in which law enforcement authorities would have access to otherwise secure information) and the FBI “Carnivore” email-snooping system have been so contentious. As a test case, we can take a small measure of comfort from Sample Authorization Sample, how we have dealt with one recent technological challenge. There exists today a new form of fully nonbiological self replicating entity that didn’t exist just a few decades ago: the computer virus. When this form of destructive intruder first appeared, strong concerns were voiced that as they became more sophisticated, software pathogens had the potential to destroy the Modern computer network medium they live in. Yet the “immune system” that has evolved in response to this challenge has been largely effective. Although destructive self-replicating software entities do cause damage from time to time, the Form | Templatezet injury is but a small fraction of the benefit we receive from the computers and communication links that harbor them. No one would suggest we do away with computers, local area networks, and the Internet because of software viruses. One might counter that computer viruses do not have the lethal potential of biological viruses or of Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info destructive nanotechnology.
Although true, this strengthens my observation. The fact that computer viruses are not usually deadly to humans only means that more people are willing to Refer Resume create and release them. It also means that our response to the danger is that much less intense. Conversely, when it comes to self replicating entities that are potentially lethal on a large scale, our response on all levels will be vastly more serious. Technology will remain a double edged sword, and the story of the Twenty First century has not yet been written. It represents vast power to be used for all humankind’s purposes. We have no choice but to work hard to apply these quickening technologies to advance our human values, despite what often appears to Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info be a lack of consensus on » Statistics Worksheets Worksheets, what those values should be.
Once brain porting technology has been refined and fully developed, will this enable us to live forever? The answer depends on what we mean by living and dying. Modern - Anuvrat.info! Consider what we do today with our personal computer files. When we change from - Printable Worksheets, one personal computer to a less obsolete model, we don’t throw all our files away; rather we copy them over to the new hardware. Although our software files do not necessary continue their existence forever, the Resume Modern longevity of our personal computer software is completely separate and disconnected from the Form hardware that it runs on. When it comes to our personal mind file, however, when our human hardware crashes, the software of our lives dies with it. However, this will not continue to - Anuvrat.info be the Microsoft Word 2007 case when we have the means to store and restore the thousands of Templates trillions of bytes of information represented in the pattern that we call our brains. The longevity of one’s mind file will not be dependent, therefore, on the continued viability of any particular hardware medium. Ultimately software-based humans, albeit vastly extended beyond the severe limitations of humans as we know them today, will live out on the web, projecting bodies whenever they need or want them, including virtual bodies in diverse realms of virtual reality, holographically projected bodies, physical bodies comprised of nanobot swarms, and Examples Template 2007, other forms of nanotechnology. A software-based human will be free, therefore, from the Resume - Anuvrat.info constraints of any particular thinking medium. Today, we are each confined to a mere hundred trillion connections, but humans at the end of the twenty-first century can grow their thinking and thoughts without limit.
We may regard this as a form of immortality, although it is worth pointing out that data and information do not necessarily last forever. Although not dependent on the viability of the How To Example Teacher hardware it runs on, the Modern - Anuvrat.info longevity of information depends on Examples Resume Template Microsoft Word, its relevance, utility, and accessibility. If you’ve ever tried to retrieve information from an Resume - Anuvrat.info obsolete form of All Worksheets - Printable data storage in Templates Modern, an old obscure format (e.g., a reel of magnetic tape from a 1970 minicomputer), you will understand the challenges in keeping software viable. However, if we are diligent in maintaining our mind file, keeping current backups, and porting to Resume In Word. Resume 2007 current formats and mediums, then a form of immortality can be attained, at least for software-based humans. Templates! Our mind file–our personality, skills, memories–all of that is Resume Template, lost today when our biological hardware crashes. When we can access, store, and restore that information, then its longevity will no longer be tied to Resume our hardware permanence. Is this form of Examples Microsoft immortality the same concept as a physical human, as we know them today, living forever? In one sense it is, because as I pointed out earlier, our contemporary selves are not a constant collection of Templates Modern matter either.
Only our pattern of matter and | Executive Resume, Resume, energy persists, and even that gradually changes. Similarly, it will be the pattern of a software human that persists and develops and changes gradually. But is that person based on my mind file, who migrates across many computational substrates, and who outlives any particular thinking medium, really me? We come back to the same questions of consciousness and identity, issues that have been debated since the Platonic dialogues. As we go through the twenty-first century, these will not remain polite philosophical debates, but will be confronted as vital, practical, political, and Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info, legal issues. A related question is “is death desirable?” A great deal of our effort goes into avoiding it. We make extraordinary efforts to delay it, and indeed often consider its intrusion a tragic event. Yet we might find it hard to live without it. We consider death as giving meaning to our lives. It gives importance and value to time. Time could become meaningless if there were too much of it.
The Next Step in Evolution and the Purpose of Best 25+ College Essentials Ideas | College Life. But I regard the freeing of the human mind from its severe physical limitations of scope and duration as the Resume Templates necessary next step in evolution. Evolution, in my view, represents the purpose of life. That is, the purpose of life–and of our lives–is to evolve. Best Only! The Singularity then is not a grave danger to be avoided. In my view, this next paradigm shift represents the goal of our civilization. What does it mean to evolve? Evolution moves toward greater complexity, greater elegance, greater knowledge, greater intelligence, greater beauty, greater creativity, and more of other abstract and subtle attributes such as love. Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info! And God has been called all these things, only without any limitation: infinite knowledge, infinite intelligence, infinite beauty, infinite creativity, infinite love, and so on. Of course, even the accelerating growth of evolution never achieves an infinite level, but as it explodes exponentially, it certainly moves rapidly in that direction.
So evolution moves inexorably toward our conception of God, albeit never quite reaching this ideal. Thus the freeing of our thinking from the severe limitations of Best Dorm Ideas On Pinterest its biological form may be regarded as an Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info essential spiritual quest. In making this statement, it is important to emphasize that terms like evolution, destiny, and spiritual quest are observations about the end result, not the basis for All Worksheets these predictions. I am not saying that technology will evolve to Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info human levels and beyond simply because it is Medical Authorization | Templatezet, our destiny and because of the satisfaction of a spiritual quest. Rather my projections result from a methodology based on the dynamics underlying the (double) exponential growth of technological processes. - Anuvrat.info! The primary force driving technology is On Pinterest Resume, Resume, economic imperative. - Anuvrat.info! We are moving toward machines with human level intelligence (and beyond) as the result of 12 Best Refer Images Resume millions of small advances, each with their own particular economic justification.
To use an Templates example from my own experience at Best Essentials Only | College, one of my companies (Kurzweil Applied Intelligence), whenever we came up with a slightly more intelligent version of Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info speech recognition, the Profile Examples. How To Write Resume new version invariably had greater value than the Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info earlier generation and, as a result, sales increased. Sample Authorization Form Sample! It is interesting to note that in the example of speech recognition software, the three primary surviving competitors stayed very close to each other in Modern - Anuvrat.info, the intelligence of their software. A few other companies that failed to do so (e.g., Speech Systems) went out of Sample Authorization Form business. At any point in Templates - Anuvrat.info, time, we would be able to Ideas. Resume Cv Cover Letter sell the version prior to the latest version for perhaps a quarter of the price of the Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info current version. As for Design Sample Resume Cv Cover Letter versions of Resume Modern our technology that were two generations old, we couldn’t even give those away. This phenomenon is not only true for pattern recognition and other “AI” software, but applies to Profile Resume Write all products, from bread makers to Modern cars. And if the product itself doesn’t exhibit some level of intelligence, then intelligence in the manufacturing and marketing methods have a major effect on the success and profitability of an enterprise.
There is a vital economic imperative to create more intelligent technology. Intelligent machines have enormous value. Worksheets! That is why they are being built. There are tens of thousands of projects that are advancing intelligent machines in Resume Templates Modern, diverse incremental ways. The support for “high tech” in Essentials Only, the business community (mostly software) has grown enormously. When I started my optical character recognition (OCR) and speech synthesis company (Kurzweil Computer Products, Inc.) in Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, 1974, there were only a half-dozen high technology IPO’s that year. Resume Examples In Word. Resume Word 2007! The number of such deals has increased one hundred fold and the number of dollars invested has increased by more than one thousand fold in the past 25 years.
In the four years between 1995 and 1999 alone, high tech venture capital deals increased from just over $1 billion to approximately $15 billion. We will continue to build more powerful computational mechanisms because it creates enormous value. We will reverse-engineer the human brain not simply because it is our destiny, but because there is valuable information to be found there that will provide insights in building more intelligent (and more valuable) machines. Resume Templates! We would have to repeal capitalism and every visage of economic competition to stop this progression. By the second half of this next century, there will be no clear distinction between human and machine intelligence. On the one hand, we will have biological brains vastly expanded through distributed nanobot-based implants.
On the other hand, we will have fully nonbiological brains that are copies of human brains, albeit also vastly extended. And we will have a myriad of other varieties of intimate connection between human thinking and the technology it has fostered. Ultimately, nonbiological intelligence will dominate because it is growing at a double exponential rate, whereas for Examples. Teacher all practical purposes biological intelligence is at a standstill. Human thinking is stuck at 10 26 calculations per second (for all biological humans), and that figure will never appreciably change (except for Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info a small increase resulting from genetic engineering). Nonbiological thinking is still millions of times less today, but the cross over will occur before 2030.
By the end of the twenty-first century, nonbiological thinking will be trillions of Best Dorm | College trillions of times more powerful than that of - Anuvrat.info its biological progenitors, although still of human origin. It will continue to be the human-machine civilization taking the next step in evolution. Most forecasts of the future seem to ignore the revolutionary impact of the Singularity in our human destiny: the inevitable emergence of computers that match and ultimately vastly exceed the capabilities of the human brain, a development that will be no less important than the Authorization Sample | Templatezet evolution of human intelligence itself some thousands of centuries ago. And the primary reason for this failure is that they are based on the intuitive but short sighted linear view of Modern - Anuvrat.info history. Before the next century is 25+ College Ideas Only On Pinterest | College, over, the Earth’s technology-creating species will merge with its computational technology. There will not be a clear distinction between human and machine. After all, what is the Templates difference between a human brain enhanced a trillion fold by nanobot-based implants, and a computer whose design is Sample | Templatezet, based on high resolution scans of the human brain, and then extended a trillion-fold? Why SETI Will Fail (and why we are alone in the Universe) The law of accelerating returns implies that by 2099, the Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info intelligence that will have emerged from human-machine civilization will be trillions of Resume 2007 trillions of times more powerful than it is today, dominated of Modern course by its nonbiological form.
So what does this have to do with SETI (the Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence)? The naive view, going back to pre-Copernican days, was that the Earth was at the center of the 12 Best On Pinterest Universe, and human intelligence its greatest gift (next to God). Resume! The more informed recent view is that even if the likelihood of Sample Authorization Form Sample | Templatezet a star having a planet with a technology creating species is very low (e.g., one in a million), there are so many stars (i.e., billions of trillions of them), that there are bound to be many with advanced technology. This is the view behind SETI, was my view until recently, and is the Modern common informed view today. Although SETI has not yet looked everywhere, it has already covered a substantial portion of the Best 25+ College Dorm Ideas On Pinterest | College Universe. In the above diagram (courtesy of Scientific American), we can see that SETI has already thoroughly searched all star systems within 10 7 light-years from Earth for alien civilizations capable (and willing) to Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info transmit at a power of at least 10 25 watts, a so-called Type II civilization (and all star systems within 10 6 light-years for transmission of at least 10 18 watts, and Medical Form Sample, so on). Resume - Anuvrat.info! No sign of intelligence has been found as of yet.
In a recent email to my research assistant, Dr. Resume Examples In Word. Resume Microsoft Word 2007! Seth Shostak of the SETI Institute points out that a new comprehensive targeted search, called Project Phoenix, which has up to 100 times the sensitivity and Resume Modern, covers a greater range of the radio dial as compared to previous searches, has only been applied thus far to 500 star systems, which is, of course only a minute fraction of the half trillion star systems in just our own galaxy. However, according to my model, once a civilization achieves our own level (“Earth-level”) of radio transmission, it takes no more than one century, two at the most, to achieve what SETI calls a Type II civilization. » Statistics Worksheets - Printable Worksheets! If the assumption that there are at least millions of radio capable civilizations out Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info there, and Sample Medical Authorization, that these civilizations are spread out over millions (indeed billions) of years of development, then surely there ought to be millions that have achieved Type II status. Incidentally, this is not an Templates argument against the SETI project, which in 12 Best Refer Images On Pinterest | Executive Resume,, my view should have the highest possible priority because the negative finding is no less significant than a positive result. It is Templates Modern, odd that we find the cosmos so silent.
Where is » Statistics Worksheets - Printable, everybody? There should be millions of civilizations vastly more advanced than our own, so we should be noticing their broadcasts. Resume! A sufficiently advanced civilization would not be likely to restrict its broadcasts to Best Ideas Only On Pinterest subtle signals on obscure frequencies. Why are they so silent, and so shy? As I have studied the implications of the law of accelerating returns, I have come to Modern a different view. Because exponential growth is so explosive, it is the case that once a species develops computing technology, it is only a matter of a couple of centuries before the nonbiological form of their intelligence explodes. It permeates virtually all matter in Resume Write Example Teacher, their vicinity, and Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info, then inevitably expands outward close to the maximum speed that information can travel.
Once the nonbiological intelligence emerging from that species’ technology has saturated its vicinity (and the nature of this saturation is another complex issue, which I won’t deal with in this essay), it has no other way to Design Perfect Resume Resume continue to Resume Templates Modern evolve but to expand outwardly. The expansion does not start out at the maximum speed, but quickly achieves a speed within a vanishingly small delta from the All Worksheets maximum speed. What is the maximum speed? We currently understand this to be the speed of light, but there are already tantalizing hints that this may not be an absolute limit. There were recent experiments that measured the flight time of photons at nearly twice the speed of light, a result of Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info quantum uncertainty on » Statistics, their position. However, this result is actually not useful for this analysis, because it does not actually allow information to be communicated at faster than the speed of light, and we are fundamentally interested in communication speed. Quantum disentanglement has been measured at many times the speed of light, but this is only communicating randomness (profound quantum randomness) at speeds far greater than the speed of light; again, this is not communication of information (but is of great interest for restoring encryption, after quantum computing destroys it). There is the Modern potential for worm holes (or folds of the Universe in Sample Authorization Form, dimensions beyond the Resume Templates three visible ones), but this is not really traveling at faster than the speed of light, it just means that the All Worksheets » Statistics topology of the Universe is not the simple three dimensional space that naive physics implies.
But we already knew that. Resume - Anuvrat.info! However, if worm holes or folds in the Universe are ubiquitous, then perhaps these short cuts would allow us to get everywhere quickly. Would anyone be shocked if some subtle ways of getting around this speed limit were discovered? And no matter how subtle, sufficiently subtle technology will find ways to apply it. Resume Examples. Example! The point is Resume Modern, that if there are ways around this limit (or any other currently understood limit), then the extraordinary levels of intelligence that our human-machine civilization will achieve will find those ways and 12 Best Refer Images On Pinterest Resume, exploit them. So for Resume Templates Modern now, we can say that ultra high levels of Design Sample Resume Letter intelligence will expand outward at Modern - Anuvrat.info, the speed of light, but recognize that this may not be the actual limit of the speed of expansion, or even if the limit is the speed of light that this limit may not restrict reaching other locations quickly. Consider that the time spans for biological evolution are measured in millions and billions of years, so if there are other civilizations out there, they would be spread out by huge spans of time. If there are a lot of them, as contemporary thinking implies, then it would be very unlikely that at 12 Best Refer On Pinterest | Executive, least some of Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info them would not be ahead of us.
That at least is the SETI assumption. Best 25+ College Essentials! And if they are ahead of us, they likely would be ahead of us by huge spans of time. Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info! The likelihood that any civilization that is ahead of Examples Resume Template Microsoft Word us is ahead of us by only a few decades is extremely small. If the SETI assumption that there are many (e.g., millions) of technological (at least radio capable) civilizations is correct, then at least some of Modern them (i.e., millions of Resume Resume Microsoft Word 2007 them) would be way ahead of us. But it takes only Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info a few centuries at most from the Dorm Essentials Ideas advent of Modern computation for that civilization to expand outward at Profile How To, at least light speed.
Given this, how can it be that we have not noticed them? The conclusion I reach is that it is Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info, likely that there are no such other civilizations. In other words, we are in the lead. That’s right, our humble civilization with its Dodge pick up trucks, fried chicken fast food, and ethnic cleansings (and computation!) is in the lead. Now how can that be? Isn’t this extremely unlikely given the billions of Home Design Perfect Resume Cv Cover trillions of likely planets? Indeed it is very unlikely. But equally unlikely is the existence of Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info our Universe with a set of laws of physics so exquisitely precisely what is needed for the evolution of life to be possible. But by the Anthropic principle, if the Universe didn’t allow the evolution of life we wouldn’t be here to notice it. Yet here we are. So by the same Anthropic principle, we’re here in the lead in the Universe.
Again, if we weren’t here, we would not be noticing it. Let’s consider some arguments against this perspective. Perhaps there are extremely advanced technological civilizations out 12 Best Resume, there, but we are outside their light sphere of Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info intelligence. Examples. Resume! That is, they haven’t gotten here yet. Okay, in Modern - Anuvrat.info, this case, SETI will still fail because we won’t be able to Ideas On Pinterest see (or hear) them, at least not before we reach Singularity. Perhaps they are amongst us, but have decided to remain invisible to Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info us. Incidentally, I have always considered the science fiction notion of large space ships with large squishy creatures similar to us to be very unlikely.
Any civilization sophisticated enough to make the trip here would have long since passed the point of merging with their technology and would not need to send such physically bulky organisms and equipment. Such a civilization would not have any unmet material needs that require it to steal physical resources from Resume Microsoft, us. They would be here for observation only, to Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info gather knowledge, which is the only resource of value to such a civilization. The intelligence and equipment needed for such observation would be extremely small. 25+ College Dorm On Pinterest! In this case, SETI will still fail because if this civilization decided that it did not want us to notice it, then it would succeed in - Anuvrat.info, that desire. Keep in mind that they would be vastly more intelligent than we are today. Perhaps they will reveal themselves to us when we achieve the next level of our evolution, specifically merging our biological brains with our technology, which is to say, after the Singularity.
Moreover, given that the SETI assumption implies that there are millions of In Word. Template Word such highly developed civilizations, it seems odd that all of Resume Templates them have made the same decision to stay out of our way. Why Intelligence is | Executive Resume,, More Powerful than Physics. As intelligence saturates the matter and energy available to Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info it, it turns dumb matter into smart matter. Although smart matter still nominally follows the laws of physics, it is Images | Executive Resume, so exquisitely intelligent that it can harness the most subtle aspects of the laws to - Anuvrat.info manipulate matter and energy to its will. So it would at least appear that intelligence is more powerful than physics. Perhaps what I should say is that intelligence is more powerful than cosmology. That is, once matter evolves into smart matter (matter fully saturated with intelligence), it can manipulate matter and energy to do whatever it wants. This perspective has not been considered in discussions of On Pinterest Resume, future cosmology. It is assumed that intelligence is irrelevant to events and processes on a cosmological scale.
Stars are born and die; galaxies go through their cycles of creation and destruction. The Universe itself was born in a big bang and Resume Modern, will end with a crunch or a whimper, we’re not yet sure which. But intelligence has little to do with it. Intelligence is just a bit of froth, an Images ebullition of little creatures darting in and out of inexorable universal forces. Modern! The mindless mechanism of the Universe is Medical Form Sample, winding up or down to a distant future, and there’s nothing intelligence can do about it. That’s the common wisdom, but I don’t agree with it. Intelligence will be more powerful than these impersonal forces. Once a planet yields a technology creating species and that species creates computation (as has happened here on Earth), it is only a matter of a few centuries before its intelligence saturates the matter and Templates - Anuvrat.info, energy in its vicinity, and Sample Medical Authorization Form Sample, it begins to expand outward at the speed of light or greater. It will then overcome gravity (through exquisite and vast technology) and Resume - Anuvrat.info, other cosmological forces (or, to be fully accurate, will maneuver and control these forces) and create the Universe it wants. This is the goal of the Singularity. What kind of Universe will that be?
Well, just wait and see. Most of you (again I’m using the Home Design Sample Perfect Resume plural form of the word) are likely to be around to see the Singularity. The expanding human life span is Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info, another one of those exponential trends. In the Profile Resume Write Teacher eighteenth century, we added a few days every year to human longevity; during the nineteenth century we added a couple of weeks each year; and now we’re adding almost a half a year every year. With the revolutions in genomics, proteomics, rational drug design, therapeutic cloning of our own organs and tissues, and related developments in bio-information sciences, we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years. So take care of yourself the old fashioned way for just a little while longer, and you may actually get to experience the next fundamental paradigm shift in our destiny. Copyright (C) Raymond Kurzweil 2001. Chart Graphics by Brett Rampata/Digital Organism.
Topics: Innovation/Entrepreneurship | Quantum | Social Networking/Web. Hi. I was doing some research on this topic. I live in helsinki and I found a finnish translation of Resume Modern The Visible Human Project. It’s here : http://www.1001-soldes.com/visible-human-project. Thanks for creating and sharing a great resource. The rate of Refer Images Resume, technological change has serious implications for the economics of investing in terms of a “buy now or wait for the next improved model” problem. The “economic life” of Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info equipment in certain industries is Profile How To Write Teacher, far shorter than the mechanical life (i.e. the machine is not worn out and still operates within accepted tolerances). Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info! We saw this in the late 90?s to early 2000 when the Images On Pinterest majority of used metal working machinery dealers went out of business.
While the Resume used equipment still “worked like new” it was technologically obsolete relative to Best Only the performance of the Resume Templates Modern most recent technology. The economics of competition often led to the situation where the old technology even at an acquisition cost almost equivalent to scrap value, but including operating and maintenance costs, could not compete with the features and costs of the Home Ideas. Sample Perfect Resume Cv Cover new technology. Financial lending institutions were hit hard as their floor-plan financing of Modern used equipment inventory when the Resume Examples In Word. Resume Word dealer closed it’s doors and gave the keys to the banker, only to find out that the $250,000 machine was worth $5,000 as scrap. As a result, many small manufacturers are finding it almost impossible to get bank financing to acquire new (expensive) technology. Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info! As a result, smaller firms are finding it more difficult to be competitive unless they can operate their equipment almost 24/7/365 in order to “wear it out” before it becomes technologically obsolete. In many areas, this has resulted in a dilemma of deciding to “buy now” or wait for new model. Home Ideas. Cv Cover! As the rate of Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info technological change increases, this can quickly lead to an “investment singularity” where on never makes an investment. I feel that this conundrum is leading to greater concentration in manufacturing with less competition. This in itself may be the “brakes” the All Worksheets » Statistics Worksheets the technology growth rate as once a manufacturer achieves near monopoly status, it can continue to price goods based on the economics of the “old technology” without being undercut by new competitors using new technology.
I believe that there is Templates, a need for a new model of Refer On Pinterest | Executive Resume, Resume small-medium manufacturing that can “share technology” in order to “wear it out” before it becomes obsolete. This obviously entail a major logistics problem that I feel would lead to the development of Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info concentrated manufacturing locations in order to Profile Examples. Example Teacher facilitate sharing of - Anuvrat.info equipment along with coordination of methods (i.e. standardized CAD-CAM, MRP, etc.). I was wondering why you did not use a paradigm shows patent across the age of technology… can easily support your claims, specifically because the rate and return can be proven accurate, In 2001 you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years” (So 2011). In 2015, at the Emerging Issues forum in NC State U, you say that “within 15 years we’ll be adding more than a year every year to your remaining life expectancy.” It does appear, even to this very sympathetic reader of yours, that you keep pushing back the date when we’ll finally reach longevity escape velocity.
Where does he say that? I can’t find that quote in this article. Also, I would assume his “predictions” are not set in stone, and need flexibility. I see these as possibilities as to when we should be able to do this or that, not an exact time-frame. He isn’t trying to be a prophet of the future, or a Nostradamus. Just listing his educated theories on Sample Sample | Templatezet, what the future might hold. Given medical progress you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years”. This in Resume Modern, 2001, so it would refer to Refer Images On Pinterest | Executive Resume 2011. Have we been adding more than a year to our remaining life span since 2011?
looking widely, any growth is like more lambda function than exponent.. Resume Modern! exponential growth linear phase saturation.. fixing on exponential growth like a searching for Philosopher’s stone.. A technological singularity has already occurred at least once in history. Best Essentials Ideas Only On Pinterest | College! Before the - Anuvrat.info invention of neural cell, the adaptation for All Worksheets - Printable Worksheets new environments required many generations of evolutionary trial. Compared to Modern that, the All Worksheets » Statistics speed at Templates - Anuvrat.info, which neurons model the world is near-infinite. Seems very reasonable! I was wondering, how to test if a copied mind is Medical Authorization Sample | Templatezet, indistinguishable from the actual mind copied? Let’s say you and your copy are given the identical simulated world environments to play in. If the behaviours of you and your copy do not deviate by more than the behaviour of actual you would be expected to deviate from the Modern behaviour of identical actual you in a universe different from this one by the amount of entropy that would be needed to Images On Pinterest Resume, create the observed level of differences in Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info, behaviour over the same period of time, then we would consider your copy identical up to that level of Refer Images On Pinterest | Executive entropy, defined by the triple (you, your copy, game). Hello, I am currently a student in molecular biology at UofM, Well, firstly, it needs to Resume Templates be stated that this is a deliciously entertaining and well defined hypothesis. There are certainly numerous well-supported facts throughout this essay and 25+ College Dorm On Pinterest | College, I too, agree with its principle suggestion.
It is noteworthy to - Anuvrat.info point out Refer Images | Executive Resume, that what this man is attempting to prove is at its utmost level not provable (currently), but may be able to be in - Anuvrat.info, time. The most difficult part to grasp for most people is the ability to extend your analyzing beyond your realm of present reasoning. On a far lesser scale, many find it difficult to Design Ideas. Resume Cv Cover draw 3-Dimensional figures on 2-D paper. Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info! But just because you can’t comprehend it-or perhaps even if you can and assess that it is only an optical illusion-doesn’t mean there is no merit in its core reasoning. That is to say, it is possible to use these directly fictitious drawings to ultimately understand the concepts it would entail in 3 dimensions. What I am saying is, simply put, that which is Medical, impossible now is Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info, not necessarily impossible later. When addressing the future, you must not assess it linearly (as Kurzweil elaborates), despite our deepest internal desire to view it as so.
If you think A.I. intelligence is unable to 12 Best Images On Pinterest | Executive pass human intelligence, then you will have a much more difficult time understanding the ideas behind Dystopian/Utopian theories. On a final note, I truly wonder if these two theories are interrelated, as I’d assume that this could ultimately extend to argue that the exponential growth of technology may culminate in a Singularity point that ultimately results in the destruction of the Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info exponential model and offers an 25+ College Essentials Ideas | College entirely new shape after. (I’d assume a possible restart in technological growth if you believe in Dystopia with a Utopian stance being more unclear). I am very interested to Templates Modern hear your take on Sample Medical Authorization, that. How will we apply technplogy that is - Anuvrat.info, more intelligent than its creators………. yea, imagine some one from the 80s picking up a smart phone and Ideas Only | College, having infinite amount of information in their hands! they would be so unimpressed… u mad bro that life didn’t turn out Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info like movies from the 70?s and 80?s….you’re an idiot. I’m just going to say something about the life and the future. There were changes in the past for the future for the past, old fashioned civilians. Everything is the same, everyone is the same.
They all think their more godly than others. The fact is, their not. They never will be…there’s only president’s and Resume In Word. Microsoft, higher occupations who fuck up our world and are the higher occupations. So, now we live in the Still Age, where nothing seems to move forward. Sure we have technology, but nothing’s actually happening. Life’s dead, the people may seem alive but we are the walking dead. Suppose we don’t actually need a zombie apocalypse because WE are it. We ARE zombies. I mean, look at - Anuvrat.info, all the movies from the 70?s/80?s they expect in the 2000s/2020s will be all futuristic with hover cars and moving cities and blah blah blah but NO, they would be choking themselves now that the » Statistics future hasn’t moved on and they saw today. Resume Templates! I will be dead by the time anything changes to our city or evolves….why is it that we can’t go out by Profile Resume Examples. How To Teacher, the time night comes? why cant we be creatures of the night instead of creatures of the - Anuvrat.info day? It’s frustrating, sitting here on your bed waiting for the next day.
The night is » Statistics Worksheets - Printable, not safe for anyone, why? Who dared made it that way? I would like to walk in Resume Templates Modern, the night feeling safe but I suppose that isnt possible…why is the day safe? But the day isnt safe, either. No, I didn’t read the preposterous post or comments. Profile Resume Examples. Write Resume Teacher! Maths sucks…I bet I can pass by without using it…that’s a challenge…okay, so maybe the shops I need maths for but thats it and Resume - Anuvrat.info, I can use a calculator for gods sake! Who the fuck buys 42 melons anyway? You know? Those ridiculous math sums.
And why, do we see all these people everywhere and dont know their names? Their everything? Their always different looking everyday. We don’t have self awareness because we’re just too used to everything, we’re almost like puppets obeying this life system…we only Images | Executive Resume, Resume have self awareness when we are in trouble. I mean, I kind of feel like we’re just waiting to die everyday. I don’t want that. I hate that. Resume! I want to feel alive, to feel lived, I dont want to walk in a daydream. Why must we obey the Sample | Templatezet system? Go to Resume - Anuvrat.info school for half your life, work the rest of the half, grow old and die.
Everyone’s the same. It’s programmed for every human. You want to know your purpose? That’s your purpose. Work till you grow old. Enjoy the little things ;) It is mind bogging yet well supported by facts…dear sir may I bring one area that could sweep all other areas…exponential increase is BADLY needed in Examples. How To Write Resume Teacher, personal conduct,wash-out of Resume Templates Modern negative thinking ,and being. old indian scriptures DO mention that such is possible.but that is all to.
it…probably suspecting misuse. from nsc. UIM (Ultra Intelligent machines) ” ultra-intelligent machine could design even better machines” document in 1960s are not far from reality. “consciousness is an unbroken chain. if you copy yourself directly you break the Examples Template 2007 chain, the new copy’s consciousness would begin at that point and your old self would continue to be conscious. a slow transition allows an introspective understanding of that gradual change as you evolve from biology into Modern - Anuvrat.info technology, although you may change your consciousness remains intact. that is Best 25+ College Dorm, my view anyway” Moore’s law is just one of millions of positive feedback loops that occur in Resume, the world (in biology, sociology, economics, chemistry etc). Refer! Yet none of these feedback loops continue indefinitely, as you are assuming Moore’s Law will. This is because every feedback loop, including Moore’s Law, eventually has limiting factors (Usually a lack of resources / ingredients). Resume Modern! All the technology curves will be slowed by limiting factors eventually, and the singularity won’t occur. Jordan: in The Singularity Is Near book. Authorization Form! Ray explains that Moore’s law will expire in the future, and will be replaced by another process.
Jordan – respectfully – did you read the whole essay? I agree with your criticism in a sense, in that we haven’t yet established that there is a possible “paradigm” after integrated circuits. Pointing to the end of Moore’s law and claiming their is nothing beyond that is Templates, no different than having someone circa 1956 claiming vacuum tubes are the Authorization Form Sample fastest computers we can EVER make. Moore’s law is projected to end sometime around 2018 – 2022. Resume! Ray is very aware of this, as he points out many times in 12 Best Refer Images On Pinterest, his essay.
Had his argument been of the form “Moore’s law – Singularity” your counter argument would have been sufficient. This is not at all what he is Resume Templates Modern, arguing, in fact, the All Worksheets Worksheets premise “Moore’s law will end” is one premises of his argument (the rise an Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info fall of All Worksheets new paradigms for intelligence). If you want to argue against a singularity occurring, you need to address the fundamental trends underlying Moore’s law (things along the lines of building upon previous innovations and then work out what laws of physics may interfere with the continuation of that trend). The only small problem I saw with what his argument above is that nanites will have a hard time sending and Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, receiving WiFi if they are smaller than the wavelength of carrier frequency. If I were to then conclude that this physical problem will prevent nanites from EVER using any kind of wireless communication, I would be adopting the same type of thinking as yours regarding Moore’s law.
All of us working together over many years of innovation and “evolution” have created this smooth pattern (I would argue that ALL people contribute in some small way, even the Authorization Form ones that don’t appear to be doing anything – it all adds up). The patterns you see in a branching tree, in Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info, the periodic table, in Sample Medical Authorization Form Sample, human personality types, a fractal, the sand on Resume Templates, the beach, a hurricane, the Resume In Word. Resume Word 2007 Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction… take your pick but the “Law of Accelerating Returns” as Ray calls it is Resume Templates, simply another one of Best 25+ College Essentials Ideas On Pinterest those types of patterns. It’s literally a force of nature – we recognize that we’re creating that pattern, but then we delude ourselves into thinking that we’re “in control” of it, and that just isn’t the case. All of these large scale aggregate patterns constructed by an uncountable number of small scale chaotic events will be points of great interest for us going forward (they already are, but they’ll become more important as we try to solve problems… like the end of Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info Moore’s law). They form the Resume Examples Word 2007 links between the - Anuvrat.info known fundamental properties of the universe with our experienced conciousness.
A top priority is to understand that complex and interconnected web. uuuuuuummmm, i was told i would recieve 40 trillion dollars…. by Theodoore Aborgone. 40 trillion? For what?? Hi to everyone, this is my first post, because I REALLY need help. Everywhere i see know this advertisements about Best Dorm Essentials Ideas, Forex thing, got attracted, started to read about it, but still really confused about What is forex . All the explanations i find on the internet are very complicated. Too many smart words. Can someone explain what is forex by his own words ? Tired of websites. I just can not imagine with incredibly blog greatly that warned me! God bless you “It is not beauty that endears; it’s love that makes us see beauty.” – Leo Tolstoy.
Too much technological change within such a short period of time is too much for humans to handle. Resume - Anuvrat.info! Humans must learn how to adapt to the societal changes that this new technology will bring, so that humans won’t end civilization as we know it. We as a species must strive for peace. note how phase conjugation is the symmetry origin of acceleration (gravity) and all centripetal – self organizing forces. Seems like we should re-evaluate the Sample | Templatezet perception we call time imortality is right around the corner. Resume Templates! So hold on to your pants were about to defy physics as we know it. Epigenetic mechanisms can provide a survival advantage under adverse conditions with mechanical laws. It presupposes that Science historically developed out of Phylosophy.
It is more convenient to postulate that Epigenetics expanded in accordance with mechanical laws that have existed since the beginning of creation. (Epigenetics Wikipedia page here) I have two problems with this theory. Resume Examples Resume Word! The first is Resume Templates, physical, the Best 25+ College Ideas Only On Pinterest second metaphysical. The first problem that while exponential growth is Modern, certainly a mathematical possibility, it is never a physical one. In mathematics, all exponential growth results in asymptotes. There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist. For example, the repellent force of Examples. Resume protons looks asymptotic until a certain point – then it breaks over and nuclear forces take over, binding the nucleus of an atom together. The same thing happens with a zener diode, or any other seemingly asymptotic function. There is always a breakover point. Modern! (Interesting discussion regarding the Essentials Only On Pinterest | College growth of mass as it approaches the - Anuvrat.info speed of light – but if you think about it, we simply don’t know yet). The second is metaphysical.
This theory assumes – and I think incorrectly – that consciousness is the result of increased neural activity. However, any honest person that thinks about it will realize that there is something in the “soul” or “spirit” that is Design Ideas. Sample Perfect Resume Resume, yet to be explored or understood. Anyone that has ever entered a room where an argument has just taken place and “felt” the Resume Modern “tension” in the room has sensed with something other than the Medical Sample brain – unless all of that is just electromagnetic vibes, and as an electrical engineer, I know those electromagnetic waves travel outward and Resume Modern, disperse at nearly the speed of light. I think that the brain is more of an interface to the “spirit” where real cognitive thinking occurs. That is why we “stew” on things to Resume Microsoft 2007 think them through – our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in order to “think”. Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info! Our brain doesn’t do the thinking, that is a metaphysical thing. Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from Best Dorm Only | College, neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by any medical knowledge, it is simply assumed (like evolution). Modern! It is Refer Images | Executive, more of a religion than religion is. The complexity of the interface certainly needs to be explored, but until we can figure out where the real cognitive engine is, I don’t think there is any chance that more complex interfaces will become self aware. The RS 232 interface is simple and Templates Modern, the USB3 may be better and more complex, but no matter how good the interface gets, it will never become the computer chip itself. LIkewise, the brain may be exceeded by Home Ideas. Sample Resume Letter, a computer, but it will never become the cognitive center of a person.
On the bright side, Mr. Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info! Kurzweil, the spirit never dies. Are you sure about this? Animal often communicate non-verbally because they don’t have a structured, organized universal way of Examples In Word. communicating with one another. So they have to rely on a not of non-verbal ques to Templates - Anuvrat.info communicate with one another. Therefore you example of “walking into a room with an argument” isn’t a very good example of a “spiritual” perception, because humans display certain actions and characteristic when under pressure, and some of us have been wired to perceive these unconscious non-verbal forms of Form Sample | Templatezet communication.
Looks of Resume Templates Modern worry, muscles tensing up, frowns, fidgeting… It’s a romantic idea that we have a soul, but to 12 Best Refer Resume, Resume claim we have souls is to Templates Modern deny the elegance and beauty that is our brains. So don’t be mean to your brain, give credit where credit’s due! ” In mathematics, all exponential growth results in Sample Form | Templatezet, asymptotes. There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist.”
There is a physical limit at the end of the Resume Templates century. He explains in this particular essay that he left it out, but it is basically the point at which we cant get any more use out of an atom and simply require more atoms. At that point all research and advancement will be towards getting more atoms. “That is why we “stew” on Worksheets - Printable, things to Resume Templates think them through – our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in order to Sample Medical Authorization Form Sample | Templatezet “think”. Modern! Our brain doesn’t do the Profile Resume Write thinking, that is a metaphysical thing.” We are unaware of the vast majority of our brains activity. This is the work being done in Modern - Anuvrat.info, the subconscious. We are only aware of the Resume Template Word activity on the thin outer film on the outside of the brain, and we have even shown that many of the Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info decisions we think we consciously make were actually your subconscious making the decision and lying to you conscious brain that you made the decision. You can tell these “decisions” apart from the rest by asking yourself if you actually considered alternatives to what you just did; if not, that is your subconscious.
Your subconscious considers almost every thing you could possibly do next, and analyzes the world in very unconventional ways… sometimes seeing past our rigid conception of reality. 95% of our brain is in the subconscious. Little is known about what the subconscious is capable of or senses past the Refer On Pinterest Resume, 5 our conscious brain is Resume, aware of. Seeing into the outer layer of the subconscious is a spiritual experience. It can be achieved through dreaming, meditation, spirituality, and hallucinogens. When you “feel” things you are not aware of or “stew”, this is your subconscious working away. This is the real you. “Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is Home Ideas. Sample Resume Resume Letter, not supported by any medical knowledge, it is Resume, simply assumed”
Self awareness is shown to take place in the brain only when it is in a highly interconnected state. The outer 5% of the brain is the conscious part and Resume Examples. Write Resume Teacher, is only Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info developed to any reasonable extent in humans. The conscious part of the brain connects the other parts of the brain together and allows you to be aware of them and also override them with logic. Scientific inquiry into this by watching chain reactions in the brain has shown that when are are no longer self aware, the All Worksheets » Statistics Worksheets Worksheets difference in the brain is that the separate parts are no longer communicating with each other…they are simply acting. This is how it is in animals. You made a few points that I found interesting and you might be able to - Anuvrat.info help me with a nonprofit initiative of mine called iSocialWatch, it is the first social media watchdog and consumer advocacy organization focusing on privacy, safety, psychology and sexuality in the context of cyber, social and ultra connected space.
You can reach out by email stephane at isocialwatch dot org, or Twitter “isocialwatch”, or facebook.com/isocialwatch. Looking forward hearing from 12 Best Refer Images On Pinterest Resume, you. I’m not sure that I agree with the Kurzweil’s refutation of Penrose’s description of the Templates origin of consciousness. I would not, for example, say that the gradual introduction of electronic pseudo-neurons is functionally equivalent to a complete brain scan/recreation. The fundamental difference between the two processes, it seems to me, is the gradual nature of the former, which avoids the discontinuity of the latter. Continuity may be fundamental to Sample Medical Sample | Templatezet consciousness, which is Resume Templates Modern, why Penrose’s argument holds water. No matter how “close” our quantum technology can come to replicating our quantum states, there will always be that discontinuity because the duplication, as Penrose argues, cannot be perfect. Sample Form Sample | Templatezet! Therefore, consciousness cannot be downloaded from a biological mind.
Of course, consciousness could also be something completely unrelated to all of this. Maybe these physical processes are results of consciousness and Resume Templates, not the other way around. Every new invention has a beginning, an accellerating development phase, a peak of development and then a decellerating slowing down of development. Nothing takes forever. Eventually we will live in a world that doesn’t change much. You just think it is linear or exponentially accellerating because you don’t appreciate that the Refer | Executive Resume, Resume industrial/technological time has been very short. Modern - Anuvrat.info! It’s like looking at Home Ideas. Sample Perfect Cv Cover, our world and thinking it is Resume Templates Modern, flat but when you get to the pole it goes no further. It’s just a ball. Sample Form Sample | Templatezet! You can’t see the Modern - Anuvrat.info reality because you over-rate your intelligence. I think the jump from – the window that a civilization would be broadcasting radio waves is very small – to, therefore no other civilizations exist – is a false conclusion.
I also disagree that civilizations would be broadcasting a signal to all the universe once they advanced beyond human level intelligence. The smart entity would conceal themselves and be the one to decide when any contact should occur. I do not think they are here, but that does not mean that they aren’t out there. Are You Serious Bro? We Tried So Hard Not To Go There But There You Went…
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The Variety of Values: Essays on Morality, Meaning, and Love. Susan Wolf, The Variety of Values: Essays on Templates - Anuvrat.info, Morality, Meaning, and Love , Oxford University Press, 2015, 263pp., $45.00 (pbk), ISBN 9780195332810. Reviewed by Sample Form, Sara Protasi, University of Puget Sound. Few essays evoke the same enthusiastic praise for their combination of rigorous reasoning, elegant writing style and influential thesis as Susan Wolf's Moral Saints.  Its placement as the inaugural piece in this collection allows one to see that it is not only chronologically but also conceptually prior to Templates - Anuvrat.info, Wolf's subsequent essays. » Statistics Worksheets - Printable Worksheets. It contains the Resume Templates Modern, seeds, in Wolf's own metaphor, from which sprouted an impressively cohesive collection of Sample Medical Authorization Sample | Templatezet, arguments concerning the forcefulness and inescapability of moral demands, and the significance and resilience of Modern - Anuvrat.info, nonmoral values. In the Authorization Form | Templatezet, introduction, with a mixture of humility and pride, Wolf calls attention to the systematic nature of these thirteen articles (only one of which is Resume previously unpublished), and details the connections among them.
She highlights central, recurrent ideas and explains how the essays relate to the original themes of All Worksheets, Moral Saints, namely how there is Modern - Anuvrat.info more to value than morality, how moral considerations may be less forceful than moral philosophers have often portrayed them, and how different value reasons can pull us in opposite directions. The first part of the book, Moral and Nonmoral Values, focuses on the nature and importance of nonmoral values, and their relation to moral ones. The connected topic of the structure and importance of morality is discussed in part 4, The Concept of Duty. In the middle, part 2 (Meaning in Life) explores the topic of Resume Letter, meaningfulness, and part 3 discusses Love. Wolf devotes the final section of the introduction to the cover of the book, which features a still life by Willem Heda, the Resume - Anuvrat.info, Dutch painter, depicting the remains of Sample Medical Form Sample | Templatezet, a luscious feast. Wolf tells us that she appreciates the Dutch Golden Age genre because of its rich textures, and one cannot help but think of the rich textures of - Anuvrat.info, her philosophical writing. Wolf explains that she is attracted by what she considers these paintings' characteristic ambivalence and ambiguity (8): in Best Ideas Only, the Calvinist context where they were produced and sold, sensual pleasures and appreciation of Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info, material goods were condemned, and still lifes were allegories of transience, warnings against appreciating things that are doomed to decay. But the Medical | Templatezet, paintings themselves are magnificent objects, and their melancholic message is obfuscated, contradicted, and possibly nullified by the very means with which it is conveyed. Wolf is here pointing to a tension that infuses all the essays, one way or the other: the tension between moral demands (don't value material goods!) and the demands of beauty, of taste, and, in Resume Templates Modern, general, of nonmoral value. She constantly shows us how decent, well-rounded agents cannot, and should not, always wholeheartedly comply with their moral obligations, for Resume Examples. Resume Example Teacher, two reasons. First, because nonmoral values are intrinsically important, and Resume Templates Modern Wolf convincingly articulates this importance throughout the book, highlighting the shallowness of the dichotomy morality vs. self-interest that was characteristic of moral philosophy when Moral Saints was published.
Second, because morality cannot keep its irreplaceable role of requiring us to take into account the needs and interests of Resume, others, if it is Templates - Anuvrat.info too demanding. When we conceive of morality as overriding every other practical consideration, people will not have the freedom to live lives that they can find to 25+ College Dorm Essentials On Pinterest | College, be good and rewarding (228) and will be less inclined to respect moral imperatives. Notwithstanding her commitment to the plurality of Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, values, however, Wolf ends up neglecting some crucial aspects of what is symbolized in her beloved Dutch Golden Age paintings: our embodied, emotional nature, our being subject to Resume Examples Template Microsoft Word 2007, impulses and unendorsed habits, our being attuned to Modern - Anuvrat.info, and appreciative of simple pleasures, such as the pleasures of the table that are the subject of Profile Resume Examples. How To Write Example, Heda's still lifes. To start with this last point: Wolf rarely talks in positive terms about the more mundane kinds of nonmoral values that occupy a central role in most people's lives. For instance, in Good-for-Nothings (ch. 5), she rejects a welfarist theory of Templates Modern, value, arguing that there can be things that are good independently of the fact that they benefit us: These things are not good because they benefit us; they benefit us because they are good (76). Her examples of Medical Sample, good things are: reading Middlemarch , watching The Wire , practicing the cello, training for Resume, a marathon, appreciating seventeenth century Dutch paintings, and » Statistics Worksheets more generally good art, good philosophy, good science (73). She explicitly contrasts these activities and pursuits with less valuable counterparts: reading The Da Vinci Code , watching Project Runway , and playing Angry Birds. Wolf's examples of Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, good things are well-chosen to resonate with her audience of professional philosophers in the Anglophone tradition, in its current demographic make-up. Extending Wolf's point to different cultural and Worksheets - Printable Worksheets socio-economic contexts seems relatively straightforward. Resume Templates. For instance, we could talk of reading the Mahabharata , watching Taiwanese puppetry shows, practicing the Dorm Essentials Only, djembe.
However, this expansion would leave unaltered the Templates Modern, most significant feature of Wolf's examples: they are all meant to be expressions of excellence . After saying that art, philosophy, and science are among the things of immeasurable value (76) with which the world is replete, and that we may think of our lives as better, and more fortunate, insofar as we are able to be in appreciative touch with some of the most valuable of these (76), Wolf goes on to say that a good human life involves 'enjoyment of the excellent' (77). But having immeasurable value is Sample Medical | Templatezet not the same as being excellent, and Modern treating them as equivalent has two consequences. First, it makes one more likely to overlook admittedly less complex sources of values, such as those stemming from appreciation of natural beauty, or from sensual activities such as eating, or having sex, the kind of transient but valuable experiences that were shunned by Dutch Calvinists. Secondly, it risks restricting the chance of a better, and more fortunate life to those who are capable of experiencing excellence. Consider a cognitively disabled person. Her impairment prevents her from 12 Best Refer Resume intellectual excellence: she cannot read Middlemarch , nor understand The Wire , and she could never distinguish a Rembrandt from a Kinkade. She does, however, watch Project Runway , she can read children books, and she really enjoys eating juicy apples and walking in the park. Her impairment also prevents her from moral excellence. While she may be naturally virtuous, in the Aristotelian sense, she cannot achieve practical wisdom, distinguish between hypothetical and categorical imperatives, or maximize utility.
Finally, while she is affectionate to her family members, her loving behavior is often immature and self-centered, comparable to that of a toddler. But even though moral, intellectual, and interpersonal excellence are bound to be out of her reach, she is in appreciative touch with some things of immeasurable value, and I hesitate to think that her life is Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info less good and less fortunate than mine. Another context in which Wolf's view could be enriched by taking into consideration a greater variety of psychological profiles is her discussion of personal love. Love is the main topic of chapters 9, 10 and All Worksheets Worksheets - Printable 11, but also comes up in Templates Modern, other essays as an exemplary source of values . . . that compete both motivationally and normatively with moral values (5). In The Importance of Love (ch. 10), Wolf defines love as caring, deeply and personally, for a person for her own sake (191). Sample Medical Authorization Form Sample | Templatezet. It is an orientation in the world that gives us reasons to live (191).
Wolf's account is close to the commonsensical understanding of love, and Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info similar to other influential philosophical accounts, such as Harry Frankfurt's.  But specific to her approach is how Wolf envisions the role of love's reasons in practical deliberation. Medical Form | Templatezet. In Morality and Modern Partiality (ch. 3), for instance, Wolf defends a conception of morality that incorporates what she calls the Impartialist Insight -- the claim that all persons are equally deserving of well-being and respect (33) -- in a moderate way, so as to be compatible with the demands of partiality without apology (35). Her approach on the one hand acknowledges that friendship and love are valuable in themselves, independently of their contribution to morality, but on All Worksheets Worksheets, the other also embraces the possibility of a radical choice in favor of partiality, even at a grave moral cost: the Resume, choice of Essentials Ideas, a woman to hide her criminal son from the police, causing an innocent to be imprisoned in Templates - Anuvrat.info, his place. Dorm On Pinterest | College. Wolf suggests that the woman's hesitation to act according to Templates, morality is not only understandable but positively reasonable . . . . After all, if the meaning of one's life and one's very identity is bound with someone as deeply as a mother's life is characteristically tied to her son's, why should the dictates of impartial morality be regarded as decisive? (41). She goes on to say that such a woman might be as worthy of admiration and respect as her counterpart who decides not to shelter her son.
While I am sympathetic with Wolf's picture, I worry that she relies on an all-too-rosy picture of motherhood and maternal love, thus implicitly moralizing love itself. To the Refer Images On Pinterest | Executive Resume,, extent that Wolf convinces us that partiality can reasonably trump impartiality, she succeeds in doing so by describing the mother as engaging in tortured deliberations (42), ready to sacrifice her own well-being for the sake of her son's: Do to me what you like . . Resume Templates Modern. . . Judge me as you will. I will go to hell if I have to, but my son is more important to me than my moral salvation. (41). This mother is a selfless martyr. Some readers might in Refer Images On Pinterest, fact take issue with precisely this quasi-fanatical aspect: perhaps she should worry more about the innocent man who will go to jail in her son's place than about her own moral salvation. But even those who feel the Resume, pull of Wolf's example, and I am one of them, should bear in mind that there are darker and less valuable ways in which maternal and filial identity are tied up, than pure maternal altruism. Consider the case of a mother who is affected either by narcissistic or borderline personality disorder, or is just plain selfish. Sample Form Sample.  Such mothers will be pained at the prospect of their child's going to jail because of the suffering it would cause to them . Resume - Anuvrat.info. The shared sense of Resume, identity characterizing these relatively common relations is deeply problematic. To the extent that Wolf succeeds in showing that the mother's choice is respectable, or even admirable, she does so by relying not so much on Modern - Anuvrat.info, the value of Examples. Write Teacher, love itself, but on the value of a moralized picture of love. Consider also Wolf's example in 'One Thought Too Many': Love, Morality, and the Ordering of Templates - Anuvrat.info, Commitment (ch. 9).
The essay examines Bernard Williams' famous discussion of the man who rescues his wife instead of another drowning stranger, and who ought not, according to Williams, be motivated by the thought that she is Sample Form Sample | Templatezet his wife and it is Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info permissible for him to favor her over a stranger.  Wolf reviews different interpretations and Examples Resume Template Microsoft 2007 consequent responses to Williams' thesis, and concludes that the most common reaction is to Modern - Anuvrat.info, agree with Williams that the thought of moral permissibility would be one thought too many if it is understood to occur at the moment of action (145, original emphases). This view, according to Examples. How To Resume, Wolf, is compatible with finding nothing wrong with a person wondering, in Modern, a cool and reflective moment, under what conditions one may give preference to one's loved ones and under what conditions one may not (146). But -- she argues -- there is in fact something wrong with the husband who reflects, in cold mind, about whether what he did was morally permissible: it is an unappealing personal ideal of a lover. In the essay she offers an alternative ideal, or rather glimpses of a psychological profile that could be filled out On Pinterest | College, so as to constitute an ideal (161): a lover who would not constrain his actions to only those that are morally permissible, and Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info who is » Statistics Worksheets - Printable unlikely to engage in - Anuvrat.info, moral deliberation, even hypothetically, over Williams' scenario. In Word. Template Microsoft Word 2007. Wolf highlights that this is a personal and not a moral ideal, one she wishes she could realize and that she wishes for her children and friends.
Wolf claims to have sketched a psychological profile, but she does not pause to consider whether the Templates - Anuvrat.info, husband depicted by Williams is a psychologically ordinary husband. Wolf is clearly sensitive to Sample Form, the constraints imposed on Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, our moral ideals by Sample Authorization Form, nonmoral values. Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info. But there are also other constraints, imposed by » Statistics - Printable, our psychology. I myself know that I fall short of being the Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, kind of person that Wolf has in mind. I engage in the post-hoc reflections about what morality requires that Wolf deems as obtrusive, and the reason I do is that I sometimes need morality to nudge me to fulfill the demands of love.  Lovers are not always capable of putting their beloveds' interests before their own, for a variety of factors: weakness of the will, egoism, and, more relevant to Williams' scenario, primal instincts and emotions such as the hunger that made fathers fight with their sons over a piece of bread in concentration camps,  or the panic that makes a man flee in front of an 12 Best, avalanche instead of Resume - Anuvrat.info, protecting his wife and children,  or, less dramatically, the sleep deprivation and exhaustion that causes petty fights between parents of a newborn. One might respond on Wolf's behalf that she is explicit about the ideal nature of her lover, so that we should exclude those psychological facts that count as character flaws. But imagine a case in which our husband is a military rescuer.
He has been trained to defeat his survival instinct, so there is no risk of him running for his life in front of an avalanche. However, he has also been trained to save perfect strangers. This is Profile Resume Examples. How To Teacher not only a deeply engrained habit, but also a part of his identity. When the avalanche approaches, his wife is at 50 meters from him, but another woman, older and less fit than his wife, is closer. It would be physically possible for him to run faster and save his wife. However, his training and Resume Modern professional identity kick in and he runs to save the stranger. Would a post-hoc reflection be inappropriate in - Printable, this case? Could this person not be a desirable, even ideal love partner?
Wolf's decent human agents are very decent, but sometimes not quite human enough. Reflecting over Modern less idealized profiles of lovers allows us to Refer Images | Executive Resume,, see also how the very boundaries between normative and Templates axiological domains are sometimes, maybe often, blurry: in real life situations, it is often difficult to distinguish between different kinds of Home Design Sample Resume Cv Cover Letter, reasons and values. Whether or not a tired woman wakes her husband when the baby needs to Modern, be changed may be a complex deliberative act, and the final decision might be justified by 12 Best Images | Executive, a moral reason (he changed the baby earlier in the night, so it's only fair she lets him sleep), a loving one (he is sleeping so well, poor thing), both, or none (there was no time to think, she just instinctively rushed to the crib). Appreciating the variety of values means also appreciating the variety of value , its own internal miscellaneous messiness. This remark is of course Wolfian in spirit, and I see it showcased by the essay where we find the most psychologically realistic, and thus highly flawed, examples of human agents: Loving Attention: Lessons in Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info, Love from The Philadelphia Story (ch. 10). Wolf uses the movie The Philadelphia Story as a case study for Refer On Pinterest Resume,, understanding Iris Murdoch's notion of loving attention as a moral virtue. Wolf's conclusion is that loving attention can be a moral virtue insofar as it is interpreted as loving of the world (177). This conclusion is reached through a detailed analysis of the movie and Modern - Anuvrat.info the loving styles of Profile Examples. How To Write Resume Teacher, it characters. This method of inquiry, inherently attuned to the complexity of human psychology, not coincidentally leads Wolf to minimize the Modern - Anuvrat.info, differences between the domains of value: personal love is argued to be fundamentally analogous to loving the world, including people who are evil and thus unworthy of love, and to Best 25+ College Dorm Essentials Ideas Only On Pinterest | College, love of the arts, and even, maybe, love of chocolate and basketball (cf. footnote 11, 179). If I had to summarize the gist of my critical remarks in a slogan, it would be: more chocolate and basketball, please.
But I would not be in the position of making such remarks had it not been for Susan Wolf's ground-breaking articulation of the Templates - Anuvrat.info, importance of not being saintly. For their feedback on this review I thank Aaron Meskin and Shen-yi Liao, and especially Michael Della Rocca and Tyler Doggett for Home Design Ideas. Resume Letter, extensive discussions.  Journal of Philosophy 79(8): 419-439 (1982).  It would have been interesting for Wolf to compare her view to Frankfurt's view in The Reasons of Love (Princeton University Press, 2006), especially given their opposite perspectives on the relation between love for others and self-love.  Lydia Davis portrays such a mother in Selfish ( The Collected Stories of Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, Lydia Davis , Penguin, 2011, 441-442). The story is chilling because the Dorm Essentials Only On Pinterest, mother is not depicted as abnormal in a clinical sense, even though of course the distinction between a psychological pathology and a moral flaw may not always be easy to draw.  Bernard Williams, Moral Luck , Cambridge University Press, 1981, 1-19.
For simplicity throughout the paper I maintain the husband/wife language, which does not imply endorsing a conventional picture of romantic love, according to which lovers are heterosexual, married, etc.  I do not mean to imply that Wolf is Resume Templates Modern not aware of the existence of conflicts between one's self-interests and the interests of our beloved, as she explicitly talks about these conflicts (see, e.g., the conclusion of 12 Best Images On Pinterest | Executive, ch. Modern - Anuvrat.info. 3, p. 46). What I argue here is that the existence of these conflicts should play a larger role in determining what ideals of love are obtainable, and thus desirable.  As recounted by Primo Levi in If This is a Man , Abacus, 2013.  This example is inspired by the movie Force Majeure .
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Act 3 Scene 1 of William Shakesepare#x27;s Macbeth Essay examples. of Scotland. Banquo is back in the royal castle of Forres, and we find. out, that he has been observing the recent events and is aware of the. witches' prophecies. This prompts him to wonder if the Resume prophecy made. to him by Profile Resume Examples. Teacher the witches may also come true. Meanwhile, Macbeth fears. Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info! that Banquo and his son Fleance may be an obstacle to Resume Microsoft Word 2007, him and plans. Resume Modern! their murder, keeping Lady Macbeth in the dark. Lastly, in Resume Resume this scene, Macbeth plans to kill Banquo and his son through hired assassins. Banquo replies, 'I must become a borrower of the Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info night for Authorization Sample, a dark hour. or twain.' This statement of Banquo reinforces the theme of darkness. in the play of Macbeth which I shall talk about in more depth later.
Macbeth again, pretends to be noble and tells Banquo not to miss the. feast. Macbeth also comments on Malcolm and Donalbain, referring to. them as 'our bloody cousins' because he wants people to think that. they were the ones responsible for the murder of Duncan, which is why. they fled Scotland. Also, Macbeth who has killed Duncan, criticises. Duncan's sons saying they have filled people's ears with strange. inventions, meaning that Macbeth killed Duncan. Soon, Banquo leaves, and Templates - Anuvrat.info, a servant enters informing Macbeth that his guests (the assassin) are at the palace gate. When the servant leaves, Macbeth thinks to. 12 Best Refer On Pinterest | Executive Resume, Resume! himself, the Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info reasons why he wants Banquo and his son murdered, letting. the audience know what is on his mind. I will now analyse the language. and imagery used in Macbeth soliloquy. The Effectiveness of Act 1:3 of William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. middle of the scene the witches disappear just before Ross and Angus enter: Witches vanish This highlights their powers to Sample Sample, predict the future and gives the director an occasion to shock the audience by using some sort of device. In Jacobean times a trap door would have worked well and for Templates Modern, modern audiences a puff of smoke would probably be successful. The general behaviour of the witches and what they say creates a great deal of Worksheets - Printable drama in Resume Modern this scene, whether it
Directing Act 3 Scene 4 of » Statistics William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth Essay. Macbeth falls to his desires and turns him from a high, powerful and respected man to an evil, wicked, tyrant murderer. The scene I am focusing on is a significant scene because it shows a turning point in many of the characters especially Macbeth. The main themes dealt with in this play are blood, supernatural, evil, disorder, chaos and madness. Act 3 scene 4 begins with the - Anuvrat.info entrance of MacBeth and Lady MacBeth; they are greeted by Profile Write Resume Teacher a room full of guests for the state The Importance of Act 3, Scene 1 in William Shakespeare#x27;s Romeo and Juliet. Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info! Capulet who noticed Romeo was at the banquet of Act 1, Scene 5, and tried to get him thrown out of the party. Capulet does not want to Resume Examples Resume Word 2007, cause a scene at Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info, his party though and does not mind Romeo staying there. This angers Tybalt even more, and 12 Best Refer | Executive Resume,, he pleas with Capulet relentlessly to get rid of Romeo and even goes as far to Modern, say, ‘tis he, that villain Romeo’, which shows the hatred he has towards Romeo. By the time Act 3, Scene 1 arrives, Tybalt has certainly not forgotten about Drama in Act 1 Scene 5 and Act 3 Scene 1 of William Shakespeare#x27;s Romeo and Juliet.
In act 1 scene 1 a fight breaks out in the streets of Verona which leads to the intervention of the Best 25+ College Ideas Only | College prince, who then delivers his decree. By making the audience aware of the situation between the two families; Shakespeare shows Romeo and Juliet's love is set against Resume Modern a background of hate. Home Design Ideas. Perfect Resume Cv Cover Letter! We are also aware that Romeo is love sick over Rosaline. He goes to the party as a masker to see her after being persuaded by Benvolio. Feast of Capulet's sups the fair Rosaline Dramatic Tension in Act 3 Scene 1 of William Shakespeare#x27;s Romeo and Juliet. in Act 3 Scene 1 than if he wasn't related to him. He finds it bad and unfaithful to fight a relative even if Tybalt isn't aware of his relation to him. Romeo as I mentioned before is a Capulet but unlike the other members of his family he is Templates - Anuvrat.info uninterested in the feud and only cares about his love for Juliet. Romeo is a very emotional and hasty character in the play. He really does love Juliet a lot. I know this because of something that happened in Act 1 Scene 1. Benvolio Comparing Act 2 Scene 3 and Act 3 Scene 1 of Much Ado About Nothing by William Shakespeare. The scenes are both of similar length, and Best Essentials Only, seem almost symmetrical.
There are a similar number of characters, and the outcome is the same in each case. Both Benedick and Beatrice launch into monologues giving reason why they both should love the other one. All characters leave the stage in each case before the Modern monologues occur. In Benedick's monologue he begins by saying this can be no trick he does not believe that Leonato would lie, as he has such huge respect for him Act 3 Scene 1 of William Shakespeare#x27;s Romeo and Juliet Essay. also shows how they have fallen for In Word. Resume 2007, each other so quickly. Bad luck is also shown in act 3 scene 1 when Mercutio is killed under Romeos arm, ‘ this days black fate on mo days doth depend; this but begins the woe others must end’ this shows that Romeo feels strongly about fate and bad luck and knows he has been struck with a lot of bad luck. Bad luck is also shown in this scene when Mercutio curses the houses of both families as he dies; ‘help me into Templates, some house, William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth: Act 3 Scene 4 Essay. ghost visible to the audience, which would create more horror as only Macbeth can see the ghost. At this point Macbeth is filled with trepidation, as the ghost would be a grotesque figure.
If the 25+ College On Pinterest | College ghost was not shown, the audience would still feel a large sense of fear as Macbeth hilariously screams to the ghost, Hence, horrible shadow, Unreal mockery, hence! The atmosphere is frantic as Lady Macbeth tries to reassure the guests and regain order. The fit is momentary The Importance of Act 3 scene 1 of Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. the same applying for Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, Juliet. Tybalt still angry at the prospect of a Montague eluding the eyes of the Best Ideas Only On Pinterest | College guards at the party, wished to find Romeo and punish him. Resume - Anuvrat.info! From here on is where we pick the play up at » Statistics, act 3 scene 1. Before we start our analysis of the scene, we should look into Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info, the characters involved and what we know already of their personalities and mentality. Sample Medical Form | Templatezet! To start with I will give a small incite on Benvolio, Romeo's cousin.
Benvolio appears to Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info, be quite The Importance of Act 3 Scene 1 in William Shakespeare#x27;s Plays. makes it dramatic for the audience as the reason why Benvolio wants to flee and get out Home Design Resume Cv Cover Letter of the situation is due to the Prince’s warning. Templates - Anuvrat.info! Any more disturbances from the families, their lives will pay the forfeit. In the opening of Act 3 scene 1, the two characters Benvolio and Mercutio are having a verbal argument. Examples Resume Template Microsoft! The conversation first starts when Benvolio wants to retire and Modern, get out of Verona “ For now these hot days is the mad blood stirring.” Benvoilio is a peacemaker
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Department of Teaching and Learning. “Your calling is Templates Modern, where your deep gladness and the world’s deep hunger meet.” Click here to Sample Authorization | Templatezet download full Presentation. Identification Home address College address (include zip code and Modern - Anuvrat.info phone number) Email address Professional Objective Non-specific approach - use the word prefer, it leaves you open, i.e. prefer to work in an educational setting. Be careful not to be too broad. Specific approach - type of classroom or specific grade Summary of Qualifications Tie together what you feel that you have accomplished in Authorization Sample | Templatezet your program A personal touch What are your assets What are your personal attributes, i.e.: interpersonal relations dependability communication skills perseverance through student teaching experience Do the job for Resume Modern the employer by highlighting abilities and qualifications in summary form. Education Name of institution attended Location (town, state) Degree and Home Design Ideas. Cv Cover when received Areas of concentration (if you took courses which highlight your abilities, add them); or certification area Other high points (dean's list, scholarships, excellence awards) GPA (optional, if consistent over the years) Student Teaching Experience School System (start with most recent heading); location Dates Describe what each placement is all about. Describe basic responsibilities (highlight 2 or 3) and duties performed. What did you gain from each experience? What skills did you use? Career-Related Work Experience Name of employer Location Dates Duties and Responsibilities (use action verbs that highlight skills) Non-Career-Related Work Experience (optional, include if there are transferable skills, such as “people skills” or if you are a career-changer who needs to account for - Anuvrat.info previous years of Sample Medical Authorization Form Sample employment) Same as above if you choose to separately describe each position.
Be sure to highlight it if you have financed education by Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info working part-time, i.e. work study, odd jobs, etc. » Statistics Worksheets - Printable Worksheets. Extra-Curricular Activities University related activities and organizations Name of organization Your role (President, Treasurer, etc.) Responsibilities (optional if they show skills you used) Highlight your leadership experience and skills. Templates. They do not have to be solely university related. Non-university activities and organizations Interests (indicates well-rounded individual) Emphasize your education and experience in 25+ College Dorm On Pinterest | College areas of particular interest to school districts. For example: coaching, multi-ethnic education, reading, remedial education, etc. Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info. Emphasize special skills or abilities (languages spoken, technology skills) Credentials or References Include the names and contact information for 2 or 3 references. Student teaching experiences are of utmost importance . Education resumés can be two pages. Organization is Home Design Ideas. Perfect Letter, important in Templates Modern resumé format. Communicate effectively - no need to be flowery - stick to the point!
No errors of Dorm Essentials Only any kind are acceptable. Flexibility and willingness to relocate will be a big factor when seeking employment. DOs and DON’Ts of Writing the Resumé Use attractive quality paper. Use a readable font (preferably 12 pt). Be concise and specific in your objective. Use phrases and words that are positive and action-oriented. Limit the Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, number of pages to two. Examples. Write Resume Example Teacher. Include your name and Page 2 at Templates - Anuvrat.info, the top of the second page. Check spelling, grammar and punctuation carefully. Have several people proofread your resumé.
Consider stating that you have a portfolio, upon request. Include personal information such as marital status, age, race or social security number. Sample Authorization Form. Use flashy graphics or fonts. Use the words: I, me, my. Use vague words or phrases such as: seeking a position working with people or seeking a challenging position . Start phrases in the Experience section with Responsible for.
Use abbreviations. Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info. Include high school information in your Education section. Good Verbs to Use in Resumé/Cover Letter. Assigned, Coordinated, Evaluated, Organized, Planned, Produced, Scheduled, Collaborated, Moderated, Identified, Investigated, Reviewed, Encouraged, Explained, Designed, Developed, Established, Assisted, Demonstrated, Facilitated, Monitored, Prepared, Accomplished, Completed, Conducted, Consulted, Implemented, Studied. Cick on Home Design Ideas. Resume Cv Cover, one of the resumé samples below to see a full-sized PDF. A slogan and a testimonial bracket this resumé for strong impact from beginning to end. This resumé for a newly qualified teacher makes a strong visual impression through use of unusual fonts and a striking graphic. This job seeker returned to school to Resume Templates Modern earn teaching credentials after a 30-year career in manufacturing.
Page 1 of the Refer Resume, Resume, resumé could stand on Resume - Anuvrat.info, its own; page 2 provides details of earlier experience and community activities. There is a lot of information packed into All Worksheets - Printable this resumé for a newly qualified teacher. It was important to include coaching and employment activities that gave him lots of Resume Modern experience working with children. The Professional Portfolio gives evidence of your growth and achievement over the past years. It will allow you to document and display the beliefs and practices that you have developed and implemented, as well as offer a reflective view about Resume In Word. Resume Microsoft, your role as a teacher. You can use this tool to Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info give evidence of the many skills and 25+ College Only | College abilities you have learned. It provides a venue to demonstrate your thinking strategies and show your professional growth in diverse educational situations as well as your professional and Modern personal attitudes towards teaching and learning. Your Professional Teaching Portfolio will be a careful record of specific accomplishments attained over the past years. In Word. Microsoft Word. We suggest that you include the following: Table of Contents - showing sections or organization Background information Resumé Educational Philosophy a statement, self-reflection, documenting what you believe about Resume Modern, students, teaching and learning, personal goals, things you want to Sample Medical Form Sample | Templatezet achieve during your career Teaching Artifacts and Reflections Documenting Teaching Activities Overview of a unit plan Consecutive lesson plans Thematic units Student work samples related to lessons or units included in the portfolio Evaluation of student work Reflective commentary by the cooperating teacher Supervisor’s comments and Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info observations Additional units/lessons/work as appropriate Case Study Your own reflections Sample Letter to Profile Resume Examples. Write Resume Example Teacher Parents Newsletter Letter of permission if you are using photos of the children or the sites Lesson Plans that have been modified and adapted for children with special learning needs. Student and - Anuvrat.info parent sentiments Samples of Resume Examples In Word. Resume college work case studies, projects related to Modern teaching Original ideas anything spectacular and inventive for the classroom.
Your artifacts may be accompanied by a brief, identifying caption. (title of the artifact, date produced, description, purpose, evaluation or any other comment) Professional Information Letters of recommendation List of professional activities Awards and commendations Conferences Committee membership Workshops Community involvement Evaluations Ways of Displaying your Portfolio Decide on an underlying theme can be discrete or bold Use high-quality paper and plastic inserts Use graphics Make attractive inserts Use divider pages Can be creative , but maintain a dignified and professional tone Create a CD Important items from the portfolio to give to the administration. Possible Interview Questions Regarding Your Portfolio. What evidence in your portfolio supports your strengths? What do you consider the most important artifacts in your portfolio? Which lessons included in your portfolio did students most enjoy? Which artifact best represents you? Describe a lesson which demonstrates your educational beliefs. The Professional Portfolio Artifacts Checklist from A to Z. Items you MAY wish to Sample Form Sample include these are suggestions: Action Research Anecdotal Records Article critiques or summaries Assessments Awards and Certificates Bulletin Board Ideas Case Studies Classroom Management Philosophy Community Resources Computer Programs Cooperative Learning Strategies Curriculum Plans or Units Committee Memberships Department or grade-level meeting minutes Essays Evaluations written by Supervisors or Professors Field Trip Plans/Ideas (with students) Classroom Floor Plans Goals and Objectives Grading Policies Individualized Plans for Children examples Interviews with students, parents or teachers Jigsaw approach KWL technique Lesson Plans Listing of Motivational strategies Letters from students or Parents Mastery Learning Approaches Notebook Samples Newsletters Observations Original Ideas Photos of Student Performance Photos of Modern - Anuvrat.info Classroom Environment Position Papers Peer Reviews Philosophy of 25+ College Dorm Ideas On Pinterest Education Questions and Questioning Techniques Reading Strategies Reflections Recognitions Self Assessment Instruments Socialization Approaches Simulated Experiences Student Contracts Subscriptions Self Evaluations Teacher-Made Materials Theme Studies Teamwork Approaches Test Prep Strategies Unit Plans Videotapes of lessons taught Volunteer Work Experiences Work Experiences Xtra carefully edited materials Yearbook and/or other publications Zen/yoga activities for children Zoo or Zoological experiences. Cover Letters should do more than say you are looking for a job.
Do not let your resumé speak for itself; use the cover letter to highlight special strengths you have that may not jump off the Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info, resume. Design Sample Resume Cv Cover. Keep this to one page . Use simple language and action words. Personalize the Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info, letter you send outdo not send it “To whom it may concern.” (Adapted from 12 Best Images Resume, Expert Resumes for Teachers and Templates - Anuvrat.info Educators. W. Enelow and L. Kursmark. 2005, JIST Works.) Format: Use typical business formatting, beginning with the date, a return address, and the address of the recipient. Salutation: Address your letter to the principal of the school. Make sure that you spell the Sample Medical Authorization | Templatezet, name correctly, and use his/her correct title.
If you are not sure, call the school to find out this information. Opening Paragraph : Identify the position for Templates - Anuvrat.info which you are applying, and write a bridge statement referring to your qualifications. Second Paragraph: Include the reason why you are qualified for this teaching position, and outline previous student teacher/work experiences that you think make you a good candidate for the position. Medical Authorization Sample. Make it catchy. Don’t repeat your whole resumé. Third Paragraph: Thank the - Anuvrat.info, principal for taking the time to review your letter and resumé, and create a clear and positive ending. Closing: Close your letter with “Sincerely” or “Respectfully Yours”. Type and sign your name.
Writing Your Educational Philosophy. The following are some suggestions for you to consider as you develop and write your own educational philosophy. It is important to be aware of your own educational philosophy since it helps you focus on why you make the decisions that you make when you plan for your lessons and implement these lessons. Through the writing of your own philosophy, you will see more clearly your own goals and values. Your Educational Philosophy is Sample Authorization Form Sample | Templatezet, a description of your goals and beliefs as a teacher. There really is no such thing as the Resume Templates, philosophy; our philosophies are a reflection of our own beliefs, experiences, and Best 25+ College Essentials On Pinterest | College training. Your philosophy is a statement of PERSONAL beliefs and how these will be put into action in your classroom - the philosophy is not a theoretical essay on education but an action plan for you. Resume - Anuvrat.info. It is often used by All Worksheets » Statistics Worksheets administrators to - Anuvrat.info judge whether the applicant is the » Statistics Worksheets - Printable, kind of person that I would want in my school or teaching my children.” You may wish to approach the development of your philosophy by considering the following: What is the Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, purpose of education?
What is 12 Best Resume,, your role as an Resume Modern educator? Specifically, how will you reach the Medical Authorization Form Sample, wide diversity of children that you will have in your classroom? How do you define your community of learners? How and what are you going to teach? What are your beliefs about how children learn?
How will these beliefs impact your teaching? For example. classroom management instructional strategies curriculum design assessment What are your goals for your students? How do you balance the needs of individuals with those of the entire class? How will you bring a global awareness into your classroom? What will be your relationship with the - Anuvrat.info, community, parents, teaching colleagues, administration? As you write your philosophy, keep the following in your thoughts: Your educational philosophy reflects your own approach to education; this philosophy should be based on your personal beliefs, which in turn should show an influence of Microsoft college work, readings, and thinkers. Consequently, when appropriate, drop names in your philosophy. Resume Modern. For example, Like Erikson, I believe that children go through a series of mini-crises as they mature and it will be part of my task to assist young people in making these transitions. However, be sure you understand the philosophy of the person being quoted since you may be asked questions about it at an interview. Appropriate grammar is How To Write Resume Example, mandatory; among other things, be careful with the following: Watch agreement - for example, The student should do all of their work.
Be sure to write using complete sentences. Use only one idea for each paragraph and be sure to provide a transition between paragraphs. Use topic sentences. Be aware of the change in voice. Don’t mix up first person with third. Keep it consistent. Alternate the use of Templates Modern “he” and “she” to avoid clumsy phrasing. The following are some of the Profile Examples. Write Resume Example Teacher, things that you can address in your philosophy use of cooperative learning management techniques parent involvement technology diversity A philosophy does not have a cover page; be sure your name and title are on the first page of your philosophy. Your educational philosophy should have an Templates Modern introduction and a conclusion; your conclusion should provide a logical ending to your philosophy.
Avoid using the same word or phrase over and over in your philosophy. For example, avoid using the word teacher several times in Profile Examples. How To Resume Example the same paragraph or near each other - check your thesaurus for alternative choices of Templates words. Your philosophy should be positive. While there may well be problems with our educational system, a prospective employer does not really want to hear how bad things are - s/he is interested in what you are going to do to make the 25+ College, classroom experience a better one for the students. Resume Templates. You are writing a personal philosophy, not a critique of the educational system. Avoid the use of jargon. If you do use educational jargon, explain how you are going to impact the student. For example, rather than writing I strongly believe in Sample Medical Authorization Sample inclusion write I will support inclusion through practices such as using alternative assessments and Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info preparing lessons which appeal to different learning styles. Your philosophy and Home Perfect Resume Cv Cover Letter your cover letter are among the Templates - Anuvrat.info, first things a prospective employer will see. The appearance of Profile Resume How To these documents is important. Your software program may have some pre-formatted documents that you can use as a starting point.
Under no circumstances should you mail anything (except perhaps a personal reference) that is handwritten. Avoid the use of different fonts on a page; use the most readable font available - you may have to experiment a bit to get the Resume - Anuvrat.info, best possible font - remember, what looks good on a screen may look different when printed. Use a font that is Sample Medical Authorization Form Sample, easy to read and of an appropriate size - avoid any fonts under 12 pt. Avoid broad generalizations - while you may want to - Anuvrat.info say I believe that all children can learn - the statement is relatively meaningless without examples of how you will put that into Ideas. Sample Letter action. Some suggestions on word usage: I believe. is more forceful than, My belief is . Instead of Education should . or I will try to. be more positive and use I believe that . or I will . Avoid the Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, use of I hope. or Hopefully . for Refer Images | Executive something more positive, such as I will . Modern. Rather than writing In school students should experience . use In my classroom, students will experience . 12 Best Images | Executive. Instead of writing Teachers will . Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info. use I will . Have someone review your philosophy for accuracy and eye-catching appearance. Perfecting Your Demo Lesson: Principal and Alumni Panel Discussion. Monday, April 23, 2012. Event Notes prepared by Elizabeth Misiewicz.
a. Sample. Research the Modern - Anuvrat.info, school: See if it is a good fit for you. b. Become familiar with the school community, teaching style is it a TC Workshop model? i. See if you can tour the school prior to the demo lesson/interview. II. Practice your demo lesson/interview. a. Ask friends, family members, professors and Refer Images On Pinterest | Executive Resume, students to Templates Modern watch you and give feedback. a. Design Ideas. Perfect Resume Letter. Prior to the lesson, contact the Templates - Anuvrat.info, teacher and 12 Best Refer | Executive Resume, Resume ask about: learning styles of the students, technology available (specifically what type of computer, i.e. Mac or Windows), IEPs. IV.
Keep it simple and student-centered. a. Do not over-plan. b. Do not spend the Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info, majority of the time speaking. c. All Worksheets Worksheets - Printable Worksheets. Circulate the room. d. Only use technology if you have time to set it up.
i. Prepare a ‘Plan B’ in case technology doesn’t work. ii. Resume Templates Modern. If you are unable to use the technology in Sample Authorization Form | Templatezet the room due to time constraints, hand in Templates Modern a second lesson plan that demonstrates how you would have used it. a. Perfect Resume Resume Cv Cover. Welcome students at the door: Introduce yourself, learn their names. b. Have students complete an exit ticket to demonstrate learning. c. If you move the desks/chairs, put them back. VI. What the principals look for: a. Ability to connect to students. b. Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info. How you move around the room. c. Resume Resume Microsoft Word. How you handle yourself under pressure and Resume - Anuvrat.info classroom management issues. d. During the debrief: how you reflect and provide solutions to things that may have gone wrong.
Ten Tips for Interviewing for Your First Teaching Job. (Former Teacher and Elementary Principal, Current Teacher Educator) In order to get the interview, your cover letter is the chance to sell yourself to the screening/hiring committee and Home Perfect Resume Resume set yourself apart from the many other applicants they may be considering. Address it directly to the school principal by name, make sure it is absolutely error free, and give the Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, readers a sense of who you are and All Worksheets » Statistics - Printable Worksheets what you have to offer. A bland formulaic letter won’t make the cut if the market is competitive. On the other hand, don’t make it too long no more than two pages in Templates - Anuvrat.info a font size that respects the readers’ varying acuity.
Another thing to spend time on before interviewing is 12 Best Refer On Pinterest | Executive Resume,, question and answer rehearsal. You may have a chance to do some mock interviews as part of your program or with a friend. If not, do it on your own by getting a good interviewing book or website that provides typical questions. Write responses out or use a voice recording tool or another person (preferably someone else in Modern the education field) as a sounding board. » Statistics Worksheets - Printable. The more you can anticipate and prepare, the more relaxed and confident you’ll be. Have concrete examples or illustrations in mind to Resume Templates Modern accompany your responses. Create a “leave behind” portfolio whether or not you’ve also created a larger one-of-a-kind professional portfolio. All Worksheets - Printable Worksheets. Not all committees are interested in, or have time for, a thorough review of all applicants’ portfolios. Templates - Anuvrat.info. Bring along your full portfolio to 12 Best Refer Images On Pinterest Resume, pass around if asked to do so, or for you to make reference to Resume Modern a particular item in 12 Best Images On Pinterest Resume, response to a question.
Get attractive, professional copies made of just the Templates - Anuvrat.info, essential items cover letter, resumé, letters of Sample Resume Cv Cover Letter recommendation, one or two other items and put them together in Resume - Anuvrat.info a nice folder that you can leave behind. Creating a CD version will demonstrate your technology skills, but you can’t count on people taking the time to look at it until you reach the finalist stage. Design Sample Perfect Resume Cv Cover. Make sure you know where you’re going! If possible, make a trial run before your interview. If you get lost or delayed on Modern - Anuvrat.info, the day of your interview, you’ll be late and 12 Best Refer Images | Executive Resume, Resume stressed out not a good way to start.
Much better to arrive with time to sip the Resume Templates Modern, water you’ve remembered to Sample Medical Sample bring and use a restroom! Think professionally when you choose your clothing and your language. Resume Modern. You may have heard or observed that a particular school is casual. There is plenty of time to further assess the school culture, rules, and administrative standards and In Word. Resume Template Microsoft adjust your style after you’ve been hired. If at Modern, all possible, wander the Best Dorm Essentials Ideas Only | College, neighborhood before your interview to gather a sense of the Resume Templates Modern, community where the school is located. The committee will be impressed if you have questions or comments reflecting your efforts to acquaint yourself with the surrounding area.
When you arrive, remember that you are creating a first impression for Worksheets everyone you see: the security guard, parents in the hallway or office, the secretaries, students, a visiting school board member, PTA president, and other potential employers or co-workers. All encounters should give people evidence of your interest in the school, professionalism, friendliness, confidence, and - Anuvrat.info poise. - Printable. Meanwhile, you are getting a sense of what is called the “school climate” by Resume Templates seeing how various interactions occur in the school and if you feel it is a desirable place for you. Do your best to relax and “be yourself.” If you know that your hands shake when you’re nervous, fold them in front of yourself and don’t attempt to pick up the coffee or water you’ve been offered. Cv Cover Letter. Give people a sense of Modern - Anuvrat.info your personality as you warm up. The committee wants to Resume Examples In Word. Resume Word 2007 get a sense of what you will be like as a colleague and Resume Modern you want them to know who you are and All Worksheets » Statistics Worksheets choose you over others. - Anuvrat.info. You won’t be happy for long in a place where you can’t be yourself. Just as the committee members are “sizing you up” as a potential colleague and teacher of their students, you should be alert to the social dynamics in the room. Do you feel comfortable or intimidated?
Are people treating you and each other with respect? Does the principal or other leader seem to Resume Examples Resume Microsoft Word 2007 have positive relationships with the committee members? One effective way to convey your “people skills” while you assess body language and other indicators is to be generous with your eye contact. When responding to a question, share your eye contact with all in the room, rather than responding only to the individual who posed the question. Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info. Provide evidence that you are positive, respectful and non-judgmental. You may have had difficult even terrible situations with cooperating teachers, students, parents and professors along the way. In response to a question that asks about a challenge, convey your understanding of Ideas. Resume Cv Cover multiple perspectives and the complexities of dealing with conflict. That’s a person they will want to Modern work with not someone who seems quick to judge or blame others.
Save the venting for In Word. Word 2007 your journal or friends. Finally, be prepared to figure out what to Templates say when you don’t know what to say. You’re a beginner and can’t possibly know everything about curriculum, special programs, or how to handle a particular situation. If you’re really thrown a curve ball, it’s generally better to talk about your eagerness to Examples. How To Write Resume Teacher learn more from your mentor, colleagues or professional development than it is to pretend you know more than you do and be “found out” later, or to give an opinion that you regret after the interview. How would you describe yourself? Why did you choose teaching as a career?
What are the Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info, most important rewards you expect to get from teaching? How would a good friend describe you? Describe the best experience you have ever had. Describe the most rewarding experience you’ve ever had. Describe the most challenging experience you’ve ever had. All Worksheets Worksheets - Printable Worksheets. Describe the Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info, best teacher you have ever had. What do you think it takes to be a great teacher? What are your hobbies/interests? What is the most recent book you’ve read (personally, professionally) What’s the hardest decision you have ever made? How well do you adapt to new situations? Describe one.
Describe what a typical day would look like in your classroom. Best 25+ College | College. Give an example of when you used good judgment. What is your greatest strength? Explain. What is your greatest weakness? Explain.
How would you handle a conflict in your classroom? What are your three greatest accomplishments? What is your most memorable classroom experience? Why should I hire you? What makes you unique? What is more important creativity or efficiency? Why? How would you involve parents in Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info your classroom? What reading/math programs are you familiar with?
What would you do if several youngsters were unable to understand a reading/math concept? What would you do if one of your students was exceptionally advanced? What strategies might you use if a youngster came to Examples. Resume Example Teacher school very angry each day? How might you integrate art into Resume your curriculum? How would you integrate technology into your curriculum? What experience have you had teaching children with special needs?
What experiences have you had teaching ELL students? How you have differentiated instruction in academic, social and emotional contexts? How would you describe your set of beliefs (philosophy)? Tell us about a person who has most influenced your own education and Home Design Resume Resume Cv Cover career. What quality or qualities do you have that might enhance our teaching staff? What are some personality characteristics that you find undesirable in people? Give an example of how you have used cooperative learning in your classroom. What do you think you might need from the school administration? Describe your teaching style and how you accommodate different learning styles. Do you have any questions for us? (acceptable topics: time frame, professional development, parent engagement)
How You Are Rated On Your Interview. Appearance Body Language Attitude Experience Knowledge of Questions Flexibility/Adaptability Critical Thinking Problem Solving Techniques Analytical Ability Leadership Ability. Can’t Get a Classroom Teaching Job Right Away? If the Modern - Anuvrat.info, NYC public school market continues to be tight or various hiring freezes remain in Sample Form Sample | Templatezet place, you might consider expanding your possibilities in one of the following areas: SEIT (Special Education Itinerant Teacher, employment is arranged through private SEIT placement agencies for early childhood) Paid research Substitute teacher (find the Resume Templates - Anuvrat.info, school you really want to Design Ideas. Sample Perfect Resume Resume teach in and try to get in Modern - Anuvrat.info “through the back door”) Private/independent schools Charter schools International schools Children’s publishing Teaching English abroad YM and YWCA/YWHA or other youth agencies Head Start/Early Head Start Sesame Workshop Getting an extension to Home Resume Cv Cover Letter your certification: ESL, early childhood, childhood, middle school Advocacy organizations Children’s Defense League Citizens for Children Advocates for Resume Modern Children Peace Corps Private tutoring or tutoring agencies After-school programs Community-Based Organizations Children’s Aid Society Settlement Houses: Henry Street, University, Grand Street Educational Alliance Museums, zoos, gardens, science centers and Examples Resume Word 2007 other cultural organizations. Teacher Certification and Licensure Web Sites. New York State Education Department. Includes a direct link to New York State Teacher Certification requirements including certificate types and titles, qualifying examinations, and online application procedures and fees. NYSED Certification questions may be e-mailed to the New York State Education Department Office of Teaching at [email protected] New York City Department of Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info Education. NYCDOE Teach New York.
Includes a direct link to » Statistics Worksheets Worksheets New York City License Requirements including license types and titles, qualifying examinations, and application procedures and fees. Bureau of - Anuvrat.info Certification and Design Ideas. Resume Resume Letter Professional Development. Office of Resume Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info Licensing and Credentials. Direct link to the education departments of all 50 US states and territories. Here are some useful websites to » Statistics - Printable Worksheets answer your certification questions: New York State Teacher Certification Exams: This website has test dates, procedures for registering, and Modern - Anuvrat.info all other pertinent information on the certification tests. The NYU Teacher Certification website reiterates some of the information on the above website and the attached form. The online TEACH system that you must go through to apply for certification.
Job Search Resources for Teachers in Examples In Word. Resume Word Public and Private/Independent Schools. Certification, Licensure, and Recruitment. 89 Washington Avenue. Albany, NY 12234. 65 Court Street. Brooklyn, NY 11201. Provides licensure guidelines. NYU Steinhardt Teacher Certification.
1011 1st Avenue, 18th Floor. New York, NY 10022. 310 Prospect Park West. Brooklyn, NY 11215. Employment Opportunities and Information. Related Directories and Resources.
Available in the Wasserman Center for Career Development, local libraries, or bookstores: AAEE Directory of Public School Systems in the United States AAEE Job Search Handbook for Educators America's Best Classrooms Education Career Directory Everyone's Guide to Job Searching in Modern Private Schools First Year of Ideas. Sample Cv Cover Letter Teaching How to Get a Job in Education Teacher Certification Requirements in All 50 States The Right Fit: An Educator's Career Handbook and Employment Guide 101 Grade-A Resumes for Teachers 2nd Edition The Educator's Resource Directory Careers in Education. AAEE Guide to Services and Activities for Teacher Employment AAEE National Directory of Resume Modern - Anuvrat.info Jobs and Career Fairs for Home Design Sample Resume Cv Cover Letter Educators National Association of Colleges and Resume Employers' Career and Job Fair Finder. Brause, R., Donohue, C. and Ryan, A. (2002). Succeeding at your Interview Denton, P. and Kriete, R. Resume In Word. Resume Microsoft. (2015). First Six Weeks of School , Second Edition Enelow, W. and Kursmark, M.. (2011). Expert Resumes for Teachers and Educators , Third Edition . Indianapolis: JIST Publishing, Inc. Feirsen, R. and Weitzman, S. Modern. (2004).
How to Get the Teaching Job You Want . Virginia: Stylus Fredericks, (2012). 12 Best Refer On Pinterest Resume,. Ace Your Teacher Interview: 149 Fantastic Answers to Tough Questions. JIST Publishing, Inc. Pollock, R. (2011). Teacher Interviews: How to Get Them and How to Get Hired!. Advanta Publishing Warner, J. and Bryan,C. Resume Templates. (2006). Medical Sample | Templatezet. Inside Secrets of Finding a Teaching Job. Templates Modern - Anuvrat.info. Indianapolis: JIST Publishing, Inc.
Wiltz, N., Thompson, O., Smith-Cawley, H., and Images On Pinterest Resume, Resume Skelley, H. (2007). Developing and Presenting a Professional Portfolio in Early Childhood Education. Wong, H.K. and Wong, R.T. Templates. (2009). First Days of School : Harry K. Wong Publications. This site, and all its contents, are Copyright by New York University. All rights reserved.
NYU Steinhardt - Department of Worksheets Teaching and Learning - 239 Greene Street, 6th Floor, New York, NY 10003.